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# Robust stability in the Context

Dr. S. Ushakumari
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
College of Engineering Trivandrum

H
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Derive conditions under which a system
remains stable for all perturbations in an
uncertaintyset
Robuststabilitywithmultiplicative uncertainty
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) (s w
m
) (s
m
A
) (s H
p
) (s H ) (s K

+
+

## Fig 1. Closed loop system with multiplicative uncertainty

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Contd..
Consider a feedback system as follows.
H(s) -plant
K(s) -controller
w
m
(s) -multiplicative uncertainty of magnitude
Open loop transfer function of the feedback
systemisgivenby
)K(s) Gp(s)=Hp(s
(s)] ) s ( w 1 =H(s)K(s)[
m m
A +
(s) (s)G(s) w Gp(s)=G(s)
m m
+
1 (jw)
m
s

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Contd..
Assumptions
Stabilityof thenominal closedloopsystem
isguaranteed.
OpenlooptransferfunctionGp(s) isstable
Test the robust stability of the system,
Use the Nyquiststability criterion
Robust stability is equivalent to
the stability of the system for all Gp(s)
Gp(s) should not encircle the point (-1+j
0
) for all
Gp(s)
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Re
Im
0
G(jw)
(-1, j0)
1+G(jw)
wm(j w)G(jw)
Fig. 2 Graphical derivation of the robust stability condition through
Nyquist plot.
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Robust stability contd..
From the Nyquistplot of Gp(s)
Distance from the point (-1+j
0
) to the centre
of the disk, which represents Gp(s) is
Radius of the disk is
To avoid encirclement of (-1+j
0
), none of the
disks should cover the critical point.
G(s) 1+
(s)G(s) w
m
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Robust stability contd..
It may be concluded that the encirclement is
avoided if and only if,
Or, equivalently, iff
+ < , ) s ( G 1 (s)G(s) w
m
<
+
, 1
) s ( G 1
(s)G(s) w
m
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Definitions
S(s) = Sensitivity function
T(s) = Complementary function
Using the above definitions, it can be concluded
that the encirclement is avoided iff
| |
1
G(s) 1 S(s)

+ =
| |
1
K(s)H(s) 1 ) s ( H ) s ( K ) s ( T

+ =
1 ) s ( T ) s ( S = +
< , 1 ) s ( T ) s ( w
m
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Contd..
From definition 1, it can be concluded that
robust stability under multiplicative
perturbation is assumed iff,
<
m
w
1
T
1 ) s ( T ) s ( w
m
<

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Contd..
Therobust stabilityconditionfor thecaseof
multiplicative uncertainty gives an upper
bound on the complementary sensitivity
function
Or
To guarantee robust stability in the case of
multiplicativeuncertainty, makeT(s) small at
frequencies, where the uncertainty weight
exceeds1 inmagnitude.
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Contd..
Condition given above is necessary and
sufficient, provided that at each frequency,
all perturbationssatisfying
If this is not the case, the condition is only
sufficient.
1 ) jw (
m
s A
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Since Gp(s) is assumed to be stable and the
nominal closedloopsystemisstablebydesign,
then the nominal open loop systemdoes not
encirclethecritical point-1+j
0
Consequently,
Since the family of uncertain plant is norm
bounded, it then follows that if the source
Gp1(s) is family of uncertain plants, we have
encirclementof-1+j
0
atsomefrequency
Gp2(s) is another set of uncertainfamilywhich
passesthrough-1+j
0
atsomefrequency.
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Contd..
To guarantee robust stability, the following
condition must hold.
Hence, robust stability is guaranteed iff
The last condition is most easily violated at
each frequency when has magnitude
1 and the phase is such that the term 1+G(s)
and have opposite signs
w , Gp 0 ) s ( Gp 1 = +
w , 1 ) s ( , 0 ) s ( ) s ( G ) s ( w ) s ( G 1
m m m
< A > A + +
) jw ( A
) s ( G ) s ( m ) s ( w
m
A
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Contd..
The robust stability is guaranteed iff
w , 0 ) s ( G ) s ( w ) s ( G 1
m
> +
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Example
Consider theuncertainfeedbackcontrol system
showninfig. 1. withMultiplicativeuncertainty.
Assume that the uncertain plant transfer
functionisgivenby
, and
)) s ( ) s ( w 1 )( s ( H ) s ( H
m m
A + =
1 s
1
) s ( H

=
10 s
2
) s ( w
m
+
=
The controller K(s) is a constant, Given
controller is of the formK(s)=10. Determine,
whetherthesystemisrobustlystable
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Solution
The complementary sensitivity function T(s)
is given by
9 s
10
) s ( T
+
=
) s ( H ) s ( K 1
) s ( H ) s ( K
) s ( T
+
=
1 s
1
1 s
1
10 1
10

+
=
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Solution contd..
1/wm(jw)
T(jw)
Fig 3. Robust stability with Multiplicative uncertainty
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Contd..
Fig 3. Gives the magnitude of T(s) as a
functionoffrequencyversusmagnitudeof
Here,themagnitudeof overbounds
the magnitude of T(s). Hence the robust
stabilityconditionissatisfied.
Hencesystemisrobustlystable
2
) 10 s (
) s ( w
1
m
+
=
) s ( w
1
m
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Case 2. Robust stability with an
inverse multiplicative uncertainty
Fig. 4. Closed loop feedback system with inverse multiplicative uncertainty
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H(s) -Plant
K(s) -Controller
-Inversemultiplicativeuncertainty
Suppose the open loop transfer function
Gp(s) is stable and that the nominal closed
loopsystemisalsostable
Robust stability is guaranteed if
encirclements of the point -1+j
0
are
avoided.
(jw) w
im
| |
1
im im
) s ( ) s ( w 1 ) s ( H ) s ( Hp

A + =
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Robust stability is guaranteed, iff the
followingfour equivalent equalitiesholds.
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The last condition is most easily violated at
each frequency when has magnitude 1
and the phase is such that and
have opposite signs.
Thus, robust stability is guaranteed, iff,
ConsideringthesensitivityfunctionS(s) ofthe
norm, the robust stability with inverse
multiplicativeuncertainty isguaranteed, iff
and
) j (
im
A
) s ( G 1+ ) s ( ) s ( w
im
m
i
A
> + , 0 ) s ( w ) s ( G 1
m
i
1 ) s ( S ) s ( w
m
i
<

) s ( w
1
) s ( S Rs
m
i
<
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Robust stability tests
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Robust performance in the context

H
The general notion of robust performance
is, internal stabilityandperformanceof a
specifictypeshouldholdfor all plantsin
familyP.
Beforedealingwithrobust performance,
it is necessary to study the nominal
performance and its relation to the
sensitivityfunction.
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Nominal Performance
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Closed loop feed back system with disturbance and noise
Nominal Performance contd..
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Nominal Performance contd..
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Nominal Performance contd..
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Nominal Performance contd..
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Common specifications in terms of S(s) are
Maximum tracking error at
prespecifiedfrequencies
Minimum steady state tracking error
A
Maximum peak magnitude M of S(s)
Minimum band width
*
B

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Therefore, S(s) is used as a performance indicator.
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Re
Im
0
G(jw)
(-1, j0)
1+G(j w)
wp(j w)
Fig. 5. Nominal performance in the Nyquistplot
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Robust performance

) s ( R
) s ( K

) s ( w
m
) s (
m
A
) s ( H
) s ( D
) s ( w
p
*
) s ( Y
+
+
+
+

Fig. 6. Block diagram for robust performance in the Multiplicative uncertainty case
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Re
Im
0
G(jw)
(- 1, j0)
1 +G(j w)
wp(j w)
) j ( G ) j ( w
m

Robust performance in the Nyquistplot
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Contd..
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Contd..
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Remarks on Nominal performance, robust stability
and robust performance
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