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# ROBUST CONTROL

## Sources of uncertainties and its

representation
Dr. S. Ushakumari
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
College of Engineering Trivandrum
1
Introduction
Theproblemof Robust Control istodesignafixed
controllerthatguaranteesacceptableperformance
norms in the presence of plant and input
uncertainty.
The performance specification may include
propertiessuchasstability, disturbancerejection,
referencetracking,control energyreduction,etc.
2
Model uncertainty and its
representation
Origins of Model Uncertainty
1) Parametersinalinear model, whichareapproximately
knownoraresimplyinerror.
2) Parameters, which may vary due to nonlinearities or
changesinoperatingconditions.
3) Neglectedtimedelaysanddiffusionprocesses.
4) Imperfectmeasurementdevices.
5) Reduced (low-order) models of a plant, which are
commonly used in practice, instead of very detailed
modelsofhigherorder.
3
Contd..
6) Ignorance of the structure and the model order at high
frequencies
7) Controller order reduction issues and implementation
inaccuracies.
The above sources of model uncertainties are grouped into
threemaincategories:
Parametricor StructuredUncertainty
Inthiscasethestructureof themodel anditsorderisknown,
butsomeoftheparametersareuncertainandvaryinasubset
oftheparameterspace
4
Contd..
NeglectedandUnmodeledDynamicsuncertainty
In this case the model is in error because of missing
dynamics, most likely due to lack of understandingof the
physicalprocess.
LumpedUncertaintyor UnstructuredUncertainty
In this case uncertainty represents several sources of
parametric and/or unmodeled dynamics uncertainty
combinedintoasinglelumpedperturbationof prespecified
structure.
5
Modeling Uncertainties
6
Need for modeling
We may consider the modeling of
structuredandunstructureduncertainties
in the true System model so that the
normed algebra can be applied for the
robustcontrol designs.
7
Four forms for Uncertainty representation
Multiplicative Uncertainty
Inverse Multiplicative Uncertainty
Division Uncertainty
8
Modeling structured parametric
uncertainties as unstructured uncertainties
In this case, the model will be given as a
transfer function. Someparametersof this
model will be having uncertainties, with
knownrangeofvariations(bounds)
For such cases, proper substitution can
convert the model into one of the four
uncertaintymodel formsseenearlier.
Let us see this through examples.
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Representation of uncertainty
Parametric uncertaintywill bequantifiedbyassumingthat
each uncertain parameter is bounded with some region
[
min,

max
form

p
=
m
(1+r

)
where
m
is the mean parameter value,
r

=(
max
-
min
)/(
max
+
min
) is the relative parametric
uncertainty.
is any scalar satisfying
10
Multiplicative Uncertainty
+
+
W
m
(s)
m
(s)
G(s)
G
p
(s)
11
Contd..
+
+
W
m
(s)
m
(s)

G(s)
G
p
(s)
12
Contd..
+
-
W
m
(s)
m
(s)

G(s)
G
p
(s)
13
Contd..
+
-
W
m
(s)
m
(s)
G
p
(s)

G(s)
14
W
a
(s)

a
(s)

G(s)
+
+
G
p
(s)
15
Contd..
+
-
G
p
(s)
W
a
(s)
a
(s)
G(s)

16
Case 1: Multiplicative uncertainty
Given
where
p
is anuncertaingainand G
0
(s) is a
transferfunctionwithoutuncertainty.
Determine the multiplicative uncertainty
description for this family of uncertain
systems.
max min
) ( ) ( s s =
p 0 p p
s G s G
17
Solution:
Write
p
as follows
Where

m
Average gain &
r

## -Relative magnitude of the gain uncertainty

1 ) 1 ( s A A + =

r
m p
min max
min max
min max

=
+
=
r
2
m
18
Therefore, thegivenmodel descriptionof
uncertainsystemsas
G(s) is the Nominal Plant without
uncertainty
G
p
(s) is the TRUE Plant or Real-life Plant
1 r 1 s G
r 1 s G s G
0 m p
s A A + =
A + =
] )[ (
] )[ ( ) (

19
Case 2: Uncertain zero
A set of possible plants is given by
Where G
0
(s) is assumed to have no
uncertainty.
Determine the multiplicative uncertainty
description
max min 0
), ( ) 1 ( ) ( z z z s G s z s G
p p p
s s + =
20
Solution:
Let
1 r 1 z z
z m p
s A A + = ) (
min max
min max
min max
z z
z z
r
2
z z
z
z
m
+

=
+
=
21
Then we have
] ) ( )[ (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ] [ ) (
A + =
A +
+
+ + =
A + + =
A + + =
s w 1 s G
s G s z 1
s z 1
s r z
s G s z 1
s G s r z s G s z 1
s G s r z s z 1 s G
m
0 m
m
z m
0 m
0 z m 0 m
0 z m m p
22
Case 3: Inverse Multiplicative Uncertainty
Given
Determine the Inverse multiplicative
uncertainty description for this family of
uncertainsystems
max min
) ( ) (

s s
+
=
p 0
p
p
s G
1
1
s G
23
Let
1 r 1
m p
s A A + = ) (

min max
min max
min max

=
+
=
r
2
m
24
The given model is written as
1
im
1
im
m
0
m m
0
p
s w 1 s G
s w 1
s 1
s G
s r s 1
s G
s G

A + =
A +
+
=
A + +
=
] ) ( )[ (
] ) ( [
) (

) (
) (

This is the Inverse multiplicative uncertainty form
25
Case 4: Division Uncertainty
Given
Determine the Division Uncertainty
descriptionforthissetofuncertainsystems
8 0 4 0
1 s s
1
s G
2
p
. . ) ( s s
+ +
=

26
Here o
max
=0.8, o
min
=0.4
2 1
4 0
r
6 0
2
m
.
.
.
min max
min max
min max
=
+

=
=
+
=

1
2 1
4 0 6 0
6 0 r 1
m p
s A A + = A

+ = A + = : 0.2 0.6 )
.
. .
. ( ) (

27
We have
. ) ( : )] ( ) ( )[ (
) ( ) (

.
.
.
1

. .
1

) . . (
) (
s 2 0 s w s G s w 1 s G
s G s w 1
1
G(s)
1 s 6 0 s
s 2 0
1
1
1 s 6 0 s
s 2 0 1 s 6 0 s
1 s 2 0 6 0 s
1
s G
d
1
d
d
2
2
2
2
p
= A + =
(

A +
=
(
(
(

+ +
A
+
+ +
=
A + + +
=
+ A + +
=

28
Additive & Multiplicative forms of Uncertainty
Multiplicative:

) ( ) ( ) ( : ) ( ) ( ) ( s G s G s s s G s G
p a a p
= A A + =
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( )] ( 1 [ ) (
s G
s G s G
s
s G s s G
p
m
m p

= A
A + =
) (
) (
) (
s G
s
s
a
m
A
= A
29
Multiplicative uncertainty
MultiplicativeUncertainty factor
m
(s) is expressed
as a relative gain error with respect to the
Nominal PlantModel.
The Multiplicative Uncertainty form is the most
popular formof uncertaintydescriptionintheRobust
Control literature.
30
Case 5: Flexible structures
Command
Controller
+
_
Rigid
Feedback
Flexible
+
+
Output
31
Example:
Rigid: Nominal Plant -
Flexible: perturbation -
Feedback: Sensor Dynamics -
2
2
s
1 s s
1
2
+ +
) ( 4 s+
32
Case 5- contd
For this case, the Uncertain Plant family is
The Nominal Plant is
) (
) (
1 s s s
2 s 2 s
s G
2 2
2
p
+ +
+ +
=
2
s
2
s G = ) (
33
1 s s
1
s
2
a
+ +

= A ) (
G(s)
A
a
(s)
+
+
34
Multiplicative Form
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
1 s s 2
s
s G
s G s G
s
2
2
p
m
+ +

= A
G(s)
A
m
(s)
+
+
G(s)
A
m
(s)
+
+
35
Unstructured uncertainty in Frequency domain
Let us see the quantification of unstructured
uncertaintyusingfrequencydomainanalysis
What wehaveseenpreviouslyistheconversionof
parametricuncertaintytounstructuredforms
The structured parametric descriptions call for
deeper knowledge on plant behaviour, which is
difficulttoobtain
Therefore, unstructured formalisms based on
frequency domain analysis are more practical to
obtainfromtheexperimentsorsimulations
36
Descriptions
Theunstructureduncertaintydescriptionsassumes
lessknowledgeofthesystem.
Weonlyassumethatthefrequencyresponseof the
plantlieswithincertainbounds.
This approach can cover both structured
uncertaintyaswell asunmodelleddynamicsinthe
convenient rational transfer function formats
amenableforastandarddesign.
37
Development of Unstructured
Uncertainty Descriptions
LetP bethefamilyofuncertainplants.
G(s) P isthenominal plant.

a
(s),
m
(s) etc stands for the unstructured
perturbations in terms of stable rational
transferfunctions.
38
Methodology
Step 1: Choose a Nominal plant model G(s)
throughoneofthefollowingways
Lowerorderdelayfreemodel
Model withmeanparametervalues
Central plant obtained from Nyquist Plots
correspondingtoall oftheplantsofthegivensetP
39
a
() which includes
all possible plants
l
a
()=
) ( ) ( max j G j G
p
P G
a p

e
40
In most cases we look for a rational
transfer functionweight w
a
uncertainty.
This weight must be chosen such that
Andmustbeselectedtobeofloworderto
simplifythedesignofcontrollers.
> ) ( j w
a
l
a
()

41
Multiplicative ~
In the case of multiplicative uncertainty, find
m
() which includes all
possible plants
l
m
() =
) (
) ( ) (
max

j G
j G j G
p
P G
m p

e
42
Multiplicative ~
For a chosen rational weight w
m
(s) there
must be
> ) ( j w
m
l
m
()

And w
m
(s) must be selected to be of low order
to simplify the design of controllers.
43
Case Study Example
Consider the family of plants with parametric
uncertainty given by
6 b 2 3, a 1 : P s s s s
+ +
=
b as s
s
s G
2
p
) (
44
Choose the Nominal Plant
Choose 9 combinations of values a=1,2.5,3 and
b=2,5,6 and obtain the Bode magnitude plots for
the errors for the 9 member plants
4 s 2 s
s
s G
2
+ +
= ) (
45
Let the plots be like this
Bode Diagram
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
it
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
10
-1
10
0
10
1
-90
-45
0
45
90
46
First Trial for the bound
Bode Diagram
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
-90
-45
0
45
90
47
Second trial
Bode Diagram
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
-90
-45
0
45
90
48
Third trial
Bode Diagram
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
-90
-45
0
45
90
49
How to find the bound?
First we plot the
for all the plant family members.
There may be one case which is the worst
caseerror.
Try to fit a lower order transfer function
which will be of lowest magnitude to limit
fromabovetheworst caseerror plot for the
completerangeoffrequencies.
) (
) ( ) (

j G
j G j G
p

50
Select the TF as the bound
Intheexampleconsideredwefindthat one
firstorderTFandonesecondorderTFcanbe
foundoutforthispurpose. Theseare:
20 s
37
s w
p
+
= ) (
20 s 21 s
20 s 43
s w
2
p
+ +
+
= ) (
51
Thus we have
6 b 2 3, a 1 : P s s s s
+ +
=
b as s
s
s G
2
p
) (
Uncertain Plant family
4 s 2 s
s
s G
2
+ +
= ) (
Nominal Plant
20 s
37
s w
p
+
= ) (
20 s 21 s
20 s 43
s w
2
p
+ +
+
= ) (
52
Conclusions
Uncertainty can be described in both
structured&unstructuredforms
Unstructured forms can cover both
structureduncertaintyaswell asunmodelled
dynamicsintheconvenient rational transfer
function formats amenable for a standard
design.
Unstructuredformscanbeobtainedthrough
experiments/simulation
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