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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Teenage Pregnancy Statistics In 2008, the latest year for which statistics are available, the

U.S. pregnancy rate among girls between 15 and 19 was 67.8 per 1,000, according to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unwanted Pregnancy. The rate has steadily declined since 1991, when it was 117 per 1,000 teens between the same ages.1 U.S. teen birth rates have also declined. In 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control, the rate was 34.3 births per 1,000 teens, compared to 61.8 births per 1,000 teens in 1991. Fewer babies were born to teenagers in 2010 than in any year since 1946. Still, the teen birth rate in the U.S. remains nine times higher than in other developed countries, according to the CDC. In the Philippines, pregnancy among girls under the age of 20 increased by 65 per cent over a 10-year period, from 2000-2010, despite a reverse trend in teen marriages, which is on the decline, according to the National Statistics Office (NSO).2 In 2010, live births by teenage mothers registered with the NSO were 207,898, compared with 126,025 in 2000. On the other hand, teenage marriages registered with the agency shows a slow but steady decline from 14.8 per cent in 2000 to 13 per cent in 2010. The 2011 Family Health Survey also revealed that while childbirth is slowly decreasing among women in the older age groups, it is increasing among girls 15 to 19 years old, from 39 per 1,000 live births in 2006 to 54 in 2011, across all regions in the Philippines.

(2005). Teenage Pregnancy, WebMD, LLC. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from 2 (2013). Philippines Highlights Rising Teen Pregnancy on 1st International Day of Girl Child. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from

Almost all adolescent births about 95% occur in low- and middle-income countries. Within countries, adolescent births are more likely to occur among poor, less educated and rural populations.3 Young women have been the focus of a number of government programs aimed at delaying the beginning of childbearing and thereby hastening fertility decline. In the Philippines, 26 percent of women ages 15-24 years have begun childbearing; young women in rural areas are more likely than those in urban areas to have begun childbearing. Similarly, young women with no school or only elementary schooling and those in the poorer wealth quintiles are more likely to have started childbearing than better educated and young women in wealthier households. Across regions, early childbearing is highest in MIMAROPA (37 percent) and

SOCCSKSARGEN (35 percent), and lowest in NCR (18 percent). Given the late age at first marriage, only 10 percent of teenagers age 15-19 in the Philippines have begun childbearing.4 Teenage Pregnancy Causes According to WHO, in many societies, girls may be under pressure to marry and bear children early, or they may have limited educational and employment prospects.5 In low- and middle-income countries, over 30% of girls marry before they are 18 years of age; around 14% before the age of 15. Moreover, married adolescents are likely to become pregnant and give birth in accordance with social norms. Education, on the other hand, is a major protective factor for early pregnancy: the more years of schooling, the fewer early pregnancies. Birth rates among women with low education are higher than for those with secondary or tertiary education.
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(2013). Adolescent Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from (December 2009). National Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from 5 (2013). Adolescent Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from

Some adolescents do not know how to avoid becoming pregnant, or are unable to obtain contraceptives. However, even where contraceptives are widely available, sexually active adolescents are less likely to use contraceptives than adults. In Latin America, Europe and Asia only 42-68% of adolescents who are married or in partnerships use contraceptives. In Africa the rate ranges from 3-49%.6 There is a lack of sexuality education in many countries. A global coverage measure related to sexuality education estimates that only 36% of young men and 24% of young women aged 15-24 in low- and middle-income countries have comprehensive and correct knowledge of how to prevent HIV. In some situations, adolescent girls may be unable to refuse sex. Sexual violence is widespread and particularly affects adolescent girls. More than one third of girls in some countries report that their first sexual encounter was coerced. Researchers from the Family Health Survey of the Philippines disclosed that the primary reasons for teenage pregnancy are insufficient access to information about sexual health and reproductive health services specifically targeted at teens.7 Recent studies have shown that teenage girls who are more prone to unwanted pregnancy usually start meeting with partners of the opposite sex at an early age; this factor can also be influenced by the media or the teenage-magazines which promote dating at an early age by giving examples of celebrity couples their own age.8

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(2013). Adolescent Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from (2013). Philippine Teenage Pregancy up 65% in the Last Decade, Manila Standard Today. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from 8 (March 24, 2013). Factors Causing Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from

One factor is not engaging in school activities, social or family and consequently, drop out of school; this is one of the most common reasons why teenage girls end up being pregnant. Girls abandon school and family to be with their partner, who, in return, leaves them with no home and an unborn child. Parents who are overprotective rise a trust issue which frustrates the child and makes her or him act irresponsible.9 Meanwhile, others have been victims of sexual abuse; this, on the other hand, is the most traumatizing factor which occurs between a young girl and a much older man. This can have psychological effects which prevent the girl to continue life as a normal teenager. Use of tobacco, alcohol and/or other hallucinogenic substances is included in the list of reasons why young lasses end up being impregnated. The lack of control caused by these substances triggers passions and lust in young teenagers and begin to experience their bodies without using any birth control method. Others, still, however, were raised in a single parent family especially girls who grew up without a father. Single parents have a really hard time keeping in control their adolescent children so they put too many restrictions of their teenage girls. This behavior makes them rebel against the family and they seek understanding and love from other people. Teenage Pregnancy Effects In April 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that nearly one in five teen births is a repeat birthmeaning that it's at least the second birth for the teenage mother. Although the repeat teen birth rate in the United States declined by more than 6 percent between 2007 and 2010, it remains highespecially in American Indian/Alaskan Natives (21.6

(March 24, 2013). Factors Causing Teenage







percent), Hispanics (20.9 percent), and non-Hispanic African Americans (20.4 percent). In Caucasian teens, the repeat birth rate is 14.8 percent.10 Studies show that although most teen parents who are sexually active use contraception during the postpartum period, only about 22 percent use "most effective" birth control (> 99 percent effective). Babies born as result of a repeat teen pregnancy are even more likely to be

born prematureearly and at a low birth weight. Declining teen pregnancy rates are thought to be attributed to more effective birth control practice, newer methods of birth control (e.g., long-acting, reversible contraception), and decreased sexual activity among teens. Still, teenage pregnancy rates remain high and approximately 1 million teenage girls become pregnant each year in the United States and about 13 percent of U.S. births involve teen mothers. To lower teen pregnancy rates, older children must be educated about sex and sexuality and about the consequences of pregnancy. In the United States, the annual cost of teen pregnancies from lost tax revenues, public assistance, child health care, foster care and involvement with the criminal justice system is estimated to be about $7 billion. Medical complications often occur in pregnant teenagers, according to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Too often, teens do not seek adequate medical care during the pregnancy. Complications that may occur during a teen pregnancy include anemia, toxemia, high blood pressure, placenta previa and premature birth of the baby.11 Teenage pregnancy also puts young mothers at risk of health complications because of poor nutrition and their age, according to Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the


(October 2000). Teen Pregnancy, Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved at July 28, 2013 from 11 (March 6, 2011). Effects of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from

Department of Science and Technology (FNRI-DOST). The most significant risk in this age group is undernutrition, as 36 percent of pregnant women below 20 are undernourished, compared with 23 percent for older mothers. This also puts their babies at risk due to low birth weight, short lactation time, and premature birth.12 A teenager may suffer an emotional crisis if she becomes pregnant and does not want the baby. This crisis may lead to rash behavior such as attempting to self-abort the baby or a suicide attempt.13 Uncertainty about the future may arise when a teen is pregnant. A teen may feel she does not have enough knowledge to be a mother. She may also have fears about how having a baby will impact her own life and dreams for the future. Education may be put on hold when a teen becomes pregnant. Teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school. Only about one-third of teen mothers obtain a high school diploma.14 Others who were planning to attend college in the future may put off that experience after becoming pregnant. They may decide to focus on the baby or getting married rather than pursuing further education. Parenthood is the leading reason why teen girls drop out of school; after all, its really difficult to juggle homework and a baby. Less than half of teen mothers ever graduate from high school and fewer than 2% earn a college degree by age 30. Smoking and drug use may be problematic during a teen pregnancy. A teen may not have the willpower to stop using substances that can harm the developing baby.15


(2013). Philippine Teenage Pregancy up 65% in the Last Decade, Manila Standard Today. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from

(March 6, 2011). Effects of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from 14 (October 2000). Teen Pregnancy, Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved at July 28, 2013 from 15 (2013). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, Retrieved July 27, 2013 from

Exhaustion may arise during a pregnancy. A pregnant teen should try to exercise during the pregnancy; however, if exhaustion arises it is important to know that this is often a normal part of pregnancy. Getting the standard 8 hours of sleep every night (or more) is important.16 Pregnant teens may be at higher risk of postpartum depression (depression that starts after delivering a baby), according to the CDC.17 The teen may fall into a depression while trying to handle the emotions a pregnancy creates and all of the possibly negative feedback about the pregnancy from friends and family. The fluctuating hormones that a pregnancy causes may also prompt depression. During pregnancy, depression can interfere with taking good care of a newborn -- and with healthy teenage development -- but it can be treated.18 Especially for teens who think they can't tell their parents they're pregnant, feeling scared, isolated, and alone can be a real problem. Without the support of family or other adults, pregnant teens are less likely to eat well, exercise, or get plenty of rest. And they are less likely to get to their regular prenatal visits. Having at least one trusted, supportive adult -- someone nearby in the community, if not a family member -- is invaluable in helping them get the prenatal care and emotional support they need to stay healthy during this time.19 Once their baby is born, teenagers may not be willing or able to give it the undivided attention it needs. A teen may not be an adequate mother because she is overwhelmed by the constant needs of the baby. She may grow annoyed at the lack of freedom to interact with her peer group due to the baby.


(March 6, 2011). Effects of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 17 (2005). Teenage Pregnancy, WebMD, LLC. Retrieved July 27, 18 (2005). Teenage Pregnancy, WebMD, LLC. Retrieved July 27, 19 (2005). Teenage Pregnancy, WebMD, LLC. Retrieved July 27,

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Financial difficulty may arise during a teen pregnancy or after the baby is born. Teenage births are associated with lower annual income for the mother. Eighty percent of teen mothers must rely on welfare at some point.20 It is expensive to raise a baby. Teens who do not have fulltime employment may struggle to cover the basic expenses of life upon having a baby.21 Children of teen mothers do worse in school than those born to older parentsthey are 50% more likely to repeat a grade, are less likely to complete high school than the children of older mothers, and have lower performance on standardized tests. Moreover, the daughters of young teen mothers are 3 times more likely to become teen mothers themselves. On the other hand, the sons of teen mothers are twice as likely to end up in prison. Weirdly enough, almost 50% of teens have never thought about how a pregnancy would affect their lives even though having a baby could be one of the most life-changing things to happen to them.22 Forced Teenage Pregnancy The 2008 NDHS investigated womens experience of sexual violence, including whether the respondents first sexual intercourse was forced against her will. Force at first sexual intercourse is not widespread among Filipino women; nevertheless, 4 percent of women age 1549 report that their first sexual intercourse was forced against their will.23 Sexual violence here includes being forced to have sexual intercourse or perform any other sexual acts against ones will.

(October 2000). Teen Pregnancy, Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved at July 28, 2013 from 21 (March 6, 2011). Effects of Teenage Pregnancy. Retrieved July 28, 2013 from 22 (2013). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from 23 (December 2009). National Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from

9 percent of women age 15-49 have ever experienced sexual violence. Women age 15-19 are least likely to have experienced sexual violence. Women who are employed, but are not paid in cash, those who are divorced, separated, or widowed, and those who live in rural areas are more likely than other women to have experienced sexual violence. By region, the proportion of women who have experienced sexual violence ranges from 3 percent in CALABARZON to almost six times that18 percentin MIMAROPA, SOCCSKSARGEN, and Caraga regions. The likelihood of experiencing sexual violence decreases with increasing educational attainment and household wealth status.24 Overall, almost one in four (24 percent) women age 15-49 have experienced either physical or sexual violence. Specifically, 15 percent of women have experienced only physical violence, 4 percent have experienced only sexual violence, and 5 percent have experienced both physical and sexual violence.


(December 2009). National Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2013 from