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FIG.
I.

^
^
FIG 2
Regular Octohedron. Regular Cube.

FIG. 3 Hexagonal Prism.

FIG. 4.
Double Hexahedral Pyramid.

FIG. 5.
Quadratic Double Pyramid.

FIG. 6.
Triclinic Prism.

THE RED LINES REPRESENT THE AXES.

Plate

FIG

7.

FIG. 8.
Axes connecting opposite
angles.

Axes connecting opposite

faces.

/N

7
1\

/ K
w/
FIG.
9.

FIG. 10.
Represents the truncation of the angles, resulting from the intersection of faces. (Figure 9.)

Represents Figures 7 and 8 laid upon each other, causing intersection of faces, and consequent truncation of angles. (Figure 10.)

THE RED LINES REPRESENT AXES. [ONLY TWO OF THE THREE AXES ARE SHOWN.] THE PLANES OF THE FACES ARE REPRESENTED BY THE BLACK LINES.

A.

COURSE
for

HOME STUDY

PHARMACISTS

FIRST LESSONS

STUDY OF PHARMACY,

OSCAR OLDBERG,

Phar. D.
in

Professor of Pharmacy and Director of the Pharmaceutical Laboratories the School of Pharmacy of Northwestern University.

WITH

150

ILLUSTRATIONS.

SECOND EDITION.
REVISED AND ENLARGED.

CHICAGO:

THE W.

T.

KEENER COMPANY.
1896.

WAY 1*1 896 le^'JP

<9**

Entered according to Act and

of

Congress, in the year 1891

1896,

by

OSCAR OLDBERG,
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

*A^\
\

gton. In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


The generous
upon the first edilion of the Pharmacy by teachers and students, press and members of the State Boards of Pharmacy, is hereby
praise bestown
in

Home Study
critics,

gratefully acknowledged.

During over twenty years experience as a teacher of pharmaceutical students the author has been constantly called upon by beginners in the study of Pharmacy for advice as to what to re^d first. This book was prepared expressly for the use of such beginners. It is a pharmaceutical first reader just such a book as the student of Pharmacy should read before he reads any other text-books or treatises on the subjects which constitute the curriculum of a course of pharmaceutical
study.
its title, the Home Study for Young Phardesigned to be read without aid or guidance from any teacher. The author has accordingly purposely repeated many of the more important statements in different ways and from different points of view, and has endeavored to adapt

As

indicated by
is

macists

his language, definitions, descriptions, illustrations

and gener-

alizations to the receptivity of students having a fair

common

school education but no knowledge of chemistry and materia medica, and little or no knowledge of the nature, objects and general principles of scientific pharmacy.

The scope

of the

book

is

indicated in the table of contents.

Throughout the book there are many cross-references to help the student, At the same time the author has not hesitated to repeat wherever repetition seemed likely to be more
convenient to the reader than to refer him to other portions
of the book.

While Part
are treated at

covers the whole

field

of Physics, only such

portions as have a special interest to the student of

pharmacy

any length.

Part II covers theoretical chemistry quite sufficiently, and

the experiments and examples given are such as the drug store Chemical formulas, which are nearly always difficult affords.

have been printed in two colors in the ten chapdevoted to the different classes of chemical compounds the positive radical of the molecule in black, and the negative in red, so that the student can identify each at a glance. Part III presents definitions of such general terms as medicines, drugs, chemicals, preparations, materia medica, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmacy, pharmacopoeia, pharmacodynamics, therapeutics, posology, etc. Chapter LXIII is devoted to a general review of the various classes of chemical
to beginners,
ters

constituents existing in plant drugs.

In studying of the chemicals in Part II and of the crude drugs in Part III, the student should familiarize himself with their appearance as found in the store, and compare the descripcabinet tions given in the book with the articles described. of such drugs as are not always found in drug stores except in a comminuted condition, will be found useful to the student. The symptoms of poisoning and customary antidotes are given under poisonous drugs. As the author believes that every drug clerk ought to have at least some idea of what is meant by such common therapeutic terms as alteratives, antipyretics, hypnotics, carminatives, diaphoretics, etc., definitions of terms of this kind are

given

in

Chapter

LXXIV.

The aim

of education

is

the healthy development, discipline

and exercise of the faculties of observation and reasoning. Good education for pharmacy also includes the training of the hands to promptly and exactly obey the trained mind. The road to the acquisition of knowledge and skill has its
difficulties, but it also has its rewards. To the true student the study of pharmacy is brimful of interest and pleasure. There is fortunately no "royal road" or short cut. Full of genuine delight, the road to knowledge has no end. But the student must travel that road himself; no one else can do it for him. No amount of home reading or study of any kind, with or without help, can alone fit any person for the practice of pharmacy. No courses of lecturers will alone accomplish the object. Not even laboratory courses can alone prove, sufficient. And no drugstore training is alone adequate. All these several means must be utilized in an orderly way. As it is highly important to the young men and women who propose to adopt the practice of pharmacy as their life work that they should have a clear idea of some of the conditions

which directly and vitally affect success or failure in that pursuit, and as my advise is very frequently asked upon this point, I shall devote a few pages of this book to an "introductory" containing such information and suggestions as may prove helpful to those whose ambition it is to become worthy members of a most honorable and responsible scientific technical profession, and may at the same time, perhaps, deter others from entering upon a pursuit for which they are not adapted or which does not meet their expectations.

OSCAR OLDBERG,
December,
1895.

INTRODUCTORY.
CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS GOVERNING THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY.

The occupation

of the apothecary

is

two-fold, for he

is

both
be,

a pharmacist and a merchant.

The

retail-druggist

may

and often is, an apothecary; but he may often be a mere merchant and not a pharmacist. In the majority of the retail drugstores of the present the "business" done consists of: firstly, the performance (intelligent or unintelligent) of special technical work such as constitutes pharmacy, and secondly, the buying and selling of miscellaneous merchandise including
drugs,

"patent medicines," toilet articles,


legitimate pharmaceutical
testing,

stationery,

and,

generally, also cigars, soda-water, etc.

The

work done

in

consists of identifying,

preparing,

preserving,

any drugstore com-

bining and dispensing medicines, and should also include chemical, microscopical and bacteriological examinations and

other expert work such as is demanded by modern scientific medicine, since it is evident that the pharmacist is nothing if

not the expert of the physician in these matters. Pharmacy embraces all that part of the druggist's occupation which is in any sense scientific, technical or professional,

and that
sentially

is

distinguishes

the only feature of the drug business which esthe pharmacist from ordinary merits

chants such as grocers, liquor dealers, tobacconists, etc. Pharmacy is a scientific technical pursuit, and, therefore,
duties cannot be intelligently correctly, or safely performed

by

any person without


o?ily

sufficient special training.


is

Hence

it is the
i?ite?ise

part of the retail drug business which commercial competition.

not subject to

Vlil

INTRODUCTORY.

by the

selling of miscellaneous merchandise no necessary part of the pharmacist's occupation. It is, and ever will be, subject to the same keen commercial competition that governs all mere retail vending, for it requires no special education except such mercantile
retail druggist is

The mere buying and

training as

is

also necessary for

the

occupation of selling

boots, books or

bon bons.

Drugs and medicines of all kinds may be prepared, dispensed and sold by any person with or without a proper pharmaceutical education, just as the most highly educated physician and the most ignorant quack may both prescribe medicines. Under our defective laws this has been notoriously true The dry-goods store, the bazaar, or the groin the past. cery can sell patent medicines without let or hindrance. Retail druggists without proper special education in pharmacy have no more right to prepare or sell medicines than the grocer. Competent pharmacists alone can prepare and dispense medicines intelligently and properly. In years past the retail drug business consisted mainly of pharmacy, and the mercantile feature was only an unavoidable but subordinate adjunct: to-day the commercial part of the business is in most cases its dominant feature and legitimate pharmacy is too frequently a mere incident. Retail drug business without any pharmacy connected with it is not at all uncommon; pharmacy combined with much merchandising is he order of the day; pharmacy with less merchandising is greatly to be preferred; but pharmacy without merchandising is the ideal pharmacy and is not only practicable but will surely come in the immediate future. Young men and women who think of engaging in the retail drug business should, therefore, bear in mind that, if their object is simply to earn a livi?ig by any respectable pursuit, and if they prefer " keeping store " or " clerking in stores " to other employments, there are other kinds of store-keeping and

INTRODUCTORY.

IX

clerking quite as remunerative as those of the drug business, and less arduous and dangerous. They should remember that

the practice of pharmacy is a specially risky and responsible occupation, and that no person has any right to enter upon a pursuit involving danger to human health and life unless he or she is willing to acquire that thorough preparatory education

and training without which safety is impossible. The practice pharmacy without sufficient training for it is nothing less than criminal. Intelligent and safe pharmacy without special
of

education

is

as impossible as seeing without eyes.

By

the " pharmacy of the future"

practice of

The Pharmacy of the Future. I do not mean that ideal pharmacy which we may hope to attain to in the

course of generations, but the pharmacy which is already pracIt is, indeed, alticable to every well educated pharmacist. ready practiced in a limited way. The advent of this new pharmacy does not involve any radical or sudden disturbance in the commercial phase of the It really means a gradual improvement retail drug business. in the economic results of the business of every druggist who

prepared to keep up with the march of progress. The redruggist of to-day may well be the pharmacist of the future if he will but cultivate and extend the really professional part of his occupation. This does not necessitate any immediate diminution of the merchandising he is doing and which he may find necessary or profitable; it simply means that he should extend that part of his occupation which is peculiarly his own, and can not be done by others, and which is on that account the only service for which he is sure to receive a just return. But the retail druggist of to-day, if he desires to retain the pharmaceutical work he is doing, must either himself possess the necessary training, or he must have in his establishment those who are competent to perform all the duties of the advanced pharmacy.
is

tail

INTRODUCTORY.

new pharmacy can not be performed by These duties require a far better education than that possessed by a large majority of the persons at present employed in the retail drugstores.
duties of the

The

the untrained.

It is of the utmost importance to all prospective pharmacists TO CONSIDER FULLY THE FACT THAT SUCCESS AND SATISFACTION IN THE PURSUIT OF PHARMACY HEREAFTER MUST, MORE THAN EVER BEFORE, DEPEND UPON THE EXTENT AND QUALITY OF

THE EDUCATION OF THE PERSONS ENGAGED IN The uneducated man can never become
ever successful he
"

IT.

a pharmacist, howin drugs, "

may

be as a mere dealer
etc.

patent

medicines." cigars, soda water,

The pharmacist of the

future

must be

fitted to

decide cor-

and strength of medicines, to properly prepare and preserve them, to combine and dispense them accurately, and to apply for these purposes the best means which scientific training affords. He must understand and be able to perform all of the processes and methods of the Pharmacopoeia.
rectly as to the genuineness, quality, purity
"

He must

as well as qualitative,

be practiced in analytical methods, quantitative and in the use of the microscope, and

grounded

in the scientific principles as well as in the practical

operations of pharmaceutical work. He should be equally well prepared for the best professional service at the prescription table, to aid the physician
all

by the

reliable

performance of

the chemical, microscopical and bacteriological examinations demanded by the modern science of medicine, and to act
as public analyst especially for the protection of health.

to that end can by no means be any drug store. It demands thorough courses in well equipped pharmaceutical schools, and, especially, extended laboratory courses in pharmacognosy, microscopy, chemistry and pharmacy.

The education necessary


in

acquired

introductory.

xi

The Pharmacy Laws.


The
practice of

pharmacy and the

sale of medicines are

fraught with danger to human health and life when engaged in by persons not possessing the necessary special knowledge and training, and all civilized countries have, therefore, passed
laws to regulate the practice of pharmacy. The sole object of every pharmacy law is the protection of the public health, and it accomplishes that object by excluding from the practice of pharmacy all persons not properly fitted by education to be safely trusted with the performance of such important and responsible duties.
In the United States the
the Boards of Pharmacy.

pharmacy laws are enforced by

The Boards of Pharmacy, and they alone, have the authority to decide who are qualified to engage One of the important tests in the practice of pharmacy.
is

an examination conducted by the Board.

A
is

definite period

also required. All candidates found by the Board to be qualified are " regis-

of shop training in the retail drug business

tered" and licensed.


states two grades of pharmacists; in only one class. In a few states all graduates in pharmacy who have had four years experience in drug stores are registered without examination; but the American Pharmaceutical Association, composed of representative pharmacists of the country, has twice (in 1885 and in 1894) unanimously passed resolutions unequivocally favoring the rule that all candidates for registration as pharmacists or assistant pharmacists shall be examined by the Boards of Pharmacy, whether they be graduates or not, to determine their fitness. All of the best pharmaceutical schools or colleges are also opposed to registration without examina-

There are

in

some

others three; in

many

tion.

twice (in 1894 an 1895) declared

The American Pharmaceutical Association has, moreover by unanimous vote, that no

Xll

INTRODUCTORY.

to be examined for by the Board of Pharmacy without having first attended a good school of pharmacy. It has further become a recognized principle that the candidate for registration must be possessed of a sufficient

person should be hereafter admitted


registration

preliminary general education. Much higher requirements have for many generations prevailed in most of the civilized countries of the world.

The tendency
pharmacy

is

certainly in the

direction of less

unsatisof

factory educational standards for admission to the ranks


in the future.

Progress in this respect will necessarily be slow at first; but it will be steady and sure. Boards of Pharmacy are most important bodies in the evoluThey can not but tion of the pharmaceutical profession. recognize the trend of public opinion in reference to better,

pharmaceutical education.
force the
ject

They have
them

the power of the


in their efforts to

re-

spective state governments behind

en-

pharmacy laws

for the attainment of their

only obdis-

the promotion of the public


are ready to uphold
efficiently, faithfully,

welfare; and all friends of


in their efforts to

pharmacy
charge

them

and wisely,

their important trust

GENERAL QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY.


Persons ambitious to become good pharmacists must be
telligent, of
in-

good

habits, orderly, systematic,

and willing

to

perform every duty belonging to the occupation of the pharmacist and the routine of the retail drug store. Innate integrity of purpose and conduct is indispensable. Tact and good manners are essential qualifications. Prospective pharmacists must be scrupulously neat and imbued with a natural and uncompromising aversion to dirt and
disorder.

They must be animated by the desire to attain a high degree of professional knowledge, skill and usefulness in their

INTRODUCTORY.
chosen
calling,

Xlll

and should always continue


selfish desire to

to be

guided by an
itself

earnest devotion to the science and art of


rather than

pharmacy

by the

secure pecuniary gain.

Poorly educated, dull, lazy, awkward, slovenly young can never become competent or successful pharmacists.

men
in-

The

use of intoxicants, tobacco or other narcotics, or


in

dulgence
liable to

any other bad habit or

vice,

must be regarded

as

be attended with far more serious consequences in the occupation of pharmacy than in any other pursuit except in
the practice of medicine.

senses in sound order.


or
taste, or

The prospective pharmacist should have all his physical A person who is color blind, or deaf, who can not discern odors, or distinguish differences in
whose sense
a pharmacist. a pharmacist should have perfect hands
of touch
is

deficient,

is

not a

fit

person to

become
and

Whoever wants to be
sary manual
details

fingers in order to be able to learn to

perform the neces-

of pharmaceutical operations with neat-

ness, precision

and

celerity.

or drug clerk should respect the dignity of and must be willing at all times to do whatever duty he is competent to perform as soon as it presents itself, and especially should he be ever ready to contribute his full share toward the enforcement of strict cleanliness and
all

The apprentice
useful labor,

order.

PRELIMINARY GENERAL EDUCATION.

No boy

or girl under 16 years of age should ever enter a

drug store for the purpose of learning the art of pharmacy, and no one should ever be permitted to begin the study of pharmacy either in a pharmaceutical school or in a drug store
without having
first

at least equivalent

acquired a preliminary general education to that (obtained in the public grammar

XIV

INTRODUCTORY.
required for admission to the high schools in our

schools)

larger cities.

higher education

is

proportionately more
as well
in

valuable. It is to be hoped, for the credit of


future the

pharmacy

as

for

the better protection of the public welfare,


the registration in the ranks of

that

the near

pharmacy laws may be so amended as to prohibit pharmacy of any person not

possessing a general education at least equivalent to that required for graduation from the high schools. Several of the

pharmaceutical schools of the United States now require a completed high school education or its equivalent for admission to a full two years' course such as is necessary to the accomplished pharmaceutical chemist of the future. Arithmetic is one of the most important studies which the prospective pharmacist should master before he begins the study of pharmacy. He should on no account try to learn pharmacy unless he has a ready command of the use of common and decimal Fractions and of Percentage and Proportion. If he knows Algebra, too, so much the better. knowledge of Latin is very useful although by no means necessary. It is to be remembered, however, that the mental

training incident to the acquisition

of a

good knowledge of

Latin

is

of very great value

far more valuable than that knowl-

edge

itself.

good knowledge of German, sufficient to enable the student to readily use German reference books on pharmacy and chemistry, and other related scientific works and journals, is extremely valuable to the pharmacist. German is, in fact,
the pharmacist than Latin. student of pharmacy should have a fair knowledge of elementary structural botany. He should at

much more useful to The prospective

know organography. This knowledge he can acquire by studying any good elementary school text-book on botany such as, for instance, Gray's small work called First Lessons in Structural Botany.
least

INTRODUCTORY.

XV

A good, clean, regular, easily legible handwriting is also an exceedingly desirable, if not absolutely necessary, qualification.
Special Education In Pharmacy.

Pharmacy is of tried value as a course At the School of Pharmacy the difference between the student who has carefully read that book and the student who has not pursued any such preliminary
in

The Home Study

of preparatory reading.

reading

is

very marked.
of two
dis-

The

special education of pharmacists consists

tinctkindsof training: first, a sufficient course in a good pharmaceutical school; and second, at least two or three years good shop training, or active service or "experience" in a good pharmacy where real pharmaceutical work constitutes apart of the
regular daily routine.

The object of the pharmaceutical school or college is to properly prepare the student for the performance of the work of pharmacy. The courses of instruction in such schools consist of lectures, recitations, lecture demonstrations, practice in the application of correct methods to the solution of pharmaceutical problems and in the performance of various kinds of work, the study of actual specimens of drugs and other materials, and laboratory courses in botany, pharmacognosy, chemistry, the preparation of pharmaceutical products, the examination and valuation of drugs and preparations, the problems and manipulations of the art of compounding medicines, etc. etc. The most important courses in the pharmaceutical schools or colleges are the laboratory courses. Those who are ignorant of botany, pharmacognosy, chemistry

and of true scientific pharmacy are necessarily incompetent to fully appreciate the value to the pharmacist of either
of these sciences or of systematic special education for the

practice of pharmacy.

hope that

intelligent

But it would seem to be reasonable to young men and women should accept the

XVI

INTRODUCTORY.

advise of any competent educated pharmacist, and especially

the testimony of experienced pharmacists


the pharmaceutical schools, any one of
to

who

are teachers in

whom

can demonstrate

them

that pharmaceutical botany, microscopy,

pharmacog-

nosy, chemistry and a knowledge of the object, functions, and

general principles of
intelligent

pharmacy

are absolutely necessary to the

performance of the practical every-day duties of a pharmacy. The worker in pharmacy finds constant use for his chemical and pharmaceutical knowledge from the cleaning of mortars and "graduates" to the most complex, difficult and delicate expert service, from the first day's experience of the beginner to the end of the apothecary's professional life.

Drug

store

work without any previous knowledge

of drugs,

of chemistry, of pharmaceutical nomenclature, or of the nature

and without any previous laboratory practice, is and unsafe; such "practical experience" may be effective in all that relates to the purely mechanical mercantile duties of the drug store employe, but it is a slow, blind and wholly unsatisfactory method of learning the art of pharmacy. Actual regular practice in a good pharmacy, after due preparation for it, is absolutely necessary to the completion Shop experiof the training of an accomplished pharmacist.
of pharmacy, unintelligent

ence as a part of the pharmacist's education does not derive its value from anything that the student or prospective pharmacist can learn far better in a good pharmaceutical school. The thoroughly practiced hand can be gained only by long practice; experience can come only by experience. Mercantile training, can, of course, never be imparted in the the college or school of pharmacy, nor can the college student be taught in school such things as bottling liquids, corking, wrapping, folding powders, spreading plasters, finishing and coating pills rapidly and to perfection, and the doing of many other All of similar things in a thoroughly workmanlike fashion.

INTRODUCTORY.

XV11

these details can, however, be mastered by the beginner in the


store far

more

rapidly, intelligently, safely

and perfectly

after

such a preparation as a college course in pharmacy affords than before that course. young man who has completed a good course at a school of pharmacy, including laboratory practice, can make many times as rapid progress in the practical every-day work of the store as the same young man would make without that preparation. Six months' practical experience after a good college cowse is worth more than four years' experience before it. But the most important qualifications to be acquired by drug store practice are such as can never be tested, measured or demonstrated by any mere examinations, nor imparted by any other means than continuous experience of the right kind in a well conducted, well equipped and busy pharmacy. If all the qualifications which are to be derived from practical experience in drug stores could be ascertained by examinations, then the pharmacy laws need not demand any fixed period of actual regular service in a drug store. But no faculty or examining board can by any examination determine whether or not the candidate before them has had a sufficiently wide field of practice to develop and establish in him those qualities of reliability which no one can ever attain otherwise than by long contituced application of previously acquired special training to an The qualifications to be deactive and varied daily experience. rived only from such practical experience are infinitely more important than the mere mercantile accomplishments which anybody can master without any previous scientific course. The commercial druggist wants a clerk who can sell goods, draw custom and hold it, dress the show windows attractively, do his work quickly, get along with his routine duties without having to ask too many questions about prices and other merThese qualifications are valuable, and can cantile details, etc. be acquired more easily by an intelligent and well educated person than by an unintelligent or poorly educated one.

XV111

INTRODUCTORY.

But the qualifications contemplated by the pharmacy laws,

when they
are:

require a certain

number

of years

practical

expe-

rience in drug stores, relate to the pharmaceutical


spection, care, presence of mind,
tion of the pharmacists relations

work and
of

matured judgement, a well grounded habit of circuma conscientious feeling


full

personal responsibility, a healthy self-reliance, a

apprecia-

and duties
in

to the physician,

the public and his profession, and a reliable tact in dealing

with the numerous exigencies arising

the

practice of phar-

macy.
Pharmacists with extensive experience but with a very limited
special education, or without any, can often give very valuable

instruction to beginners

who have had

the best possible col-

lege course in pharmacy, because no observing

man

of intelli-

from day to day many many important practical precautions and useful methods such as experience suggests. Young men who have a good knowledge of botany, materia medica, physics and chemistry, and who may know all the pharmacy, that they can gather from books, will, therefore, always find that they can learn a great deal more from experienced druggists or drug clerks, and they should never forget that the reliability and maturity of judgment based upon experience are entitled to the highest respect. A graduate in pharmacy who has had no drugstore experience previous to graduation will of course, prove to be a far more intelligent apprentice than the non-graduate and will in a few months develop into a more efficient and valuable clerk or assistant than the non-graduate would be likely to become in several years. All beginners in the drugstore should set tc work systematically and diligently to learn all the details of the daily routine work with which they are concerned. Instead of devoting any portion of their time to idleness they should learn where to find and place things, familiarize themselves with the stock and with prices, practice making neat packages, and in every way
gence can
fail

to learn

seek to render their services as valuable as possible.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGES.

Preface Introductory

v-vi
vi-xviii

PART
Matter

I.

ELEMENTS OF PHARMACEUTICAL

PHYSICS.
iS

Definition Properties

CHAPTER

I.

CHAPTER CHAPTER
Phenomena Dependent upon Cohesion

II.

Gravitation Forces and Phenomena Attraction and Repulsion Weight Specific Weight Cohesion Adhesion Atomic Attraction. 8-

14

III.

States of Aggregation Solids Liquids Gases Fluids Vapors 14-1S CHAPTER IV. Crystalline Bodies Crystals Crystallizable Substances Amorphous
Substances
18- 21

CHAPTER

V.

How

Crystals are formed Axes Faces Edges Angles Cleavage

Cubes

Prisms Pyramids How Crystals are Produced


CHAPTER
VI.

22- 25
25- 28

Water

of Crystallization Anhydrous and

Hydrous Crystals

CHAPTER CHAPTER
Adhesion

VII.'

Classification of Crystals Crystallography The Six Systems VIII.

28- 35
35- 37

Adhesiveness Mixtures Miscibility


CHAPTER
IX.

Capillarity and Osmosis Osmosis Dialvsis

Capillary

attraction

Diffusion

of liquids

37- 43

CHAPTER
Solution Solubility Simple

X.

and Chemical Solution

Solvents

44- 47

CHAPTER
Motion

XI.

Laws of Motion Momentum Center of Gravity Equilibrium 47- 53 Stability Velocity Pendulum Energy CHAPTER XII. Work and Machines Units of Work Levers Balance Pulleys 54- 5S Inclined Plane Wedge Screw Friction CHAPTER XIII. Hydrodynamics Pressure upon Liquids Hydraulic Press Law of 58- 66 Archimedes Hydrometers
xix

XX

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Pneumatics

XIV.
Pressure 66- 73

Tension of Gases Mariotte's Law Atmospheric Barometer Siphon


CHAPTER
XV.

Temperature Sources .73- 76 XVI. Thermometry Mercurial Thermometers Other Thermometers 77- 79 CHAPTER XVII. Absolute and Specific Heat Absolute Temperature Thermal Units So- S2 CHAPTER XVIII. Distribution of Heat Conduction Convection Ventilation Radiation
Heat
and Latent Heat

Definition Active

CHAPTER

Transmission Absorption

82- 86

XIX. Expansion of Bodies by Heat Force of Expansion and Contraction 86Co-efficients of Expansion Expansion of Water

CHAPTER

89.

CHAPTER XX.
Relation of Temperature to the three states of Aggregation Action Fusion Sublimation Fixed and Volatile Sub of Heat on Solids Boiling Distillation stances Evaporation 90- 97

CHAPTER XXI
Temperature and Humidity of the Air
97- 98

CHAPTER XXII
Light

Sources of Light White Light The


CHAPTER

Transparent, Translucent

and Opaque Bodies


XXIII.

Luminous

Rays
98-102

Prismatic Colors

Electricity Static and Galvanic Electricity Currents Chemical Effects

Magnetism Induction
102-106

PART
CHAPTER
Masses, Molecules and Atoms
Substances

II.

ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY.
XXIV.

Introductory Mixed Matter Single Atoms Molecules Masses Elements Compounds Physical and Chemical Properties Physics and Chemistry. .109-118
..

CHAPTER XXV.
Chemical Phenomena Relative
Stability of

Molecules Reactions

.11S-123

CHAPTER XXVI.
Chemism Intensity,
Chemical Reactions
Quality and Quantity Factors and Products of Synthesis and Analysis Decomposition Con-

Relation of Heat to Chemditions favorable to Chemical Reaction ism Electricity Status Nascendi Dry and Wet Processes Pre123-131 disposing Affinity

CHAPTER
The Law

XXVII.

of Opposites in Chemistry Acids and Alkalies and Electro-chemical Theory Electro-Chemical Series

Electrolysis
131-138

CONTENTS.

xxi

XXVIII. Fixed Combining Proportions and the Atomic Theory Atomic Weights Dalton's Law Law of Dulong and Petit Specific and Atomic Heat Molecular Heat Gay-Lussac s Law of Simple Combining Proportions by Volume Avogadro's Law 139-149

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XXIX.
Valence

Artiads and

Perissads Bonds

Variable Valence.

.... .150-158

CHAPTER XXX.
Chemical Notation

Symbols Formulas Chemical


CHAPTER XXXI.
CHAPTER
XXXII.

Equations

158-163

The Elements General Review


Oxygen, Hydrogen and Sulphur

163-170 171-179

CHAPTER

XXXIII.
179-182

The Halogens Chlorine Bromine Iodine CHAPTER XXXIV. The Nitrogen Group and Boron CHAPTER XXXV. The Carbon Group CHAPTER XXXVI. Summary of Non-Metallic Elements

182-190
191-195

195

CHAPTER XXXVII.
The Light Met als and Ammonium
196-204

CHAPTER
The Heavy Metals
Summary of Metallic Elements

XXXVIII.
204-211

CHAPTER XXXIX.
211-213

CHAPTER
Compound
Tables
Radicals

XL.
213-220
220-223

Negative and

Positive Radicals

CHAPTER
of Radicals, Simple and

XLI.
.

Compound Positive and Negative


XLII

CHAPTER
Linkage

Compound Molecules Atomicity of Molecules Direct Union Chains

Molecular

Formulas

224-234
234-235

XLIII. Classes of Compounds Inorganic Organic

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XLIV
Oxides and Sulphides

CHAPTER XLV.

235-239
240-247 247-250

Haloids Chlorides Bromides


Bases

Iodides Cyanides
XLVJ.
XLV1I.

CHAPTER

Hydroxides Base-residues
CHAPTER

Acids Hydroxyl Acids Hydrogen Acids and Acids Action of Acids on Metals

Reactions

between Bases
,

250-255

XXll

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Salts Normal and Acid
Salts

XLVIII.
and Haloids. .256-259
259-262
L.

Basic Salts Oxy-salts


XLIX.

CHAPTER
Nitrates, Chlorates and Hypochlorites

CHAPTER
Sulphates and Sulphites Thiosulphates

262-265
LI.

CHAPTER

Phosphates Ortho-, Meta-, and Pyro-Phosphates Hypophosphites 265-268 CHAPTER LIE Carbonates Borates Silicates Arsenates Arsenites 26S-270 CHAPTER LIU.
Metallic Salts with the Organic Acids Acetates Valerates Oleates Oxalates Tartrates Citrates Salicylates, etc

Lactates
271-276

CHAPTER
Hydrocarbons

LIV.

Methane Series Other Series Hydrocarbon Radicals 276 280


CHAPTER
LV.
.
.

Other Organic Compounds

Alcohols Aldehyds Ketones Acids Ethers Ethereal Salts Carbohydrates Clucosides Alkaloids 280-289
CHAPTER

LVI. Chemical Nomenclature Rules Terminal syllables Prefixes 289-295 CHAPTER LVII. Laws Governing the Direction and Completeness of Chemical Reactions Laws of Malaguti and Berthollet 296-300 CHAPTER LVIII. Oxidation and Reduction Combustion Oxidizing Agents Reducing Agents 301-302 CHAPTER LIX. Neutralization and Saturation Test-papers Solution of Metals in Acids 303-306

CHAPTER
Precipitation

LX.
306-313
III.

Insoluble

Compounds

PART
CHAPTER

MATERIA MEDICA.
LXI.
Introductory Definitions of Drugs and Preparations Materia Medica, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Official and Officinal Medicines Pharmacopoeias Pharmacy and Pharmacodynamics Therapeutics and Posology 317-328 CHAPTER LXII. 328-332 Plant Drugs Collection, Cleaning, Garbling, Drying CHAPTER LXIII. What Plant Drugs Contain Proximate Principles Cellulose Starch Gum Pectin Sugar Albuminoids Fixed Oils Organic Acids Neutral Volatile Oils Resins Balsams Oleoresins Gum-Resins Principles Tannin Glucosides Alkaloids 332-345

CONTENTS.

xxiii

CHAPTER
Roots, Rhizomes, Corms and Bulbs

LXIV.
345-354
354-359

CHAPTER LXV.
Woods, Barks and Nutgall

CHAPTER
Herbs, Flowers and Leaves

LXVI.
360 367

CHAPTER
Fruits and Seeds

LXVII.
367-373

CHAPTER
Miscellaneous Crude Plant Drugs

LXVIII.
374-377

CHAPTER
Starches,

LXIX.
378-379 379-384

Gums and Saccharine Drugs

CHAPTER LXX.
Gum-Resins, Resins and Oleo-resins

CHAPTER
Fats and Fixed Oils

LXXI.
385-386

CHAPTER
Volatile Oils and

LXXII.
387-391

Camphors

CHAPTER
Animal Drugs

LXXIII.
391-392

CHAPTER LXXIV.
Therapeutic Classification of Medicines

Definitions
new medicines

392-398

CHAPTER LXXV.
Dose Table
of nearly 1,000 articles, including

399-418

PART
Heating Apparatus

IV.

PHARMACY. CHAPTER LXXVI.


Fuel-Generation and Applications of Heat for Pharmaceutical Purposes Sand-bath, Water-bath, and other Baths Dry Processes requiring Heat -121-430

CHAPTER LXXVII. Comminution Apparatus and Implements Mills Mortars and

Contusion Trituration Powders Sifting CHAPTER LXXVIII Solution in Pharmacy How made Solvents Saturated and saiurated Solutions Partial Solution Menstrua
CHAPTER LXXIX.
Filtration and other Methods of Clarifying Liquids Filters nels Colation Decantation Clarification Sediments

Pestles

430-437
Super-

437 _ 443

Filter fun443-450

Evaporation and Distillation


ing vessels
Distillation
Stills

Ebullition Boiling vessels Evaporat Retorts Condensers Receivers Fractional Generation and Solution of Gases Woulf's bottles.. 45 1-460

CHAPTER LXXX.

xxiv

CONTEXTS.

CHAPTER LXXXI.

Crystallization and Precipitation Crystallizers Size of CrystalsRetarded crystallization Mother-liquor Granulation Precipitation Precipitating vessels 460-466

CHAPTER
Methods
of Extraction of Soluble

LXXXII.
Matters from

Extracts and Extractive Apotheme Maceration Digestion sion Coction Displacement Percolation Percolators

Plant

Drugs

Infu467-475

CHAPTER

LXXXIII.
of Inorganic

Pharmaceutical Preparations General Review Pharmacy and Organic Drugs Compared

476-477

CHAPTER LXXXIV.
Dry and semi-solid Preparations for Internal Use not made by Extraction Species Powders Confections Masses Troches Pills.. 477-479

CHAPTER LXXXV.
Liquid Preparations not

Mucilages Glycerites

Syrups Spirits

made by Extraction Solutions Waters


480-483

CHAPTER LXXXVI.
Liquid Preparations made by Extraction Infusions Vinegars Tinctures Wines Fluid Extracts

Decoctions484-487

CHAPTER LXXXVII.
Solid Preparations for Internal Use Abstracts Oleoresins Resins

made by Extraction Extracts


487-490

CHAPTER
Preparations
for

LXXXVIII.

Suppositories Gargles Lotions Injections Collodions Lini490-494

External

Use Ointments Cerates Plasters Oleates

ments

CHAPTER LXXXIX.
The Latinity
of Pharmaceutical Nomenclature Latin Declensions Nouns, Adjectives and Numerals 494-544

CHAPTER
Weights and Measures The
and Measures

XC.
Weights
555571

Metric System Apothecaries' Avoirdupois Weight Equivalents

Index

545-554

PART

I.

PHYSICS.

PART
PHYSICS.
CHAPTER
1.
I.

I.

Physical Bodies are the things


(3).

of external

Nature which
is

consist of matter

Any
body.

portion of matter perceptible to our bodily senses


is

A body
and
17).

an aggregation of any number of molecules (16

can also say that a reference to quantity.

We

body

is

any mass of matter without

Ex. Any piece of wood, stone or coal, any quantity of water, air or oil, a lump of sugar, a crystal of salt, any animal or plant, the paper upon which this book is printed, the printer's ink used in it, and the book itself as a mateall these are bodies. rial thing [The term "body " is also often used in the same sense as the term " substance " (18); thus we find carbon described as a "fixed body" (83), while iodine is referred to as a " volatile body " (83). On the other hand, the term " mass " is commonly employed to designate an aggregation of any number of molecules (16) without regard to quantity. This use of the term mass is very convenient, but conflicts with the universal use of that term as defined in paragraph 7. In this book the term body will be used only to designate any body of matter without regard to the actual quantity (mass) of matter contained in it; and the term mass will be used in the sense fixed by its definition in par. 7.]

2.

Mathematical Bodies represent form and extension, inclosing empty


(3).

space, thus differing radically from physical bodies which contain or consist of

matter

We
have

can think

of

and represent mathematical bodies, such as cubes,


of matter.

spheres, cones, cylinders, etc., without any reference to matter, because they
definite

bounds although void

3-

sion.

Matter is that which occupies space or possesses extenBy matter we also understand that which possesses
it

weight (40) without regard to the amount of space which


pies.

occu-

Whatever occupies space is matter, and nothing can be 4. matter which does not occupy space. No two bodies can occupy the same space at the same 5. time, for every particle of matter occupies its own space, to the
exclusion of every other particle of matter. This property of matter is called Impenetrability (26).
Ex. An egg can not be put in a tumbler previously filled with water without causing the water to overflow, because the egg necessarily displaces own its volume of water from the space occupied by it. Air is matter. It, therefore, occupies space. When we speak of an " empty " bottle and an " empty " tumbler, and say that there is " nothing " in them, we ignore the fact that they contain air. Experimentally, you may prove this by inverting the tumbler and pressing it downward in water; if there were nothing in it, the water would fill it, but the water will not fill it because the air in the tumbler occupies the space and the water can not occupy
it

at the

6.

same time. Since by


its

Matter we
extension,

also understand the weigJiable withit

out regard to
(40) is matter,
ter.

follows that whatever has weight and that whatever has no weight can not be matregardless of the space

7.

Mass.
is

Any amount of matter,


Mass,
that
is

it

occupies,

called

Since matter

which

is

weighable,
is

its

mass

is

ordinarily
its

measured by weight
varies with
its

(40).
a positive quantity, while

[But the mass of a particular body

weight

distance from the earth's surface (38).]

The Mass of a body, then, is the actual quantity of matter contained in that body, and mass has nothing to do with size or bulk. All material bodies have volume (9) and weight, as indi8.
cated in paragraphs 4 and
9.
6.

Volume.

The volume

of a

body

is

the space occupied

by

it.

All bodies
this extension

have
is

extension in all directions,

and the measure of

called volume.

PHYSICS.

Thus the

length, breadth

(130) indicate its

and thickness of a cubical crystal extension and determine its volume.

Space devoid of matter is called vacuum. The relation of mass to volume is called Density. 10. Density expresses the relative amount of matter contained a given volume.
It is

in

evident that bodies having the same volume may nevertheless have and that bodies having the same mass may have different volumes. Hence the necessity of the term " density " to express the relation
different masses, of the

mass

(7) to

the

volume

(9).

Of two bodies having the same volume but not the same mass, the one containing the greater amount of matter, or having the greater mass (7), has, therefore, the greater density (10).
11.

In other words, the greater the quantity of matter contained


in a given

volume

of

a body, the greater will be the density of


Let us compare equal volumes of

that body.
Ex.

Brass and bees-wax are


A

bodies.

these bodies.

cubic inch of brass contains a greater

amount

of matter, or

has a greater mass, than a cubic inch of wax; the density of brass is, therefore, greater than the density of wax. Since matter is that which has weight (3) and mass is accordingly measurable by weight (7), a cubic inch of brass must weigh more than a cubic inch Verify this by placing a piece of brass on one of wax if the brass is denser.

pan of the balance, and a piece of wax of the same size on the opposite pan will find that the pan loaded with the brass piece goes down, and the other up. If you now add as much wax to that already placed on the pan as may be necessary to counterbalance the brass, the bulk of the wax will be several times as great as that of the brass when their weight is equal.

you

Of two bodies having the same mass, each containing 12. an equal amount of matter, but not of the same volume, the one having the smaller volume has, therefore, of necessity the
greater density.
Ex.

A pound of lead and a pound of


(40),

they have the same weight


lead

space (or has a less is greater than the density of lard.


13.

lard have the same mass, because pound of lead occupies much less volume) than the pound of lard; therefore, the density of

but the

tive

When two or more bodies are of like density, their masses correspond to their relative volumes.

rela-

Ex.

Castor Oil and Copaiba have the same density;


pound
of castor oil has the

therefore,

it

follows

that one

same volume

as one

pound

of copaiba;

it also follows, that if one bottleful of castor oil weighs three times as much as another bottleful of copaiba, the bottle containing the castor oil must have three times the capacity of the one containing the copaiba, and the volume of

the oil

must be three times as great as

the

volume

of the copaiba;

teen pints of copaiba must weigh sixteen times as


tor
oil.

much

as

and sixone pint of cas-

body
"

learnt what is meant by each of the terms mass (7), volume (9), and density (10), let us next consider some of the general properties of matter (or the
14.
(1),

Having now
matter
(3),

universal properties of matter

").

We

have already seen

(3)

that all matter occupies space


of

and has weight.


matter, for

But volume and weight are not properties

we can

think of space without reference to matter,

and weight is an effect produced upon matter by a cause external to and distinct from it (40). One of the "general properties of matter" has been noted, however, namely its impenetrability (5). As we will presently find (17) there are very numerous/v-wjor different kinds of matter, each particular kind possessing its own specific properties; but all of these different kinds of matter

possess certain properties in


are

common, and

the properties which

common to all matter are called the general properties of matter. Among them are: Divisibility (15), Porosity (25), ImpenetraCompressibility
(29),

bility (26), Indestructibility (27),

Expansi-

bility (29), Elasticity (30),.

and Inertia (31). We know from experience that all larger Divisibility. 15. bodies can be divided into smaller bodies. Large pieces of stone upon the public road are ground up into fine dust. It is impracticable to determine by the aid of our physical senses, the extent of this divisibility of bodies, but it is evident from the fact that matter occupies space, and is impenetrable, that, however small the individual particles may be made, mere mechanical division can effect no other change but that of reduc-

ing the size of each portion. In order, however, to account for the changes and conditions

of matter which have been observed,

it is

assumed that

all

mat-

ter consists of particles of definite size called molecules (16).

The
to
its

possible physical divisibility of matter, therefore, extends

molecule, but no further.

Molecules, then, are the smallest particles of any given 16. kind of matter that can subsist alone, or the smallest particles into which any kind of matter can be divided without losing its identity or without being changed into some new kind or kinds
of matter.
17.
ter.

Kinds of Matter.

There are numerous kinds of

matare

Indeed, the distinct kinds of matter already

known

and new kinds are daily discovered. It follows from what was stated in paragraph 16 that there are as many kinds of matter as there are different kinds of molecules, and vice versa. 18. Substance. The word substance will be used to desigcountless,

nate a particular kind of matter. From what has been said (16) you are to infer that 19. molecules are not absolutely indivisible; for, while it is true that whenever the molecule of any substance is divided, that substance ceases to exist as to its kind, being converted into some other substance or su bstances, all molecules may be divided into still smaller particles called atoms (20), which are, with rare exceptions, incapable of subsisting separately or in a free state, but which unite with each other to form molecules and are capable of being transferred from one molecule to another. Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that can take 20. part in the formation of molecules. They are indivisible, physically and chemically (22).
The reasons
that
all

for supposing that matter is not divisible without limit, but matter consists of indivisible particles (called atoms) will be stated

further on (577, 580).

Atoms unite with other atoms either of the same kind 21. or of different kinds, forming molecules.
22.

When molecules

stituent atoms, these

molecules.

are divided, disrupted or decomposed into their conatoms rearrange themselves immediately to form new The division of the molecule is not mere mechanical division, or
it

a physical division, but

is

che?nical decomposition.

All changes which take place within the molecule, or 23. the division of molecules, belong to the domain of Chemistry.

which involve

The subject of the divisibility of matter is so important 24. as to justify a recapitulation here. With regard to its division, matter may be considered in three
distinct conditions; namely, its

condition, and
1.

its

Molar condition, Atomic condition.

its

Molecular

Molar
)

matter, or the material bodies ("

masses of mat-

Bodies or masses of matter (1) perceptible to our senses. are made up of molecules held together by molecular attraction. Molecular matter, or molecules (16) composed of atoms 2.
ter "
est particle of

The molecule is the smallheld together by atomic attraction. any kind of matter that can subsist, as it can not
be divided without being transformed into some other kind or kinds of matter. Atomic matter, or atoms (20) of matter, or particles of j. matter which can not be divided by any means. Atoms unite with each other chemically to form molecules, and can pass from one molecule to another, but are incapable of separate subsistence.

Porosity. Pores are the extremely minute spaces 25. between the molecules of bodies. All bodies are pcrous. This property is accounted for by the hypothesis that the molecules
are not in actual contact.
Distinction should be
are above referred
to,

made between
like

the invisible physical pores, which

and the

sensible pores,

observed in porous substances enware, etc.


26.

which are the actual cavities pumice stone, filter paper, unglazed earth-

refer once more to the impenetrability Since the molecules of a body are not in actual contact with each other, two different substances may be intimately mixed with each other, the molecules of one occupying a

We may now

of matter.

portion of the space between the molecules of the other, as in a solution of sugar in water, but the molecules can not penetrate
each other (5).
27.

Indestructibility.

Matter can not

be annihilated.

It

PHYSICS.

can be changed as to its kind but not as to its amount. The amount of matter in the universe can neither be added to nor diminished. It is uncreatable as well as indestructible (490). 28. Contraction and Expansion of Volume. By reason of its porosity (25) matter may be made to occupy more or less space without change of mass. Not being in actual contact with each other, the molecules may be brought nearer to each other by compression of the body or by a reduction of its temperature or they may be separated further from each other by the withdrawal of pressure or by the aid of heat. By the Compressibility of matter we understand that 29. masses of matter can be compressed or forced to occupy less space without diminution of mass. By Expansibility is meant the opposite of compressibility. Bodies can be made to occupy more space without any increase of their mass. Elasticity is the property by virtue of which a body 30. which has been compressed or expanded by some force external to itself resumes its original volume. Inertia is a term used to express the recognized ina31. bility of matter to move without the impulse of some force external to itself and its inability to stop of its own accord when once put in motion. Matter at rest must remain at rest until put in motion by some force, and matter in motion must continue in motion until

its

motion
32.

is

arrested by
the

some

force.

Among

specific (or

characteristic) properties of matless

ter are:

Hardness, by which some substances more or

strongly resist superficial impression or scratching; Tenacity, by which some kinds of matter resist more strongly than others

an
of

effort to pull their

bodies apart; Brittleness, or the property

by virtue which some metals may be rolled or hammered into plates or sheets, and Ductility, which renders it possible to draw
of being easily crushed; Malleability, or the property

certain metals into wire.

The

"specific properties"

enumerated and defined

in

the

FHYSICS.

preceding lines depend chiefly upon the various states and degrees of cohesion and adhesion. Other characteristic or specific properties of different kinds of matter are such as peculiar form, color, odor, taste, solubilities, melting point, boiling point, molecular weight, relative stability of their molecules, etc.

CHAPTER

II

FORCES AND PHENOMENA.

Phenomena. The changes occurring in the form, 33. They condition, and properties of matter are called phenomena.
are caused by forces

{^

to 36) operating in

accordance with fixed

taws of nature.

whatever produces, changes, or arrests motion Like matter it is itself under various forms. It can neither be added to nor uncreatable and indestructible.
34.

Force

is

(59).

It

manifests

diminished.

Attraction and Repulsion. All particles of matter postendency to attract and to repel other particles of matter. All motion (59) is the result of these pushes or pulls, which are Attraction and repulcaused by the attractive and repellant forces. sion co-exist, and the resultant motions and conditions of matter vary as the one or the other predominates. All attraction and repulsion between different portions 36. Thus if the body A attracts the body B of matter are mutual. to itself, A is also attracted by B, and if one particle of matter repels another the repulsion is reciprocated. Attraction is called ?nolar attraction, or " mass attrac37. tion " when it operates between bodies of matter, or between
35.
sess a

masses of molecules. The attraction between molecules is called molecular attraction. The attraction between atoms is called atomic attraction, chemical attraction, or chemical affinity.

PHYSICS.

GRAVITATION.
38.

Molar attraction
other.

Thus

all

affects all bodies at all distances. bodies in the universe are mutually attracted to and

measure of this attractive force is masses of the bodies, and at the same time in inverse proportion to the squares of their distances from each

by each

The

relative

in direct ratio to the

other.

The

attracting force exerted

greater the mass of a body, the greater will be the result of its upon other bodies, and the greater also the force with

which it is itself attracted toward larger bodies. The further apart two bodies are from each other, the weaker the attraction between them.

This universal attraction which operates between


is

all

bodies
relative

called Gravitation.

The laws which govern


force, direction,

this

mass attraction and

its

and

results, are called the

The planets and all 39. in their positions by gravitation.


Gravitation
is

laws of gravitation. other bodies in the universe are held

operative between the earth and any one of the heavenly


all

bodies, between the heavenly bodies respectively, between


earth's surface, or

bodies upon the

between any two bodies.

40. Weight. The mass of the terrestrial globe being greater than that of any other body in its atmosphere we ordinarily take notice only of that attraction which the earth exerts upon all bodies upon or near its surface. The ruling power by which the earth attracts toward its cen-

upon a horizontal plane which prevents it from falling. It may also be said to be the force required to neutralize the earth's attraction upon a body on or near its surface.
all

ter other bodies of lesser mass is called weight. Thus it is the pressure which a terrestrial body exerts

body whose gravitation is exactly equal in Gravity. 41. directions, remains in the same position though it may be susin space.

pended

Such a body,

in relation to

other bodies, has

gravity but not weight.

Sometimes " gravity " is defined as "the attraction between the earth and bodies upon or near its surface;" thus, that which we have called

"weight" in par. 40; and when gravity defined as " the measure of gravity."
42.
lute

is

thus defined, the term weight

is

Weight

is

considered in two different ways

1.

As

abso-

weight (43), which is weight without reference to volume; and 2. Specific weight (47), which is the ratio of weight to volume. Absolute weight is expressed in units of fixed value 43.

which are chosen a3 standards


standard of weight
is

of comparison.
is

the avoirdupois pound, which

The made

British
of plat-

inum and copies of which are used for weighing things; the standard of weight used in science, and in the greater part of the civilized world for all other purposes, is the Gram, which represents the weight of one Cubic-centimeter of water. True weight is the weight of a body in a vacuum (9). 44. Apparent weight is the weight of a body in air or in any 45. other fluid (80). [See also 261-266.] When we say that one piece of iron is heavier than 46. another piece of iron, that a pound is lighter than a kilogram, or that a cubic inch of water weighs more than a cubic centimeter of the same liquid, we are comparing their absolute weights, and the differences are accounted for by the fact that In other words absolute weight may be their volumes differ. determined and expressed without reference to volume. Specific Weight is the relation of the weight of a body 47. to its volume. It is nearly synonymous with density (10), for the specific weight of a body must necessarily be in direct ratio to the mass as compared with the volume, and we know that the greater the mass of a terrestrial body the greater will be the gravitating force by which it is drawn towards the center of the earth (40).
Specific weight may also be said to be the relative gravitating force of one substance as compared with that of a like volume of some other substance.

When we speak of iron as being heavier than chalk, or 48. say that ether is lighter than chloroform, it is always understood that the comparison refers to equal volumes, and the
weights referred to in this connection are, therefore, the weights proper to these substances respectively.
specific

PHYSICS.

II

equal volumes of any two or more substances are weighed, we generally find that their weights differ. That is because their densities differ. And
the differences in weight caused by differences in density are indicated by the
specific weights.

When

49.

In order to express the specific weights of substances

some one substance must be chosen as the standard of comparison. Thus the standard of comparison adopted for all solids and liquids is water, while the standard of comparison now
used
in

expressing the specific weight of gases

is

hydrogen.

[Formerly the standard unit for gases was the specific weight of air; but, for reasons which you will better appreciate as you learn chemistry, it is far more convenient as well as scientific to adopt the hydrogen unit.]
is called 1, and as the and liquids are expressed in water units it follows that any substance which is only half as heavy as water has the sp. w. 0.500 and any substance twice as heavy As a cubic inch of silver is 10^2 as water has the sp. w. 2. times as heavy as a cubic inch of water, the sp. w. of silver is 10.500 (water=i); if a cubic foot of glass weighs three times

50.

Thus the

specific

weight of water

specific

weights of

all solids

as
is is

much

as

a cubic

3.000; since

foot of water, the sp. w. of that glass the weight of any given volume of mercury

13.596 times the weight of the


is

same volume

of water, the sp.

w. of mercury

times as much w. of ice is 0.930 (water=i.)


51.

Ice weighs only 0.930 13.596 (water=i). as the same volume of water; therefore, the sp.

In stating the specific weights of gases,


1,

we

call the sp.

and the specific weights of all other gases are expressed in hydrogen units. Thus Oxygen has the sp. w. 16 (H=i), for a liter of oxygen weighs sixteen times as much as a liter of hydrogen; but chlorine is heavier than oxygen, any given volume of chlorine being 35.45 times as heavy as an equal volume of hydrogen, the sp. w. of chlorine being, therefore, 35.450 (H=i).
w. of hydrogen

Compared with each other the specific weights of the 52. substances used as standards of comparison for other substances are about as follows at the temperature of 15 C. (59 F.) Water Hydrogen 1 1 (water=i), or 11,400 (H.^=i), or 815 (Air=i).

(H.=i), or 0.0691 (Air=i), oro.ooooS5 (water=i). Air i(Air=i), or 14.44 (H.=i), or 0.00122 (water=i).

Fig. 11

Fig. 12

Fig.

Represents the volume of one grain of


is

air.

Fig.

2.

the

volume of one grain

of water.

about 11,400 times as heavy as hydrogen, and 815 times as heavy as air (see figures 1 1 and 12); hydrogen is 0.0691 times as heavy as air, and 0.000085 times as heavy as water; air is 14.44 times as heavy as hydrogen,

Thus water

and o 00122 times as heavy as water.

The expression "specific gravity" is generally used 53. instead of the more correct expression specific weight. As commonly employed both expressions mean
thing.

precisely

the

same

MOLECULAR ATTRACTION.
54.

Molecular attraction

is

of

two kinds

Cohesion

and

Adhesion.

between the

is that molecular attraction which operates molecules of a chemically homogeneous body. Adhesion is the molecular attraction which holds 56. together the unlike molecules of mixtures, or which operates between the molecules of two or more different substances. Atomic Attraction governs the relative stability of 57. different kinds of matter. It causes the change of particular kinds of matter into other kinds when the conditions are favorable. It renders possible the assimilation of food by plants and

55.

Cohesion
like

animals.

Decay and decomposition, new substances out of the debris,


t

as well as the formation of

are the

results of

atomic

attraction.
It will

be considered further on more fully under the head of


is

chemistry.

58.
it

Energy, which
is

the

power

to

do work, or

to

overcome

resistance,

the product of force (34). produces or arrests motion (59).

A force

does work when

Motion is a change of place. We are to distinguish 59. between motor, molecular and atomic motion. 60. Molar Motion, or " mass motion," and molar force
pertain to bodies of matter.

dition,

Dynamics (197) treats of the states and motions of matter in its molar conand of the relations and results of molar attraction and repulsion. Dynamics is a more comprehensive term than the expression " mechanical science " which treats of the application of dynamics to the accomplishment of useful work, the construction of machines to that end, etc.
61.

or " mass,"

Molecular Motion, or the molecules within the body is distinct from both molar and atomic motion. The

mass may be at rest while its molecules are constantly in motion. The motion of the molecule is distinct from the motion cf the atoms of which it consists. Molecular motion never ceases. But while the whole body may move independently of 62.
the motions of its molecules, the several modes of molecular motion involve the whole mass, all of its molecules being
affected.

Molecular motion
63.

is

vibratory

not progressive.

modes of molecular motion are Sound, Heat (305), Light (412), and Electricity (430). Atomic Motion, or the motion of the atoms (20), within 64.
the

Among

each molecule (16), is doubtless as never-ceasing as molecular motion (61), although its existence has not been demonstrated. In chemical' reaction (493), the atoms must be extre-mely
active.

But we must defer the consideration of atomic attraction

14

PHYSICS.
activity until

and repulsion, and the resultant atomic


the subject of Chemistry.

we reach

Recapitulation. Having now learned that the various 65. modes of molecular motion, or manifestations of energy, are what we call sound, heat, light and electricity, we may close this
chapter by the statement that these several different forms of

motion are interconvertible. 66. Correlation of Energy. Energy of any kind can be changed into energy of any other kind. Thus, the different forces are only different forms of one universal Energy and mutually interchangeable. Conservation of Energy. Whenever any form of 67. energy disappears, its exact .equivalent in another form takes its place, so that the total sum of energy in the Universe remains unchanged.

CHAPTER
68.

III.

PHENOMENA DEPENDENT UPON COHESION.


three states of aggregation of matter are the and the gaseous state. Solids are bodies in which the molecules are held 69. together so firmly by cohesion (55) that they retain their form without support, under ordinary conditions (of pressure and temperature), and can be changed as to their form only by external violence, or by the influence of heat (375), or by solution (183)
solid,

The

the liquid,

Ex.
70.
tle,

All

metals, except mercury, are solids.

Rocks,
all

trees, ice, butter,

paper, cobweb, pieces, panicles of powder, dust


elastic,

these are solid bodies.


soft,

According to their consistence the solids are hard,


rigid, flexible,

tough,

brit-

malleable, ductile, etc.


32,

Several of these terms

will be

or

may

understood by reference 10 par. be found in any dictionary.

while others explain themselves

FORMS OF SOLID BODIES.


of solid bodies do not exhibit any Yet many organic substances (454), formed in plants or animals, show a tendency toward the formation of more or less globular masses, and many inorganic substances together with a large number of products of the chemist's laboratory, have well defined angular geometric
71.

The

greater

number

definite or regular form.

forms, called

crystals (84).

A \V
Z-/k
//
Figure
13

Figure
colloids,

14

Figure

15

[See crystalloids and


72.

par. 179.] Substances occurring in crystals or crystalline masses


crystallic,

are called

or crystalline (89) substances;

all

others are

said to be amorphous (96), or formless. Solids which are not altered by exposure are said to be 73.

permanent
if

in the air.

Those that absorb moisture from the air are hygroscopic, and they take up so much moisture as to become quite wet, they

are deliquescent, dissolving in the water they attract. Crystallic and crystalline substances, when they give up
their water of crystallization (121)

on exposure to the

air,

thereby
in the

losing their crystalline form, are called efflorescent (123). Ex. Gold, corrosive sublimate, cream of tartar, are " permanent

air."

and gentian are "hygroscopic." Chloride of iron, potassium carbonate and zinc chloride are " deliquesSquill

Copperas, washing soda and Glauber's

salt "effloresce."

Liquids have apparently no form of their own. overcomes gravity (provided adhesion between the liquid and other substances do not interfere), so that the molecules, attracted toward the center of the mass, form spheres or spheroids, as may be seen in drops of dew, globules of mercury or drops of water rolling upon a surface dusted with lycopodium. Drops of olive oil will float about in a mixture of six cubic centimeters of alcohol and four cubic centimeters of water, the drops of oil exhib74-

In very small particles of liquids the cohesion

iting a perfectly spherical form.

But when the body of liquid is larger, the force of cohesion overcome by the force of gravity which tends to bring the molecules to the same level, and the liquid then assumes the shape of the vessel in which it is contained. When the support around the body of liquid is taken away, the liquid, impelled by gravitation, spreads outward and downward over the solids in its way. Water is a most familiar and perfect example of liquids.
is

Alcohol, ether, chloroform, glycerin, fixed


ures, sulphuric acid
75.

oils,

syrups, tinct-

and mercury are other examples of liquids. Liquids are not easily compressed. To compress their

volume requires very great force; the compression is but slight, and on removal of the pressure they immediately resume their
original volume, being perfectly
elastic.

The enormous pressure necessary


tically incompressible.

to

compress water

in

any

appreciable degree warrants the conclusion that liquids


76.

axe.

prac-

or they

Liquids maybe viscid, like tar, honey, or thick mucilage, may be mobile, like chloroform; they may be heavy, like

sulphuric acid, or light, like ether. Honey, tolu, storax, oleate of mercury and many other substances are
frequently in such a condition that
it

is

not easily determined whether they

ought

to

be called solids or liquids.

Very
ence of
fluids.

thick, sluggish liquids

and

solids

approaching a liquid

condition

in other words, substances both solids and liquids are

partaking of the consistcalled semi-solids, or semi-

PHYSICS.

17

They

are simply substances

whose melting points or con-

gealing points (376) are the common temperatures of the air or of our warehouses, shops and work-rooms. Gases are aeriform bodies, or bodies like air, which, 77.

being neither solids nor liquids, do not retain a definite shape, when put in an open vessel, as the cohesion between their molecules is nullified (81). Gases, instead of being governed by cohesion (55), resist compression (29) of volume by a certain degree of force called tension (279). Their molecules, therefore, seem to be governed by repulsion instead of by attraction (35). Accordingly, they diffuse themselves in every direction through space.
or outline of their mass,
78.

Colorless gases are invisible, and


is

this

explains

why

their existence

unknown

or unreal to the ignorant.

Air, illu-

minating gas, " natural gas" (which is mainly marsh gas, or methane), gasolin vapor, oxygen, hydrogen, ether vapor, alcohol yapor, are invisible.

But there are also a few colored gases,


greenish; iodine vapor, which
is red, etc.
is

as chlorine,

violet; nitrogen tetroxide,

which is which

as such only at temperatures above the ordinary,

used to designate gases which exist and which, under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, assume
79.
is

The term vapor

the liquid or solid state.


In physics (485) the word fluid is used to designate any bodies whose molecules easily change their relative posiin other words, to designate liquids (74), tions within the mass gases (77) and vapors (79). The three different "states of aggregation " depend 81.
80.

or

all

upon the

relative

force of molecular attraction

and repulsion.

When
the

the attractive force (cohesion) exceeds the repellant force


is

body

solid;

when molecular

attraction

and repulsion are

equally balanced the body is a liquid; and when the repellant force predominates, the gaseous state is the result.
is,

It is, therefore, said that " cohesion is absent in gases." however, not absent, but simply rendered inoperative.

It

82.

Many

three states of aggregation.

substances are capable of assuming either of the Others again only one; and others
only
in the solid state; lead

two.
Carbon
its
is

known

is

known

as a solid,
is

and

in

fused condition as a liquid, but not


its

as a vapor; water

solid, as

ice,

liquid in

ordinary condition, or gaseous as water vapor.

83.

Fixed substances
to

are such substances as can not be


state.

made

assume the gaseous Volatile substances are

liquids

and

solids

which are very

easily converted into vapor (79).

CHAPTER

IV.

CRYSTALLINE BODIES. Crystals are regular geometric solids with smooth 84. faces meeting in straight edges and forming perfect angles or
corners bounded by three or more of the faces (Fig.
cules of matter in accordance with natural laws.
16.)

Crystals are formed by a definite arrangement of the mole-

Figure

it

85. That the crystalline form depends, at least in part, the attraction called cohesion (55) is self-evident; but it

upon
is

not

PHYSICS.

19

known why
ter thus

or

how

the molecules of any particular kind of matof crystallization are


in

arrange themselves into given forms.

86.

Numerous examples

found

in the

mineral kingdom. Mineral crystals formed earth were probably produced from matter at extremely high temperatures.
silicic

the interior of the

in

a state of fusion

The remarkably pure acid known as rock


The Iceland spar
is

calcspar (calcium carbonate) from Iceland, the pure


crystal,

and the highly prized diamond (carbon) are


is

beautiful examples of crystals.

a prism, rock crystal

a prism with pyramidal ends.

and the diamond

is

a double pyramid (112).

Galena (lead sulphide) furnishes an example of the cubical form (130). But fine specimens of crystals may also be produced in the laboratory, and even commercial chemicals frequently exhibit well formed crystals. You might find some good crystals of copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, alum, zinc

and many other substances. There are innumerable forms of crystals, but as a rule each particular kind of matter crystallizes in but one form; rarely the same substance crystallizes in two or even three
sulphate, lead acetate, quinine sulphate,

87.

forms.

As each crystallizable substance generally forms but 88. one kind o( crystals, the crystalline form is one of the means of
identification of the respective species of matter.
Thus, knowing that potassium iodide crystallizes in cubes and in no other we know also, that any substance exhibiting some other crystalline form can not be potassium iodide.
form,

89.

Crystallizable substances are

those capable of assuming

a crystalline form
Crystallic substances are those

occurring in comparatively well

defined, free or detached crystals; like copper sulphate, alum,

potassium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, lead acetate, quinine


sulphate, salicin.

having an evident crystalline and detached crystals; as ferric chloride, potassium acetate, black antimony sulphide, camphor, bismuth subnitrate. Dimorphism. Substances capable of crystallizing in 90. two different forms are said to be dimorphous
Crystalline substances are those

structure, but not consisting of well developed

Calcium carbonate occurs, as calcspar, in rhombohedrons of the hexagonal system, and, as arragonite in prisms of the rhombic system.

Polymorphism. Substances occurring in more than 91. one distinct crystalline form are sometimes referred to as polymorphous bodies. Trimorphous substances are those occurring in three different crystalline forms, of which titanic oxide is an example.
92.

Changes

in crystalline

form often

result

from different

proportions of water of crystallization (121). Isomorphous substances are different substances crys93.
tallizing in the

same form.

Entire groups of chemically related compounds may have similar crystalBromide and iodide of potassium both crystallize in cubes. line forms. But the term isomorphism is understood to involve more than similarity or

sameness
94.

of crystalline

form

(94).

In 1S19 Mitscherlich made the important discovery that compounds of analogous chemical structure may not only have the same crystalline form, but that the corresponding elements in their constitution may be inter-

changeable in any proportion. The double salts called alums are examples of perfect isomorphism. They are formed from the sulphates of either potassium, sodium or ammonium, with the sulphates of either aluminum, iron or chromium, all giving crystals of the same form (Octohedrons), and the respective sulphates of potassium, sodium and ammonium are mutually interchangeable, in whole or in part, in these several kinds of alums, as are also
the aluminic, ferric

and chromic sulphates. But even bodies not completely analogous as described, may have the
crystalline form.
all

same

Mitscherlich concluded that

atoms arranged

in the

same manner have

molecules containing the same number of the same crystalline form, without

regard to the kinds of atoms entering into the molecules. This rule has, howKopp regards as isoever, been found to be subject to many exceptions. morphous only compounds the crystals of which can grow in each other's solutions. A crystal of common alum will increase in size when placed in a
solution of iron alum; hence these

alums are isomorphous.

substances are any two or more substances which crystallize in different forms.
95.

Heteromorphous

96. Amorphous substances. Literally translated the word amorphous means formless. In chemical physics and in the description of pharmaceutical chemicals and other substances

the term
97.
to

is

used to designate substances without any

indications

of
all

crystalline structure.
It is

not to be supposed, however, that the forms assumed by

amorphous

solids are devoid of regularity

when

their molecules are permitted

On the contrary where the in comparative freedom. and the perfect angles and faces of the crystal are absent, we may expect indications of a tendency to a spherical or bead-like form. Substances which take part in the physiological processes of animal or vegetable life, belonging to what has been called "organized matter," have not the property of forming crystals, although crystallized substances are frequently found deposited in the tissues of both plants and animals. Amorphism is the rule and the crystalline form exceptional among natural products derived from the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Cellulose, starch, gum, albumen, and many other proximate principles contained in plants, are amorphous. Examples of inorganic amorphous solids are found in clay, ferrous sulrange themselves
straight lines

phide,

zinc oxide, ferric hydrate, basic ferric sulphate,

aluminum hydrate,
in

precipitated calcium phosphate,

and yellow oxide of mercury, as prepared

accordance with the pharmocopceias.


98.

Many

substances occurring in amorphous conditions may, however,

Moreover, numerous substances, which to the unaided eye appear without the slighest evidence of crystalline form, and which occur as impalpable powders, and are, therefore, described as amorphous, consist in reality of minute crystals plainly visible under the microscope. The latter may be called micro-crystalline. When liquids are divided into minute particles, each particle assumes 99. a spherical form by virtue of the force of cohesion, and retains that form until its cohesion is overcome by some other force, as by adhesion. A drop of oil retains its spherical form when floating in a liquid of equal density in which but it loses its form when insoluble; resting upon the surface of the oil is
also exist in crystalline forms.

some

solid.

Crystals grow from without by the deposition of 100. additional solid matter upon their surfaces. Each larger crystal is then an aggregation of innumerable smaller crystals of the

same form.

Each smallest crystal in such an aggregation may be regarded as an individual. Whether or not the crystalline form represents the form of the molecule itself is a secret of nature which may perhaps never be discovered. Being solids, all crystals must of course extend in at 101. Sometimes their extension is in four least three directions.
directions.

CHAPTER
Axes.

V.

HOW CRYSTALS ARE FORMED.


102.

The

directions

of

extension of crystals are

called their axes.

ing each other at minating either in the centers of opposite faces, or in the apices of opposite solid angles. (See Plate A.) Planes or Faces. The smooth, plane surfaces of 103. crystals are called faces. They are bounded by three or more straight sides, each side matching that of the contiguous face. The smooth surfaces exposed by cleavage are the faces of crystals.

These are imaginary straight lines intersectone point in the center of the crystal, and ter-

According to the number of their faces crystals are called " tetrahedrons " when they have four faces, "hexahedrons" when they have six, " octohedrons" when they have eight, "dodekahedrons " when they have twelve faces,
etc.

104.

Edges

are

formed by any two contiguous

faces.

These edges, or

angles of incidence, or the respective inclination

of each particular species,

primary forms and thus furnish the means of determining which system crystals belong to, by measuring their
of the faces to each other, are characteristic of the
the aid of an instrument called
a.

facial angles. This is done with


105.

goniometer.

Angles. The angles of crystals are the formed by three or more contiguous faces meeting
Thus each corner
onal pyramid
is

solid angles
in

a point.

a three-faced angle; the apex of a hexaga six-faced angle; and octohedrons have six four-faced angles
of a cube
is

According to the number of


agons, octagons,
etc.

their angles crystals are cailed tetragons,

hex

106. Fundamental Forms of crystals are the simple inant forms of the several systems (129).

dom-

Simple Forms. Crystals bounded in 107. by similar faces are called simple forms, as shown in the diamond (Figs. 17 and ]S).
108. as

all

directions

in

galena and

Complex Forms
in the rock-crystal

are those having dissimilar faces,

shown

are always combinations of two or

and the calcspar. Complex forms more simple forms.

PHYSICS.
largest faces
in

23

a complex crystal are called the dominant faces The because they determine the dominant form of the combination. The smaller
faces are called subordinate or secondary faces.

Figure

17

Figure

109.
ent,

Crystal forms in which

all

the possible faces are pres-

making the

crystal complete, are called holohedral forms.

When

ent, the crystal

only one half of the normal number of faces are presbeing thus only one-half developed, the form is
of the

called hemihedral.

also

Forms with only one-fourth known.


110.

normal number

of faces developed are

Cleavage.

By

carefully-directed

gentle blows, or

with the edge or point of a knife, an irregular mass of a crystalline body, or a single crystal, can be split in certain directions so that plane, smooth faces are produced. The body can then be split into layers parallel with the surfaces thus exposed. This is called cleavage. The crystal or mass frequently splits more readily in one direction than in others.

perfect crystal

may

thus be obtained by the dissection of an apparently

shapeless mass in the directions indicated by the cleavage.

The simple form from which. a secondary form is derived, may be discovered with the aid of cleavage dissection. Thus a hexagonal prism of Iceland spar may be reduced by cleavage to an obtuse rhombohedron.
111.

The

axis of

symmetry

is

drawn through the center

of the crystal,

an imaginary straight line and around which its

parts are symmetrically arranged.

24

PHYSICS.

112. Three general forms of crystals are to be distinguished: the cubical form, the prism or long columnar form, and the pyramid or pointed form.
These forms are modified and combined into numerous
there are prisms with pyramidal ends, double
varieties.

Thus

pyramids, or two pyramids


in

placed base to base.

etc.

The cube is seen pyramid in potassium

in

potassium iodide; the prism

Rochelle

salt; the

sulphate.

Prisms are called open forms because their lateral faces 113. are parallel so that the length of the crystal is indeterminate.

Pyramids and double pyramids are


they terminate at the apices.
1

called closed forms because

14.

Crystalline structure in soluble bodies

when not apparent on

the sur-

face, or

when

so confused that the form can

not be recognized,

may

often be

discovered by slow solution of the broken crystals on the exterior. This may be effected by means of a nearly saturated solution of the same substance, such a weak solvent being sufficient to break down the fragments of already

broken crystals but not


angles.

sufficient to

overcome the cohesion

of

whole faces and

Crystalline form as an evidence of definite chemicomposition. Only bodies having a definite chemical structure are capable of assuming the crystalline form. A substance known to be crystallizable is less liable to suspicion as to its purity when in crystals than in any other condiBut a crystallic form is far from sufficient evidence of tion. purity, for not only do isomorphous substances crystallize together, but the crystals of one salt, however distinct, may still contain small amounts of heteromorphous salts as impurities.
115.

cal

116.
salts

Crystallization

is

resorted to as a

means

of separating

from each other, and thus for purposes of purification, because substances which do not crystallize in the same form do not crystallize together in the same crystals.
Perfect purification or complete separation by crystallization
difficult
is,

however,
dif-

unless the several substances to be thus separated from each other

fer in solubility,

when

the less soluble substance will crystallize before the

more soluble one.


117. The presence of one substance in the solution of another may have the effect of causing the latter to crystallize in the form peculiar to the other.

Thus,

if

and

there

is

more than one molecule


which
is

a solution contain the sulphates of copper and iron (ferrous), of ferrous sulphate present for every
in

eight molecules of the copper sulphate, the copper salt will crystallize
oclinic prisms,

mon-

the form of the crystals of ferrous sulphate, instead


is

of in the triclinic form, which

the

normal form

of crystals of copper sul-

phate (Lecoq de Boisbandran).

118. Crystallization. Crystals are most readily and commonly formed when substances pass from a liquid or a gaseous

condition into the solid state.


Crystallization may, however, also take place in a solid body without previous fusion, solution or vaporization, as for instance in arsenous oxide, which slowly changes from the colorless, glassy, transparent amorphous to

an opaque, white, crystalline condition. A similar change from a glassy structure to a more or less distinctly crystalline character is also to be seen in so-called barley sugar, or melted candy, as when clear lemon drops change to an opaque condition.

Solution, fusion and 119. How crystallization is effected. sublimation are the usual means of inducing crystallization. Large, well-defined crystals are frequently obtained when crystallizable salts slowly deposit from solutions of suitable degree of concentration. Highly developed crystalline forms are also Minute sometimes obtained by fusion and by sublimation.
crystals are often

formed when new compounds are produced

by precipitation.

CHAPTER

VI.

WATER OF CRYSTALLIZATION.
120. Anhydrous crystals are those which contain no water of crystallization (121). They may, however, contain small amounts of interstitial water impris-

oned between the individual

crystals.

In that case they often burst asunder

with a slight explosion when heated.

This
it.

is

called decrepitation,

and sodium

chloride affords a familiar illustration of

Heat a crystal
noise.

of

common

salt

and see how

it

bursts with a smattering

26
121.

PHYSICS.

Hydrous

crystals contain water essential to the crys-

talline form.

is

called

The water entering into the composition of hydrous crystals water of crystallization. Some salts combine with various proportions of water 122.
the temperature at which the

of crystallization, according to
crystals are formed,

assuming

different

forms according

to the

amount

of water they take up.

Manganous sulphate crystallized at or below 6. C. (42.8 F.) contains seven molecules of water; crystallized at from 7. to 20 C. (44 6 to 68. F.) it contains five molecules, and when crystallized at 20". to 50". C. (6S. to 86. F.) it takes up only four molecules of water of crystallization. Sodium phosphate when crystallized from a solution saturated at about 30". C. (86. F.) contains twelve molecules of water; but a solution saturated at 40. C. (104. F.), or over, will, on cooling, deposit crystals with only seven molecules of water of crystallization. Sodium carbonate as found in commerce contains ten molecules of water;
.
.

at 30. C. (86. F.)

it

may

be obtained with nine molecules, at


)

25. C. (77. F.>

with seven, and at

12.

C. (53. 6 F.

with five molecules of water.

Copper sulphate ordinarily crystallizes with five molecules of water. If, however, an effloresced crystal of nickel sulphate be added to a supersaturated solution of copper sulphate, crystals of the latter salt are deposited which contain six molecules of water; but if a crystal of ferrous sulphate be instead added, the crystals obtained contain seven molecules of water. Zinc sulphate ordinarily contains seven molecules of water of crystallization; but when crystallized from a warm (over 30. C.) concentrated solution the crystals formed contain only five molecules of water.

Some hydrous salts readily part with their water of 123. crystallization even at ordinary temperatures, losing their crystalline form, usually falling into
effloresce

powder, and are then said to

(73).

Others lose their water of crystallization without losing their form and then become opaque, as acetate of copper. At temperatures above summer heat many hydrous salts F.), most effloresce, and when heated up to about ioo C. (212 of them give up the greater part of their water of crystallization. In many cases it requires very high heat to expel all of the crystal water, as for instance is the case with the sulphates of zinc
crystalline

and

iron.

PHYSICS.
124.

27
is

Not

all

of

the water of crystallization

held by the

substance with the same force.


gives up one of its seven molecules of F.);four additional moleculesof water are expelled by water-bath heat; and by stronger heat the salt may be rendered
salt)
.

Magnesium sulphate (Epsom


at 30
.

water

to 52

C. (86. to 126

anhydrous.
Potassa-alum contains 45.57 per cent, of water of crystallization. When heated to 40 C. (104. F.) it loses about 2 7 per cent, of that water; at 47 C. (n6.6 F.) it loses 9.6 per cent.; at 6o. C. (140 F.) it loses most of its water, but the crystals still retain to a great extent their form, and the product, which
.

is

not yet porous, yields a clear solution with water; at 80. C. (176. F.) the
effloresces completely, but
still

alum

holds a considerable
.

amount

of

water;

long continued heating at ioo. C. (212 F.) expels all of the water and leaves a product which is entirely water-soluble; when heated at once at over 92. C. ^197. F.) the alum undergoes aqueous fusion (538), and the liquid does not solidify again until after standing a considerable time; when very gradually raised from the ordinary temperature up to 200 C, so carefully that all 205 -of the water is expelled without aqueous fusion of the salt, the residue, or dried alum, is light and porous; should the heat be too low, a glassy mass may be obtained which can not afterwards be rendered porous, and in this glassy condition the alum is said to retain fourteen of its original twenty-four molecules of water.
.

Crystallized ferrous

sulphate contains seven molecules of water;

when
.

moderately heated
^91. 4 F.)

it
.

and 90
.

dissolves in this water of crystallization; between 33 C. C. (194. F.) the salt loses nearly six molecules of that

water, but to quite expel the sixth molecule requires continued heat at about

120 to 150 C. (248 to 30?. F.), which is liable to partly decompose and discolor the substance; the seventh or last molecule can not be expelled until
.

the

heat rises to 280. C. (536


itself.

F.

which almost certainly destroys a portion

of the salt

heated to

Sodium phosphate crystallizes with twelve molecules of water; when 35. C (95. F.) it begins to dissolve in its waterof crystallization, but
.

does not liquefy perfectly until the temperature is raised to about 40 C. if now allowed to cool again it solidifies into a mass of a radiated crysC. (104. F.) it loses five molecules of the water; talline appearance; above 40 F.) all of the water is expelled and anhydrous sodium phosat 100. C. (212 phate remains; gradual efflorescence of crystallized sodium phosphate in dry warm air, on the other hand, leaves a residue containing seven molecules of
<I04. F.);
.

water.

125.

The water contained

in crystallized salts often materi-

ally affects their color.

28

PHYSICS.

Thus the sulphate of copper is blue, and ferrous sulphate bluish-green when crystallized; butboth are white when dried. Hydrous cobalt chloride
is

garnet red, but the anhydrous blue.

126.
tact with
tion, as
is

Salts

water

which are decomposed when they come in conmay nevertheless contain water of crystallizathe case with normal bismuth nitrate.

CHAPTER

VII.

CLASSIFICATION OF CRYSTALS.

Crystallography is the science of naming, classifying 127. and describing crystals, and of determining their forms.
Theoretically it is a branch of mathematics; practically it serves as an important means of recognizing minerals, salts, and other substances occur-

ring in a crystalline form.

128. The numerous distinct forms which the crystals may assume depend mainly upon three governing conditions: 1, the number of the axes; 2, the angles at which the axes several intersect each other; and 3, the lengths of the axes, respectively.

The Six Systems. The known crystalline forms are 129. classed into six principal groups or systems based upon the number, and the relative inclinations and lengths of their axes.
Five of these systems have three axes; the hexagonal system alone has four axes. Those systems in which the axes intersect each other only at They are the Regurig/it angles are called Orthometric systems.
lar,

Quadratic, Rhombic, and Hexagonal Systems. Those systems in which a part or all of the angles formed by

the intersection of the axes are oblique, are called Clinometric,

and consist of the Monoclinic and Triclinic Systems.

The

six crystallographic

systems are as follows:

PHYSICS.
130.
sular, or

29

The Regular System. (The

Monometric, or ^es-

Cubic System.) Axes three in number.


All three axes of equal length.

Axial angles
lar

all

90

The fundamental forms

of this

system are the cube,


it

tht- >"egu-

octohedron, and the rhombic dodekahedron. All the axial and facial angles of the Cube are right angles,
its

has twelve

edges,
the

six faces are perfect squares,


its

and

its

eight equal solid angles are

one axis, and parallel with be built upon its axis by simply placing a plane at right angles against each end of each axis. Gold, silver, platinum, coper, sodium chloride, potassium iodide, and many other substances crystallize in cubical forms.
three-faced.

Each of two other axes.

faces

is

at right angles to

perfect cube

may

Fig. 19

Regular Octohedron.

The Cube.

Rhombic Dodekahedron.

The Regular Octohedron is formed by the trunca131. tion of the solid angles of the cube, or when each end of each
is connected by straight lines (or rather, planes) with each end of each of the two other axes.

axis

The

figure thus

produced

is

a double, square-based pyramid bounded by

eight equal equilateral triangles, has twelve edges,


solid angles.

and

six four-faced equal

The angles formed by

the edges which are in the

same

planes,

meeting in the apices of the solid angles, are right angles. Diamond, alum, and magnetic iron ore crystallize in regular octohedrons.
132.

By

placing a plane in such position that


parallel with the third, or

it

connects

two axes but runs

by replacing each

of the twelve edges of the octohedron, the

Rhombic Dodeka-

hedron

results.

'

PHYSICS.
This has twelve equal rhombic faces, and fourteen solid angles.

Garnet phosphorus and cuprous oxide crystallize in dodekahedra. In addition to these forms there are others, less simple. Combina133. Thus we may imagine a tions of the simple forms can be easily imagined. with axes coinciding with each other in all respects cube and an octohedron except that the axes of the cube are somewhat shorter than those of the octowould an be octohedron with all its solid angles slightly hedron; the result truncated by the faces of the cube. (See Plate B.) Galena and lead nitrate show such compound forms. For the purposes of this book, these examples of the manner in which the simple forms may be modified, are sufficient. Similar modifications occur in all the six systems.

ff

-V

<

i>

\
Fig.

Fig
Six-

N">

^py

Double Six-sided Pyramid.

Sided

*3 Prii

134. tem.)

The Hexagonal System.


in

(The Rhombohedral Sys-

Axes four

number.
and they are called
is

Three

of these axes are of equal length,

the secondary axes.

The fourth

axis,

which

is

called

the primary axis,

either

longer or shorter than the other three. The secondary axes are all in the same plane, and cut one another at angles of 6o. The primary axis is at right angles to the plane of the other
three.

The fundamental form is the double six-sided pyramid, bounded by twelve equal isoceles triangles, and having eight

PHYSICS.
solid angles,

3T of each

two of which (one at the apex

pyramid) are

six-faced, the other six being four-faced.

Other important forms are the regular six-sided prism and Rhombohedrons are formed by extending alternate faces of the hexagonal pyramid until they cover the
the rhombohedron.
others.

Fig. 25.

Rhombohedron.

(Hemihedral.)

Combination of Rhombohedron and Prism.

Many
forms of
lize in

substances crystallize
this

in

hemihedral

system.

Calc spar, rock crystal,

ice and sodium nitrate crystalforms belonging to the hexagonal system.

The Quadratic System. (The Di135. metric, Square, Prismatic, Pyramidal, or Tetragonal System).

Fig. 27.

Scalenohedron with
Inscribed

Rhombo-

hedron.

Axes three

in

number.
the other

The two secondary axes are of equal length The third or primary axis, longer or shorter than
two.

The

axial angles all 90

Pyramids

of this system

have square bases.

32

Fig. zS

Fig.

29.

Fig. 30.

Square-based Double Pyramid.

Prism of Quadratic System.

Form
of

seen in the Sulphates


Zinc.

Magnesium and

Fig. 31Crystal of Potassum Ferrocyanide.

Fig. 32.

F 'g-

33-

Quadratic Prism with Pyramidal Ends.

Crystal of Stannic Oxide.

The primary forms


pyramid and the

are the double four-sided, square-based

right square prism.

Potassium ferrocyanide, mercuric cyanide, sulphate crystallize in forms of this system.

magnesium sulphate and zinc


Trimetric, or Right

136.

The Rhombic System (The

Prismatic System.) Axes three in number.


All the axes are of unequal lengths.

The

axial angles all 90

35

Fig. 34-

Fig- 35-

Fig. 36.
Crystal of Potassium Sulphate.

Rhombic Pyramid.

Rhombic Prism, with Pyramidal


Ends.
(Zinc Sulphate).
is

The fundamental form

the right rhombic double pyramid,


crystallize in

or rhombic-based octo-hedron. Sulphur and potassium sulphate


system.

-forms belonging to this

Fig. 37.

Monoclinic Double Pyramid.

Crystal of Sodium Acetate. (Monoclinic Prism.)

Fig. 39. Crystal of Cane Sugar.

137.

The

Monoclinic System
in

(The Monosymmetric or

Oblique Prismatic System.)

Axes three

number.
are at right angles to each other.
right angles to one of the secondary

All the axes are of unequal lengths.

The two secondary axes The primary axis is at


The primary form
is

axes, but forms oblique angles with the other.

the monoclinic pyramid.

34
Ferrous sulphate,
borax, potassium
chlorate,

thisosulphate, sodium sulphate, sodium

carbonate and

sodium acetate, sodium sodium phosphate


also
crystallizes
in

furnish examples of monoclinic crystals.

Cane sugar

forms of

this

system.

The Triclinic System. 138 Doubly Oblique Prismatic System.)


Axes three
in

(The

Asymmetric,

or

number.

All the axes are of unequal lengths.


All the axial angles oblique.

This

is

consequently the least regular of

all

the systems.

Fig. 40. Crystal of Gypsum

Fifj. 42.

Calcium Thiosulphate.

is the triclinic pyramid. Copper sulphate, potassium bichromate, boric acid, manganous sulphate and bismuthous nitrate crystallize in triclinic forms.

The fundamental form

Cu/vs belong to the Regular System. 139. Prisms are to be found in all except the Regular System.
Prisms with rectangular sides belong
sided; to the Quadratic System
if

to the

Hexagonal System

if

six-

Prisms with oblique angles or rhomboid sides and Dases belong to the Monoclinic System, if any two of their axes are at right angles; to the Triclinic System when they have no right
four-sided.

axial angles.

Pyramids belong to

all

of the six systems.

Those with square bases belong to the Regular System if the three axis are of equal length, the faces being then equilateral triangles; to the Quadratic System when one axis is longer or shorter than the other two. the faces being then isoceles triangles. Pyramids with hexagonal bases belong to the

PHYSICS.

35

Hexagonal System; their faces are isoceles triangles. Pyramids with rhombic or rhomboid bases belong to the Rhombic System, when all the axes r.re at right angles; to the Monoclinic System when any two axes are at right angles; and to the Triclinic System when there are no right axial angles.
140.
tallic

Among

the terms used in the pharmacopceial descriptions of crysall

substances, the following terms are also found,


scaly, acicular

of

which explain

themselves, viz.: tabular, laminar,

(needle-shaped), feathery,

and

warty crystals,

etc.

CHAPTER

VIII.

ADHESION.
141. Adhesion is the attraction which operates between the unlike molecules of different substances in whatever state of

aggregation.
It

may

between
bodies;

liquids, or liquids

operate between solids, solids and liquids, or solids and gases; and gases; or between gases.

Dust, soot and

mud

adhere to house's, furniture, clothing, and other solid

the printer's ink adheres to this page by the


of various kinds are useful

same

force

adhesion;

and cements

by no means sufficient evidence of their strength or utility for the purpose of holding solid bodies Nor does any one adhesive substance show the same together.
is

Adhesiveness. 142. sticky; but their stickiness

Many

on account of their adhesive nature.

substances

are adhesive or

adhesion for
143.

all

other substances.

Dry, hard solids are not adhesive in that condition; but may become so upon being moistened or dissolved, and then the strength of their adhesion is generally greatest upon again drying or hardening in contact with
the surfaces to

which they are applied.

Viscous substances like tar, honey, etc., may be very sticky and yet useless as agents for fixing solids firmly together. The strong adhesive power of cement, glue, mucilage and varnish, is The best grades of glue and of hydraulic cement have an familiar to you. adhesive strength equal to about five hundred pounds to the square inch.
144.

36

PHYSICS.

But different kinds of adhesive substances are used for different 145. materials. Cement is used to hold stones together; mortar for stone and brick; glue for wood; mucilage for paper; gum-resins for glass, etc.
Glue adheres to

wood but

not to metals; pitch sticks to your fingers

if

they are dry but not to wet fingers; mucilage adheres to paper and cloth, but not to greased paper or cloth.
146.
lage)
is

Dry gum
it

(acacia)

is

not sticky, but a strong solution of

gum

(muci-

remarkably adhesive.

Dry

resin

(common "rosin")
of
oil
is

is

not sticky,

but a solution of
tute a

in either alcohol

or

oil

turpentine exhibits a strong

sticky but does not constidoes not dry. In all the instances described in the preceding, the adhesion, 147. although a molecular attraction, seems to operate only between whole bodies of molecules and not between the molecules themselves, but the attraction is only between the molecules which form the surfaces of respective bodies which adhere together. There are, however, very common and important phenomena of adhesion extending to each and all of the molecules of the bodies concerned as in solu-

adhesion, while a solution of resin in olive

good or strong cement because

it

tion (183).

148.

Heterogeneous bodies,

or

mechanical mixtures are

sometimes so coarse that we can readily recognize the several ingredients in them and thus see that they are composed of unlike masses of molecules, although the ingredients may adhere sufficiently to form one mixed body.
Building mortar
mixture,

made

of

sand, lime and

water,

is

easily seen to

be a

When dry solids are mixed with each 149. Miscibility. other, as in "species " or mixed teas and in compound powders,
there

may

be but faint signs of adhesion between the several

ingredients.

Liquids between which there is no adhesion are not miscible without the intervention of other substances; thus water and oil, mercury and water, chloroform and water, do not mix (195

and

196).
solids

and liquids are brought into contact with each is wetted by the liquid if there is any adhesion between them, but otherwise not. Mercury does not wet the bottle containing it, while water does; but water does not wet
other, the solid

When

a greased dish.

PHYSICS.

37

150.

Pharmaceutically

homogeneous
in

mechanical mixtures so well prepared, or


uniform, although they of different substances.

mixtures are which the ingreif

dients are so intimately blended, that they appear as

perfectly

may

contain solid masses of molecules

A well-made ointment containing an insoluble powder may be made so smooth and perfect that the particles of powder can neither be seen nor felt. A compound powder may be made so uniform that the different ingredients can be recognized only by the aid of the microscope. In " blue mass " and " blue ointment," if properly made, no globules of

mercury are visible to the unaided eye. An emulsion of a fixed oil can be so thoroughly prepared that no globules can be detected in it except with the aid of a good microscope.

oil

Yet, in all of these mixtures the ingredients consist of large bodies of molecules, each particle of each ingredient containing numerous molecules.

151.
as not

Mere mixtures may, indeed, sometimes be

so intimate

to be recognizable as mechanical mixtures, except

by

chemical means.
The air is a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen so perfect that the component ingredients are not to be detected by physical means; but the air possesses the properties of both gases, and is ia reality a mere mixture of the molecules of oxygen with the molecules of nitrogen, and the completeness of the mixture is not affected by the proportions. It is to be remembered that gases diffuse between each others molecules in this intimate manner because their molecules tend to separate from each
other
(77).

CHAPTER
152.

IX.

CAPILLARITY AND OSMOSIS.


Capillarity.

If

you place a perfectly clean glass plate

in a vertical position in

a vessel of water, the water will ascend

on each

side of the plate to a height of nearly one-sixth inch,

3S

PHYSICS.

being drawn up by the adhesion between the glass and the


water, the force of that adhesion being greater than the cohesion between the molecules of water to that extent.
But the column of water above the surface must in this case be supported aided by the not alone by adhesion between the glass and the water, but
cohesion in the water
itself.

parallel with If a second plate of glass be placed 153. and close to the first, the water will rise between the two used, and, plates higher than it did when only one plate was

within certain limits, the column of water between the plates each other. will be higher, the nearer the plates are brought to

When

the plates are

inch apart, the water will rise between

them

to

the height of

two inches.

If the two plates are so placed as to 154. form an acute angle as shown in fig. 43. the water rises highest at the point where the plates towch each other.

Fig.

43.

155.

If

number

eters be placed together in a

of tubes of different diamtumbler half filled

with water, the water will rise in each tube a to the different height in inverse proportion diameter of the tube. The smaller the diameter
of the tube, the higher the

column

of

water

in

it.

Fig. 44In a tube of

Fig. 44.

inch diameter the column of water supported by the adhesion between the glass and the water will be four inches high.

All of these phenomena are caused by adhesion, and 156. the form of adhesion which causes liquids to rise upon the surfaces of solids is called capillary attraction or capillarity, because it

PHYSICS.
is

39

most strikingly evident


157.

in

tubes of such small diameters as to

resemble hairs.
Capillary attraction is most familiar through the action of blotting paper and of lamp wicks. The blotting paper absorbs ink, water and many other liquids by its capillarity. Lamp wicks carry the oil from the reservoir or fount of the lamp to
to us

the burner.
Fig. 45.

If a lamp wick or a strip of toweling be placed with 158. one end in a vessel containing a liquid, the other end hanging down on the outside (Fig. 45), it acts as a siphon (297).

The reason why a liquid can not easily be poured out 159. of a full tumbler, or other vessel having no lip or flaring rim,

Fig. 46.
Illustration of the Utility of the

Figr. 47.

Guiding Rod.

without spilling and without running


of the vessel,
is

down along

the outside

that the attraction between the liquid and the

surface of the vessel draws

them together.

To prevent
the capillary

we may grease the edge or rim of the vessel, to prevent attraction, or we may use a guiding rod to divert it (Fig. 47).
this
"),

Lips are formed on graduated glass measures (" graduates

pitchers,

40

PHYSICS.

pans, dishes, mortars, beakers, and other vessels in order to avoid the incon-

venient results of capillary attraction


of the vessel.

spilling,
is

and

the wetting of the outside

Lips and guiding rods give the proper directing to the stream.

160.

But capillary attraction

exhibited

only

when

the

liquid wets the surface of the vessel or tube (149). As water wets glass while mercury does not you will find that water poured into a small graduate or tube forms a concave surface being drawn upward along the edges, while mercury, on the contrary, forms a convex
surface.
161.
liquid

dry lamp-wick or dry blotting paper


it;

will

absorb and convey any


it

which wets

but

if

the wick

or paper be saturated with one liquid

convey another liquid immiscible with the first. Thus a lamp-wick wet with water will not draw oil, nor will a wick saturated with oil take 1KC up any water.
will not afterwards

49,
is

i
Fig.
48.

162. In U-shaped tubes such as shown in Figures 48 and mercury not only forms convex surfaces in both branches, but depressed in the smaller branch, while water forms concave

surfaces in both

branches and ascends higher

in

the smaller

branch than
Fig. 4 q.

in the larger.

163.

But not
in

all

liquids affected by capillarity rise to the


of the same material; nor does any same height on one solid as on another.

same height
one liquid

tubes

made

rise to the

In a glass tube we find that alcohol does not rise much over one half as high as water, nitric acid three-fourths as high, but a solution of ammonium carbonate higher than water does. On the other hand, mercury rises on lead and zinc although it does not rise in glass tubes. It has been shown that liquids do not rise on solids unless the adhe164. sion between the solid and liquid exceeds one-half of the force of the cohe-

sion of the liquid.


165.
If

you put a strong water solution of

ammonium

chloride, or

of

lead acetate, in a shallow dish,

and allow

it

to

stand sufficiently long, solid

along the edge of the surface of the solution, portions of upon the solid particles and above them and (by spontaneous evaporation) deposit more solid matter, and this may continue until a crust of solid creeps over the edge of the dish and con-

matter

will deposit

the solution will rise by capillary action

tinues on the outside.

166. as
in

In the extraction of soluble matters from plant drugs,


tinctures,
fluid

making

and

solid

extracts,

etc.,

the

menstruum or solvent used is absorbed into the particles of the drug by capillarity. By this force the water, or diluted alcohol, or even undiluted alcohol to some extent, is made to permeate every particle of the powder used.
167.
Capillarity
is is

absolutely necessary to vegetation and animal

life.

drawn to the surface of the ground by capillary action; the ascent of sap in plants, and the circulation of the fluids in the tissues of plants and animals is in great measure caused by the same force.
In dry seasons water

168. Diffusion of Liquids. Miscible liquids (149) have a tendency to mix with each other, without any stirring or shaking, and even in apparent opposition to the law of gravitation. This tendency is called diffusion.
"T
~T

\S

Put some water, colored with red ink or cochineal, into a tall a graduate; make a solution of one ounce of washing soda in four ounces of hot water and filter it; then pour the solution slowly through a thistle tube (Fig. 50), into the same bottle keeping the end of the tube at rest near the bottom of the bottle until all of the solution has been added. If you do not have a thistle tube, put the soda solution in the bottle first and then add the colored water, pouring this cautiously and slowly down along the sides of the As the soda solution is bottle so that the two liquids will not mix. denser it will temporarily remain at the bottom under the lighter water. But the two liquids become gradually mixed with each other by diffusion until in the end the mixture is perfectly uniform. You may perform the same experiment with other liquids of different densities, as alcohol and water, water and glycerin, etc., coloring one of the two liquids used so that the result may be readil;/
bottle or in

Fig.

50.

seen.
diffusion
is

uniform only in dilute solutions. no visible pores, and indeed, if you nearly fill a dry bladder with water and let it stand in an open vessel, no water will escape Water will be absorbed into the substance of the through the membrane bladder, but no drops of water will appear on the opposite side. If you tie the bladder so tightly near its opening that no water can escape at that point, and then place the filled bladder in a screw press and apply pressure gradually, no water passes out of it until it bursts. You would regard it, there169.

The

A bladder has
.

fore, as water-tight.

iby

Parchment paper, also, holds water, although, like a bladder, it is wetted water and absorbs that liquid into its substance; but it has no visible pores.
170.

Yet,

when such a membrane

is

placed between two liquids both

42
capable of wetting
tion,

PHYSICS.
it, currents may pass through the septum according to their kind and respective densities.

in either direc-

same way. These membranes or septa must, therefore, be porous diaphragms, notwithstanding the fact that no pores can be seen in them even when examined with the highest powers of the microscope.
Cell walls act in the

171.

172.
(as

Osmose.
in

The diffusion of liquids through membranes


is

described
173.

the preceding paragraphs),

called osmose.

Osmose evidently depends upon

capillary action (159

to 168).

The osmotic currents pass through the membrane in 174. both directions, to and fro, until the liquids in both sides have the same composition. Should the liquids on both sides of the septum be the same from the beginning no currents can be detected; but if they are different and at the same time miscible, osmose takes place and continues until the diffusion has made them perfectly uniform.
But denser liquids move more slowly than lighter 175. liquids through the membrane. Hence, the current toward the
denser liquid
tion
.

is

stronger than the current

in the

opposite direc-

176.

If

carbonate
ing, the

(common

a bladder is filled with a saturated solution (188). of potassium " potash "), a piece of broom stick inserted in the opentied tightly to the stick,

neck

and the bladder then immersed

in

a ves-

sel of water, the

current of water passing into the bladder

may be

so

much

more rapid than the current of


of
it

the solution of potassium carbonate passing out

that the bladder

may

burst.

Osmose may be accounted for by organic membranes consist of a network


177.

the assumption that


of solid

matter, the

meshes or pores of which are


this

invisible because filled with water,

water being held with such force that it can not be expelled without destroying the membrane. Liquids miscible with water may thus be passed through the pores by the intersticial
water.

Substances held in solution in water are capable of 178. passing through organic membranes by osmose (172 to 177). But all water soluble substances do not act alike in this respect;

45

some substances pass through

the septum comparatively rapidly,


It
is

while others only pass very slowly.

found that the sub-

stances whose solutions diffuse through the septum most rapidly

are either crystallizable or somewhat resemble crystallizable substances chemically, while the other water-soluble matters those that pass through the septum with great difficulty, or very slowly, if at all include all that solidify in gelatinous masses like glue, gelatin, and gum, and other substanes forming vis-

cous solutions. For these reasons the term crystalloids is applied to all 179. substances, which in a state of solution readily diffuse through organic membranes, and the term colloids is applied to all watersoluble substances which pass through such membranes with difficulty. It should be remembered, however, that crystalloids are not all crystallizable, and that colloids do not all resemble glue in their external form. The separation of crystalloids from colloids 180. by means of osmotic currents, or by the diffusion of the crystalloids through an organic membrane, is
called dialysis.

water will pass It has been found that 181. through an organic membrane far more rapidly than
alcohol.
Fig. 51, represents
fact.

an apparatus used

to

demonstrate that

Insert a long tube by

means

of a perforated cork or rubber

stopper into a squatty bottle, the bottom of which has been

removed.
Fof
Fif?. 51-

Tie a piece of bladder tightly over the open lower end


Fill the bottle

the bottle.

of the tube with alcohol.

and part Then place.

In the bottle in a shallow dish containing water. the course of a few hours the liquid will have risen
in the tube, and,
if

sufficient

time be allowed, the


in

water will at

last

have passed through the bladder

sufficient quantity to cause the liquid in the tube to

overflow at the top.

182.

Dialysis

is

employed

in

chemical

analysis for the separation of crystalloids

from

colloids, and also in the arts

and manFig. 52.-A Diaiyzer.

ufactures for the purification of products, etc.

44

PHYSICS.

CHAPTER
SOLUTION.
183.

X.

Solution

is

a complete molecular blending of any sub-

stance with a liquid, resulting in a clear,

homogeneous

liquid

product.

The product of solution is also called a solution. The liquid employed to produce the solution
solvent.

is

called a

From the definition given above it will be seen that solution extends to the molecules; thus the molecules of the substance dissolved are so far separated from each other that the molecules of the solvent lie between them. Solution is, therefore, the most intimate and perfect union that can be effected of any substance with a liquid. It is the result of molecular adhesion. A solution contains no visible particles of solid matter. Not all substances can be brought to a Solubility. 184. state of solution. Thus, no solvents are known for carbon, the The capacity of any metals, and for numerous compounds. substance for being dissolved in a liquid is called its solubility. But any one substance may be soluble in one or more liquids, Whenever the word " solubility " is while insoluble in others. used without specifying the solvent referred to, it is understood Thus, when we say that alum that solubility in water is meant.

soluble in water. be either solid, liquid or gaseous. Ratio of Solubility. The extent to which any sub185. stance may be dissolved in any given solvent is also usually
is

soluble,

we mean

that

it is

soluble substance

may

expressed by the word "solubility."


Thus we say
6 per cent
,

that the solubility of potassium chlorate (in water)

is

about

or about one ounce to the pint

Experience teaches that some substances are insoluble, others very sparingly soluble, others readily soluble, or freely soluble.
186.
its

Solution modifies cohesion


is

and

density.

When

a solid

is

dissolved

cohesion
is

diminished, and
is

it

is

thus rendered liquid.

When, on the

other hand, a gas

dissolved, the molecules of the gas are brought together,


liquefied.

and the gas

condensed and

PHYSICS.
187-

45

The substance

dissolved of course always adds to the

volume and weight


188.

of the solvent.
is

saturated solution

one

in

which the adhesion


it is

of the

solvent for the substance acted

upon by

satisfied, or

one

in

which the adhesion between the solvent and the dissolved substance is neutralized or balanced by the cohesion or the tension which oppose it. Such a solution is not capable of dissolving anymore of the substance it contains, but may, nevertheless, act as an effective solvent for some other substance.

saturated solution of potassium nitrate


nitrate, but
it

is

incapable of dissolving more

potassium
189.

can dissolve

many

other substances.

matter.
vitriol

Solution affords striking illustrations of the extreme divisibility of Thus, one drop of a saturated solution of copper sulphate (" blue ") put into a gallon of water will strike a decided blue color on the
little

addition of a

ammonia

water.

drop of tincture of chloride of iron in a gallon of water will assume a purple color on the addition of a grain of sodium salicylate. A grain of sugar of lead will make a gallon of water cloudy and on addition of a few drops of diluted sulphuric acid a decided turbidity results.

190.

There are two kinds


solution, or

of "solution"
is

spoken

of.

True

Simple Solution,

a solution in which the

molecules of both the solvent and the substance remain unaltered.

dissolved

Chemical Solution is a solution in which the molecules of both the solvent and the substance dissolved disappear or are destroyed, other (new) molecules taking their place.
When
a piece of sugar
is

dissolved in a quantity of water, simple solution

takes place, because the solution formed contains the molecules of the sugar

and the water, and no new kinds of matter are produced. The solution exhibits the sweetness and many other properties of the sugar, and the solution also partakes of the properties of the solvent; in fact, the sugar can be recovered again as solid sugar of the same kind as before by simply evaporating (390) the water. But when zinc
takes place
acid,
is is

dissolved in diluted sulphuric acid the solution which

not simple solution but chemical solution, because the resulting

liquid does not contain


if

any molecules

of zinc (nor

any molecules

of sulphuric

the acid be saturated with the zinc) but does contain molecules of a

salt called zinc

sulphate formed by chemical action and which has entirely

46
different properties

PHYSICS. from those belonging to zinc. Upon evaporating such a you would not get zinc, but the white crystalline water soluble zinc

solution
sulphate.

191.
solvent,

solvent producing simple solution


solvent,

is

called a simple

or a neutral

while solvents producing chemical


alcohol, ether,

solution are called chemical solvents.

The most common simple or neutral solvents are water,


chloroform, petroleum
solutions of acid salts.
spirit, glycerin, volatile oils

and

fixed oils.

The most common chemical solvents

are acids, alkali solutions,

and

the

Substances in solution may be thrown out of the 192. solution or precipitated by adding liquids in which they are insoluble.

Gum
alcohol
is

(acacia)

is

soluble in water, but insoluble

in

alcohol; therefore,
is

if

added
its

to a solution of

gum

(mucilage) the

gum

precipitated or

thrown out of

solution.

is soluble in alcohol but insoluble in water; hence the benzoin contained in the tincture of benzoin is thrown out of

Any

resin, as, for instance, benzoin,

solution on the addition of water.

When a water solution of a salt is exposed to such a 193. low temperature that congelation results, the ice formed does not contain the salt.
r

The water
the solution.

freezes or crystallizes (11S), and in doing so

must separate from


be concentrated by

As

the ice forms gradually, the solution

may

the removal of the portions of ice as soon as they are formed.


alcoholic liquids, etc., can be concentrated in the

Plant juices,

same manner.

a phenomenon of all pervading importance in its uses 194. and results. In animals and plants nutrition would be impossible were it not for the liquefaction by solution of the substances appropriated as food.
Solution
is

The universal
ders
it

application of solution in the arts and manufactures renit

necessary that

should be carefully studied.

195. other.

Miscible liquids may be said


it

to be soluble, each in the

Thus
196.
too,

may

be said that water dissolves glycerin and that glycerin

dis-

solves water, because the two liquids blend perfectly with each other (149).
If

you have two miscible

liquids,
it

and B, and

if

is

miscible also with a third liquid, C,


is

does not follow that B,

miscible with C.

physics.
Thus, alcohol and water are miscible, and alcohol castor oil, but water and castor oil do not mix at all.
is

47
also miscible with

Water

is

miscible with alcohol, alcohol with ether, ether with olive

oil,

and

olive oil with oil of turpentine, but water does not


oil or oil of

mix with

either ether, olive

turpentine; the alcohol does not


oil of

mix with

olive oil or with oil of

turpentine, nor the ether with

turpentine.

The
tion of

miscibility of one liquid with another, therefore, affords no indicamiscibility with a third liquid.

its

CHAPTER
MOTION.
197.

XI.

We
its

matter in

have seen (60) that " dynamics treats of the states and motions of molar condition, and of the relations and results of molar attraction

and repulsion."

We
place.

resistance, to

have also read that Energy (58) is the power to do work, to overcome produce or arrest motion; and that motion (59) is a change of

Again, attraction and repulsion were described (35 and 36), and gravitation and weight were denned (38 to 41 incl.) The reader is advised at this point to turn back to the paragraphs referred to, and to carefully read them over again. Remember also that matter is anything that occupies space and is affected by gravitation (3 to 6 incl.)

198.

All matter
rest are
itself is in

motion and
The earth

is in motion (59), and, therefore, the terms merely relative terms.

It moves around the sun at the same time whirls around on its axis at the rate of 1440 feet per second. But when you look at large buildings, or any other objects on the earth's surface it does not occur to you that they are traveling nearly a thousand miles per hour in one direction, and 68,400 miles per hour in another direction, because you are travelling at the same rate your-

constant motion.

rate of 19 miles per second,

and

at the

self, together
If to this

motion, it ever absolutely at

with all the objects around you. motion of the globe you add the molecular motions and atomic will not be difficult to see that no material object in the Universe is
rest.

4S

PHYSICS.

The Laws of Motion. Sir Isaac 199. pounded the following "laws of motion," which accepted and are of the greatest importance:
1.

Newton

pro-

are universally

body continues in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a


its state

straight line unless forced to change

by a force external to

itself.

(See Inertia, par. 31.) 2. The change of {quantity of) motion is proportional and takes place in the straight line in which the force acts.
j.
or, the

to

force,

To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction; mutual actions of any two bodies are always equal and oppositely

directed.

200.
distinct

The
from

first

all

force,

law simply declares that matter is entirely and that, therefore, matter itself can do

nothing.

The second law means that any amount of force, how201. ever small or great, in whatever direction applied, will have its corresponding effect, no matter what other forces may be at
work simultaneously upon the body.
stated in the following words:

The second law


has the same

is

also

A given force

effect in

changing or producing motion, whether the body upon which


in motion or at rest; whether it is acted

it acts is

upon by that force alone or by

others at the same time.

202.

The

third law
true that

ology
It

it is

merely

this: "

is literally

easily grasped. In modern phraseEvery action between two bodies is a stress." when you strike your fist against a stone, the
is less

A coat hanging on a hook retains its position hook reacts with a force equal to the pull of the coat. When a ball is fired from a cannon, the cannon recoils with a momentum (204) equal to that of the ball, but the backward motion is much less because of the If you hold a brick on your hand, the hand greater weight of the cannon. must press upward against the brick with precisely the same force as that with which the brick presses down against the hand. The brick is attracted by the earth, and when you turn your hand over and let the brick fall the earth moves to meet the brick for the attraction between the two bodies is mutual, but the mass of the earth being immeasurably greater than the mass of the brick, the earth moves so slightly that its motion is imperceptible. When
stone reacts with equal force.

because the

a flying bird beats the air with

its

wings, the reacting force of the

air,

being

greater than the weight of the bird, causes the bird to rise.

PHYSICS.

49
to the space traversed in

203.

The
The
It

velocity of

motion refers

a given time.

204. motion.

Momentum of a body is the quantity of its depends upon the mass (7) of the moving body and
its

upon the
205.

velocity (203) of

motion.

A body

of great weight,

momentum than a body of less body of the same weight moving with
206.

moving with great velocity, has a greater weight moving with the same velocity, or a
less velocity.

The momentum

(204) of a slowly
rifle,

than that of a bullet shot from a


first

moving freight train is greater and both have a great momentum the

because of its great weight, the second because of its great velocity. 207. We apprehend danger from the approach of large masses, instinctively associating them with great force, and we move out of their path; but we pay no attention to small bodies moving toward us. 208. A pebble thrown against a heavy plate glass window does not break the glass, but a large stone thrown with the same force will shatter it.
209.

A large

pestle gently placed

upon a piece
it

that the whole weight of the pestle rests on

the pestle be elevated

and then allowed to


is

of alum in the mortar so does not crush the alum, but if fall upon the alum, the piece is

broken.

210.

Centrifugal force,

the tendency of a

around a center
thus to
it is

to continue its

motion

in a straight line,

body revolving and

move further away from that center. In other words, simply the result of Newton's first law of motion (199).

riage,

The mud is sent flying from the revolving wheels of a rapidly moving carand when the carriage turns a corner abruptly its tendency to move on

in the straight line of its original direction

may cause

it

to

be overturned.
is

of Gravity of which the whole weight of the body


211.
,

The Center

a body

may

the point at be supposed to be

centered or that point at which the entire mass of the body

may

be balanced. To support any body


of gravity.
212.

it is

only necessary to support

its

center

In a compact body the center of gravity

is

within the mass; but in


is

a hollow body, like an empty box, bottle, or hoop, the center of gravity
side of the space occupied

out-

by the matter of which the body consists, which is also the case in the arrangement represented in Fig. 54, which you can easily construct with a tumbler or goblet, two table forks, and a match. The forks

50

PHYSICS.

are locked together at about right angles by inserting their respective prongs between each other, one end of the match is also inserted between the prongs,
in the angle,
is

and the other end

of the

match

supported on the edge of the tumbler at the point immediately above the' center of
gravity. Thus you can support two forks on one end of a match, the other end of which rests on the edge of a tumbler, without any other support whatever, and if the tumbler is filled with water you can raise it to your the water with the forks still hanging on the end of

Fig-

54-

lips

and drink a portion


Fig. 54.

of

the match.

In a solid sphere the center of gravity

is,

of course, the center of the

sphere.

Equilibrium. When a body is at rest, the forces 213. which act upon every part of its mass are said to balance each other and are said to be in equilibrium. A body is in equilibrium when its center of gravity is supported. A body is in stable equilibrium when supported in such 214. a manner that, when somewhat displaced from its position, it re-assumes the same position as before.

cone resting on

its

base

is

in stable equilibrium.

body is in unstable equilibrium when so supported slight change in its position of equilibrium causes it
further from that position.

that a
tc
fall

A A

stick

balanced

in

a vertical position

on the end of the finger

is

in

unstable equilibrium.

cone resting on
is

its

apex

is

in unstable equilibrium.

A body
placed.

in

neutral equilibrium

when

so supported that
it

it

remains at rest

in

any adjacent position after


in neutral equilibrium
its

has been disa horizontal

A solid
215.

sphere

is

plane, and a cone lying on

The base

is

when resting upon same state. the side on which a body rests.
side is in the
is

The base

of support of a table
its

the figure

formed by straight

lines con-

necting the points where

legs touch the floor.

The line of direction is the vertical line connecting 216. the center of gravity of a body with the center of the earth.

PHYSICS.

51

The broader the base is, and the lower the Stability. 217center of gravity, the greater will be the stability of the position
of the body.
stand must have a broad and heavy foot. fall within the base the body is stable, if the centre of gravity is above and outside the base, or (which is the same thing), if the line of direction be outside the base, the body must change its position. A ball rolls about easily, especially one of a hard material, like a billiard ball, because when it rests, it rests only upon a point. A cylinder, as a round

Hence, a

tall

If

the line of direction

lead pencil, resting upon a line, also requires but a slight impulse to

move

it.

No

elevation of the center of gravity

is

necessary to start spheres and cylin-

ders moving.

218. Velocities of falling bodies. All bodies, without regard to mass or kind of matter, fall with equal velocity through space in a vacuum.

feather will
if

fall

as rapidly as a bullet through a vacuum.

two bodies of different densities (10), fall through air, the denser body will reach the ground first, because it meets with less resistance from the air (199 and 202), than the less dense
body.
*

But

219. When bodies fall through a vacuum there is no reaction (199), or resistance; but reaction and resistance are always met

when bodies
220.
If

fall

through any
all

fluid (80).

several bodies,

consisting of the

same kind

of matter, but of

different weights, as for instance, a

number of

iron balls of different sizes, be

dropped at precisely the same time from a great height, they will all reach the ground at precisely the same time, the smallest ball as soon as the largest. Twenty horses together can not run any faster than one horse alone.

The fact that a dense body, like a small glass bottle, falls to the more rapidly than a cork of equal bulk, makes it appear as if heavy bodies fall faster than light bodies; but a quart bottle will fall no faster than a homceopathic vial, and in a vacuum corks and bottles will fall with equal
221.
floor

velocity.

222.
itation

The
(38),

falling of bodies to the earth

is

the result of grav-

which

affects

all

matter alike.
(7),

While gravity

is

directly proportional to

and, therefore, a lead bullet must be attracted to the earth with greater force than a feather,
the greater force of gravity acting

mass

upon the

bullet has

more

work

to perform, or has to

move

a greater load.

$'

PHYSICS.

For the greater force

much

to do the greater work requires as time as for the lesser force to do the lesser work (58).

As gravitation operates continuously upon matter, 223. being a constant force, a falling body acquires accelerated velocity in
the act of falling.
of rest to fall of its own weight one second. In the start, of course, it had no velocity, but as it began to move or have velocity, that velocity increased uniformly; its velocity at the end of the first second is such as would, if uniformly conAnd tinued, carry the body a distance of 9.8 meters during the next second. as gravitation continues its pull without the least change, the velocity of the falling body continues to increase, so that instead of traversing only 9. 8 meters the second second, the body falls through 14.7 meters, or three times the disFor the same reason the body travels tance it traveled in the first second. through 24.5 meters during the third second, or 5x4.9; during the fourth second it falls 7*4-9 meters, etc.

224.

body starting from a condition

travels about4.g meters in

A Pendulum, Fig. 55, is a weight 225. suspended from a fixed point so as to swing (or "oscillate") freely to and fro, alternately by momentum and gravity.
The most common form
steel

of a pendulum is a flexible rod loaded at the bottom with a heavy piece of


bob.

metal called the

The bar
point.

or rod of the

pendulum being
is

in

a vertical

position, the center of gravity

at

the lowest possible

\i>t.
A Pendu
until gravity stops the

The pendulum is then at rest. But when the moved upward and to one side, and then released, the pendulum is carried back to its vertical position by gravity, and inertia (31) carries it beyond
bob
is

that position, raising the bob again on the opposite side, motion and pulls the bob down again.

Pendulums of the same length perform an equal 226. ber of oscillations at the same place in the same time.

num-

The times of vibrations of different pendulums at the 227. same place are proportional to the square roots of their lengths.
Thus,
if

one pendulum

is

four times as long as another, the time of vibra-

tion of the longer

pendulum

will be twice as great as the

time of oscillation

(or of vibration) of the shorter one.

PHYSICS.

53

228. The times of pendulums of the same length in different places are inversely proportional to the square root of the
intensity of gravity.

229.
of

The Seconds Pendulum. The length


its

of the

Pendu-

lum performing

oscillations in seconds of time in the latitude

London
is 39.

(at

the Greenwich Observatory) at the level of the


is

At the equator its length 13929 inches. and near the poles it is about 39.2 inches.
sea
230.

39 inches,

The pendulum
at rest the

illustrates well the

two kinds of energy

energy of motion

and energy of position.

pendulum exhibits no energy whatever. But in raising its center of gravity, we impart to it the potential energy (or energy of position), which remains stored up as potential energy as long as we hold up the center of gravity, but becomes changed into kinetic energy (or energy of motion) as soon as we let the bob fall.
the bob to one side, or elevating

When

is

Potential Energy, then, is stored up energy, which 231. not doing work, but which has the ability to do work when-

ever released.
up from the earth, being pulled downward by its support is removed, and can then do work. The body of water in a dam has the power to move a water-wheel whenever allowed to fall upon it. A spring when wound up has power to turn machinery and to do other work. A stretched rubber band, a bent bow, also possesses potential energy of position.
body, as a weight,
lifted

gravity, has the ability to fall as soon as

232.
is

energy

Kinetic Energy, or energy of motion, or actual energy, in the act of doing work.

Thus it is the energy of the up-lifted weight after its support has been removed; of the water falling on the water-wheel; of the spring, of the stretched rubber band, and the bended bow, when released.

54

PHYSICS.

CHAPTER

XII.

WORK AND MACHINES.


Units of Work. In measuring work done the unit 233. which the work is expressed is the work done in lifting a given weight through a given vertical height.
in

The English unit is the foot pound, which means the work necessary to pound one foot; the metric unit of work is the kilogram meter, which means the work done in raising one kilogram through one meter.
raise one

But in order to estimate the power of any man, ani234. mal or machine to do work, it is not enough to determine the weight which can be moved by each, and the distance through which that weight can be moved; it is also necessary to determine the time required to do that work.
The work of carrying 100 pounds 100 yards is the same as the work of 235. carrying 10 pounds 1,000 yards; and that work is the same whether it be done by a man, ahorse, or an engine, or whether it bedone by one man or several men;
same amount of work, loo, whether it be done in an hour, a day, a But the rate of 'work can only be estimated by taking into account the total amount of work done by any given agent in a given time. The rate of doing work is usually expressed in horse-power,
it

is

the

week, or a year.

236.

It is

assumed that a strong horse

is

able to

perform

33,000 foot-pounds of work in one minute; therefore that is the meaning of the term horse-power; thus 1 horse-power equals

33,000 foot-pounds per minute, and an engine of 20 horse-power is one capable of doing 660,000 foot-pounds of work per minute.

by

its

237. As the momentum of a body is the product of its mass velocity (204), and as a body gains accelerated velocity

when

a body

acted upon by a constant force (223), it follows that when falls from a greater height it has greater momentum at

the end of the time of motion.

A weight dropped from a height of nine yards will strike a bed of clay with three-fold velocity and penetrate to nine times the depth into the clay as
compared with only one yard.
the

work

of the

same weight when dropped from


will

a height of

The work done by

moving body

vary as the mass and

as the square of the velocity.

physics.

55

238.
of work.

power may

machine is a contrivance by means of which a given be advantageously used to perform a given amount

A Lever is an inflexible bar capable of being freely 239. moved about a fixed point or line called the fulcrum at which The power and the weight act on this bar the lever is supported.
at different points.

lever has

two arms

the power-arm, and


from each

the weight arm.

240.

There are three kinds

of levers, differing

Fig. 56.

Balance.

other according to the relative positions of fulcrum, power and weight. A" lever of'the first kind" (see Fig.56) has the fulcrum between the power and the weight, as in the steel-yard, or in a crow-bar,
1

a balance, SGissors, etc.

A
A

lever

and the fulcrum, as shown


tobacco-cutters, an oar, etc.
lever

of the second kind has the weight between the power in cork-squeezers, nut-crackers,

of

the third

kind has the power between the weight


in

and the fulcrum, as


treadle of a lathe.

fire-tongs,

sheep-shears, and

in

the

241.

The

statical

law of

the lever.

The product

of the

power

56

PHYSICS.

from the fulcrum is equal to the product of the load multiplied by its disrance from the fulcrum.
multiplied

by

its

distance

Fig. 57.

Cork

Presser.

lever of the second kind.


if

242. since

Thus

in

a lever of

the of

first

kind, four feet long,


will

the load be

one

foot from the fulcrum, a

power

one pound

balance a load of four pounds


long with the load one foot

3x1

equals

1x3.
will

243.

In a lever of the second kind four feet

from the fulcrum, a power of one pound


for in this lever the

balance a load of four pounds,

power will be four feet from the fulcrum With a lever of the third kind, of the same length as before, if the power be applied one foot from the fulcrum, a power of one pound will balance a load of only one-fourth pound for in this case the load is four feet from the fulcrum, and 1 x 1 equals 4 x 4
244.
'
.

245.

The Balance
This brings

is

a lever of the
must be a

first

kind (240), with


below the edge of the
it

two equal arms.


The center
fulcrum.

(Fig. 56).
little
it

of gravity of this lever


to such

a state of stable equilibrium, that

will

readily return to a horizontal position.

A load carried on a lever be246. tween two supports will be equally divided between the two carriers only if it be equidistant from the two points of support.
If,

as

shown

in fig. 5S, the

load be

placed only two feet from the

first

sup-

port and four feet from the other, the load

weighing thirty pounds, the first support carries twenty pounds of the load and the
other only ten.
Fig.
5 3.

PHYSICS.

57

Pulley consists of a wheel turning upon an axis and having a cord passing over its grooved circumference.
247.

A
fig.

single

pulley as

shown

in

59 does not afford any increase of power but only a change of direction; but

when two

or

leys are used together as


figs.

more pulshown in

60 and 61 a greater load may be lifted with less power, but also with correspondingly less velocity. In the machine represented by fig.

60
the

it is

evident that

the

hook

supports one-half of the load and

hand

pulls the other half up,

but to raise the load one foot the

hand must

pull

up two

feet of the
Fig- 59
Fig-. 61.

cord, for each section of the cord

carrying the load must be shortened one foot to raise the load one foot. If the hand, therefore, lifts 10 pounds two feet, a load of 20 pounds will be
raised one foot.
of several pulleys the load which can be raised will greater in proportion to the power applied, and the velocity with which the load is raised will be proportionately lessened.
still

With a combination

be

248.

The

Inclined Plane.

The power required to support


it

a load on an inclined plane is to the load as the vertical height of the plane is to its length.
will
if the plane is twice as long as support a weight of 200 pounds.

Thus,

is

high, a

power

of 100

pounds

249.
250.

The

Wedge
is

is

a movable inclined plane, or two

inclined planes united at their bases.

The Screw
its

a cylinder with a spiral groove or ridge


It
is,

winding about
inclined plane.

circumference.

in fact,

simply a spiral

The One

spiral ridge is called the thread of the screw,


is

in which there
full

and this works in a nut a corresponding groove in which the thread fits. turn of the screw will lift a weight through the distance which
is

separates the threads.

The weight moved

to the
is

power required

to

move

it,

as the circumfer-

nce described by the power

to the distance

between the threads.

58

PHYSICS.

Thus, a power of thirty pounds applied at the end of a lever two feet lon^-. acting on a screw, the threads of which are ?\ inch apart, will lift a weight of 45,300 pounds. Hence the great power of the screw press.

Friction is the resistance which a moving body en251. counters from the surface against which it moves. A perfectly smooth surface can not be made, and despite lubrication and other means to diminish the resistance, heat is developed by the friction, and
the mechanical energy
is

thus converted into molecular motion.

Adhesion

is

doubtless closely related to friction.

252.

Hydrodynamics
is

is

the dynamics (197) of liquids.

Pneumatics

the dynamics of air and other gases.

CHAPTER
253.

XIII.

HYDRODYNAMICS.

Liquids transmit pressure equally in all direcpressure is applied from without upon water contained in a closed vessel, that pressure is transmitted by the water in every direction, upward as well as downward and outward, with the same force as originally applied. That force is proportional to the surface to which it is applied.
tions.

If

Thus,

if

a pressure of one pound be applied to the water through a tube,

one square inch, then there will be a pressure communicated to the sides, top and bottom of the vessel amounting to one pound to every square inch of their surface. (See also paragraph 257.)
the opening of which measures

254. face of a

The Bottom
body

Pressure.

Every molecule

at the sur-

of liquid presses

upon the molecule next below

it, and this next molecule not only transmits the pressure exerted by the upper molecule, but adds to that pressure its own weight, and so on downward through the whole depth of

the liquid.

The pressure thus

increases with the depth, and

if

59

the liquid be contained in a cylindrical vessel with perpendicu-

and horizontal bottom, the pressure upon that bottom equal to the weight of the whole body of liquid. But in vessels contracted at the top the bottom pressure is greater, and in a vessel with a wider top the bottom pressure is less than the
lar sides
is

weight of the whole body of liquid, because the pressure depends upon the area of the bottom and the perpendicular height of the water without reference to the shape of the vessel. " Pressure percolators " of various kinds are constructed on
this principle.

The Lateral Pressure. As the pressure is trans255. mitted equally in all directions (253) and at the same time added to in proportion to the depth of the liquid, the pressure on the sides of the vessel is equal to that exerted on the bottom of Midway between the bottom it only at the edge of the bottom. and the surface of the liquid the average pressure is only onehalf as great as at the bottom, being always proportional to the depth. At the surface there is no lateral pressure because there is no depth there.
Liquids seek their own level. When placed in com256. municating vessels, as in a U-shaped tube, liquids rise to the

same

level in the different vessels or in the several branches or

tubes of the same vessel.


As popular expression puts it: "water seeks its own level." Artesian wells operate on this principle, and " water towers " furnish the pressure by
which water
cities, to
is

supplied through pipes to whole

high buildings and fountains in public

parks.

257.

dox."
is
it
is

Since

The

"Hydrostatic
the transmitted

Parapressure

proportional to the surface to which applied (253), it follows that in a

two communicating tubes, one larger than the other, both tubes being provided with tightly-fitting pisvessel with
tons, as

Shown

in fig. 62,

downward

F ig.

62.

Hydrostatic Paradox.

60

PHYSICS.
a, will

pressure applied upon the piston of the smaller tube,

pro-

duce greater upward pressure upon the piston


b,

in the large tube,

the pressure being proportional to the area.


If the

downward pressure

square inch and that of b 16 square inches, then a pound on a will produce an upward pressure of i pound to each square inch upon b, and i pound placed on the piston at a will lift 16 pounds on the piston at b (34).
area of a be
of
r

Fig.

63.

Hydraulic Press.

The Hydrostatic or Hydraulic 258. the principle explained in paragraph 257.

Press

is

based upon

The "Hydrostatic Press" (Brahma's Press) consists of two cylinders communicating with each other by a tube, as shown in fig. 63. The pump piston working in the smaller cylinder produces, by the arrangement of the valves below, a downward pressure which raises the large piston in the other cylinder. The distance of the upward movement of the larger piston will bear
the

same

relation to the distance of the

downward movement

of the smaller

piston as the pressure on the smaller bears to the pressure on the larger piston.
If the area of the water pressing upward on the large piston be one hundred times as great as that of the water pressed downward in the smaller cylinder,

the large piston will be raised only T ^y foot, while the small piston is pressed down a distance of 1 foot. Thus, on one side 1 pound is moved 1 foot, and on the other side a weight of 100

pounds

is

therefore, the

same on both

sides (235

moved T ^ and 257.)

ff

foot, the

work done

being,

PHYSICS.
Hydraulic presses are much employed in the arts and manufactures, and be seen in the laboratories of many manufacturing pharmacists and chemists, where they are used to press out liquids contained in wet masses of solid

may

matter, etc.

259.

The Law
is

of Archimedes. A body immersed


direction^)
its

in

any

liquid or gas

buoyed up (or pushed in an upward weight of


is

with a

force equal

to the

own volume of

the liquid or solid in

which
tion.

it is

immersed.

one of great importance and wide applicaliquid and gaseous media, upon bodies immersed in them is termed the buoyancy of
This principle

The upward pressure produced by

fluids.

260.

In

Fig. 64

we

represent a cubical solid

immersed in water. Every portion of the surface of the cube is subjected to the pressure which the body of water exerts in every direction, and which is proportional to its depth. The lateral pressure is equal on all sides (255), and therefore will have no tendency to move the solid in any horizontal direction. The pressure downward exerted upon the upper surface of Fig. 64. the cube is, however, less than the pressure upward produced upon its under surface, because the pressure of the liquid increases with its depth (254). The exact difference between the downward pressure from above, and the upward pressure from below, is, in fact, exactly equal to the weight of a column of water having the same base and the same height as the solid (254). In other words, the upward pressure is greater than the downward pressure, by the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid. The solid, of course, displaces its volume of liquid.
261.

Hence the principle

of

Archimedes

is

also stated as folloses in

lows:
If

solid

immersed in any fluid (liquid or gas)

weight an

amount equal
obtained;
if it

will be be weighed in air its apparent weight (45) will be less than its true weight (44) by the weight of a cubic inch of air; if it be weighed in water, its apparent weight will be still less, the difference from the true weight being now the weight of a cubic inch of water, which is heavier than a cub'c inch of

weight of the fluid displaced by it. a cubic inch of lead be weighed in a vacuum its true weight
to the

If the cubic inch of lead be weighed first in air, and then successsuspended and immersed in olive oil, oil of turpentine, glycerin, syrup and sulphuric acid, the weights obtained will all differ from each other, because

262.

ively

62
all

PHYSICS.
these substances differ in density (10)

and specific weight (47). The lead will found to weigh as much less in olive oil than it weighed in air. as the weight of a cubic inch of olive oil; in the other liquids, the loss of weight of the cubic inch of lead will appear to be equal to the weight of a
accordingly
be
cubic inch of
oil

of turpentine, glycerin, syrup, or sulphuric acid, respectively.

There is, of course, no actual loss of weight of the solid in the examples given in the preceding paragraph, for matter can not lose weight. The so-called "loss of weight" is simply apparent, and instead of representing a loss of weight it represents the effect produced by the buoyancy in the liquid or gas in which the solid is placed. 264. The Hydrostatic Balance. A balance so constructed as to facilitate the weighing of solids suspended in
263.
liquids
is

called a hydrostatic balance.

and
is

of it is seen in fig. 56. At least one of the stirrups is short, support for the pan is attached a little hook from which the solid suspended by means of a thread or wire.
to the

One form

As all our ordinary weighing operations are performed and not in a vacuum, it follows that the results are not true, the weight found by weighing in the air being less than the true weight by the weight of the air displaced by the body
265.
in the air,

weighed.
266.
of brass

Our weights
is

are constructed
it

so as

to

show

the " weight in

air"

and not "true weight," and

accordingly follows that a pound weight

made
plati-

necessarily in reality heavier than a pound-weight

made

of

num, for the metal called platinum is about three times as heavy as an equal volume of brass, and, therefore, one pound of the alloy we call brass is about Hence, when used in air, the brass pound three times as bulky as platinum. and the platinum pound balance each other perfectly, or have the same weight (apparently), but if weighed in a vacuum the brass weight would be
found
to be heavier

than the other.


of brass
of

to represent a
to represent a

pound pound

Had the brass weight been so made as weighed in a vacuum, and the platinum weight platinum weighed in a vacuum, then, when placed on
scales") the platinum weight

the opposite pans of the balance (or " pair of

would go down and

the brass weight up,

and

it

would be necessary

to increase

the size of the brass weight or diminish the platinum weight to restore the

balance to equilibrium

in the air.

The saying

that " a

pound

ot feathers

is

heavier than a pound of lead,"

is,

therefore, in one sense correct.

PHYSICS. 267.

63

sink in lighter fluids (whether liquids or gases), and light bodies float in heavier fluids.
This will be readily understood upon a little reflection, for the upward the immersed body caused by the buoyancy of the fluid is exactly measured by the weight of the fluid displaced (250 and 260). and if that weight is less than the weight of the solid itself the solid will sink by virtue of its greater weight following the law of gravitation (38), but if the solid weigh less than its own volume of the fluid it must of necessity rise, or be pushed upward, or float on the surface of the fluid in which it is placed.
pressure upon

Heavy bodies

and the fluid in which it is immersed are volumes having equal weights, then the solid will neither sink nor float but will remain at rest in any position in which it may be put in the body of the fluid. Camphor floats on water, but sinks in alcohol. Wax floats on 269.
268.
If

the solid

of equal density, equal

water, but if alcohol be gradually added to the water, the wax will sink as soon as enough alcohol has been added to render the density of the liquid less than that of the wax.

270.
fluid.

A piece of wood floating on water

floating

body displaces

its

own weight
is

of the depressed into the

water just far enough to occupy a space below the surface which would be filled by its own weight of water. If the wood weighs one pound it sinks down far enough to push away, or
displace, or

occupy the space of one pound of water, below the surface. Boats displace their own weight of water; when empty the boat displaces but little water and rides lightly, but when loaded it sinks deeper as its load increases, and may be loaded so heavily that the weight of the boat with its load is greater than a body of water of the same bulk, and then the boat
founders.
271. An "empty" bottle floats on water because the bottle and the air contains weigh less than the same volume of water; but the same bottle,

it

filled

with water, sinks.

272. displace

Since a floating solid sinks


its

down

just far

enough

to

must

of liquid (270), it follows that the solid descend to a greater depth in light liquids than in heavy

own weight

liquids.

Hydrometers. Hydrometers are instruments con273. structed on the principle of Archimedes (259) and operates in
accordance with the results of that principle as described the preceding (270, 271, 272).
in

64
Fig.

PHYSICS.

65 represents Nicholson's hydrometer, consisting of a hollow 274. metallic cylinder with a lead basket attached below and a pan supported on an

upright wire at the top.

The weight

of the lead basket brings the center of

gravity to that end of the instrument, causing

it to descend some distance below the surface when placed in water, the hollow cylinder above being also a necessary feature of the

apparatus,
pulled

as

it

is

lighter than

water,

and when

down by

the lead therefore assumes a verti-

cal position, the

whole instrument thus remaining

in a stable condition of equilibrium.

The wire which supports the pan has a mark, A, upon it. As the hydrometer displaces its own weight of whatever liquid it is placed in, and its own weight is known, it is used in the following manner: The sum of the weight of the instrument, and the additional weights necessary to bring the
instrument down to the point A, represents the weight of the liquid displaced.
275.

Assuming
it

that

the
it

hydrometer
requires
55

itself

weighs 100 Grams and that

Grams

more
Fig-. 65.

to bring

surface of the
Nicholson's

down in distilled water until the water coincides with the mark A;
Grams
(instead of 55) to

Hydrometer.

also that

it

requires 20

push the instrument down to A in alcohol. Then the displaced alcohol must weigh 120 Grams, and the same volume of water 155 Grams, and a comparison of the relative weights of equal volumes of these liquids has thus been effected. See " specific weight " (47). Nicholson's hydrometer can also be used to find the specific weight 276. (47) of solids insoluble in the liquid in which the instrument may be immersed. A piece of the solid substance (not heavier than the difference in weight between the instrument itself and the weight of the water it displaces to the mark A) is put on the pan at the top, and then enough additional weights added to push the hydrometer down to A in water; the solid is then removed and weights substituted for it to bring the instrument down to A again; the sum of the weights used in addition to the solid in the first case, deducted from the total of the weights used in the second case, must give the weight of the solid itself, or the sum of the weights which were necessary to take the place of the solid in the second experiment Now the solid is put into the lead basket, and the hydrometer replaced in the water and again weighed down to A. As the volume of the instrument below the surface of the water is now increased by the bulk of the solid, the result will be that the instrument is buoyed up by an additional force equal to the weight of a volume of

PHYSICS.

6^

water equal to the bulk of the solid, and the instrument is at the same time pulled down by the whole weight of the solid. Suppose the solid weighs 7 Grams; then it will require 148 Grams additional weights to sink the hydrometer to A (assuming, as above, that 155 Grams will be necessary to sink it to A in water); when the solid is placed in the lead basket, the instrument will not sink down to A without additional weights on the pan unless the solid is
of the

same density
if

as water,

it

will sink

deeper
it

the solid

is

heavier than water, and

not as deep
is

if the solid is lighter. Suppose heavier than water, and that it will,

therefore, be necessary to take off

some
If

of the

weights on the pan in order to

bring the
the

hydrometer

to the fixed depth.

sum

on the pan be now 147 Grams, or one Gram less than was necessary when the solid was on the pan above the surface
of the weights

instead of

in

the basket

immersed

in

the

water, then the solid weighed 7 Grams in the air, but only 6 Grams under water, and, con-

sequently,

its

own volume

of

water weighed

Gram.
If the solid be lighter than water it must be tied to the lead basket before submerging it, and we should then find that 155 Grams would be insufficient to send the hydrometer

down
it

to the

mark.

Suppose,

in

such a case,
of

requires 156

Grams on

the pan; then, the

solid weighing 7 Grams, its water must weigh S Grams.

own volume

277.

meter

is

The common form of hydroshown in figs. 66 and 67. It

is made of glass, the small bulb at one end is loaded with mercury or shot, and the expanded part of the tube above is to keep the instrument in an upright position. The hydrometer sinks to different depths according to the density of the liquid in which it is placed (270), and the point to which it Figs 66i 6? Hydrometers. sinks in distilled water at the standard temperature is marked
. .

1;

66
specific

PHYSICS.

weights above and below the unit are indicated on the is constructed to show the specific weight of any liquid, whether heavier or lighter than water, the unit (or the specific weight i) would be situated at about the middle of :he stem, but a hydrometer for heavy liquids only has the unit at the top, and one for light liquids at the bottom of the scale.
scale. If the instrument
278. There are several kinds of hydrometers (or areometers), some showing the specific weight, others wiih scales of arbitrary "degrees" of density,

some

for

heavy and others

for light liquids,

and several kinds for other special

uses, or for particular liquids, as alcohol, milk, syrup, urine, etc.

CHAPTER
The
tension of gases.

XIV.

pneumatic;
279.

We
if

have already seen that


Hence a

molecules of gases repel each other


They, therefore, expand indefinitely

(77). they find space to enter.

small amount of the gas formed by the burning of a sulphur match soon spreads its peculiar penetrating odor through a whole room.

The

force with which gases tend to expand


boils

is

called their

tension (280).

A liquid
the pressure

whenever

the tension of

its

vapor

is

sufficient to

the atmospheric pressure, which always happens at the


is

overcome same temperature if

the same.

280. Gases are easily compressed. The resistance offered by the gas against compression is its tension. The volume of a gas is inversely as Mariotte's Law. 281.

the pressure

it

sustains, at

any given temperature.

of the gas

the pressure to which the gas is subjected be doubled, the volume reduced one half; if the pressure be trebled the volume will be reduced to one-third; if the pressure be reduced one-half the volume of the gas

Thus

if

is

will be doubled, etc.

PHYSICS.

67
for equal incre-

Gases under equal pressure expand equally ments of temperature (Charles).

given mass of gas, measuring one

liter

pressure (287), will measure but one-half pheres (287).

liter

under the ordinary barometric under the pressure of two atmos-

282. The densities of gases are in direct proportion to the pressure to which they are subjected (281.)
283.
21

Atmospheric air
of

is

volumes

oxygen.

It

also contains small

a mixture of about 79 volumes of nitrogen and amounts of water vapor and

carbon dioxide. Among the chemical changes which substances are liable to undergo when in contact with the air are, therefore: oxidation, the absorption of moisture when the air is humid; the loss of moisture when the air is dry, and
the absorption of carbon dioxide.

284.

Atmospheric Pressure.

The

air,

obeying the law

of gravitation, exerts a pressure

every direction upon all bodies in contact with the terrestrial atmosphere. This pressure is equal to the weight of a column of liquid which it will sustain, and is very nearly equivalent to 15 pounds to each square inch of surface, or 1033 Gm. to each square centimeter.
in

At the

level of the sea the height of the

column

of

mercury

sus-

tained by the atmosphere averages 29.922 inches or 760 millimeters.

As

the atmospheric pressure


referred to in
at 760

is

measured by

the height of the

column

of

mercury

in the instrument called a barometer,

we

find the ordinary pressure

generally
285.

"barometer

When

terms such as "760 millimeters pressure," or m. m.," or " barometer at 30 inches." it is stated that the atmospheric pressure is equal to 30 inches

bv the barometer, the statement means that the weight of a column of air reaching from the earth's surface, at the level of mid-tide, to the upper limit of the atmosphere, equals the weight of a column of mercury 30 inches in height, the columns of air and of mercury being of the same area at the base. Hence it will be easily understood that the atmospheric pressure on high mountains, where the column of air is of less height, must be less, or must be balanced by a shorter column of mercury. It is further to be considered that
the air
is of greater density nearer the surface of the earth than higher up. level of the sea, the barometric pressure only 380 millimeters, or one-half the average pressure at the level, or the pressure of one-half atmosphere.

At a height of 4,355 meters above the


is

68
286.

PHYSICS.

The amount of moisture contained in the air also effects its density and pressure. The barometer rises with the humidity of the air, and falls when the moisture condenses and descends as rain or snow. As the humidity depends upon the temperature and movements of the atmospheric strata, the
barometer indirectly indicates changes
in the

weather.

287. sure.

Atmospheric pressure

is

also called barometric pres-

The ordinary atmospheric pressure, balanced by a column of mercury 760 millimeters (30 inches) in height, is " the pressure of one atmosphere;" the pressure of twice as high a column of mercury represents "the pressure of
two atmospheres,"
etc.

288.

Weight

of the

Atmosphere.
it

The atmosphere must

weigh about

six quadrillion tons, for

equals a layer of mercury

covering the entire surface of the globe to the depth of 30 inches, and the specific weight (47) of mercury is 13.6. The air in a room 12^2 feet long, 10 feet wide and 10 feet high weighs nearly 100 pounds. But the pressure of the air, which amounts to about 289. As 15 pounds to the square inch, is not a downward pressure. in the case of liquids it is a pressure distributed in every
direction.
All

(253 to 255.) bodies on the earth's surface sustain this pressure.

The

human body, which has

a surface of about 2,000 square inches,

must, therefore, sustain a pressure equal to about 15 tons, but we do not feel it because it is precisely what is required for our well-being.

Were

this pressure to

be removed the result would be destructive to us.

The weight of a body is in no degree added to 290. by the pressure of the atmosphere. In fact, we have already learned that all bodies are pushed upward when surrounded by, or immersed in, the air. The Barometer. Figure 68 represents an 291.

Fi^Tes.

instrument called a barometer. It is designed to indicate the atmospheric pressure. The tube, closed at one end, is filled with mercury and then inverted in a vessel also containing mercury. In the ordinary barometer the lower end of the inverted tube is expanded and bent upward, which renders a separate vessel for the mercury superfluous. The mer-

'HYSICS.

69

cury runs out until the column remaining in the tube measures This proves that a column 29.922 inches, or 760 milimeters.
of mercury of that height balances a column of air of the same

diameter reaching through the whole atmosphere from the


of the sea as far up as the atmosphere reaches.

level

Height of the Atmosphere. It was formerly sup292. posed that the atmosphere was about 45 miles high but it is now considered probable that it is at least 100 miles. But, as the height of the mercury of the barometer is only 15 inches when the instrument is taken upon a mountain -^A miles above the level of the sea, it follows that one-half of the whole ocean of air contained in the atmosphere must lie within a distance of 3^ miles from the earth's surface. A column of water equal to the atmospheric pressure 293. would measure 34 feet, the mercury being 13.6 times as heavy
;

as water.

The pneumatic inkstand, represented by fig. 69, 294. operates upon the principle that the atmospheric pressure
sustains the ink in the inkstand.

Whenever

the ink in the

tube of the bottle comes below the level of the curve a bubble
of air enters and forces a portion of ink out into the tube.
295.
Fig. 70 also
If

A.
Fig. 69.

illustrates
fill

the pressure of the

atmosphere.

you

a tumbler with water

and

place a thick sheet


of paper over the
top,

pressing
the

down
tightly,

paper
invert

and then
the

cautiously
the

tumbler,

water will not run Fig. 70. out because the atmospheric pressure upward keeps the paper in its place and prevents the entrance
of air into the tumbler.

296.

In a Pipktte, which

is

the

name

of the instrument
the atmospheric

shown in figs. 71 to 75, upward pressure prevents

the liquid in the tube from running out.

70

PHYSICS.

Plunge the instrument into a vessel of water, holding ihe long tube vertically; the bulb is filled, close the upper end with the finger, and then withdraw the pipette out of the vesse.. The water remains in the pipette. Now take the finger off the upper end of the tube so that air can enter; there will then be atmospheric pressure from above as well as from below, and, consequently, the water will run down by its own weight.

when

The Siphon. Another very useful instrument, operat297. ing by atmospheric pressure, is the familiar siphon. It consists of a bent tube, open at both ends, with one limb longer than

Fig. 76.

Fig.

77-

the other.
of

The tube may be


;

wood or metal

or

it

when made of glass may be elastic, as when consisting


rigid, as

or
of

rubber hose. If the short limb be immersed in a vessel of liquid and the whole tube filled with liquid by suction at the end of the longer limb, the weight of the liquid in both limbs would tend to cause a downward flow; the atmospheric upward pressure would prevent the liquid from running out if both limbs of the syphon were of the same length; but as one limb is longer the weight of the liquid in that limb is greater than that of the liquid

PHYSICS.

the other limb, and hence the liquid in the longer limb descends while the atmospheric pressure upon the liquid in the vessel forces the liquid up into the shorter limb, since otherwise there would be a vacuum in the siphon, which can not be.
in

To start the syphon it may be filled with the liquid, both ends 298. being closed with the finger ends before placing it in its position, with the short limb in the vessel containing the liquid, and the longer limb in the
vessel into which the liquid or a portion of
it is

to be transferred.

299. The syphon will continue to run until the level of the liquid in the vessel in which the shorter limb is placed descends below the end of the tube, or until the level of the liquid in both vessels coincide should they be so placed
as to lead to that result.

The end of the limb from which the liquid flows must always be below the surface of the liquid in the vessel from which the
300.

current comes.

Spritz

bottles

are

made

by figs. 78 and 79. Air is blown into the bottle through the tube A and
as represented
of the

the pressure thus brought to bear

on the surface

water causes

a stream to flow through B.

Any
bottle,

ordinary wide-mouthed
the

with a well-fitting stopper


glass

twice perforated for


tubes,

be used. The end of the glass tube B should be drawn


to a

may

point so as to

contract

its

orifice

enough

to

produce a small
Figs. 78

stream.
301.
to

and

79.

Atomizers

consist of two tubes placed in such a position relative

each other that a

jet of air

blown through one of them passes over and near


is

the

mouth

of the other.

One

the blast tube, the other the suction tube dip-

ping into a bottle of liquid. A strong current of air blown through the blast tube carries the air along its path with it so as to cause a rarefaction in the other tube, diminishing the atmospheric pressure in it so that the atmospheric
pressure in the bottle will raise the liquid to the
current of air from the other tube will blow
it

mouth

of the tube

where the

into fine spray.

Space void of matter is called vacuum. The 302. Vacuum. space above the mercury in the barometer tube is the most per-

'HYSICS.

feet

vacuum

that can be produced;

it is

called the

Torricellian

vacuum
But a closed vessel may be deprived
of nearly all the air
it

contains by

means of an air pump, and in certain pharmaceutical processes a vacuum appa atmospheric ratus, vacuum pans, etc., are employed with the view to remove with pressure and to avoid the chemical changes liable to result from contact
the constituents of
air.

303.
for

The

Air

Pump. Fig.
shown

removing the
"The
receiver, R,

air

from a closed

80 represents an apparatus vessel, the sections of its

principal parts being


is

in fig. 81.

connected with the cylinder, C, by a long bent tube,


brass plate.

terminating

in a horizontal

The mouth

of the receiver

and

the

surface of the brass plate are carefully ground so as


to bring at

them

in

contact
greased,

every point.

The edge
is

of the receiver

so as to

make

the joint as

tight as possible."

'When

the piston

is

raised from the bottom of


the cylinder, the external
air closes the

upper valve;
the

the air in the receiver ex-

pands, opens
valve and
der.
fills

lower

the cylinis

When
and
is

the piston

depressed, the lower valve


closes,

the air in the

cylinder
the

forced through

upper valve out into

the atmosphere.

As

the

piston again rises, the up-

per valve

is

closed, "the lower valve opens

and the confined

air

expands into

the cylinder.

At every ascent and descent of the piston, a portion of air is tenremoved from the receiver, and this process may be repeated until the lower valve. The sion (279) of the air remaining is not sufficient to lift the
receiver
is

then said to be exhausted."

PHYSICS.
|Il3|
.ill

73

"The
I]

tension of the air in the receiver

is

111.

measured by a gauge which consists of a bent tube leading from the receiver to a vessel of The external air forces the mercury mercury, H up the gauge in proportion as the tension of the
.

air in the tube is diminished.

If

the exhaustion

SO

wli^
Fig.

mercury would rise to about 30 The height of the gauge indicates the inches. difference between the pressure of the atmosphere
were
perfect, the

and the tension

of the air in the receiver."


fig. 81,

"The

air

pump

is

also provided with a stop cock, S,

to close the

communication between the cylinder, and receiver when required. The stopper, A, is used to admit the external

A third valve, T, is usually placed in the top of the cylinder to prevent the external air from
air to the receiver.

pressing on the piston."

304. The Magdeburg Hemispheres are two hollow brass hemispheres fitting together by an air tight joint, as shown in fig. 82. When joined together, the air can be

exhausted from the globe by means of an air pump. The hemispheres will now be pressed together by atmospheric pressure, or with a force of 15 pounds to the square inch. With a diameter of three inches, the area of the section would be seven inches, and hence it would require a force of over 100 pounds to pull the hemispheres apart.

CHAPTER

XV.

THEORIES AND SOURCES OF HEAT.


305. Heat is that mode of molecular motion which may be measured by the expansion of bodies, or which manifests itself, under certain conditions, by the sensations of "warmth" and

"cold."
306. " Heat " and " cold " are only relative terms. A room, the atmosphere of which seems " hot" to one person, may seem chilly to another. If you hold one hand in cold water and the other in hot water, and then suddenly transfer both hands to water which is neither hot nor cold, you will Therefore, cold is not the oppofind the sensations in your hands reversed. site of heat, but only a lower degree of heat. 307. That heat is a mode of motion is now the universally accepted

74
theory.

PHYSICS.

Nevertheless, a definition or description of what heat really is, or what distinguishes it from other modes of molecular motion, is far more diffi-

cult than to describe

what heat

does.

308.

Heat expands

bodies, or increases their volume, or

reduces their density, or overcomes their cohesion, or increases the distances between their molecules all of which statements

mean

the

same

thing.

This effect of heat is resisted by cohesion (55), and may also be opposed by pressure. When heat is applied to any substance a portion of that 309. heat increases the temperature (314) of the substance, while

another portion increases its volume, and may, if a sufficient quantity of heat is adduced, turn solids into liquids and liquids
into gases.

Active heat, or sensible heat is that heat which 310. increases the temperature of bodies and has the power to cause
their expansion. sion of " heat "
It
if

produces upon men and animals the impresis

the heat motion

rapid, or of " cold "

if

the
it

motion be
energy
311.

less rapid.
in

causes the mercury


in the kinetic

Having the power to expand bodies It the thermometer (321) to rise.


(232).

is

form

work

of

Latent Heat is that heat which has performed the expanding the volume of matter and which keeps up

It performs "interior work" in separating the molecules of the body from each other, and while performing that work can not at the same time do other work, and it, therefore, can not cause the mercury in the thermometer to riseLatent heat is a form of potential energy (231).

this expansion.

Heat rendered latent is, of course, not lost or destroyed (34 and 67). It can be released again, or recovered, in precisely the same amount of energy, or as active heat, by the compression of the body it expanded. If a quantity of broken ice be placed in a dish and the dish placed 312. over the fire, the ioe will melt, but a thermometer placed in the mixture of
water and ice will not vary its indication of temperature; the mercury will remain at zero C. (32 F.) until all the ice has been melted. If the heat be continued the temperature of the water will now, since the ice has all been melted, rise water will now until it reaches 100 C. (212 F ), and there it will stop again the
;

boil

and the temperature

will

remain stationary

until the water

is

vaporized,

PHYSICS.

75
boil-

and

the vapor

formed

will be

found

to

have the same temperature as the

ing water.
fire under the vessel warm the contents above o C. melted? Why does it afterwards raise the temperature of the water rapidly up to ioo C. and no further ? Because all the heat communicated to the ice was utilized in performing the interior work referred to in the preceding paragraph and therefore could not at the same time increase the temperature of the ice (solid water); but the heat afterwards communicated to the water did not do any interior work but At the raised the temperature instead until the boiling point was reached. boiling point the water could no longer exist in a liquid state, because the tension of its vapor at that temperature is greater than the atmospheric pressure and the continued application of heat, therefore, resulted in the vaporization of the water, all the heat now communicated doing " interior work" again in overcoming cohesion (55).

Why

does not the

until after all the ice is

313.
liquids.

Similar results follow the application of heat to other solids and


solid

Any given
the same.

always melts

at the

same temperature

if

the pressure be

Any

given liquid always boils at the same temperature, provided the

pressure be the same.

Hence any given fusible solid has its own specific melting point (376); any given vaporizable liquid has its own specific boiling point (392); and any vaporizable solid, which does not melt before it vaporizes, always volatilizes at the same temperature. But different substances generally have different melting points, different congealing points (382), and different boiling points.
314.
ture.

Temperature.

The intensity of heat


it

is

called temperain the vol-

It is

measured by the expansion


all

produces

umes of bodies (320). The molecules of


all

matter are

in

continual motion, and

Increased intensity of heat motion means bodies have heat. a higher temperature, and slower molecular motion means a correspondingly lower temperature.

The old theory of heat regarded heat as "imponder315. able matter," or matter without weight. But there can be no matter without weight, for matter is nothing else but
that which
It
is

weighable.

that turning a solid into a liquid by the aid of heat was to add heat to the solid, the result of this union of two things being a liquid; and that by adding more heat to the liquid a gas was prcduced. It was further said

was thought

76

PHYSICS.

that the gas could be turned into a liquid again by taking

and that liquids were turned into solids


are reduced in

The strongest confirmation for this volume by pressure, heat

away heat from it, same way. theory was the fact that when bodies
in the
is

generated.

It

looked as

if

heat

could be squeezed out of the matter. But the " sensible" or " active " heat which makes
the

its

appearance when

volume
its

of a

body

is

diminished by pressure
is

is

pre-existing energy maniof plants

festing

presence by

new phenomena.
the source of
the energy
all

The Sun, which 316. and animals, and of nearly


greatest source of heat.
of the globe.

the energy of the

life

The total and twenty-nine million times that which reaches our earth. The fixed stars also send radiant heat to the earth. As our vast coal beds are formed from vegetable growths, they represent stored up potential energy derived from the
sun.

employed in mechanics, is also the It is the first source of most of the available heat heat emitted by the sun is two thousand one hundred
all

Heat

is

also stored

up

in

the interior of the earth.

317.
Fire

Friction, percussion

and compression produce

heat.

be produced by rubbing two pieces of wood against each other; savages produce fire in that manner. The composition on the end of matches If you rub a piece of metal against a ignites by comparatively light friction.

may

stone

it

gets hot.

piece of steel held against a rovolving dry grindstone not

only gets hot, but sends incandescent particles of steel flying from it. A piece of wrought iron may be hammered until red hot. A single blow explodes a mixture of potassium chlorate and sulphur, and the composition in
a percussion cap.
piece of tinder fastened to the end of the piston of a strong glass syringe be ignited by suddenly driving the piston into the tube; this result is caused by the great amount of heat liberated when the air is compressed.

may

Chemism also produces heat. 318. Whenever any two kinds of matter react upon each other chemically (319), heat is evolved. The amount of heat thus liberated is constant for any given
reaction.
Electricity is also generated by chemical action,

and heat may be

also produced

by

electricity.

Combustion is chemical action, and is one of the main 319. direct sources of heat available to man. But heat is liberated in very large amounts, even by chemical reactions, which are not accompanied by flame or light, as when diluted sulphuric acid and water of ammonia are mixed, or when lime is slaked by pouring water upon it. But the relations of heat to chemism will be referred to again further on
(536).

physics.

77

CHAPTER
320.

XVI.

THERMOMETRY.
Temperature (314) is measured by instruments called thermometers. These are so constructed that the expansions and contractions caused by changes in the temperature can be easily seen and expressed.
The substances most used
air, all of

aa indicators are
sufficiently

which respond readily and

mercury, alcohol, metal and regularly to the changes in


so universally employed,
is

the velocity of heat vibration.


321. The mercurial thermometer, which constructed as follows
:

is

extremely fine calibre capillary canal lower extremity into a bulb (fig. S3). The bulb and part of the tube are filled with pure mercury, after which the air is carefully expelled and the upper end of the tube closed. The instrument is then inserted into pounded ice, and the point at which the top of the mercury then stands is marked. The next step is to suspend the tube in the steam rising from pure 2| 2 boiling water in such a way that it is completely fo^ l92 surrounded by it. This causes the mercury to rise
It

consists of a glass tube of


at its

expanded

m\
,,,/L,

in the tube until


it

it

reaches a certain point at which


fixed.

17

stops

and remains

This point

is

also

f||F

152

marked. The interval between these two points is now graduated into 100, 180, or 80 equal spaces (or intervals, called degrees) according to whether the scale is to be that of Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Reaumur. The scale of degrees is, therefore, based upon the melting point and boiling point of water.
322.
ter.

^P

is

132
112

p
_,

92
72

3|fj

20

Ill
TdJIP

52

32

The

The Centigrade Thermomethermometer scale devised by

Celsius (Fig. 85) is deservedly esteemed the most simple, rational, and worthy of
universal adoption.
It is

called the centi-

grade thermometer because the interval beFigs, 84, 85. tween the melting and boiling points of water is divided into one hundred degrees (or equal spaces). The scientific simplicity

78
of this

PHYSICS.

thermometer

as

compared with others has


(325)
is

led to

its

almost
use for
is

universal employment in science. Although Fahrenheit's thermometer


ordinary purposes
in

the one in general

the United States, the centigrade thermometer

used

by our chemists and

in the

Pharmacopoeia.

On the centigrade scale the freezing point (or, rather, melting point) of water is denominated zero (= o ), and the boiling point consequently + ioo, The degrees above zero are the positive (+) degrees, and those below it, which are made of equal length on the scale, are called negative ( ) degrees.
323.

the

324.

On Reaumur

'$

scale the freezing point


8o.

is

also zero, or

0% but the boiling point is + equal to five degrees C, and 8o\ C. c 100 :: R.
c
: :

Thus four degrees R. are

In order, therefore, to convert any

number
f;

of

degrees R.
to

to the

corres-

ponding number multiply by .

of

degrees

C,

multiply by

and

convert from C. to R.,

Fahrenheit's thermometer (Fig. 84), which is almost 325. exclusively used by the people of the United States and Great
Britain, has the freezing point

marked + 32% and the


boils
is

interval

divided into 180 equal spaces (instead of 100 as in the centigrade thermometer). Thus + 32 F. equals + o C, and 100' C. equals (32 4180 F. Nine degrees on Fahrenheit's scale occupy ) + 212 the same distance, relatively, as five degrees on the centigrade
at

between

this point

and that

which water

scale.

But

to convert F."

into C.

it

will not

answer

to multiply the

number

of

degrees F. by % until after 32 has been deducted from the number, for C : c 100 (F. 180, or 9 C.= 5 (F 32) 32); and in converting C. into F. the number of degrees C. must first be multiplied by and then 32 added to the
: :

product.

The

rule, then, for

reducing thermometric degrees from C. to F.


is

is

Multiply by and add 32, and the rule for reducing Fahrenheit's degrees to Centigrade

Deduct 32 and multiply the remainder by -f 326. Mercury thermometers are made to indicate temperatures from 30 F. to 4- 600 F. At very high temperatures, however, the scales are liable to vary from each other somewhat, for want of an unexceptionable natural

PHYSICS.

79

standard by which they may be corrected. When sealed at the top a good mercury thermometer can not be made to indicate temperatures above +580' F as the mercury may boil above that point. But the most accurate /gk 35" C. and a little instrument indicates correctly only degrees between over -+- 200' C.
,

327.

As the freezing point

of alcohol

is

much lower

than the freezing point of mercury alcohol thermometers (or " spirit thermometers") are used for measuring verylow temperatures. The alcohol in the tube is usually colored red so that the readings

may

te easier.
328.

Pyrometers are metallic thermometers, or instruments by


is

which temperature
metals.

measured by the

linear

expansion of bars of
very

They

are

of various

forms, but their indications are

uncertain.

329. Air thermo7iieters are very sensitive, and the most reliable thermometer known is Regnault's air thermometer; but it is too complicated to be described in such a book as this, and is used only for special scientific determinations and comparisons.

Laboratory thermometers used for measuring high 330. temperatures of liquids, in chemical and pharmaceutical work, are constructed somewhat differently from those intended for ordinary purposes. They are long and slender, of exceedingly fine bore, and have very small bulbs (Fig. 86). The advantages gained by these conditions are
that the divisions on their scales are larger and, therefore, Fig.

more

accurate, and the instrument readily attains the temperit

ature of any liquid in which


affecting
it.

is

plunged, without materially


ones.

Small thermometers

nal diameter

are, as a

slender tubes of small inter-

rule,

more accurate than larger

,.

80

PHYSICS.

CHAPTER
331.

XVII.

ABSOLUTE HEAT AND SPECIFIC HEAT.


It has been temperature indicated by all thermometers are based upon the constant temperatures of boiling water and melting ice under the pressure of one atmosphere. But these degrees do not tell us how much heat a body con-

Absolute

Heat and

Specific Heat.

shown

(321) that the arbitrary degrees of

tains.

Thus the zero point does not indicate absence of heat, nor does a temperature of ioo indicate that a body at that temperature contains 100 times as much heat as it contains when at 1", nor that boiling water is twice as hot
as water at 50.

Bodies have been cooled


(332).

to

220"

F. without reaching the absolute zero

Absolute Temperature. Air and other gases ex332. pand uniformly with equal increments of temperature (364). Air thus expands to the extent of ^4-j of its volume for every added degree according to the centigrade scale. Therefore air of _|_273 C. occupies twice as much space as is occupied by the same amount (by weight) of air at o C. Below zero the volume of the air is diminished in the same ratio, so that if it be cooled to 273 C. its volume must theoretically be reduced

to nothing provided

it

remains

in

a gaseous state; but the air

becomes a solid long before that temperature is reached, and it would then no longer obey the law of Charles (33s). It is assumed, however, from the foregoing, and for other more conclusive reasons, that at 273 C. all bodies become That point is, therefore, called absolute entirely devoid of heat. zero, and temperature counted upward from absolute zero is On this scale all temperatures would called absolute temperature.
be positive
333.
{323.)

mass
its

of Charles is that the volume of a given gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to absolute temperature.

The law

(7) of

PHYSICS.

334.

The
is

ity for heat as

its capacSpecific heat of a body is compared with that of an equal volume of water.

the ratio of

As water
1,

the standard comparison the specific heat of water

is

of course

and the

specific

heats of the other bodies are expressed in water units,

just as specific

weights are also expressed in water units.

The amount of heat 335. Thermal Units, or heat units. necessary to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree C. is called the unit of heat, or thermal unit.
It

follows that the

number

of thermal units necessary to raise the tem-

perature of any given body one degree expresses the specific heat of that body.

(Heat units are also sometimes called

calories.)

336. The temperatures of equal masses of different substances are not raised equally by equal amounts of heat. If equal weights of mercury, alcohol and water are exposed to the same heat, the mercury will rise 30 while the alcohol rises 2 and the water 1.
,

In other words,

it

requires 30 times as

much

heat to raise the temperature of

water one degree as it takes to raise the temperature of the same quantity of mercury one degree and it takes twice as much heat to raise the temperature c of a kilogram of water from 0 to i C. as is required to raise the temperature of a kilogram of alcohol from zero to 1 C.
;

337.

But the

specific heat of

all

solids

and

liquids,

and of
;

most
8o,

of the gases, increases slightly with the temperature.


at o C. has the specific

Thus water
1.0035.

heat

water at 40

C,

1.0013

at

Liquids usually have a higher specific heat than solids and gases. The heat of water is almost double that of ice, and a little more than twice the specific heat of steam. 338. Water possesses a greater capacity for heat than any other subspecific

stance except hydrogen.


It

requires

more heat

to

warm

it,

and gives out more heat

in cooling

through a given range of temperature. The same quantity of heat that raises the temperature of one kilogram of water from 0 C. to 100 C. heats one kilogram of iron from 0 to 800 or 900 C, or above red heat.

as

is

The heat lost in cooling is precisely the 339. required to raise the same body through the
Therefore,

same amount same number

of degrees.

when

equal weights of different substances are heated to the


ice
If

same temperature and then placed on ice, the amount of proportion to the number of thermal units they contain.

melted

will

be in

a given weight of

boiling water will melt one


will melt \, iron \,

pound of ice, an equal weight and mercury -fa of a pound of ice.

of sulphur of ioo' C.

340.
will

If

same quantity
be
Thus

one kilogram of water at ioo C. be mixed with the of water at o C, the temperature of the mixture

uu^iftf

= 50

by the boiling water is precisely the same amount as that gained by the ice water. But this simple result does not follow when
the heat lost
different substances are mixed.

341.

The high

specific heat of

ity of large bodies of

water explains why the vicinwater produces such a decided effect in


the

moderating climate.
Lake Michigan makes warmer.

summers

of

Chicago cooler, and

its

winters

CHAPTER

XVIII.

DISTRIBUTION" OF HEAT.

Heat may be conveyed from Distribution of Heat. to another not only when they are in contact, but also when there is a distance between them. In the former case the heat is transmitted either by conduction or by convections in the
342.

one body

latter

by

radiation.

a piece of metal be heated at one readily observe that the heat gradually spreads throughout the whole mass. The same transmission of heat

343. point, we

Conduction. If

may

takes place when two bodies of different temperatures are brought into intimate contact with each other; the temperature of the colder body increases, while that of the warmer decreases, until both have attained the same degree (382). This is called the conduction of heat, and the heat motion is communicated from molecule to molecule. The rapidity with which heat is conducted from -nole34.4.

PHYSICS.

83

cule to molecule varies in different substances;

but the ten-

dency to an equalization of temperatureis universal. Any body having a higher temperature than surrounding bodies, will sooner or later impart to them some of its heat, until all have attained the same rate of molecular vibration. 345. The power of any body to conduct heat is generally proportional to its density. Metals and stones are good conductors of heat; they quickly become heated, and as quickly cooled, and are commonly designated as cold bodies. Porous substances, like wood, wool, cotton, are poor conductors of heat; they are less readily made hot, retain their temperature longer than the good conductors of heat, and are called warm bodies. Liquids and gases are almost non-conductors. Feathers, fur, and wool owe their non-conducting properties largely to the air confined between their fibres and meshes. 346. The conducting power of a body may be judged of to some extent
by the sense of touch. In cold weather stones and metals feel colder to the touch than glass, resin, wood, water or air, and in the summer the same stones and metals feel hotter than the other objects. Oil cloth on the floor is colder in winter and warmer in summer than a woolen carpet.
347. Cooking utensils, such as kettles, pans, etc., and the vessels used by pharmacists and chemists for heating liquids, are made of good conducEarthen ware, porcelain tors of heat, such as metals, as far as practicable. and glass, only, are used for ihese purposes, because many substances attack metals and are themselves affected by contact with metals. Silver has a very high thermal conductivity, and copper is also an excellent conductor; iron is far inferior to either.

means

Poor conductors are extremely valuable, both as a 348. of preventing the escape of heat, and to exclude heat.

Thus, if a vessel containing a hot liquid or vegetables put in boiling water, be covered and placed in a wooden box lined with felt, and the box tightly Shrubs and closed, the high temperature will be retained for many hours. Snow proplants are wrapped in straw to prevent the escape of their heat. Furnaces would be tects vegetation from the extreme cold of winter. useless without the fire brick which, being made of non-conducting material, Clothing keeps the heat of our bodies in and keeps the cold retains the heat.
of the air out.

Animals

in cold regions are protected


is

349.

Convection

by their fur and down. the transmission of heat vibration by

the motion of masses of molecules in currents.

84

PHYSICS.
Convection, therefore, occurs only
in liquids

and gases,

in

which currents

Hot or warm liquids and gases It depends upon gravitation. are possible. are lighter or less dense than colder liquids or gases; and lighter fluids rise to If, therefore, heat is the top while the denser fluids sink to the bottom. applied under a kettleful of water, that portion of the water, which is first
heated
will
rise to the surface, while other

portions of water take

its

place,

and currents are thus established

in the liquid,

which materially aid

in diffus-

ing the heat through the whole mass. A fire in a grate heats the air above it and the heated air rises through the chimney, while a new supply of air takes
its

place creating a draft.

In all cases where currents are thus established in fluids by the 350. application of heat at the bottom of the liquid or gas, the currents are in opposite directions, the heated fluids rising upward while the cooler portions flow in

downward currents. The lower strata


equally in
all

of air are

warmed by

the earth

and then

rise,
is

the colder

strata descending to take their place.

Moreover, as the earth

not heated

places, horizontal currents are established in opposite directions,

which we

call

winds.

Ventilation is intimately connected with the convec351. Ventition of heat and the opposite currents established by it.
lation
is

the removal of vitiated air from rooms, shops and other,

confined spaces, and the supplying of fresh air to take its place the object being to maintain the atmosphere in a state of purity.
In apartments occupied by
respiration, the
place.
is

men

or by animals the air becomes vitiated by

oxygen

of the air being

consumed, carbon dioxide taking

its
it

An

adult

man

inhales about fourteen cubic feet of air per hour; but

not enough that the amount of air in the apartment be sufficient for the The air inhaled must be pure at inhalation of fourteen cubic feet per hour. any and all times, and this requires a constant supply of fresh air and a constant escape of the vitiated air. The combustion of oil or gas for illumination also

consumes oxygen, and

thus vitiates the atmosphere of a room.


at the

a window is opened to produce a change of air, it should be opened because the cold, fresh air entering near the ceiling diffuses through the whole room, while the foul air being warm, escapes. The air in a room is warmest at the ceiling. Hence, in a drug store, substances which are liable to be injured by the higher temperature in the upper strata of the atmosphere of the room should not be kept on the top shelves.

When
top,

Radiation of heat. The heat which is diffused 352. through space from the sun reaches the earth by radiation.

PHYSICS.

85

In order to be able to explain or understand how heat and light 353. can be received by us from the sun, it is necessary to assume that the space

which separates the terrestrial atmosphere from the sun can not be empty, for motion can not be communicated by nothing or through empty space. It is. therefore, assumed that there is a medium, which has received the name of ether, capable of communicating motion, and occupying all of the otherwise unoccupied space in the universe. Ether is accordingly supposed to penetrate between all molecules of matter. Ether is not matter; it can not be weighed nor measured. It can not be seen, heard, felt, tasted nor smelled. But its existence is assumed because the phenomena occurring in nature can not be accounted for on any other supposition, while they are explainable on the hypothesis that an ethereal medium exists which is capable of transmitting motion. These phenomena occur in just such a manner as they must occur if all space were filled with such a medium. 354. Sound, light and heat are transmitted through the medium of ether, and are, therefore, referred to as forms of radiant energy. They are communicated by a wave-like, vibratory motion, and this theory of wave-action is
called the undulatory theory.

All the

phenomena

of light

and

of radiant heat

show a remarkable analogy.

Heat radiates in straight lines in all directions, and the 355. intensity of radiant heat is inversely as the square of the distance from
that source.
its

source and proportional to the temperature of

power of emitting black has the highest radiating power known, and polished metals are the poorest radiators of heat. A bright silver tea-pot filled with hot liquid retains its temperature longer than one of earthenware.
356.

Different bodies vary greatly in the

radiant heat.

Lamp

Steam pipes for heating buildings should be kept bright until they reach rooms where the heat is to be diffused; there they should be coated with lamp black to increase their radiating power. 357. Heat is reflected by all substances which are good
the

reflectors of light.
light,

Thermal rays are

also refracted like rays of

but the thermal rays are of different refrangibility and wave length (4 21 )-

Transparent bodies generally transmit heat as well as light from the sun, but they do not transmit equally the heat rays from artificial sources.

86

PHYSICS.

the

The heat from same thickness

the sun

warms

the

room through the window-glass, but

of glass intercepts the heat from the fire-place.

Different substances transmit heat unequally, and absorb heat

Heat rays which are absorbed increase the temperature of the bodies which absorb them; rays which are transmitted or reflected do not warm them.
unequally.

CHAPTER

XIX.

THE EXPANSION- OF BODIES BY HEAT.

The first and universal effect of heat upon most bodies 358. is to increase their volume (309). This expansion of a body by heat is the result of a widening of the disHeat motion increases the iutertances between the molecules of the body. molecular spaces, and thus overcomes cohesion.
Numerous easy experiments might be described here to prove that 359. heat expands matter; but you can doubtless invent some yourself, and I will,
therefore, only refer to a few familiar examples.

The mercury
of temperature,

or alcohol in the thermometer (320) expands with an increase and contracts with a reduction of it.

The rails of a railroad are of necessity laid in such a manner that their ends are not in actual contact even in hot summer weather; if they were laid without any space between their ends they would expand under the influence In cold weather there is of the heat from the sun so as to bend out of shape. considerable space between the ends of the rails. A metal ball or cylinder which, when cold, passes through but nearly fills a metal ring will not pass through if heated. If you fill a tin cup to the brim with cold water and set it on a hot stove the water will run over when it becomes warm. If a glass stopper has been inserted into the neck of a bottle so tightly that it can not be removed in the usual way, you can loosen it by warming the neck of the bottle, for as the neck of the bottle expands the stopper will, of
course, no longer
fill it

so tightly.

PHYSICS.
[In doing this

87
is

remember
if

that only the neck of the bottle

to

be expanded
is

and not the stopper, for

you heat the neck so long that the heat

trans-

Moreover, take care that the heat be applied cautiously so that the glass may not break (365). The neck of the bottle may be heated by friction (317), which is easily applied by pulling back and forth a cord tightly wound around it.
mitted to the stopper, too, both will expand.

360. Force of Expansion and Contraction. Water expands for each degree F. with a force equal to ninety pounds to the square inch; i. e., it would require that amount of force to resist its expansion when its temperature is increased one

degree.

To compress
half a mile thick.

boiling water back to

its

volume

at the freezing point

require a pressure of one thousand atmospheres, or a layer of

would mercury almost

The expansion of solids and liquids by heat is unequal. Gases, however, expand equally and uniformly (364); under equal pressure their volumes increase in the same ratio with equal increments of temperature, and at equal temperature
361.

volumes are inversely as the pressure which they sustain and Charles). Gases, when their temperature is raised, expand more than solids and liquids.
their

(Boyle, Mariotte

Linear expansion (or linear dilatation) is expansion in one 362. direction only, as When a rod or an iron ra>'l is lengthened by an
increase of temperature.

363. Cubical expansion (or cubical dilatation) is expansion of volume. Solids, liquids and gases are all subject to cubical expansion and contraction as their temperature increases or
decreases.

Co-efficients of Expansion. By "co-efficient of 364. expansion " is meant the number which expresses the measure of the expansion of a body when its temperature is raised one degree. The ratio of expansion for gaseous bodies is 0.003663 (or -g-i-g) of their bulk for each degree C, or 0.002037 (or j-gV.?) This for each degree F., above the freezing point of water. means that the bulk of a gas is increased by 0.003663 (or jfo)

88

PHYSICS.

when

ics temperature is increased one degree by the centigrade thermometer, and by 0.002037 (or ^L-j) when it is raised one degree by Fahrenheit's scale. In the case of solids and liquids the ratio of expansion increases as the temperature rises. Unequal expansion by heat often results in the fracture 365. of brittle solids; that danger is greater the thicker the solid is,
is

and greatest when the thickness


Cast iron and gla^s,
the side to
side.

unequal.

when suddenly

heated, are liable to crack, because

which the heat is applied expands more rapidly than the other Sudden cooling has the same effect by causing unequal contraction. Thick vessels of glass, porcelain, wedgewood ware, etc., like graduates, mortars and bottles, and especially vessels of unequal thickness, are frequently Do not pour hot cracked by carelessly heating or cooling them suddenly. liquids in cold glass or eathenware vessels nor cold water in the same vessels when hot, and do not put a hot dish on a cold surface nor a cold one on a hot
surface.

366.

Expansion of Water. Water forms

the only excep-

tion to the rule that bodies


is

expand whenever their temperature increased, and contract whenever the temperature is lowered,
it

for the

and

maximum density of water is attained at 4 C, (39.2' expands both below and above that temperature.

F.),

If you fill two strong bottles completely with ice water, cork them tightly and tie the corks securely with wire, and then let one of them be exposed to such cold that the water will freeze, and warm the other, both will burst, because the water in both bottles will expand. Were it for the fact that ice is lighter than the water upon which it 367. is formed, ali those portions of the globe where the temperature in the winter season falls below the freezing point of water would be uninhabitable; for. if the solid water (ice) were heavier than liquid water, the ice would sink as fast as it is formed, and all the rest of the water would be gradually frozen to ice, until all the lakes and rivers were frozen solid from bottom to surface. The heat of summer would then be insufficient to melt the ice. But, as water is heavier at 4 C. than when it has any other temperature the water at the surface of the lakes and rivers, as soon as it is cooled down to + 4 C, sinks to the bottom, and the warmer water rises to take its place and to be in turn cooled to the same temperature, until the entire body of water has a temperature of + \' C. before any ice is formed, after which the ice formed on the surface, being lighter than the water below, remains floating.
t

At the per cent.

moment

of freezing, water suddenly increases in

volume about ten

39. 2 F.), water At its maximum density ( + 4 C. 368. 773 times as heavy (or dense) as air of o C; but water at 15 C. is 819 times as heavy as air of the same temperature.
is

Thus water and


temperatures.

air

expand very unequally with the increase

of their

369. Water freezes at o C. (32 F.), or under certain conditions several degrees below that temperature.
you boil some water (to expel the air from it), put it in a bucket or other and let it stand perfectly at rest, with a thermometer hanging down into it, allowing the water to cool slowly, the water may remain liquid until the thermometer indicates or C. But if you then suddenly stir the water around with the thermometer it will freeze at once, and its temperature will then at the same time rise to o, because the latent heat which the water absorbed in its expansion below o is liberated as it contracts to form ice at 0. The expansion which takes place when water freezes to ice at zero 370. "(C), bursts porous stones, and great rocks may be split by boring holes in them, filling these with water, plugging the opening tightly and allowing the
If

vessel

water to freeze.
Ice contracts more than any other solid upon being cooled. 371. 18 strong pressure ice may be rendered liquid even at

Under

uniformly 0 C. under the ordinary 372. atmospheric pressure. In thus passing from the solid to the liquid state, water takes up an amount of heat sufficient to raise the temperature of a like quantity of water from o to 79

The melting point

of ice is

373.
until
it

4" C. water continues to expand reaches the boiling point, which is at ioo C. (212 F.)

When

heated above

at the ordinary atmospheric pressure.

The

boiling point

is

lower under
Under

less pressure,

and higher under greater pressure.

+ 121 C,
of water
is

the pressure of two atmospheres the boiling point of water is at and under three atmospheresat +134 But on high mountains,

where the barometric

(or

atmospheric) pressure

is

less (285), the boiling point

correspondingly lower, so that the altitudes of mountains may be determined by the temperature at which water boils on their summits. Water evaporates (390) at all temperatures. 374.

Even

ice

gives off vapor.


to

This tendency of water

form vapor

is

its

tension (279)

which

in-

creases as the temperature increases, and can be accurately measured.

90

PHYSICS.

CHAPTER

XX.

RELATION OF TEMPERATURE TO THE THREE STATES OF AGGREGATION OF MATTER.


375. As the several states of aggregation of matter (68) depend greatly upon their temperature (314) we may look upon
solids as matter in a frozen condition, liquids as melted matter,

matter conthey fuse or melt at different temperatures and they boil or vaporize at different temperatures, according to their kind.
Different kinds of

and gases as vaporized matter.

geal or freeze to a solid mass at different temperatures


;

Hydrogen does not


state
;

exist at ordinary temperatures except in the

gaseous

requires great cold and pressure to condense it to a liquid, and 210 C. under a pressure equal to that liquid boils at the low temperature of

indeed

it

190 atmospheres, or at

140"

Alcohol
until at

is

a liquid at
;

130' C

under 650 atmospheres. ordinary temperatures, and does not freeze


C.

solid

but

it

boils at about 78 C. (172^.4 F.).

Theobroma or "Cacao Butter" is at the ordinary temperature a melts to a liquid by the warmth of your hand, and is frozen solid again a little below that temperature. But gold is frozen solid at a temperature exceeding 1,000 degrees above zero, according to the centigrade thermometer (322), or over i,8oo degrees by
Oil of
;

solid

it

Fahrenheit's scale.

Many solids can be changed into liquids by heat. 376. Their liquefaction by heat is called fusion; solids which melt or fuse when heated are said to be fusible, and the particular degree of temperature (314) at which a solid undergoes fusion is called its melting-point or fusing-point. Metal?, resins, fats, and many other solids are fusible. But there are also many infusible solids, as starch, gums, wood, carbon,
clay, eic

Ores which are either infusible, or melt only with extreme difficulty at extremely high temperatures, are called lefractory ores. Some solids when subjected to high heat " volatilize 377.

without fusion," or pass into a state of vapor without melting. Arsenous oxide, benzoic acid, gallic acid, calomel, and many other solid
substances volatilize and sublime (405) without fusing. Vaporizable solids are said to be volatile.

PHYSICS.

91

Softening by heat without fusion. Many substances 378. soften materially much below their melting point. Ointments, cerates and plasters, and the fatty substances and resins from which they are made, generally have that property. Other substances which do not fuse at all are, nevertheless, rendered soft, plastic, or pasty when heated, becoming hard again on cooling, as is the case
with

many

dry solid extracts.

There are many solids which are both fusible and 379. volatilizable; but there are other solids, which, although fusible,
can not be converted into vapor.

Fixed Substances are those which can not, by ordi380. nary means, be made to assume the gaseous state.
If a sufficiently intense heat could be applied, it is probable that all substances could be converted into vapor; but bodies which are not volatilized at

are said to be fixed.

by the means at our command, Fixed alkalies are the non-volatile hydrates of potassium and sodium, but ammonia is a volatile alkali. Most mineral substances are
the high temperatures which can be produced
fixed, as the metals, etc.
v

or

All liquids and gases can be turned into solids by cold 381. by pressure, or by both; but not all liquids can be converted
all solids

into vapor; nor can

382

Bodies

in

a state of fusion

be turned into fluids. reassume the solid state

after the application of heat has been discontinued and the usual equalization of temperature has taken place (343)heat at the

Certain substances, which solidify at high temperatures, liberate so much moment of solidification (or congelation) that they become glowing
is

throughout their mass. The temperature at which liquids solidify


or freezing point.
Theoretically, this point

called their congealing point nearly identical with, or but slightly below the degree at which the solid became liquid; but it frequently
is

happens that liquids retain their liquid state below that point,
they give off their latent heat place (369).
all

in

which case

at once,

when

solidification at last takes

383. Expansion at the Moment of Solidification That water expands with great force at the point of freezing we have already noted (370). Water pipes biurst in cold weather if the water in them is allowed to freeze. But some
metals, too,

expand when they


fill

mony and some

of their alloys.

casts because they

bismuth, antiSuch metals and alloys are used to make the molds so perfectly by their expansion that the casts
perfect.

solidify, as cast iron, tin, zinc,

become very sharp and

92

PHYSICS.

of silver, gold

Most substances, however, contract in the act of solidifying; thus coins and copper can not be cast in molds, but must be stamped.

384. A curious phenomenon connected with this subject is the fact that mixtures of solids produced by fusion, such as alloys of metals and fatty mixtures, frequently have lower fusing points than either of the constituents of Thus Rose's alloy, which consists of 4 parts of bismuth, I of the mixture. F.). A mixture of equal parts of lead, and I of tin, fuses at 94 C. (201 potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate melts at a lower temperature than
either salt separately.

385.

That
is

solids absorb heat (and render

it

latent) in

passing into the

liquid state

well illustrated in the solution of solids which take up so large


to greatly
is

an amount of heat as

lower the temperature of the solvent.

Whenever a
others.

solid

dissolved in any liquid, the solid must take up latent

heat in passing into the liquid state, but some solids take up more heat than
this by dissolving readily soluble salts in just accomplish their solution, and best by dissolving more than one salt in the same water; provided, of course, the salts used are such as da Thus if you dissolve equal parts of ammonium not decompose each other. chloride and potassium nitrate in barely sufficient water, you will observe that the temperature of the liquid falls rapidly, and the vessel as well as the solution becomes very cold. That is because the salts could not dissolve or become liquid without taking up heat, and they took this heat from the surrounding bodies from the water in which they were dissolved, and then from the vessel in which the solution was performed, and from the contiguous air, and when you grasped the vessel in your hand heat was abstracted from your hand, producing the sensation of cold.

You may

easily learn

enough water

to

386.

Freezing mixtures are

made on

this principle (385).

Some mixtures
cal-

of readily soluble salts with twice their weight of water depress the tempera-

ture about 20 degrees centigrade.

mixture of three parts crystallized

cium chloride with two paits of snow will cause mercury to freeze. The freezing mixture used in ice cream freezers consists of about two parts of snow and one part of common salt: this will produce a temperature of about F.). Another effective freezing mixture consists of five parts 20 C. ( hydrochloric acid and eight parts crystallized sodium sulphate. There are some substances which change from the solid to the 387.

liquid state or vice versa at

common
in

room-temperatures, as glacial acetic acid,


frozen solid
in

volatile oil of anise, oil of rose, etc.

and melt into liquids again


388.

They are warm room.

a cold room,

Numerous

liquids are vaporizable


is

by heat, and

if

the

temperature at which they vaporize the liquids are said to be volatile

not comparatively high

PHYSICS.
Water, alcohol, ether, benzin, gasolin, are vaporizable, and except water, are volatile liquids.
all

93
of them,

389.
ize at

Substances which are liquid only under pressure vaporonce upon the removal of the pressure. Ammonia, carbonic oxide, nitrous oxide, and several other gases are now
state in cylinders.

compressed into a liquid

vapor

slow conversion of bodies into Thus, we have seen (374) that water vapor will pass off even from ice.
390.

Evaporation.

The

may

take place at any temperature.

Volatile solids evaporate at ordinary temperatures,

as,

for

instance,

camphor, iodine and chloral. Water evaporates constantly. Evaporation under the ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure is sometimes called spontaneous evaporation.

The Rate of Evaporation increases with the tempera391. ture because heat increases the tension of vapors. It also varies
inversely with the pressure to which the evaporating liquid
is

subject, because greater pressure involves greater resistance to

the vapor tension.

Evaporation

is

far

more rapid

in a

vacuum

than in

air.

The rate of evaporation also depends upon the amount of vapor of the same kind already contained in the air into which the evaporation is going on. It is greatest when the air is free from vapor, and ceases when the air becomes saturated. Hence, if the air be changed frequently or continually, so that it can not become charged with too great a proportion of vapor, the evaporation will proceed more rapidly than if the air is stationary, and thus becomes saturated, or nearly so. In a breeze the evaporation of water from the surface of the earth is much more rapid than when the air is still. As evaporation can take place only at the surface of a liquid, the rate of evaporation also depends directly upon the extent of
surface exposed.
392. The temperature beyond which a liquid can not continue in a liquid condition without increased pressure is its

boiling point.
In other words, the boiling point of a liquid
it

is

the temperature at which

boils

or becomes rapidly converted

into vapor.

comparatively rapid

94

PHYSICS.
is

conversion of a solid or liquid into vapor at the boiling point


zation.

called vapori-

Boiling

is

often called ebullition.

The boiling point of a liquid depends upon the nature 393. of the liquid and upon the pressure of the superimposed air. 42^.44 C. ( ioS'4 F ); stronger ether at 37 C. Carbon dioxide boils at (g8.6 F.); alcohol at 78 C. (172. 4 F.); water at 100 C. (212' F.); mercury at

350 C. (662' F.); zinc at 1040" C. (1904 F.). Salts and other substances held in solution in the liquids generally raise the

boiling points of the latter.

Liquids of great density usually have higher boiling

If you points than lighter liquids, but there are many notable exceptions. compare the densities and boiling points of alcohol and ether, you will find

that the rule holds good; but


will observe that

if

although chloroform
it

you compare alcohol and chloroform, you is more than one and three-fourths

times as heavy as alcohol,


until 78" C.

boils at about 6i

C,

while alcohol does not boil

Saturated solutions of salts are often used to fix the 394. degree of temperature applied to vessels and their contents in laboratory operations, for saturated solutions have fixed boiling
points.

Thus a saturated
C. (354 F.).

solution of

common

salt

boils

at 108. 4 C. (227

F.);

one of potassium nitrate

at 115 .9 C. (240 F.); of

calcium chloride at 179.


boil does not retain the

But the water vapor formed when these solutions


high temperature of their boiling points.

The vapor in its Boiling points vary with the pressure 395. formation and continued existence must overcome all pressure from without which tends to condense it. As already stated the boiling point of a liquid is that temperature at which the tension of its vapor is greater than the pressure which it sustains.

The measure
in

of the atmospheric pressure must, therefore, be considered

the

determination and expression of boiling points.


to.

fixed boiling points, then, the boiling points

When we speak of under a pressure of one atmos-

phere (284) are the boiling points referred

water boils at ioo C. (212 F.); on Mount Blanc it boils at 84 C. (183. 2 F.); and in a " Papin's digester," which is a strong, hermetically closed metallic vessel, the temperature of water may be raised In a steam boiler the water to a very high degree without causing it to boil. may attain a temperature of over 200 C.

At the

level of the sea,

396.

The vapor formed from water

boiling under normal

pressure is of the same temperature as the boiling water, or ioo C. (212 F.). Under pressure, as when the steam is confined in boilers, pipes, coils, steam jackets, etc., the temperature

of the steam increases with the pressure.

But steam may be heated after it has been produced; it may be passed through pipes into a furnace and there heated to a very high temperature. It is then called superheated steam, or dry steam. In a vacuum water boils at the ordinary temperatures. 397.
If

a vessel of water of about 30

C. be placed in a glass bell

and the

bell

an air pump, the liquid begins to boil after a few strokes; but the ebullition soon ceases on account of the pressure produced by the vapor which takes the place of the abstracted air. As soon as this vapor is pumped out, ebullition again sets in. If a long-necked flask of uniformly thin glass be half filled with water, the water boiled a few minutes so that the air might be expelled and replaced by water vapor, and the flask then removed from the source of heat, and promptly and tightly corked, the ebullition at once subsides; but if this flask be now immersed in cold water up to the neck, the contents will again boil briskly. This is because the vapor contained in the upper part of the flask is condensed by the cold so that a vacuum is produced, thus removing the pressure and greatly lowering the boiling point.
then exhausted by

means

of

When a mixture of several liquids of different boiling 398. points is heated, it boils at a temperature somewhat above the boiling point of the most volatile constituent of the mixture.
You have read that whenever a liquid passes into the 399. gaseous state it takes up latent heat. This latent heat is called " the latent heat of vapors." It requires 5^3 times as much time to convert a given amount of water into vapor as it takes to raise that water from o.C. to 100 C, the heat applied being
about 537 C. (967" F.). Thus the latent heat of steam is 5^3X100 The same amount of heat that is necessary to evaporate one Gram of raise the temperature one of Gram of water 537 degrees water is sufficient to (centigrade), or to raise the temperature of 537 Grams of water one degree. alcohol vapor is heat of about igo.6C. (374.gF.). The latent That of
the same.

ether vapor

is

about 72.5 C, (i62.8

F.).

400.

Cold from Evaporation.

The heat

which

is

neces-

96

PHYSICS.
is

sary to convert a liquid into a vapor ing bodies.


This fact
is

taken from the surroundis

not noticed

in

vaporization by boiling because heat

con-

stantly applied to the vessel containing the boiling liquid.

But when evapit,

oration goes on at comparatively low temperatures the reduction of temperature

may

be readily observed in the liquid


air.

itself,

the vessel containing

and

the surrounding

shower cools the atmosphere because the water evaporates, and in doing so takes up heat from the air. If you put a small quantity of "stronger ether" in a watch crystal and let it evaporate at the temperature of the room, the ether will take up so much heat in its rapid evaporation that a drop of water on the other (convex) side of the watch crystal will be frozen to ice. When ether or alcohol evaporates from your hand a sensation of cold is produced. 401. When vapors are deprived of their latent heat they are
rain

immediately condensed, or return to the liquid state. Vapor can not pass into the liquid state without liberating heat. Steam heating is based upon this fact. The latent heat of steam,
together with most of
its

sensible heat,

is

available for heating purposes, as

it

must give off that heat in returning to the common temperature. Water is often heated to the boiling point in wooden tanks and
vessels by forcing steam into
it.

in other

402. Equal volumes volumes of vapor.

of different liquids

do not produce equal


is

The expansion
that of

of water in passing into the state of vapor

greater than

any other liquids. The value of steam as a source of mechanical power depends upon its expansive force. One cubic inch of water forms

nearly one cubic foot of water vapor or steam.

403.

Distillation consists in vaporizing liquids in suitable

stills, connected with condensers and receivers in such a manner that the vapor can be reconverted into the liquid state and thus collected, the object of the process being to sep-

vessels, called

arate volatile liquids from less volatile or fixed substances.

404.
It

Gases can be
until 1S78

condensed into liquids, or even into the

solid state,

by cold, or pressure, or both.


supposed that
air,

was

oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen were


i

incompressible, incoercible, or permanent gases,

e..

Lhat these gases

could

not be condensed into either the liquid or the soiid state.

But

all

gases have

now been

liquefied

and

solidified.

physics.
4.05.

97

Sublimation

is

the vaporization of solids

and the con-

densation of the vapor back to the solid state. 406. Distillation and sublimation are applied to the purification of substances resulting in the separation of volatile from
non-volatile matters.

CHAPTER
407.
Saturation of air with vapor. it contains as much of it as
said to be dry

XXI.
AIR.
be saturated with it can hold

TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY OF THE

The
it

air is said to

vapor when

can hold.

The quantity

varies with the temperature,

and with the kind

of vapor.

The atmosphere
of moisture,

is

and moist or

when it contains a relatively small quantity damp when it contains a greater quantity. But the

sensation of dryness or humidity does not correspond with the relative per-

whenever it is capable of absorbing much more moisture than it contains, and moist whenever it approaches the dew point, which depends greatly upon temperature. A warm air which feels dry may contain much more moisture than a cold air that feels moist. Ato C. the air can take up -^\^ part of its weight of water vapor; but for
centage of moisture, for the air feels dry

every increase of

n
F.

C.

its

capacity for moisture

about ii C.
as

(52

) it

may

contain

j\-g of its

the freezing point), and

at 22.22 or (72

is nearly doubled, so that at weight (or twice as much as at F.) it can absorb -^ (or three times

much
408.

as at zero C).

is cooled it must, therefore, be condensed (44) and deposited as dew, and the temperature just below the saturation point, or that temperature at which the moisture contained in the air can not all remain in a state of vapor absorbed by the air, is call the dew

The Dew

Point.

If air that is

saturated with moisture


it

can, of course, not retain

all of that

moisture; a portion of

point.

Whenever

the air
little

is

nearly saturated with moisture the

dew

point will

therefore be only a
fall

of temperature will
it

below the temperature of the atmosphere, and a slight cause dew to be formed, for it contains more moisture
saturated at the temperature of the

than

would contain

if

dew

point.

The

dew point is, therefore, lovvei when when its humidity is greater.

the air contains less moisture,

and higher

side

dew upon the outcontaining ice water will receive a deposit of its contents reach the which disappears again as soon as the vessel and thermometer placed in the water. dew'point, which mav be ascertained by a to saturation. The relative humidity of air is its degree of approach are the results of the Clouds, fog, dew, rain, frost, snow and hail 409. liquid and solid water. condensation of atmospheric moisture into a port.on of When a mass of warm, moist air strikes a colder mass of air, air is condensed to clouds of little warmer the in contained vapor water the gather and collapse, rain comes. bubbles of water filled with air; when these Condensed below of the earth. Fo*s are only clouds formed near the surface becomes white frost. Dew is deposited upon objects it

A vessel

the

freezing

point,

which are cooled after sundown. The temperature of the 410.

air is highest at the surface of the earth

and decreases as the height

of the

atmosphere increases.

snow altitude, therefore, the air is so cold that perpetual mountain tops. But the altitude at which snow and ice
according to latitude and
ditions.

Above a certain and ice cover the


never melt varies

The

depends, further, somewhat upon other conaltitude of perpetual snow and ice is fifteen times as great

at the equator, as

degrees. it is in a latitude of seventy-five The temperature and moisture of the air have a direct influence 411. with a high deathaccompanied upon health. Thus cold and moist weather is diphtheria and measles; cold weather, rate from rheumatism, heart diseases, and other diseases of the with a high death-rate from bronchitis, pneumonia with suicide and smallrespiratory organs; cold and dry weather is attended bowel complaints; and pox; hot weather brings with it a high death-rate from

warm, moist weather exhibits greater mortality from


fevers.

scarlet

and typhoid

CHAPTER
LIGHT.
AI2.

XXII.

Light

is

that

mode

of

motion which

affects the optic

nerve, or excites in us the sensation of vision.


radiant heat (314), the dif[Physically light is practically identical with ference being merely that of wave length.]

physics. 413.

99
:

The sources

of

light

are

2, chemical action; 3, electricity; 4, heavenly bodies. Bodies that emit light by their own vibrations, as the sun, or the flame of a burning substance, are called luminous bodies. But trees, rocks, and other bodies which merely diffuse light received by them from other bodies are non-luminous or illuminated bodies they do not originate light. Transparent substances allow light to pass through 414. their bodies so that objects can be seen through them.
;

mechanical action ; phosphorescence; and 5, the


1,

Water, air, glass, diamond clean, clear crystals of sodium carbonate, Rochelle salt, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, lead acetate, zinc sulphate, borax, alum, iron alum, etc., are transparent.
;

Tra?tslucent bodies transmit light, but so imperfectly 415. that objects on the opposite side can not be clearly seen through

them.
Ground
translucent.
glass, horn,

waxed paper, a sheet

of gelatin, shellac,

etc.,

are

416. greater

number They cut off

Opaque bodies do not transmit light. By far the of material objects are opaque. the light so that other objects can not be seen

through them at all. Luminous rays. Light radiates in all directions from 417. every luminous point, and a single line of light is called a ray.
solid heated to nearly i,ooo F., 418. unless destroyed by such intense heat, emits, at that and higher

Incandescence. Any

temperatures, a dull red light, and


cent.

is

then said to be incandesbeing

The

light of incandescent bodies varies with the degree of heat,

dull red, bright red, blue, orange, or white as the temperature rises; the light

increasing in brilliancy with the intensity of the heat.

419. Phosphorescence is a pale light, emitted in the dark, without any heat, as the light flashing from fire-flies, the greenish light sometimes seen in the wake of a ship at sea, or that exhibited by rotten wood, etc. These seven White Light is composed of seven colors. 420.

colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet the colors of the rainbow.
of light admitted through a vertical slit be made through a prism so placed that its edges are parallel with the sides of the slit, and the beam caught upon a screen, a band of the seven colors above named will appear on the screen. This band of the seven prismatic colors is called the solar spectrum, the white light being decomposed into its seven constituents in its passage through the prism.
If

beam

to pass

421.

Refraction.

When light passes obliquely into a medium

of different density, the rays are deviated direction.

from their original

in
is

This tendency of the luminous rays 10 be refracted or bent passing obliquely from one transparent medium into another called refTangibility. The different color rays are not susceptible of refraction in the same degree;
is

the red ray


violet ray
It
is is

the least refrangible or

is

less bent

than the others, while the

the most refrangible.

this

unequal refrangibility that produces the spectrum or band of

colors (420).

Simple ox primary colors. 422. The seven prismatic colors can not be decomposed or made to undergo any change of color, and
are, therefore, called the

simple or primary colors. Recombined the primary colors produce white light. Complementary colors are any two colors which will pro423.

duce white when combined. Red and green rays will produce white light and are, therefore, complementary; blue and orange, violet and yellowish-green, and indigo and orange-yellow are also complementary colors. Color is produced by the light reflected by the various 424. bodies. A body which absorbs all of the colors of the rainbow, reflecting none, appears black; one that reflects all the color rays, absorbing none, appears white; all other bodies appear to have the colors which they, respectively, reflect. A red substance seems red because it reflects only red rays of light, absorbing all
the other rays.

425.

Fluorescence.

Some substances have the power of chang

ing their refrangibility of rays of light. The result of this is a change of color apparent upon the surface of these bodies, a bluish, greenish, or even reddish glimmer being diffused by them.
Fluor-spar, an acid solution of sulphate of quinine, tincture of turmeric,

gelsemium and stramonium seed, and many otherorganic substances exhibit fluorescence. The glucoside sesculin contained in horsechestnut bark has this property in a marked degree, one grain being sufficient to impart a distinct fluorescence to over twenty gallons of water.
the fluid extracts of

Rays of light have three properties they are: 1, lumi426. nous; 2, heating; and 3, producing chemical action. The luminous intensity is greatest in the yellow, and least in
;

the violet rays.

The intensity of heat is least in the violet and increases to (and beyond) the red. The spectrum contains invisible dark rays of heat, which are less refrangible than the red rays. Light has a marked influence upon chemism.
necessary to the healthy growth of For the elaboration of their food plants need the light as well as the heat of the sun's rays, and those rays of light which favor chemical reaction are of vital importance. The bleaching power of light depends upon its chemical effect. That light has very great power in this direction is shown by many of the familiar changes occurring in medicinal chemicals, as the darkening of yellow oxide of mercury, white precipitate, pyrophosphate of iron, etc., on exposure to light. Photography is based upon the decomposition of silver
427.
action of light
is

The chemical

plants.

Many

plants do not thrive at all in the shade.

compounds by
light,

light.

Hydrogen and chlorine combine very slowly


is

in diffused

but with explosive violence in direct sun-light. But the chemical effect of the different rays 428.

not equal.

It is

hardly perceptible in the red and yellow rays, but increases gradually toward the opposite end of the solar spectrum, becomes decided in the blue, and reaches its maximum intensity in and beyond the violet. Thus the chemical
effect of the rays increases with their refrangibility,

and the spectrum contains

rays beyond the violet which are more refrangible than the violet rays, but

not visible.

429.

The chemical

effect of light

renders

it

necessary to pro-

tect medicinal substances


Containers of colorless substances affected by light

from

its

action.

flint
;

glass are, therefore, not suitable for holding

blue or violet glass bottles, instead of affording

102

PHYSICS.

protection, hasten the decompositions or changes produced by light, as they

affords

transmit the chemical rays freely, while red, yellow, or amber-colored glass good protection by excluding the chemical (or " actinic ") rays.

The damaging
reaching than
is

effects of direct sun-light

upon medicines are more

far-

commonly supposed.

CHAPTER

XXIII.

ELECTRICITY.
430.

what

it

nomena

Electricity can not be defined since it is not known It manifests itself by peculiar and striking pheof attraction and repulsion and in various other ways.
is.

Electricity may be converted into all other forms of energy, and all other forms of energy can be converted into electricity (66). 431. Examples of the wonderful effects of electricity are seen

in the lightning, the telegraph, electric lighting,

the compass,

magnets, electric motors, the telephone, etc. There are two principal sources of electricity 432.

friction
electricity
*,

and chemism.
Electricity developed

by

friction

is

called frictional

or

static electricity.

It is also

sometimes called
is

" Franklinism."
electricity^

Electricity developed

by chemism

called galvanic

or voltaic 433.

electricity,

or dynamic electricity.
is

Magnetism

a manifestation of the electric force.


is

The power

of the lode-stone to attract iron is magnetism. Lode-stone is an iron ore called "magnetic oxide of iron," and

natiual magnet.
Artificial

434.
to

magnets may be made by means of dynamic electricity. While electric force developed by different means may exhibit

differences as to

some property,

yet these differences are only differences as

All the different forms of electricity are idendegree and not as to kind. tical, each having all the properties of any other.

PHYSICS.
It

103

has already been stated (430) that electricity exhibits 435. striking phenomena of attraction and repulsion. This is because electricity has two opposite states, one called positive electricity and the other negative electricity. Both kinds of electricity are always simultaneously produced.
If

a lode-stone

is

rolled about in iron filings the iron will adhere to

it,

two opposite ends, which are called the poles of the magnet each pole attracts iron or any other magnetic substance but two magnets
especially at the
;

brought end to end will not attract each other regardless of which ends are thus brought together, for each end of the first magnet will attract but one end of the second magnet and will repel the other end.

An artificial magnet, or a steel needle which has been 436. magnetized, poised at the center so that it will swing freely, is a compass. One of its ends always points toward the north and is called the north pole the opposite end is called the south pole. The north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of the other, but if the north poles of two magnets are brought together
;

repulsion takes place instead of attraction.


attract while like poles repel each other.

Thus

opposite poles

Electricity

is,

therefore called apolar force.

A piece of soft iron, or a piece of steel, be magnetized by being brought near one of the poles of a magnet. The soft iron will become a temporary magnet, with its two poles, capable of attracting iron but it will soon lose its magnetic power. A rod of steel, on the other hand, treated in the same manner, becomes a. permanent magnet. This power of any magnet to develop magnetism in a piece of iron or steel is called Induction. The magnet thus used to make another magnet does not lose any of its force. 438. Magnetic substances are such as are attracted by a mag437.

Induction.

may

net

among them

are iron, steel, nickel

and

cobalt,

and

in less

degree magnetic are manganese, chromium, platinum, plumbago and oxygen.


439.

Certain substances exhibit a remarkable property in reference to

If suspended between the poles of a powerful magnet in the shape of a horseshoe, they assume a position at right angles to the line joining the poles, as if they were repelled by both poles. Phosphorus, bismuth,

magnetism.

104
antimony, zinc,
440.
tin, resin,

PHYSICS.
and hydrogen act
in this

manner. Such substances


by-

are called diamagnetic.


Effects similar to those produced by a

magnet may be produced

very simple means.

A
ing to
leaf,

stick of sealing
itself

wax rubbed with dry flannel has

the property of attract-

silk, feathers, gold sawdust, and other light bodies. The stick of sealing wax having been negatively electrified by the friction produced by the flannel attracts light bodies. But the bodies attracted to the sealing wax become in turn charged with the same negative electricity and are then no longer attracted but repelled, so that they do not fall off the wax but are really thrown oft.

small pieces of paper, shreds of cotton and

A warm
attracts
trified.

glass rod rubbed with a silk handkerchief, or a silk pad, also and afterwards repels light bodies; but the glass is positively elecpolarities of

The

the

wax and

the glass rod

are opposite,

and hence the

bodies repelled by the one are attracted by the other. Two bodies charged with like electricities repel each other; but two bodies
of opposite electrical polarities attract each other.

441.
these:

Other phenomena of

electricity

which may hz readily produced are

hard rubber comb attracts the hairs to itself in the act of being used. If you put a piece of zinc upon the tongue and a silver coin under it no peculiar sensation is perce.ved if the metals are not in contact; but if you let the metals touch each other at the edge while placing your tongue between them, a singular, disagreeable, tingling sensation and taste is developed.
If you place a silver coin between the upper lip and the teeth instead of under the tongue, and the piece of zinc above the tongue, and then bring the two metals into contact with each other, the peculiar taste will be perceived as before, and, besides, there will be, each time, a momentary flash of light appearing to pass before the eye.

Light

is

emitted when a cat's fur

is

stroked in the dark.

All these are electrical

phenomena.

Conductors of electricity are substances which readily 442. transmit electricity from one body to another. Substances that do not transmit electricity are called nonconductors, or insulators.
ors,

But these distinctions are only nor any perfect insulators.

relative, for there are

no perfect conduct-

Active chemism, or a chemical reaction (522), is always 443. attended by the development of electricity. The electricity

PHYSICS.

105
.while identical with stat-

thus developed

is

dynamical

electricity;

ical orfrictional electricity, its discharge is continuous while the current of statical electricity is only momentary. Electric currents are commonly produced by chem444. ical action between metals and corrosive liquids. The voltaic current is thus produced when one strip of copper and another of zinc are placed in dilute sulphuric acid in a glass jar, the two strips of metal being connected, above the acid, by a wire, which serves as the conductor. This apparatus is called

voltaic, or galvanic, element or cell.

A number of voltaic cells connected so that the cur445. rent has the same direction (446) in all, constitute a voltaic battery.

446.

tricity within the liquid

Direction of the Current. The positive current of elecis from the zinc to the copper (447), and

circuit.

above the liquid from the copper to the zinc, thus producing a To connect the plates by means of the metallic wires (copper wire is used), is called closing the circuit, and to separate

them

is

to break the circuit.

447. The current starts from the zinc because that is the metal most easily acted upon by the acid, and that metal is, therefore, called the generat-

ing

plate,

while the copper

is

the conducting plate.

The generating

plate

is

also called the positive plate

and

the conducting plate the negative plate.

Many different kinds of cells and batteries have been 448. invented and several are in use, all based upon the fact that chemical reactions produce electricity. If the wires be disconnected, or the current Poles. 449. broken, the positive electricity will tend to accumulate at the

end

of the wire attached to the negative plate (the copper), and the negative electricity on the wire attached to the positive

plate (the zinc).

The ends

of the wires are called the poles, or

electrodes, of the circuit.

The wire attached

to the negative

plate
is

is

the positive pole, and that attached to the positive plate

the negative pole.


450.

Chemical

effects

of the electric current.

If

a chemical

compound be placed between

the poles or electrodes of a bat-

106
tery
cuit,

PHYSICS.

and thus made

to

form a part of the external voltaic

cir-

chemical decomposition will take place. This process of decomposition is called electrolysis, and any substance capable of electrolytic decomposition is called an electrolyte. Electrolysis proves a remarkably intimate analogy between electricity and chemism which will be referred to again.
451.
Electroplating and electrotyping are performed on the principle of
electrolysis, the
tive electrode,

metal being separated from its salt and deposited on the negawhich may consist of the article to be plated provided it possesses a conducting surface.

PART

II.

CHEMISTRY.

PART

II.

CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER XXIV. Introductory.
MASSES,

MOLECULES AND ATOMS.

452.

The

three great divisions of the material world are the


the

Animal Kingdom, Kingdom.

Vegetable Kingdom, and

the

Mineral

All natural material objects around us belong to one or another of these three kingdoms. The artificial material things, which are the result of man's labor, may be made up of matter derived from two or all three kingdoms of Nature. Inorganic or Mineral Substances are those belong453. ing to or derived from the mineral kingdom. They include stones, earth, metals, and all chemical compounds, except the compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivatives. The metallic salts, as the compounds of potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc,
iron,

mercury, lead,

etc.,

and the " mineral acids," as sulphuric, phosphoric,


all

nitric,

hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids, are thus

inorganic compounds.

belonging to or derived from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and the numerous derivatives of the hydrocarbons and many other carbon compounds.
454.

Organic Substances

are

those

extracted from them, as alkaloids, gums, resins,


tartaric

our plant drugs and animal drugs, together with the substances etc., and all our fluid and Acetic, oxalic, citric, and solid extracts are among the organic substances
All

acids, tannin, santonin, sulphate

of

quinine, sugar, starch, alcohol,

glycerin, ether, chloroform

all are organic substances.

IIO 455rr.ade

CHEMISTRY.

By

far the greater

number

of

bodies in nature are

up
is

of various substances in various proportions.

They

consist of unlike masses

This

and unlike molecules mixed together. true of both organic and inorganic bodies. It is strikall

animal bodies consist of many different and some liquid, some hard and others soft, some of one color and others of another color, etc. Plant tissues, as wood, etc., also consist of many different things. These are, therefore, heterogeneous masses, or mixed substances. But there are also many bodies which appear, even 456. upon close examination, to have a perfectly homogeneous mass throughout. Water is thus uniform. It appears to be of perfect sameness in every minutest particle of its mass; and, in reality, it is but one substance or kind of matter. A large number of minerals, ores and metals also appear to be, and really consist of but one kind of matter throughout their mass. Other bodies, again, which have the appearance of perfect sameness in their every least particle, nevertheless consist of more than one kind of matter, as is the case with air, solutions and mixtures of
ingly evident that

substances,

some

solid

certain liquids.
If a piece of sugar be put in a tumblerful of water, the sugar dis457. solves and the sugar and water form a solution, in which they are so intimately blended that every drop of the liquid is precisely like every other

drop, and

it

is

impossible to distinguish the


Yet,

particles

of

water from the

particles of sugar in that liquid.

we can separate

the water from the

is vaporizable, while the sugar is fixed; and, hence, the be evaporated, leaving as a residue the whole amount of sugar which we put into the water. Therefore, the water and sugar must have been blended or intermingled with each other without losing their respective identities, every particle of either of them remaining wholly distinct from

sugar, for the water


all

water can

every particle of the other, although we could not see this to be the case, the particles being too minute to be perceptible, even with the aid of the most powerful microscope. If you mix together, by trituration, in a mortar, one scruple of 458. calomel and one scruple of sugar, the result will be a mixture so perfect that it looks as if it were but one substance. But if you mix this powder with an ounce of water in a cHsh; pour off the water which washes out the sugar by
dissolving
it; repeat the washing with fresh portions of water until the water no longer acquires any sweetish taste, and then let the residue dry, and weigh

CHEMISTRY.
it,

Ill

you will find that residue to be the one scruple of calomel. The sugar and the calomel were neither of them lost or altered by being triturated together, but were only mixed, and their separation was easily accomplished by simple physical means. If you mix an ounce of alcohol and an ounce of glycerin, the mix459. ture looks quite as uniform as water; but if you heat the mixture in a dish over a water-bath a sufficient time, all the alcohol will be driven off, and the glycerin will all remain in the dish. Mix 20 grains of each of magnesia, sugar, rosin and charcoal, and 460. reduce all to a uniform fine powder. It looks as if it were but one substance. Now mix it with enough water to make a thick fluid; transfer this to a paper filter in a small glass funnel; rinse the mortar and pestle with a little more water so as to get all of the powder added to the rest on the filter. Collect the liquid which runs through the filter; evaporate it to dryness and weigh the residue. Let the filter and contents dry. Then add to the powder in the filter just enough alcohol to moisten both the filter paper and contents, and, few minutes, add enough alcohol to cover the whole of the black mass after a in the filter, and collect all of the liquid that passes through, and evaporate it to dryness and weigh the residue. Allow the filter and contents to become nearly dry again, and then treat the remainder of the mixture in the filter with a mixture of sixty minims of diluted sulphuric acid and one-half fluid ounce of water in the same manner as you before treated the contents of the
filter

dryness.

with alcohol; collect the liquid that passes through and evaporate it to Then wash the residue on the filter with two fluid ounces of water
that water into the filter
filtrate

Collect this

on the contents and letting it run through. and evaporate a portion of it to dryness. Now, examine your several residues. You will find, if you have done your work well, and used enough of the water in the first, and of the alcohol in the second washing, that the first residue is your sugar, and the second residue is your rosin. The third residue, however, is neither sugar, rosin, magnesia nor charcoal, but a bitter white substance, soluble in water, quite unlike magnesia; it is, in fact, Epsom salt, and weighs over seventy grains. The last wash water will leave no residue, and if you now put the filter and contents in a dish over the water-bath and dry them perfectly, you will find that when they are put on the pan of the balance their total weight is about twenty grains, in addition to the weight of a paper filter of the same size as

by pouring

also

your experiment; that will account for your charcoal, which all remains If you taste the sugar, burn the rosin, and also subject the charcoal to such simple physical tests as you can think of, you will conclude that they are these substances and no other. In this experiment it is shown that the original mixture of the four powders contained at least the sugar, rosin and charcoal unchanged. Indeed, used
in

in the filter to the last.

112
the magnesia, too,

CHEMISTRY.
was unchanged
which This change
salt,
is

in

that

mixture, but the sulphuric acid


it

turned
change.

it

into

Epsom

water soluble, and

from the charcoal.


461.

of the

magnesia

to

Epsom

was thus separated salt was a chemical

physical

But sometimes it is very difficult to determine by means whether or not a body is a mixture of different

substances, or but one single substance.


462. All kinds of matter consist of one or atoms united into molecules. 463.

more kinds

of

Atoms,

as already stated (20), are the smallest par-

ticles into

which any kind of matter can be sub-divided.

Thus

they are the absolutely indivisible particles of matter, of which

molecules and masses are made up. They are the smallest which can take part in chemical reactions (522) or combinations. As atoms are indivisible, they are, therefore,
all

particles of matter

of course, also

undecomposable.

can pass simply from one molecule to another, or a group of atoms liberated from one molecule may be re-arranged into other molecules; but it is held that no other atom can continue to exist singly independently, or
alone, or in a free state, or

An atom

uncombined with some other atom or atoms.

of

Kinds of Atoms. Only seventy-two different kinds atoms, or seventy-two kinds of undecomposable matter are
464.

so far known to exist. Two of these are Argo?i and Helium, discovered so recently that their properties, have not yet been They are gases. fully determined.

465.

The seventy kinds


in the

of

atoms heretofore known are

enumerated

following

TABLE OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR SYMBOLS.


Aluminum
Antimony (Antimonium
or Stibium)

Al

Sb

Arsenic (Arsenum)

Barium
Beryllium (See Glucinum) Bismuth (Bismuthum) Boron Bromine (Bromumj

As Ba
Be
Bi

Caesium Calcium Carbon (Carboneum) Cerium Chlorine (Chlorum)

Cs

Ca

C
Ce
CI

Chromium
Cobalt (Cobaltum)

Cr

B
Br

Columbium
Copper (Cuprum)

Co Cb Cu
Di

Cadmium

Cd

Didymium

CHEMISTRY.
Erbium
Fluorine (Fluorum)

"3
K
.

Er F

Potassium (Kalium)

Rhodium
Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium
Selenium
Silicon (Silicium) Silver (Argentum)

Gallium

Germanium
Glucinum Gold (Aurum) Hydrygen (Hydrogenium) Indium Iodine (Iodum)
Iridium Iron (Ferrum)

Ga Ge
Gl

Rh Rb Ru

Sm
Sc

Au

H
In
I

Se
Si

Ir

Sodium (Natrium)
Strontium Sulphur

Ag Na
Sr

Fe

Lanthanum
Lead (Plumbum) Lithium

La Pb
Li

Tantalum
Tellurium

Ta
Te

Magnesium Manganese (Manganum) Mercury (Hydrargyrum)

Molybdenum
Nickel (Niccolum)

Mg Mn Hg Mo
Ni

Terbium
Thallium

Tb
Tl

Thorium Tin (Stannum)


Titanium Tungsten (Wolframium)

Th
Sn
Ti

Niobium

(see

Columbium)

Nb

W
U V

Nitrogen (Nitrogenium)

N
Os

Osmium
Oxygen (Oxygenium)
Palladium Phosphorus Platinum

Uranium Vanadium
Ytterbium
Yttrium Zinc (Zincum) Zirconium

O
Pd

Yb
Yt

P
Pt

Zn
Zr

The name Beryllium is now obsolete, the name Glucinum having taken The name of Niobium has been changed to Columbium. Finally its place. Didymium has been recently split up into two kinds of atoms called Neodidymium and Praseo-didymium. Thus the different kinds of atoms in the
preceding table are seventy
in

number.

Endless as is the variety of substances, all material bodies in Nature, so far as at present known, are aggregations of molecules (470), each made up of one or more of this limited
466.

number

of

atoms

(465).

Atoms are endowed with chemical energy caused by a 467. Chemism is also called force called chemism, or chemical force.
combining power, chemical attraction, chemical affinity and atomic
attraction.

are united with each other by this force into moleand can not be separated from these molecules unless under such conditions that they may immediately form new
cules,

Atoms

molecules.
All atoms of the same kind have the same size and the 468. same weight. But atoms of different kinds have different

114

CHEMISTRY.

weights.
different

The absolute weight

of

relative weight, being constant, can

any atom is unknown; but its be determined in several

ways with great accuracy. Whenever any two or more atoms unite with each other by virtue of the chemical attraction between them, and
469.
their chemical affinities are thus satisfied or neutralized, a molecule (470)
is

the result.

When
affinity,

the

atoms thus

or satisfied.
ence.

unite, theirchemical affinities are spent Molecules, therefore, have no chemical energy or
in

and can consequently continue

independent

exist-

Molecules, as already stated elsewhere (16), are the 470. smallest particles of any kind of matter that are capable of
continued existence as such. They are the smallest particles into which any kind of matter can be divided without losing its identity, or without being thereby converted into some other kind or kinds of matter; for when molecules are divided into their constituent atoms they cease to exist, and the atoms form

new

molecules.

Masses are made up of 471. either elemental or compound.


Elemental molecules Compound molecules
of atoms. consist of
are

molecules.

Molecules are

atoms of but one kind. composed of more than one kind

Elements are substances consisting of elemental 472. molecules (471). In an element, therefore, the mass, the molecule and the atom each consist of one and the same kind of matter. The elements, therefore, can not be decomposed into other kinds of matter. There are accordingly as many elements as there are different kinds of atoms. Thus, seventy elements are at present recognized (465). Upon examination of the table of elements (465) you will
find in
it

all

of the

known

metals.

In fact, about four-fifths of

the elements are metals.

CHEMISTRY.

115

Of

the whole seventy only five elements are gases at the com-

temperatures, two are liquids, and all the others solids. Chemical compounds are substances consisting of but one kind of compound molecules (471).
473.

mon

Any

definite chemical

substance containing more than one kind of molecules compound but is a mixed substance (482).

is

not a

We have learnt that there are but seventy different kinds of matter called elements; all other distinct kinds of matter are chemical compounds, or compound matter. Chemically homogeneous bodies are such as consist 474. of but one kind of molecules, whether elemental or compound. All elements and all chemical compounds are therefore chemically

475.

homogeneous. As all masses

of matter are

made up

of molecules,

and

the molecules are the smallest particles into which matter can

be divided without being changed into some other kind or kinds of matter (470), the mass is divisible into molecules without change of kind, but the molecule can not be split up into its constituent atoms without ceasing to be the same kind of matter (15 and 17). Number of kinds of matter. There are as many dis476. tinct kinds of matter as there are different kinds of molecules

and

vice versa.

They
477.

are countless.

Each molecule of any one chemical compound invariasame total number of atoms, the same kinds of atoms, and the same number of each kind of atoms, and all its atoms are always in precisely the same positions relative to each
bly contains the
other.

478.

the

No two bodies or masses can both consist of one and same kind of molecules without being the same kind of

matter.
All molecules of the same kind have also the same size 479. and the same weight; and all molecules whatsoever, whether of the same kind or not, have the same volnrr.a wV.en in a state of

vapor.

Il6

CHEMISTRY.

Each chemical compound, because it has precisely the 480. same chemical composition and structure (477) under all circumstances, has also precisely the same chemical properties;* and, moreover, each distinct kind of matter has uniformly the

same physical properties under the same conditions. 481. Any two or more bodies having the same chemical and physical properties must consist of the same kind of matter.

Mixed substances, or heterogeneous masses, are bodies 482. consisting of more than one kind of molecules. A mixture, or
mixed substance,
is

made up

of as

many

different substances
it.

as there are different kinds of molecules in

Recapitulation. Every body or mass of matter of 483. whatever kind is an aggregation of molecules. These molecules are held together by cohesion if of the same kind, but by adhesion if of different kinds. Each molecule is the smallest individual particle of any kind of matter having the properties of the whole mass, and, therefore, the smallest particle of any kind of matter that is
capable of subsisting. In any one distinct kind of matter every molecule is like every other molecule and like the whole mass. There are as many different kinds of matter as there are different kinds of molecules, and no more. Every molecule of any one particular kind has exactly the same weight and the same volume as every other molecule of the same kind and all molecules of the same kind, moreover, contain each the same number of atoms, the same kinds of atoms, the same number of each kind of atoms, and the same internal atomic structure or grouping of the atoms. All molecules of whatever kind, when in a state of vapor, have the same volume. As the kind of matter is determined by the composition and structure of its molecule, any change in the composition or structure of its molecule involves the change of that kind of matter into a new or different kind or kinds of matter. All molecules are made up of atoms united by chemism.
;

CHEMISTRY.

117

There are seventy different kinds of atoms.

Atoms
All

are absolutely indivisible particles of matter.

of the same kind have the same weight and the same volume. The different kinds of molecules or different kinds of matter are countless; yet they all consist of one or more of the seventy different kinds of atoms, so far as at present known. When atoms of but one kind form molecules, the resulting

atoms

molecules are simple kinds of matter, ox elements; there are, conmany different elements as there are different kinds of atoms, and no more. But when unlike atoms, or atoms of different kinds, unite, the molecules thus formed are compound matter. A chemically homogeneous mass is a mass composed of but one kind of molecules. Such a body is called a definite chemIf all the molecules of such a mass consist ical substance. of but one kind of atoms, the mass is that of an element; if they consist of more than one kind of atoms, the mass is that of a definite chemical compound. But the greatest number of material objects or bodies in nature have masses composed of different kinds of molecules, and are not chemical compounds but only mixtures, each ingredient of which is distinct from every other ingredient in it.
sequently, as

The physical properties of 484. Physical Properties. matter are those which belong to their masses and molecules.

They

include

among

consistence, specific

others the form, state of aggregation, weight, vapor density, specific volume,
point,

color, odor, taste, solubility, melting point, congealing

boiling point, etc.


485.

Physics

is

that part of physical science (486) which

concerns the states and changes of matter without (outside of)


the molecules, and

thus the physical properties (484).

But

IIS

CHEMISTRY.

physical changes can not involve the essential physical properties of matter because they do not affect its identity or kind.
Physics lar matter.
is

the scientific study

and knowledge of molar and molecu-

486.

fication of all

Physical Science is the systematic pursuit and classiknowledge of matter and of the forces by which
affected.

matter
It

is

takes cognizance of the bodies of matter, the conditions,

motions and changes to which these bodies are subject, and the laws governing the phenomena of physics and chemistry. The Chemical Properties of matter are those proper487. ties which depend upon its atoms alone. They include the relative weights, valence (607), chemical energy (514) and electrochemical polarity (564) of the atoms; and the relative weights,
structure,

and analytical and synthetical reactions

(522) of the

molecules.
488.
cule.
It is

Chemistry

is

treats of the structure

that part of physical science which and changes of matter within the mole-

the science of the constitution and relative stability of


study

molecules.
//
is the scientific

and

kno'wledge of atomic matter.

CHAPTER XXV.
CHEMICAL PHENOMENA.
489.

Chemical Phenomena. We have

learnt

(27)

that

matter is indestructible, or that it can not be annihilated. By the agency of chemism one kind of matter can be transformed into some other kind or kinds of matter; but it can not be changed as to its amount. The amount of matter in the universe can

CHEMISTRY.
neither be added to nor diminished, for
as indestructible.
it is

II9

uncreatable as well

Any substance may undergo change, and this change be so great as to involve loss of identity; but in every such case the matter of which that substance was composed has not been destroyed but has simply been transformed into some other substance or substances.
490.

may

alcohol burns it disappears from sight, and as alcohol it no longer But the matter of which the alcohol was constituted has not been destroyed. The elements of which alcohol is composed are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen these three elements are capable of forming numerous compounds with each other and alcohol is one of these compounds. When alcohol is ignited it is decomposed by the combustion, and its carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, together with a certain amount of oxygen from the air, pass into other combinations carbon dioxide and water which are invisible in the gaseous state assumed by them when formed by the combustion of the alcoexists.
;

When

hol in the

air.

Whenever any substance is, as we say in common par491. lance, totally destroyed by fire, that substance may so completely
properties that it can no longer be recogno longer the same substance; but instead of being lost or annihilated it has been transformed into other kinds of matter, and if the apparent destruction of the substance be accomplished under such conditions that the new products formed out of the substance so destroyed can be collected and weighed it is found that every particle of the original substance can be accounted for as entering into these new products. Any two or more chemically homogeneous bodies 492. (474) exhibiting, respectively, different properties can not severally consist of the same kind of molecules. Whenever any body acquires permanently different 493. properties by being subjected to the action of heat, light, air, moisture, or an electric current, or by contact with another body, or from any cause whatsoever, it has ceased to be the same kind of matter as before. It has been converted into some other kind of matter, or undergone a chemical change, or chemical reaclose its identity or
its

nized,

and indeed

is

tion,

or

chemical decomposition,

and these changes,

reactions, or

decompositions are chemical phenomena.

120

CHEMISTRY.

No two or more different kinds of matter 494. cisely the same physical properties in all respects.
Whenever any kind
also changed as to
its

have preit

of

matter

is

changed as

to its kind

is

physical properties.

Mere mixtures or heterogeneous masses may, however, be changed as to their properties without loss of identity of the several ingredients any admixture changes the character of
;

the whole.
color,

Among the physical properties of matter are form, 495. odor, and taste. Any one kind of matter always has
same physical properties under the same
is

the

(or

unchanged)

conditions. Lead iodide

always yellow.
is
is

substance having that color

lead iodide

yellow color does not prove that the but the absence of the yellow color
;

does prove that the substance

not lead iodide

Ammonia

has a peculiar, strong odor.

Any

substance which does not


is

possess that odor can not be ammonia.

An
taste.

acid liquid can

not be sugar, for sugar

a solid and has a sweet

Salicin can not be


bitter, silky,

mistaken for potassium

iodide, for salicin consists of

slender crystals, while potassium iodide has a pungent, saline

taste

and

crystallizes in cubes. water soluble solid can not be calomel, nor can a crystalline precipitate
oil.

be castor

A change produced in the physical properties of bodies accompanies any chemical change which they may be made to undergo. Indeed striking changes in the color, odor, or other physical
496.

body generally denote that it has been conwhole or in part, into some other kind of matter. Many chemical changes proceed quietly and unac497. companied by any marked physical signs, but many other chemical changes are attended with striking physical phenomena, such as fire, explosion, etc.
properties of a
verted, in
is always the result of chemical reaction. Explosions of gun powder, dynamite, gun cotton and gas, are caused by

Fire

chemical reactions. Other less noisy and less dangerous evidences exhibited in the following experiments.

of

chemical change are

CHEMISTRY.
498.

12

Put two or three little crystals of chromic acid on a piece of paper; put about fifteen drops of alcohol in a graduate or bottle, then pour that alcohol over the crystals, and observe the commotion that instantly follows. The heat liberated by the reaction ignites the alcohol; hence, it is safer not to add the alcohol out of the shop bottle, but to put the small amount required in another vessel before adding it to the chromic acid. Put a little diluted sulphuric acid in a graduate and add to it a little 499. potassium carbonate; a lively effervescence takes place and the mixture

becomes warm.
500.

Place about half a teaspoonful of each of potassium carbonate and


chloride in a mortar.

ammonium
-of

them has any odor. monia is developed.


501.

Then rub them

Observe before they are mixed that neither together and note that the odor of am-

Mix four

grains of corrosive sublimate in a mortar with five grains

of potassium iodide; the materials are both white, but the mixture will be
scarlet red.

502. Touch a little diluted sulphuric acid with the end of your tongue and observe how acid it tastes; taste also a little magnesia, and notice that it has only a faint, earthy taste. Then put two fluid-drachms of the diluted sulphuric acid in a graduate and add one drachm of magnesia; stir well, and when the liquid no" longer dissolves any more of the white powder taste the
liquid.

You

will find that

it is

neither acid, nor of a faint, earthy taste;

it

is,

instead, of a cooling, saline, bitter taste.

503. Dissolve a grain of blue vitriol, or copper sulphate, in two ounces of water; observe that the color is very pale bluish; add a few drops of ammonia

water and see how the color changes to a beautiful deep blue, which does not belong to either water, copper sulphate, or ammonia, but to a new substance formed in the liquid. Dissolve one-half grain of sodium salicylate in a half-pint of water; 504. add a few drops of tincture of chloride of iron and observe the reddish or purplish color produced in the mixture; now add about a fluid-ounce diluted hydrochloric acid and the color disappears again. Dissolve thirty grains of pure sulphate of iron (or of clear, green 505. crystals of copperas) in half an ounce of water, and dissolve fifteen grains of oxalic acid in another half ounce of water; mix the two solutions and observe that a yellowish color first makes its appearance and afterwards a yellow powder is found in the liquid. 506. Mix one fluid-drachm of tincture of chloride of iron with two fluiddrachms of ammonia water and observe that a copious brown-red precipitate
is

formed.
507.

Mix one fluid-drachm


of simple syrup,

of tincture of chloride of iron with two fluidof

drachms

and then add two fluid-drachms

ammonia

water;

122

CHEMISTRY.

observe that no precipitate is formed, but a deep brown red color is produced. Compare this experiment with that described in the preceding paragraph. Put a fluid-drachm of syrup of iodide of iron in a graduate and add 508. a little solution of potassa; observe the deep green color brought out
509.

about

fifteen

Put one fluid-drachm of tincture of iodine in a one-ounce bottle; add minims stronger water of ammonia and one drop of carbolic
iodine color soon disappears, leaving a

acid; shake; observe that the dark

colorless liquid.

510. The experiments described in paragraphs 49S to 509, inclusive, are examples of chemical reactions accompanied by evident physical signs, such as fulmination. effervescence, the development of odor, changes of color, change of taste, the discharge of color and the formation of insoluble
all

substances

in liquids.

The

results of these

experiments are

sufficiently striking

to excite inter-

est in the

causes and

effects.

And

yet

how
we

feeble they are beside the


call fire,

won

derfully active chemical reaction which

or the explosion of the

gun! 511. There are numerous examples of slow chemical changes or reactions all around us which we may witness if we are observing. A bright iron nail exposed to air and moisture will rapidly become rusty; the rust is an iron compound formed by chemical reaction, and to recover the iron again from that rust requires a chemical process. Bright copper or brass turns green when acted upon by air and grease, or by vinegar; the green compound is a product of chemical action. When limestone is heated in a kiln, it is decomposed and quick lime remains; if the quick lime is mixed with water it becomes slaked, heat is generated by the chemical action, and the white liquid which results does not Both changes are chemical. contain quick lime but calcium hydrate. When copperas is exposed to the air it becomes brown on the surface the brown substance is not copperas but another compound formed by chemical
charge
in a
;

action.

Nitrate of silver and yellow oxide of mercury darken on exposure to light

as a result of chemical decomposition.

Fermentation, by which malt, syrup and sugar yield alcohol, and by which weak alcoholic liquids, like cider and weak wines, turn into vinegar, The change by which the rich green of the foliage of is a chemical process. our forests is changed to the beautifully varied hues of autumn leaves, is also the result of chemical reactions. The decay of wood and other organic substances, the putrefaction of animal matter, the digestion of food all these are chemical processes, involv-

ing chemical changes; produced by chemism, and resulting in the decomposition of the old molecules

and

the formation of

new ones

in their places.

CHEMISTRY.
512.

I2J

Relative Stability of Molecules. Some substances resist chemical influences and changes to a remarkable degree. The molecules of platinum, gold, quartz, clay, carbon, and many other substances remain unaltered under ordinary conditions. On the other hand, there are also numerous substances which are easily affected by air, moisture, changes of temperature, the influence of light, or by contact with other substances. Chemical Changes or Reactions or phenomena are 513. those changes in matter which extend not only to its physical properties, but which involve the very identity of its kind. So long'as the molecule is unchanged, the matter of which it consists remains of the same kind, but when the molecule is divided or decomposed, or its interior structure altered, that change is a chemical change or reaction, because it changes both the physical properties and the kind of the matter.

CHAPTER
CHEMISM.

XXVI.

ITS INTENSITY, QUALITY, AND QUANTITY.

is the force which manifests itself by atomic 514. attraction and repulsion, and by which molecules are formed,

Chemism

altered or decomposed.
It is the force by which matter is altered as to its kind. The transformation of any kind of matter into any other kind or kinds of matter is effected by chemism, and never directly by any other cause (515). Matter may be altered as to its kind, or its alteration 515. may be prevented, apparently by other agencies than chemism, but only in an indirect way.

Heat, light and electricity cause chemical changes to take place; but only by aiding chemism, or by producing conditions favorable to the action of chemism.

124

CHEMISTRY.

Chemism may be

aided or opposed by other forces, and

may
kind

be converted
intois

into other forms of energy, or other forms of energy

may

be converted

chemism. But that energy which changes matter as alone chemism.

to its

always and

516. All atoms are endowed with or subject to chemism. It. because of this irresistible force that atoms can not subsist singly or uncombined, but are compelled to seek new partners as soon as they are liberated from their previous partnership in some other molecule, and can thus only pass from one molecule
is

to another.

517. In thus causing and directing the separation, union, or rearrangement of the atoms, the chemism of these atoms is neutralized, or saturated, or rendered latent. All molecules are>
therefore, neutral.

Chemism
cules.

operates only between atoms; never between mole-

But changes of matter from one kind to another kind 518. would be impossible were it not for the separation of atoms from each other and their re-arrangement into new molecules. It therefore follows that atoms must be made free before they can be again tied to or combined with other atoms. At the moment of their transfer from one molecule to another they are free and endowed with active, unsatisfied combining power or chemism. Radicals. Atoms and groups of atoms whose chemism 519.
is

wholly or partly unsatisfied are called

radicals.

in a free state, or chemical combining power in full play. All atoms in a free state are simple radicals. A compound radical is a group of two or more atoms of different kinds, tied together by a part of their chemism, but having another part of their chemism still unsatisfied. The atoms in such a group act together as one radical, or as if the whole group were but one atom. Radicals, then, are atoms or groups of atoms liberated from molecules, and impelled by chemism to unite with other radicals to form new molecules.

simple or elemental radical is a single

atom

with

all its

CHEMISTRY.
520.

25

Radicals differ as to the intensity, quality and quantity

of their chemism.

By intensity of chemical energy is meant the relative power of the affinity of one radical as compared with that of another (521). The quality of the chemism of any radical is indicated by the
character and conduct of the compounds it forms, and depends upon its electro-chemical polarity (564). The relative quantity of the chemism of a radical is expressed

by the term
521.

valence (607).

energy or intensity of chemism is in many Radicals unite according to their mutual attractions or affinities. The attraction between some radicals is relatively stronger or weaker than the attraction between other

The

relative

instances very marked.

radicals.
affinity of

atoms is weaker than the potassium atoms for the atoms of oxygen, and phosphorus atoms have agreater affinity for hydrogen atoms than they have for nitrogen atoms. Hydrogen conducts itself as a neutral or chemically indifferent substance
the chemical affinity between potassium

Thus

under ordinary conditions. Chlorine, however, attacks other substances with great energy. Sulphuric acid is far more energetic in its chemical action than boric acid; the sulphuric acid is extreme'y corrosive and destructive, while boric acid is a
harmless, inactive substance.

522.

Chemical Reactions.

Any change which takes place

within a molecule is a chemical reaction. Molecules differ according to the kind,


position of their atoms.
is

a chemical reaction.

number and relative Any change in either of these respects The removal of one or more atoms; the

addition of one or more atoms; the change of one or more of the atoms by substituting others of a different kind; or any inter-

atomic re-arrangement withia the molecule by which the relative positions of the atoms is altered either of these changes is a chemical reaction. The Factors of the Reaction are the molecules 523. decomposed in any chemical reaction. The Products of the Reaction are the new molecules

formed by

it.

126

CHEMISTRY.
triturated together in
the

a mortar to mercury are the factors and the iodide of mercury the product of the reaction which takes place. When a solution of acetate of lead in water is mixed with a water solution of sulphate of zinc, a white insoluble

Thus when iodine and mercury are make iodide of mercury, the iodine and

powder

precipitates in the liquid,

which
tion.

is

sulphate of lead, while water-soluble acetate of zinc remains in solu-

In this case the acetate of lead and the sulphate of zinc are the factors

of the reaction,

and the sulphate

of lead

and acetate of zinc are

its

products.

Reagents. The factors of a reaction are also called reagents. But the term reagent is more especially applied to substances employed for the purpose of identifying compounds, radicals or elements, by means of reactions accompanied by striking results and produced by the reagents added for that
524.

purpose.
(5*5).

Reagents

are, therefore,

used

in analytical

processes

525.
is

to

Chemical reactions are synthetical when their object obtain certain products; they are analytical when their
is

object

to identify substances, or detect their presence, or to

determine their composition. Synthesis is the formation of compounds by bringing 526. together the radicals necessary to their production under such
conditions as are favorable to the synthetical reaction desired. It is the opposite of analysis.
Direct synthesis
cules from
is

the formation of but one kind of molekinds, as

two or more

when

iodide of mercury

is

pre-

pared from the elemental molecules of iodine and mercury, or when hydrochloric acid and ammonia unite to form ammonium
chloride.
Indirect synthesis is illustrated by substitution (842) and by double decomposition (529), as in the formation of acetate of More than zinc from acetate of lead as described in par. 523. one kind of molecules are produced by indirect synthesis. The decomposition of chemical compounds 527. Analysis. for the purpose of determining their composition is called chemi-

cal analysis.

The
tify

analysis is qualitative when the object is simply to identhe radicals or elements of which a substance is composed

CHEMISTRY.

27

without attempting at the same time to ascertain the quantities of the component elements or radicals. Quantitative chemical analysis has for its object the determination of the exact quantities of the elements or radicals of which molecules are composed, or the exact quantities of each of several kinds of molecules contained in any mixture, solution, ore, or other mixed substance.
528. Chemical Decomposition is the separation constituent radicals or atoms of a molecule.
of

the

When mercuric oxide is heated above 360 C. (680 F.) it decomposes into mercury and oxygen, its constituent elements. When calcium carbonate is heated to redness it decomposes, or splits up, into two new compound molecules, one of which is calcium oxide and the other carbon dioxide. Chemical decomposition may result from the reaction of two or more substances upon each other, or a re-arrangement of the atoms within a molecule may be indirectly induced by external causes as by the influence of heat,
light,

or electricity.

529.

Double Decomposition

results

when two compound

molecules are brought together which mutually decompose each other, the reaction giving rise to two or more new compounds.

CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO CHEMICAL REACTION.


Actual contact between the particles of matter is necessary to chemical action. Sometimes dry substances may be made to unite chem531. ically by simply triturating them together, as when iodine and mercury, or sulphur and mercury, are combined, forming iodide
530.

or sulphide of mercury.
532.

But

this

is

rarely sufficient.

When

the factors of the reaction are both gaseous, the

chances are usually more favorable to a complete reaction than when they are solid. But oxygen and hydrogen can be mixed and the mixture kept for a long time without any chemical reaction taking place; and a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen can also be kept without change, although the chemical attracAn electric spark, or tion between these gases is very strong. the application of a lighted match, will quickly cause the gases The chlorine and hydrogen to unite with violent explosion.

I2S

CHEMISTRY.
react with explosion even

may

by the influence

of direct sun-

light,

but not

if

the mixture be kept in a shaded place.

The most favorable condition in which the factors of 533. the reaction can be as to the state of aggregation is the liquid
condition.
possible,
in

At and ic

least

is still

one of them should, therefore, be liquid if better to have both factors of the reaction
liquid

that state.
either

by fusion or by other, and still others by either method. But, for the purpose of facilitating chemical reaction, solids are liquefied by fusion only in cases where that is the only practicable means (by reason of the
Solids can be rendered 534. solution, some by one method,

some by the

insolubility of the solids or for other reasons).

535.

Whenever
in

it

is

possible to bring the factors of the


is

reaction together in a state of solution, that

sued, because

that condition they can be

method purmore intimately


the

mixed, and react more freely, uniformly and completely. Heat opposes and often overcomes chemical attraction. 536. It is, therefore, destructive to most kinds of matter. Comparatively few kinds of matter can resist the action of strong fire, and numerous substances are decomposed at temperatures not exceeding those readily produced by very simple means. But even when the heat is insufficient to break up a molecule, it, nevertheless, weakens the force with which the atoms are held together, just as heat weakens the cohesion of a mass by increasing the distances between the molecules.

Thus heat causes chemical reactions in such a way 537. that it seems to aid chemical attraction, although the opposite
is true. Heat disrupts existing molecules by causing their atoms to separate from each other. But when the molecules have been decomposed by heat, the atoms of which they were constructed at once rearrange themselves into new molecules capable of resisting the high temperature. Heat indirectly facilitates certain chemical reactions by giving free play to the selective affinities of the atoms whose bonds (615) have been severed by its repellant force.

CHEMISTRY.

I29

Action of heat upon salts. Salts containing water 538. Water of crystallization is usually lose that water when heated. expelled already at or even below ioo C. in some cases the
;

salts

thus heated dissolve in their water of crystallization before

they lose it. Thus a crystal of sodium phosphate is liquefied by heat forming a solution in its water of crystallization. Solution of this kind is called aqueous fusion. Many anhydrous salts undergo fusion at high temperatures;
to distinguish
this

from

"

aqueous fusion
of

" it is called igneous

fusion or dry fusion.

Heat causes the decomposition

many

salts, especially of

those of volatile or unstable acids or bases, except in cases where a strongly positive radical is united to a strongly negative one.

Thus

the carbonates are generally readily

decomposed by

heat, except

the carbonates of the alkali metals.

Chlorates and nitrates are easily decom-

posed by heat, but phosphates and borates resist it: sulphates of the heavy metals are decomposed, but the sulphates of potassium, sodium, barium and calcium are not.

539.

Chemism generates
action.

heat.
less

Heat

is

always liberated

heat must frequently be applied to induce chemical action; but the heat afterwards generated by the reaction itself is often sufficient to maintain the

by chemical

More or

energy of chemism.
This fact
is

well illustrated in our experience with the

making

of fires; the

wood
is

or coal must be heated up to a certain point before active combustion


fire

goes on, after which the


sufficient

continues as long as the supply of fuel and air

When heat weakens the atomic attraction within a 540. molecule without breaking it up entirely, the contact of that molecule with another molecule of a different kind may prove to result in a reaction even if such action would not take place without the aid of the heat, both means being necessary to bring it about. Electricity decomposes many chemical compounds, 541. and, therefore, also indirectly causes the formation of other compounds to take the place of those decomposed by it, just as in the case of the decomposition of molecules by heat.

130

CHEMISTRY.

Status nascendi. Chemical reactions take place far 542. more readily when the reacting elements or radicals come into
contact with each other at the instant they are liberated from

other compounds.
Sulphur and hydrogen do not combine directly; but when both are simultaneously displaced from their compounds sulphur from iron sulphide and

hydrogen from sulphuric acid

they readily unite forming hydrogen sulphide-

Molecular hydrogen has no chemical energy; but 543. atomic hydrogen is energetic enough to decompose nitric acid.
If hydrogen be generated in one vessel, and passed through a tube into another vessel containing nitric acid, the gas (molecular hydrogen) will have no effect whatever upon the nitric acid no matter how long continued the current of hydrogen may be. But if hydrogen be slowly generated in the

by dissolving metallic iron in the cold dilute acid, no gas takes place although hydrogen is set free from the nitric acid, iron taking its place in the molecule of the acid, because the nascent hydrogen the atomic hydrogen at the moment of its liberation and before its
nitric acid itself
t

evolution

atoms unite

decomposes another portion of the nitric acid to form molecules forming ammonia and water (HN0 3 +4H 3 8 +3H 2 0) so that the result-

=NH

ing solution will finally contain not only iron


nitrate.

nitrate but

also

ammonium
forces,

544. Chemical reactions are also affected

by physical

both as to their energy and their direction. Cohesion and adhesion exert an important influence upon the course of chemical reactions, in both dry processes and wet processes

(545 to 547). Dry processes or methods are those in which the fac545. tors of the reaction are dry substances, either in powder, pieces,
are

or in a state of fusion. Thus when preparations

made by

trituration, fusion, exsiccation, cal-

cination, sublimation, etc., they are said to be

made by the " dry way." processes are those in which one or both factors 546. of the reaction are in a state of solution. All precipitates are prepared by the "wet way," and also many of the

Wet

water soluble

salts.

In wet processes involving double decomposition (529) 547. that is, when reactions are induced between substances in a

state of solution

the

direction, velocity,

and completeness of

CHEMISTRY.

13 I

the reaction depend greatly upon the relative solubilities of the

products.
In dry processes

where heat

is

applied, the reaction which

takes place,

if

any, and, indeed, the very question whether any

reaction will ensue or not, depends in

many

cases

upon the

state
is,

of aggregation or cohesion of the possible products

that

upon whether or not the products are fixed or volatile substances. The predisposing affinity of a third molecule is 548. sometimes of great importance as a means of inducing chemical reaction between two other molecules. In other words A and B

may

influences, but

not react with each other in the absence of adventitious may do so in the presence of another body, C, which stands ready to react with one of the products of the

reaction between

and B.

of all matter is to form as neutral and permanent molecules as possible under the conditions under which it is placed. A negative radical, therefore, determines or predisposes the formation of a positive one with which it may be united, and vice versa, in order that the final result may be a more firmly united and stable molecule. Strong acids and strong alkalies exert a destructive influence upon many neutral

The general tendency

substances for this reason.


of elemental radicals, the cause of such a

In chemical reactions which are accompanied by a change of the valence change can hardly be looked upon
this

as

any other than

predisposing

affinity

the strongest possible

compound

radicals, that can be

which compels the formation of formed out of the atoms

taking part in the reaction.

CHAPTER
549.

XXVII.
IN

THE LAW OF OPPOSITES

CHEMISTRY.
acids and alkalies
are

The opposite

properties of

among
so

the most striking facts of chemistry. The destructive properties of both have been known since ancient times, and are

pronounced and so important as

to be familiar to

most per-

132

CHEMISTRY.

sons of the present time. The sour, corrosive properties of the stronger acids are opposite to the caustic properties of the alkalies,

and acids and


facts

alkalies neutralize each other, so that the

properties of both are nullified.

These

were observed long before chemistry assumed

the dignity of a science.

Acetic acid in the form of vinegar is mentioned in the 550. books of Moses, and was used in medicine by Hippocrates and
Dioscorides.
Nitric acid was made by Geber in the seventh century, and "muriatic acid " was also known at a very early period. The Arabs knew how to make "aqua regia," which is a mixture of nitric and muriatic acids, and they were acquainted with the " Oil of vitfact that gold could be dissolved in that mixture. riol," which is an old name for sulphuric acid made from "green vitriol," was made as early as the 15th century. The lye of wood ashes was well known, and the solid 551. "fixed alkali," which was obtained from it (the impure "potash"). Lime, too, had attracted attention, and its effect in increasing the alkaline character of potash and soda. Sodium carbonate is referred to in the Old Testament, and the ancients Ammonia was recognized as an applied the name nitrum to it. alkali, being known as a constituent of urine after standing (and we still hear the expression "chamber-lye"). It was also

made from ammonium


the 7th century.

chloride,

known
was

at least as early as in

Later, potash

called "alkali vegetabile/'

soda (sodium carbonate)

was named "alkali minerale," and

ammonia,

"alkali volatile."

The fact that acids and alkalies neutralized each other's 552. corrosive properties was too striking to remain unobserved.
Acid and lye saturated each other and neutral compounds resulted which had properties entirely different from those of either of the materials which were mixed. When vinegar was poured upon chalk, the chalk was dissolved and effervescence took place. The gas which caused
this effervescence as
it

passed

off

received later the

name

of

"acid of

air."

CHEMISTRY.

T33

But it was further known that some acids and some 553. alkalies are stronger than other acids and alkalies, respectively.
It was recognized that sulphuric acid ("oil of vitriol ") would decompose nitre, whereby nitric acid was obtained, and that it would also decompose common salt, whereby muriatic acid was

gotten.
It is

true the

early chemists did not

know

the acids, bases

and
ical

by their present names, and did not know their chemcomposition and formulas; but they knew their striking difsalts

ferences.

554. The metals potassium and sodium were separated from the fixed alkalies by means of electricity by Sir Humphrey Davy; and the discovery of oxygen and chlorine, and of the

true nature of combustion, led to a classification of the elements


into the metallic and non-metallic groups, which further

sized the opposite character of their most important


555.

emphacompounds.
It

Acids (883) and bases (874) were carefully studied.


;

was discovered that both classes of compounds, as a rule, contained oxygen but that the metallic oxides (846) were basic
whereas the oxides of the non-metallic elements (847), containing a comparatively larger proportion of oxygen, produced Consequently the salts were assumed to be composed of acids. metallic oxides with the anhydrides of the non-metallic elements, and potassium sulphate, which is now written K 2 S0 4 was then What was then called an acid is now called written KO. S0 3 they were of opposite an anhydride. But the main fact is chemical properties and neutralized one another. Simultaneously with the introduction of the balance 556. and the discovery of oxygen came the researches and discoveries of Volta and Galvani in the field of electricity. The intimate relations between chemism and electricity were recognized. Not only was the galvanic current produced and maintained by the aid of chemical reactions, but the current seemed to have an almost unlimited power to resolve chemical compounds into two constituents; one of which was invariably
(848),
,
.

134

CHEMISTRY.

attracted to the positive electrode and the other to the negative Salts were thus decomposed with the result that the electrode.
acid collected at the positive pole, and the base at the negative
pole.

Other compounds have been decomposed


similar results.

in

the

same

way and with

We have before learnt (443) that electricity is devel557. oped by chemical action, and that the electricity thus developed
is

called galvanic or voltaic

electricity,

being so named after Galin a striking


it

vani and Volta.

We

have also seen (435) that electricity exhibits


electricity

manner phenomena of attraction and has two opposite states, one called positive
negative electricity,

repulsion, because

and the other

and that electricity is a polar force with posiand negative polarity (449). It has also been stated that bodies charged with like electricities repel each other, while two bodies of opposite electrical
tive polarity

'polarities attract each other (440).

chemical reaction takes place without the developIt is also known that chemical reactions are essential to the production of voltaic action. The energy of the electric current is proportionate to the energy of the chemical action, and the direction of the one is dependent upon the
558.

No

ment

of electricity.

direction of the other. 559.

Electrolysis.
into their

A great number of
electrolysis.

decomposed
electricity.

immediate constituents

This

is

called

compounds can b by means of The various compounds

which can be decomposed by electrolysis are called electrolytes. Electrolytic decomposition resolves the constituents of 560. the electrolyte into two groups, one of which is attracted to the
negative pole of the battery, the other passing to the positive
pole.

561.
sively

The same current

of electricity, transmitted succes-

through different electrolytes, decomposes each in the proportion of their respective chemical equivalents. The energy of the electric current is proportionate to the energy of the chemical action which produces it.

CHEMISTRY.
562.

135
is

When

a chemical

compound

decomposed by an
is

elec-

tric current, the

matter attracted to the positive pole

said to

be

electro-ne.gative,

and that attracted

to the negative

pole

is

electro-positive

The foregoing facts point strongly to a law of oppochemistry analogous to the law of opposites which is so strikingly manifest in the phenomena of electricity. Electro-chemical Polarity. Radicals are of two 564. opposite kinds as to the quality of their chemism, namely, posiPositive radicals unite with negative tive and negative radicals. radicals, and negative radicals unite with positive radicals but one positive radical does not unite with another positive radino radical unites with another radical of the same electrocal chemical polarity. Positive radicals are those which are attracted to the 565. negative pole in electrolysis They form compounds with the negative radicals.
563.
sites in

Negative radicals are those which are attracted to 566. the positive pole in electrolysis.

They
pounds.
567.

unite with

positive

radicals to

form chemical com-

Electro-chemical Theory.
radicals.

The phenomena of chem-

ism have been attributed to electrical attraction between atoms

and between

That strong grounds for such an hypothesis exist is sufficiently evident from the foregoing. There are, however, a large number of compounds which do not seem to be susceptible of electrolytic decomposition. The electro chemical theory, and the idea of simple and compound radicals which is inseparable from it, do not so directly and plainly account for substitution, which results in changes within the radical, leaving the external
behavior of the latter unaffected. Yet, until a better hypothesis shall have been presented, the obviously intimate relations between electricity and chemism are recognized, simple

and compound radicals are referred to as relatively electro-positive or electronegative, chemical combination is regarded as dependent upon the opposite electro-chemical properties of atoms and compound radicals, and the general chemical character and conduct of compounds are supposed to be determined by the electro-chemical characters and relations of their constituents.

136
Berzelius

CHEMISTRY.

assumed that atoms were endowed with electric polaiity and that when two substances combine chemically their opposite electricities neutralThis electro-chemical relation between acid-forming and baseize each other. forming simple or compound radicals applies to both inorganic and organic
chemistry.

568.

Molecules formed by the union of strong electro-posi-

tive radicals with strong electro-negative radicals offer greater

resistance to change than other molecules.

Very complex molecules, containinga large number of atoms, and composed of several different compound radicals, are more frequently unstable than those of more simple structure. But the terms " positive " and " negative," as applied 569. to radicals, are only relative terms, for any one radical may be electro-positive with reference to some and electro-negative to
other radicals of other kinds.
Thus when nitric anhydride, which is a compound of nitrogen and oxyis decomposed by an electric current, its nitrogen is collected at the negative pole and its oxygen at the positive pole of the battery; but when ammonia, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, is similarly decomposed,
gen,
the nitrogen passes to the positive pole, the hydrogen going to the opposite
electrode.

of

Sulphur is found to be electro-positive in sulphuricanhydride, a compound sulphur and oxygen, but negative in its compounds with the meta'.s
positive;
its

The metals are, as a rule, electro-positive. 570. Sulphuric acid is hydrogen sulphate. The hydrogen in it is but zinc is relatively a stronger positive radical and therefore takes
when
zinc
is put into the acid. Silver is separated from a solution of

place

571. If the sepacopper, the copper taking the place of the silver in the solution. rated silver be filtered out and a piece of lead put into the solution of the

silver nitrate

by metallic

copper

nitrate, the

copper will

in turn be

separated out by the lead, and lead

as well as copper can be displaced in a similar

way by

either iron or zinc.

Electro-chemical Series. Berzelius arranged the elements known in his day into a series according to their relative electro-chemical position, beginning with the strongest electro-negative element and ending with the strongest electropositive element. Each element in the series is positive toward any element preceding it, and negative to any element below it.
572.

The

An

abbreviation of

it is

given here:

CHEMISTRY.
Negative end

137

Atomic weight.
16.

Oxygen

II.

Sulphur II, IV, VI. Nitrogen I, III, V.


Fluorine
I.

32

14.
1

19.

Chlorine

I I

to VII.

Bromine
Iodine
I

to VII.
f
J

Halogens.

35-45
80.

to VII.
I,

126.85
III,

Phosphorus
Arsenic
I,

V.

3i.
75-

III,
II,

V.
IV, VI.

Chromium

521

Boron III. Carbon II, IV. Antimony III, V.

1.

12.

120.

Hydrogen

Silicon IV.

28.4
I.

+
Noble
*

1.

Gold I, III. Platinum II, IV. Mercury II.


Silver
I,

197-3
J

95-

metals.

200.
108.

III.

Copper II. Bismuth III, V.


Tin
II,

63-4
209.
119.

IV. IV.
II,
II,

Lead

II,

207.
59-

Cobolt Nickel
Iron
II, II.

IV.
IV.

58.7
56.

IV, VI.
IV, VI.

Zinc

65.3
II,

Manganese

55-

Aluminum
Magnesium

IV.
II.
\

27.

24-3

Calcium II, IV. Strontium II, IV. Barium II, IV. Lithium I.

Alkaline
earth
metals.
-\

40.

>
J

87.6
1377.

Sodium

Alkali
I,

III.
I,

23.

Potassium

III,

V.
4-

metals
)

39-

Positive end

138
573.

CHEMISTRY.
Upon an
is

inspection of the preceding table

it

will

be found that

oxygen
that

is

the strongest electro-negative element, with sulphur as second; and

potassium

the strongest electro-positive element (of the

more common

elements) with sodium as second.

Oxygen forms with


oxides; with hydrogen

the negative elements (above hydrogen) acid forming


it

forms an absolutely neutral oxide, water; and with

it forms basic oxides. The comhalogens with hydrogen are in several respects like the true acids. The compounds formed by sulphur with the other elements are analogous to those formed with them by oxygen. Oxygen and sulphur together form an oxide which produces (with water) the strongest acid known sulphuric acid. Oxygen and sulphur are dyads and the halogens are monads. The polyvalent negative elements, which are typically represented by nitrogen and carbon, are remarkable for the great number of compound radicals which they form with oxygen and hydrogen.

the positive elements (below hydrogen)

pounds

of the

Hydrogen and oxygen form water. But no less remarkable is the compound radical (HO) called hydroxyl, formed by one atom of each of these wonderful elements. Hydroxyl is contained in all acids, bases and alcohols. Arsenic, chromium and antimony (above hydrogen) are of a metallic
character, but nevertheless form acids.

Below hydrogen we find first gold and platinum which are very weak The polyvalent elements bismuth and tin possess analogies with nitrogen and carbon, respectively, and form acids as well as bases. At the lower end of the series we have the strongest base-forming metals.
positive elements.

574.
is

The student should study

this

the remaining chapters on chemistry, that he

chapter again after he has learned may recognize the fact that there

a self-evident intimate connection between the electro-chemical character

of the elements

on the one hand and their valence and atomic weights on the

other.

But the student must not suppose that he can employ the electro-chem
ical series

as a safe guide in pre-determining the course of chemical reactions,

or the relative electro-chemical character of

compound

radicals.

An

intelli-

gent advanced student may often find satisfactory explanations of established facts by studying such tables as this; but all students must bear in mind at all times that ascertained facts stand both before and after theories,
attractive and really helpful the theories may be. Facts lead to and theories in turn lead to other facts; but experimental science discovers facts independently of theory, and new theories are evolved which supplement, modify, or even supplant previous theories, while the facts stand. Only the learned and experienced may make, apply, analyze, and unmake Students, however, should learn to understand accepted fundatheories. mental theories, and their relations to the facts of experience, as far as they

however

theories,

can.

CHEMISTRY.

139

CHAPTER

XXVIII.

FIXED COMBINING PROPORTIONS AND THE ATOMIC THEORY.


575.

vast

number

of chemical

examined, made, and unmade.

compounds have been Weighed quantities have been


and .the respective

decomposed

into their constituent elements,

weights of these elements also ascertained and found to account for the whole. The same elements in the same proportions have also been put together again and caused to unite, the product being not only the same compound which had before yielded these elements when it was decomposed, but the weight of the product has been found to be exactly the same as the sum of the weights of the elements. Substances have been

composed and decomposed in the same manner, and the factors and products weighed, without dealing with elemental molecules, and the results have been as absolute and invariable. Hence, nothing is lost in any chemical reaction, whether the
reaction be synthetical or analytical.
It has been 576. Water has been repeatedly decomposed. invariably found to yield by its decomposition two elements,

oxygen and hydrogen, and nothing else. Water has also been repeatedly made out of oxygen and hydrogen, and can be made Thus it has been conclusively proven that of nothing else. water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. Numerous other substances have been decomposed and composed, many times over, and have been proven, analytically and synthetically, to consist invariably of the same elements.
Hence, any given In no case has a different result been reached. kind of matter always contains the same elements 577. It has been further demonstrated that water contains its oxygen and hydrogen invariably in the proportion of 8.89 per cent, by weight of the oxygen and ii.ii per cent, by weight of the hydrogen. In other words ioo pounds of water always contains 88.89 pounds of oxygen and n. 11 pounds of hydrogen.

140
If

CHEMISTRY.
88.89 pounds of oxygen and n.ii pounds of hydrogen be

made

to unite

by chemism, the product is exactly 100 pounds of water. If any more than 88.89 pounds of oxygen be used with n. n pounds of hydrogen, all of the excess of oxygen above the 88.89 pounds will remain as still oxygen, but ioopounds of water will be formed; if less oxygen is used, a corresponding quantity of hydrogen will be left over, and a correspondingly smaller amount of
water
will be obtained.
is

Hydrochloric acid

composed

of

35.45 pounds of chlorine, making 36.45 chlorine and hydrogen do not unite in
If

pound of hydrogen and pounds of the acid and any other proportions.
;

you

try

to

combine
1

chlorine you will have just

2 pounds of hydrogen with 35.45 pounds of pound of hydrogen left over, etc.

When calomel is decomposed and its constituent elementsweighed it is found that 235.45 pounds of calomel contain 200 pounds of mercury and 35.45 pounds of chlorine.
you combine 200 pounds of mercury with 35.45 pounds of chlorine, you pounds of calomel. But if you combine 200 pounds of mercury with 70.9 pounds of chlorine, you will notget calomel at all you will, however, get just 270.9 pounds of corrosive sublimate.
If

will get just 235.45

Numerous other substances have been decomposed and produced with the result that the proportions of the component elements have been found to be invariable. In no case have the results been otherwise. Therefore all chemical compounds contain fixed proportions by iveight of their component elements.

But it happens frequently that two elements combine 578. with each other in more than one ratio. In every such case, however, the product is a different substance whenever the proportions of the component elements are different; and the proportions necessary to form any particular substance are
invariable.

579.

The metal manganese

unites with

oxygen

in five differ-

ent proportions, as follows:


55

pounds
" "
<

of

Manganese
"

unites with 16 pounds of oxygen.

55
55

"
<

" "

24
32

55 55

"
.''

"
"

"
"

48
50

"

"

CHEMISTRY.
If

141

you now divide the pounds of oxygen in each case by the smallest number (16), you get the quotients i, i%, 2, 3, and
Nitrogen unites with oxygen also
14

in five
8

proportions
of

pounds
" "
"

of nitrogen unites with

pounds

oxygen

14 14 14 14
If

"
" "

" " "


"

"

16

"
"

24
32

"

"

40

"

smallest

you again divide the number number (8), you will get 1,
:

of

2, 3,

pounds 4 and

of
5.

oxygen by the

Chlorine forms four oxides

709 pounds of chlorine unites with 160 pounds of oxygen. " '' " " 480 709 " " " " " 800 709 " " " 1,120 709
'

Divide the pounds of oxygen as before


3, 5

the quotients are

1,

and 7. Three chlorides of manganese are known:


pounds of chlorine. 550 pounds of manganese unites with 709 " " " 1,063.5 " " 1,418 550
'

550

Divide the pounds of chlorine as before the oxygen and you


get the
find

numbers 1, 1^2 and 2. Compare these tables with each other and you
that 550

will

further

pounds of manganese unites with 160 pounds of oxygen, but with 709 pounds of chlorine; that 709 pounds of chlorine also unites with 160 pounds of oxygen.

The simplicity of these proportions is found to extend chemical compounds. How is it to be accounted for? If it be assumed that the elements are not divisible without limit, but that each element consists of indivisible particles having a fixed weight, that assumption will explain it all satisfactorily No other theory has ever been proposed which does account for the fixed combining proportions observed in all chemical compounds.
580.
to all

142
581.
It

CHEMISTRY.
has been stated that
it

takes 8,000,000,000 molecules of water to

make
best

a particle of water of sufficient size to be seen by the aid of one of the

modern microscopes.
Sir William

Thomson says: " If we conceive a sphere of water of the size pea to be magnified to the size of the earth, each molecule to be magnified to the same extent, the magnified structure would be coarser grained than a heap of small lead shot, but less coarse-grained than a heap of cricket-balls." It has been estimated that the mean diameter of molecules is so small that
of a
if

length.

500,000 of them were placed in a row, the row would be only j-J^ inch in It has also been said that the molecules of hydrogen are about

OI an mcn apart from each other. Each molecule of hydrogen contwo atoms. But these dimensions are beyond intelligent comprehension. Atoms are so small that their diameter and absolute weight can not be determined, and for purposes of argument we may as well assume that they weigh pounds as that they weigh an infinitesimal fraction of a milligram. The relative weights of atoms are believed to be correctly determined.
STsWtrffff

tains

If' we assume, then, for argument's sake, that an atom 582. hydrogen weighs 1 pound, an atom of oxygen 16 pounds, nitrogen 14 pounds, chlorine 35.45 pounds, manganese 55 pounds, and mercury 200 pounds, and that these atoms are indivisible then the definite combining proportions observed in the examples given in paragraphs 577 and 579 will not only become intelligi-

of

ble,

but they could not be otherwise than

fixed.

Peroxide of hydrogen will be obtained when 1 pound of hydrogen forms molecules with 16 pounds of oxygen; but 2 pounds of hydrogen forms water with 16 pounds of oxygen; 16 pounds of oxygen unites with 14 pounds of nitrogen to form nitrogen dioxide; 14 pounds of nitrogen unites with 3 pounds l3xi) of hydrogen to form ammonia; 14 pounds of nitrogen unites with 106.35

pounds (3x35.45) of chlorine forming nitrogen chloride; 3 pounds of hydrogen and 106.35 pounds of chlorine unite to form hydrochloric acid; 106.35 pounds of chlorine united with 55 pounds of manganese will form manganic chloride; 55 pounds of manganese unites with 16 pounds of oxygen forming manganous oxide; 16 pounds of oxygen unites with 200 pounds of mercury to form mercuric oxide; and 200 pounds of mercury unites with 35.45 pounds chlorine to form calomel, or with twice that amount of chlorine to form corrosive sublimate.

583.

The Atomic Theory. On

account, then, of the fixed

combiningproportions (577 and 579)


divisible into

it is

assumed

that all matter

is

small particles called atoms which are themselves indivisible

CHEMISTRY.

143

having fixed weights (580 and 582). This theory was proposed by Dalton.

Atomic Weights. The smallest weight of any ele584. ment which can enter into the formation of a compound is its
atomic weight.
units; the relative weight of any

weight of its atomic weight.


has

Atomic weights are expressed in hydrogen atom as compared to the the atom of hydrogen (H 1), therefore expresses

Practically the smallest relative quantity

by weight which
of an element
is

been found

in

the various

compounds

assumed to represent its atomic weight. This is the quantity by weight which unites with or can take the place of one atom
of hydrogen.
Whether or not the numbers
called atomic weights actually represent the

relative weights of atoms, they serve to express truthfully the definite and

multiple proportions in accordance with which

all

compounds

are formed.

The molecular weight being known and


atoms
in the

also the

number

of

molecule, the atomic weight is found by dividing the molecular weight by the atomicity of the molecule.

of Multiple Proportions. WhenDalton's 585. ever any two elements combine in more than one proportion, the several
compounds formed by
these elements contain

Law

simple

multiples

of the

atomic weights of both constituents. Thus if A and B unite in several different proportions, their

atoms unite
or
5,
1

in the
1

numerical ratios of
or
1

to
2

1,

or
3,

to
2

2,

or
4,

to
2

3,

to

4,

or

to

5,

to

6,

or

to

2,

or

to
5,

or

to
7,

or

to

or 2 to 6, or 2 to other simple ratio.


586.

7,

or 3 to
Petit, in

4,

or 3 to

or 3 to

or

some
all

Dulong and

1819,

proposed the law that

atoms have the same capacity for

heat.

In other words, it requires exactly the same amount of heat to raise the temperature of any atom one degree, without reference to its kind.

by which

Their proposition was based upon a series of investigations exists it became evident that a simple proportion
of the elements.

between the specific heats and the atomic weights These were found to be inversely proportional.

144
587.

CHEMISTRY.
Specific heat
is

the relative quantity of heat necessary

to raise the temperature of

one weight unit of any substance

one thermal degree.


is expressed in units of the specific heat ot taken as the thermal standard. Thus the quantity of heat necessary to raise one weight unit of water one degree is the specific heat of water, and being chosen as the standard of comparison it is 1. But mercury requires only ytJ-foo as much heat as water does to raise the same quantity of it one thermal degree, and, therefore, the specific heat of mercury is 0.0319. Investigations by Neumann and Regnault, in 1831, 588. proved that the specific heats of compounds are inversely propor-

Specific heat
is

water, which

tional to their molecular weights.

Thus, the specific heat of elements is inversely as their 589. atomic weights, and the specific heat of compounds inversely as their molecular weights. After further investigations by Regnault and others, with a great variety of compounds, it was concluded that all atoms, free or combined, have the same capacity for heat. These valuable discoveries afforded a new means of finding or verifying atomic and molecular weights.
590. Deduction of Atomic Weight from Specific Heat. The atomic weights of elements may be verified by examining

the specific heats of their solid compounds.

When the specific heat of any elementary body is multiplied by its atomic weight the product is a constant number. Owing to the unavoidable liabilities to error in such difficult determinations, the specific heats and the atomic weights found by the best methods known are not absolutely correct, and hence the product of the atomic weight by the specific heat varies somewhat, but the mean is 6.40. Whenever, therefore, the product varies considerably from that mean, one or both factors are assumed to be wrong; and should the product be only one-half of 6.40, or should it be twice 6.40, the inference would be that the atomic weight used is double or one-half of the actual.

Atomic Heat. The number obtained by multiplying 591. the specific heat of any element by its atomic weight is called
its

atomic heat.

CHEMISTRY.
As already stated, it is near 6.4. All elements are assumed to have same atomic heat under certain conditions. [The molecular heat divided by the number of atoms contained in

145
the

the

molecule will also give the atomic heat.] 592. The atomic heat of any element (6.4) divided by its specific heat will give its atomic weight; and the atomic heat divided by the atomic weight will give the specific heat. The specific heat multiplied by the atomic weight gives
the atomic heat.

Molecular Weight. The molecular weight of any 593. substance, or the weight of its molecule, is the sum of the
weights of
its

constituent atoms.

It

is,

therefore, found

by

adding these together.

Molecular Heat. 594. ing the specific heat of any


is

The number obtained by multiplyIt is

called

its

molecular heat.

compound by its molecular weight the sum of the atomic heats of


the

the atoms it contains. The molecular heat of any compound divided by


contained
in the

number

of

atoms

molecule will give as a quotient the mean of the atomic heats of the elements, which, with rare exceptions, is about 6.4 (590) 595. The number of atoms contained in any molecule may, therefore, be readily ascertained if its specific heat and molecular weight are known; for if
the molecular heat
is

ber of atoms in the molecule.


596.
ular heat

divided by 6.4 (the atomic heat) the quotient is the numIt is of course also found by dividing the

molecular weight by the atomic weight.

The

specific heat of

a substance

may be found by

dividing the molec-

by the molecular weight.

Combination by volume in simple proportions. Gay 597. Lussac found that gases always combine in simple proportions by volume, and also that the volume of the product in the gaseous state bears a simple relation to the volumes of the constituents.

One volume of hydrogen unites with one volume of chlorine, producing two volumes of hydrochloric acid; two volumes of hydrogen unite with one volume of oxygen, producing two volumes of water-vapor; three volumes of hydrogen and one volume of nitrogen unite to form two volumes gaseous ammonia; etc. As elements combine in fixed proportions by weight, and, in
the gaseous state, also in fixed proportions by volumes,
it fol-

lows that the weights of equal volumes of all gases bear the same relation to each other as do the combining weights of the

I46

CHEMISTRY.
if

elements, and

the atomic theory

is

correct the number of atoms


to

contained in a given volume of a?iy gas bears a simple relation

the

number of atoms contained in the same volume of any other gas. In paragraph 5S2 it was shown that the relative com598. bining weights, or atomic weights, of the four most important gaseous elements are as follows:

Hydrogen
Nitrogen

14
16

Oxygen

Chlorine 35.45 the weights of equal volumes of these gases are compared it is found that the above figures, representing their atomic weights, also express the relative weights of equal volumes. Thus one quart of nitrogen weighs 14 times as much as a quart of hydrogen, a quart of oxygen weighs 16 times as much as a quart of hydrogen, and a quart of chlorine gas 35.45 times as much as a quart of hydrogen. As the specific weight of any kind of matter in a gaseous state, called its vapor density, is expressed in hydrogen units, the specific weight of hydrogen being taken as 1, we find that the vapor densities of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine are exactly expressed by their atomic weights. Avogadro's Law. The simple relations between the 599. atomic weights and vapor densities of the elements of course appear also when the molecular weights are compared with the vapor densities, for the molecules of the elements are made up of a small number of atoms and the molecular weight is the sum of the weights of the atoms. Thus:

When

Vapor
Density.

Atomic Weight.

Molecular Weight.

Hydrogen
Nitrogen.

Oxygen
Chorine

16
.

16

35-45

35-45

28 32 70.90

If

comparisons be made

of the

weights and vapor densities

of

compound

molecules, the same simple relations are found:

CHEMISTRY.
Compound.

147
Vapor
Density.

Molecular

Weight.

Water
Hydrochloric Acid

9 18.23

18
36. 4j

32
8-5

64 16

59-75

"9-5

Avogadro accordingly proposed the hypothesis:


umes of
all gases contain the

Equal

vol-

same number of molecules. If the molecular weight of any substance be divided 600. by the vapor density (expressed in hydrogen units), the quotient should always be 2. The vapor density multiplied by 2 should give the molecular weight; and the molecular weight divided by 2 should give the vapor density. [But Crafts and Meyer reduced the vapor density of iodine by heating
until
it

molecular weight.
condition.]

was but one-half of the normal, or only one-fourth of the accepted That makes it appear as if iodine was then in an atomic
It is easily

601.

tains at least

shown that the molecule of hydrogen contwo atoms, and for good reasons it is assumed that

tbe

as the unit of atomic weight, molecular weight is 2, and if Avogadro's hypothesis is applied it is found that the molecular weight of any substance coincides with its vapor density multiplied by 2.
its
It

number does not exceed two. Hydrogen having been chosen

follows that the vapor density of

any substance

is

expressed by one-

half its molecular weight.

602. As it follows from the atomic hypothesis that the number of atoms contained in any elemental molecule is obtained by dividing the molecular weight by the atomic weight, therefore The atomic weight of all elements having diatomic molecules (2 atoms in each molecule) coincides with the vapor
:

density;
is

if the molecule contain but one atom the atomic weight equal to twice the vapor density; in elements with triatomic molecules (3 atoms in each molecule) the atomic weight is equal to two-thirds of the vapor density; in elements with tetratomic molecules (4 atoms in each molecule) the atomic weight is equal

148
to one-half of

CHEMISTRY.
the vapor density; and in
(6

tomic molecules
is

elements with hexaeach molecule) the atomic weight equal to one-third of the vapor density.

atoms

in

603.

If

it

be assumed that one measure of hydrogen contains 1,000 mole-

cules of hydrogen, one measure of oxygen contains the

same number

(599).

hydrogen, containing 2,000 molecules, would contain 4,000 hydrogen atoms, and one measure of oxygen would contain 2,000 oxygen atoms, for the molecules of hydrogen and oxygen have both been found to be diatomic. The total number of atoms, then, contained in the two measures of hydrogen and one measure of oxygen would be 6,000. When combined they form two measures of water vapor. According to Avogadro's law these two measures must contain the same number of molecules as the two measures Now, as these 2,000 molecules of water were formed of hydrogen, or 2,000. out of 4 000 atoms of hydrogen and 2,000 atoms of oxygen, there must be 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen in each water molecule, which is exactly what the molecule of water has been shown by other means to contain. The fact that 2 measures of hydrogen and 1 measure of oxygen form only 2 measures of water vapor, is accounted for by the fact that the water molecules contain 3 atoms each while the molecules of hydrogen and oxygen contain
of

Two measures

only 2 atoms each.


1

volume

of

Hydrogen and
Hydrogen and
1

volume volume
volume

of Chlorine

produce

volumes

of

Hydrochloric Acid gas.


2 volumes Water vapor. 3 volumes

of

of

Oxygen produce
produce

volumes of

of

Hydrogen and

of Nitrogen

volumes of

gaseous Ammonia. Hydrochloric acid is diatomic, and, therefore, requires only two volumes of diatomic elements to produce the same number of molecules.

The molecule
of diatomic

elements
is

Ammonia
elements
to

water is triatomic, and, therefore, requires three volumes to produce the same number of molecules. tetratomic, and, therefore, requires four volumes of diatomic
of

produce the same number of molecules.

The atomic weights used in this book are given in the on the opposite page. The newly-discovered elements Argon and Helium, are not included in it.
6o4.

table

. . . .

.. . . . .

CHEMISTRY.

149

Table of Atomic Weights.


The names
are printed in heavy faced type.

(H=i.)

of elements occurring in pharrnacopceial, medicinal chemical;

Name.

Symbol

Atomic
Weight.

Name.

Atomic
Weight.

Aluminum.
Antimoiiy. Arsenic
.

Al Sb

As

Barium
Jtfismuth

Ba
Bi

27. 120. 75. 137. 209.


11.

Molybdenum
Nickel

Mo
Ni

96.

Nitrogen

N
Os
....
.

Osmium Oxygen

Boron

B
.

Palladium.
Platinum.
.

Pd

58.6 14. 190.3 16. 106.4

Bromine Cadmium
Caesium

Br Cd
Cs

79.8
111.5 132.7

Phosphorus
.

P
Pt

31.
194.3

alcium Carbon

Ca

40.
12.

Potassium Rhodium.

K
.

39.
103.5
85.

C
Ce
.

Rubidium

Cerium
Chlorine

CI
.

140. 35.4
52. 58.6 93.7

Ruthenium.

Chromium.
Cobalt

Cr

Samarium Scandium
Selenium. Silicon Silver

Rh Rb Ru Sm
Sc Se
Si

101.4
150.
44.
79.

Columbium
Erbium
Fluorine.
. .

Co Cb

Copper Didymium*)
.

Cu
Di

63.2
142. 166.
19.

Ag
Na
. .

28.3 107.7
23. 87.3 32.
182. 125. 159.

Sodium
Strontium.

Er

Gallium

Ga
.

70.

Sulphur Tantalum
Terbium

. .
.

Sr

Germanium
Glucinum Gold
Indium Iodine
Iridium
3

Ge
Gl

72.3
9.

Tellurium
Thallium.

).

Ta Te Tb
Tl

Au
4

196.7
1.

203.7
232. 119. 48.

Hydrogen

).

H
Ir

Thorium
Tin Titanium. Tungsten.
. .

Th
Sn
Ti
.

In

1136
126.5
192.5

Iron

Lanthanum. L^ad Lithium. ...

Fe La
Li

56.
137.9
7.

Uranium. Vanadium.
.

U V

183.6 239.
51.

Pb 206.4

Magnesium
Manganese Mercury
1) 3)

Mg Mn

24.3
55.

Ytterbium. Yttrium Zinc Zirconium.


split into

Yb
Yt

172.6
89.

Zn
. .

65.1
90.4

Zr

Has priority over Has priority over Beryllium.

200. Niobium. 2) No
4)

Hg

Neo-and Praseo-Didymium.

Stan dard, or basis of the system.

150

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER

XXIX.

VALENCE.
605. We have said that atoms unite with each other to form molecules. All atoms of the same kind have the same chemical saturating power that is, the quantity of the chemism of any one atom is exactly the same as the quantity of the chemism of any other atom of the same kind. One atom has the same combining value as another atom of the same kind. It is also found that one kind of atoms may have the same combining value or saturating power as atoms of a certain other
;

kind. Thus, chlorine atoms and hydrogen atoms have the same combining value, so that one atom of chlorine combines with one atom of hydrogen, both atoms being thereby saturated, so that not more than one atom of each kind can unite, and so that no other atom of any kind can unite with one atom of chlorine and one of hydrogen tied together. This equality of combining power, or chemical saturating capacity, or atomic value, or combining value, is also shown by the atoms of potassium and chlorine, by calcium and oxygen, silver and iodine, zinc and sulphur, boron and nitrogen, etc. In all these cases one atom of one kind unites with one atom of the other kind forming a molecule incapable of combining with any other atom or radical. The chemism of the atoms of the molecule is, therefore,

exhausted, saturated, satisfied, or neutralized. But an atom of chlorine has only one-half the value of 606. an atom of calcium, for two atoms of chlorine are always
required to saturate (or form a molecule with) one atom of calOne atom of oxygen has twice as great combining power as an atom of potassium, and twice the value also of an atom of
cium.

hydrogen, for one atom of oxygen will satisfy at once one atom and hydrogen. One atom of nitrogen demands three atoms of hydrogen no more, and no less. If we use the letter H to represent an atom of hydrogen, O 10 represent an atom of oxygen, N to represent an atom of nitrogen, C to represent an atom of carbon, and append numerals
of each of potassium

CHEMISTRY.
to represent

151
shall be

any number of atoms exceeding one, we

able to write the molecular formulas (630) of hydrochloric acid, water, ammonia, and marsh-gas.

HC1

H O
a

H3N

H4C

Ammonia Hydrochloric Acid Water Marsh-gas These formulas show that if the combining value of the hydrogen atom is expressed by 1, then the value of the oxygen atom is 2, that of the nitrogen atom is 3, and that of the carbon atom 4. Radicals (519) unite with each other in accordance with 607. their relative combining or saturating power, which is called their valence. One or two atoms of one kind may, apparently, be capable of saturating one or two, three, four, five, six or seven atoms of another kind; or two atoms of one kind may saturate three or five atoms of another kind. The same is true
radicals. Thus, one atom of hydrogen binds one other atom of hydrogen; but one atom of oxygen binds two atoms of hydrogen; one atom of nitrogen saturates three atoms of hydrogen; one atom of carbon satisfies four of hydrogen; and, while the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen are of equal value (as one atom of either binds one atom of the other), an atom of tantalum is of equal value with five atoms of chlorine; one atom of tungsten satisfies six atoms of chlorine; and the atomic value of chlorine in one of its compounds with oxygen appeal s as if it were seven times that of hydrogen.

of

compound

608. Valence is also called " atomic value,'' "quantivalence," "equivalence" [and sometimes also "atomicity"*]. Valence is expressed in hydrogen units. Hydrogen 609. has been adopted as the standard of comparison for this purpose because the atom of hydrogen has a smaller valence than any other atom except those having the same value as itself. Therefore the valence of a radical may also be said to be represented by the number of atoms of hydrogen which it satispower, or for which it can be fies, or equals in combining exchanged. Hydrogen, being the unit, has a valence of one; any other radical uniting with, or capable of taking the place of, two atoms
*

The term atomicity has

also been used to express the

number

of

atoms

contained in an elemental molecule (471).

152
of

CHEMISTRY.

hydrogen has the valence 2; a radical which takes the place of, or satisfies, three atoms of hydrogen, has a valence expressed by the number 3, etc. 610. Many elements and radicals do not unite with hydrogen; but they
do unite with other radicals whose valence has been ascertained, and the valence of all radicals must be determined, not with reference to their hydrogen compounds merely, but to their compounds generally, and especially with regard to their most important and best known compounds, whatever these may be. Thus, not only hydrogen compounds, but also oxides, chlorides and other molecules must be studied in order to correctly determine the valence of any element or compound radical.
611. Artiads and Perissads. Radicals whose valence is expressed by an even number, as 2, 4, or 6, are called artiads; while radicals of an uneven valence, as 1, 3, 5, or 7, are called
perissads.

The artiads are more numerous than the perissads. 612. Hydrogen, and all other radicals having the same valence, are called monads, and are univalent; radicals which unite with or replace two hydrogen or chlorine atoms are called dyads and are bivalent; those that satisfy or replace three hydrogen or chlorine atoms are called triads and are trivalent; those equal in value to four hydrogen or chlorine atoms are tetrads and quadrivalent; radicals whose atomic value is five are called pentads, and they are quinquivalent; those whose valence is six are hexads and sexivalent;

and radicals with an atomic value of seven are heptads


1,

and

septivalent.

The valence of chlorine is 613. rine will unite with and saturate 1

because 1 atom of chloof hydrogen, or will replace it. Chlorine is, accordingly, like hydrogen, a monad and Iodine, bromine and fluorine are also monads for the univalent. same reasons. Potassium, sodium, lithium and silver are monads, too, because 1 atom of any oneof them will take the place of 1 atom of hydrogen, and because either of them will unite with and saturate 1 atom of chlorine, iodine or bromine.

atom

Oxygen

is

a dyad,

for

atom

of

it

saturates

atoms

of

hydrogen. Negative nitrogen is a 3 atoms of hydrogen.

triad,

because

atom

of

it

will satisfy

CHEMISTRY.

153

Carbon has the valence of a tetrad, for i atom of it saturates 4 atoms of hydrogen. For similar reasons other radicals are pentads, hexads or
heptads.

No

radical has a highervalence than eight,

est valences (seven

and the two highand eight) are comparatively rare.

Radicals of a higher atomic value than that of hydro614. gen, or radicals having more than one free bond, are called
polyvalent
radicals.

Thus

all

atoms

and

compound

radicals

except monads are polyvalent. In comparing the structures of compound radicals and of binary and ternary molecules with each other, this term is convenient. Radicals having the same valence may be called equivalent. Thus potassium and hydrogen are equivalent atoms, both being univalent; zinc and oxygen are equivalent, for both
'

are dyads.

Bonds. The valence units or affinities of atoms are 615. sometimes, for convenience, called bonds. Thus, a monad or univalent atom has one bond; a dyad or bivalent atom has two bonds; a triad or trivalent atom has three bonds; a tetrad or quadrivalent atom has four bonds; a pentad or quinquivalent .atom has five bonds; a hexad or sexivalent atom has six bonds; and a heptad or septivalent atom has seven bonds.
Any atom which saturates
or replaces

Has the following number of bonds.


bond, bonds,
||

Is called a

And

is

atoms
||
11

"
||
it

"
||

Monad, Dyad,
Triad, Tetrad, Pentad,

Bivalent. Trivalent.

4
S

6 7

" "

Quinquivalent.
Septivalent.

Hexad.
Heptad,

616. We might liken the atoms to coins, each having a definite value corresponding with the combining power. Monads may be likened to one-cent coins, dyads to two-cent coins, triads to three-cent coins, tetrads to four-cent As a two-cent coin is worth two one-cent coins, so a dyad atom is coins, etc. equal to two monad atoms; as it takes three one-cent pieces, or one two-cent and one one-cent piece to equal one three-cent piece, so does it take three

154

CHEMISTRY.
or one

monad atoms,

dyad and one monad to equal one triad; and as three two cent pieces have the same value as two three-cent pieces, so are two triad atoms equal to three dyad atoms, etc.

Variable Valence. But the valence of elements is 617. not always constant. Indeed very few of the elements seem to have a constant valence. Hydrogen and oxygen, which are the most remarkable and important of all elements, are assumed
to

have a constant valence.


It

ent oxides, or
618.

was shown that (579) nitrogen and manganese have each compounds formed by them with oxygen.

five differ-

Among

the examples of variable valence

we

find:

Nitrogen appears to be trivalent in forming ammonia because in that molecule 1 atom of nitrogen is united to 3 atoms of hydrogen while in a molecule of ammonium chloride 1 atom of nitrogen is united to 4 atoms of
;

hydrogen, and

atom
5.

of chlorine besides, thus appealing

to

have in this case

a total valence of

Phosphorus unites with 3 atoms of hydrogen to furm phosphine, and is then apparently a triad but when 2 atoms of phosphorus unite with 5 of oxygen the phosphorus would seem to be a pentad, for each oxygen atom has a
;

valence of

2.

Sulphur unites with two atoms of hydrogen and is then bivalent; but one atom of sulphur also unites with two atoms of oxygen and then it seems and in the sulphuric acid molecule it appears as if it were a to be a tetrad
;

hexad.
In some notable instances 619. upon the electro-chemical polarity.
it

appears as

if

variable valence depends

Thus sulphur is positive toward oxygen, but negative toward all other elements, and you will find that negative sulphur is always a dyad, while sulphur united to oxygen (positive sulphur) presents the higher valences of four
or six.

Nitrogen
that

is

negative toward hydrogen but positive toward oxygen, so

we have negative nitrogen in ammonia but positive nitrogen in nitric anhydride (569). The negative nitrogen is a triad, but nitrogen united to oxygen
In nitric acid the apparently have a valence of either one, three, or five. nitrogen seems to be a pentad. And if a molecule of ammonia be brought in nitrogen acid, the of hydrochloric the ammonia not contact with a molecule of only changes its valence from that of a triad to that of a pentad, but it also negative from to positive. polarity changes its electro-chemical

may

and then always


five

Phosphorus, like the nitrogen, is negative in its union with hydrogen, trivalent, but it is positive in the formation of its oxides and compound radicals with oxygen and then may have, apparently, one, three or

valence units.

CHEMISTRY.
Chlorine
in all
is

155

always univalent when it acts as an electro-negative radical, as chlorides, but the molecular formulas of its oxides and acids indicate

higher valences for the positive chlorine. [In certain cases it has been observed that the valence of an element

may

be changed by heat.]

varies

It has been found that the valence of an atom never by a single valence unit, but always by two units, or by a multiple of two units.

620.

Thus an atom which exhibits a valence of 1 in one of its compounds, in other compounds show a valence of 3, or 5, or 7, but never 2, 4, or 6; and another atom exhibiting in one case a valence of 2 may in other cases show a valence of 4 or 6, but never 1, 3, 5 or 7. It has been sought to explain this fact on the assump621. tion that the true valence of any atom is its highest apparent valence, and that this maximum valence may be diminished by

may

the mutual saturation of pairs of

its

bonds

(615).

To

illustrate this partial self-saturation of

atoms we

will pict-

ure a series of atoms with bonds representing their respective


valences:

o -o -6MONAD.
DYAD.
TRIAD.

-<J>TETRAD.

^C ^X
PENTAD.

HEXAD.

HEPTAD.

represented as follows, since the direction in which the bonds are extended is, of course, immaterial, and neither of these pictures can be likenesses of actual atoms:
Or, they

may be

The mutual
as follows:

saturation of pairs of bonds

may

be represented

HA AD

15^

CHEMISTRY.

OCTAD CHANGED TO TETRAD, AND HEXAD TO DYAD.

TETRADS CHANGED TO
DYADS.

Thus, if this assumption be accepted, a heptad can change to a pentad by Uie mutual saturation of two of its bonds, or it can become a triad by the mutual saturation of two pairs of its bonds, or it may even become a monad by the mutual saturation of six of its bonds in pairs. A hexad may become a dyad by the pairing of four bonds, or a tetrad if only two of its bonds be
paired
off.

But an artiad can never become a perissad, nor can a perissad change to an
artiad.

In other words, no atom can at one time present an even

number
it

of

bonds

and

at

another time an odd number.

622.

In view of the variable valence of

atoms

is difficult

to classify the elements according to their valence,

beyond a

separation of the artiads from the perissads. The following table is arranged according to the
valences of

the

respective elements.

maximum The comparatively rare

and unimportant elements are omitted from this table, and in all cases where the ruling valence differs from its maximum valence, the ruling valence of the element, or that valence which it plainly exhibits in its most important and stable compounds, is shown by Roman numerals in brackets
:

Table of Atomic Values of the Elements (according to


the

maximum

valence):
):

Monads (univalent, or with one bond Hydrogen.


Negative Chlorine. " Bromine.
"

Iodine.
2

Dyads ( bivalent or with Oxygen. Negative Sulphur. Magnesium.


Zinc.

bonds

::

CHEMISTRY.

157

Cadmium.
Mercury. Copper.
Triads
( trivalent, or with 3 bonds Boron. Negative Nitrogen. Negative Phosphorus.

):

Sodium
Silver
(

( I ).

I ).

Gold.

"

Arsenic.

Tetrads

quadrivalent, or with 4 bonds

Carbon.
Silicon.

Tin.

Calcium (II). Strontium ( II Barium ( II ).

).

Aluminum.
Platinum.
Pentads
(

Lead
5

II).

quinquivalent, or with

bonds
III
).

Positive Nitrogen
" "

( also I and Phosphorus (III). (

Arsenic

III
(

).

Potassium

I).

Antimony III ). Bismuth (III).

Hexads (sexivalent, or with 6 bonds): Positive Sulphur (also IV).

Chromium
Manganese
Iron
623.

II

).

II ).

(Hand

IV). of molecules

depends mainly upon component atoms. This will be easily understood when we remember that all the valence units in the molecule must be mutually tied, combined, satisfied, or
the relative valence of their
saturated.

The complexity

624.

Valence has no relation to the energy of chemism


has a powerful chemical
affinity,

called chemical affinity.


Chlorine, though a monad,

whereas
in
its

carbon which

is

quadrivalent

is

entirely inactive at ordinary temperatures.

The

trivalent element, phosphorus,

on the other hand,

is

more energetic

158

CHEMISTRY.

chemical combining power than either quadrivalent carbon, trivalent nitrogen, bivalent sulphur, or univalent hydrogen (521).
625. All compound radicals have an invariable valence; and variable valence seems to occur only in what is called inorganic chemistry.

As long as the causes of variable valence remain unknown, the 626. laws of chemical combination must continue to appear less simple then they probably are in reality. In the meantime we must remember that the valence
of

be

many elements is variable; that the maximum valence of an atom may not its common valence, nor its valence in its most important, or its most

compounds. But in all cases where we know the radicals entering into a molecule, and also their respective valences, we can readily construct their molecular formulas. Even in cases where elemental radicals are concerned it is practicable to base the molecular formulas of most of the important compounds upon valence, and to learn to write formulas accordingly.
stable,

CHAPTER XXX.
CHEMICAL NOTATION.

Chemical Notation is the system of representing 627. atoms and molecules by means of symbols and formulas. Atoms are represented by symbols molecules by formulas.
;

628.
ters.

in all

Symbols are abbreviations or signs consisting of letIn many cases the symbol consists of but one letter, and such cases that letter is the initial of the Latinic name of

In cases where the Latinic names of two or more the element. elements begin with the same letter, an additional letter from The that name is added to make the necessary distinction. additional letter thus used may be the second letter in the name, or some other letter. The symbols, therefore are abbreviations of the Latinic names of the elements, and consist of but one or two letters. In

CHEMISTRY.

159
first is

symbols consisting of two


letter.

letters

only the

a capital

No two atoms
Thus Boron
etc.
is

are represented by the

same symbol.
name
of
it

represented by B, Carbon by C, Hydrogen by H, Nitrogen


(the Latinic
is

by N, Oxygen by O, Potassium by K

Kalium),

is used for Boron, Ba is the symbol for Barium, Bifor Bismuth, and Bromine. C being the symbol for Carbon, Ca is used for Calcium, CI for Chlorine, and Cu (from Cuprum) for Copper. Having given the symbol N to Nitrogen, it was necessary to make the symbol for Nickel Ni, and

As B

Br

for

lor

Sodium Na (from Natrium).


629. To represent one atom the symbol is sufficient alone. represent an elemental molecule the symbol is accompanied

To

by a small Arabic numeral to the right of the symbol, the number expressing the number of atoms contained in the molecule, thus: H 3 K 2 ,0 2 ,P 4 ,Cl 2 ,etc.
,

Formulas are combinations of symbols with numer630. als to express the kinds and numbers of atoms entering into the
molecules of matter. The formulas for elemental molecules, as shown in the preceding paragraph, are simple because elemental molecules each contain but one kind of atoms. The formulas for compound molecules are constructed out of at least as many symbols as there are different kinds of atoms in the molecule which is to be represented, and after each symbol is placed the numeral expressing the numbers of atoms if more than one. The positive radical is always placed before the negative
radical.

As the molecule of potassium iodide contains one atom of the positive potassium and one of the negative iodine, its molecular formula must be written KI; but the molecule of water is composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, and its formula must, therefore, be H 2 0; a molecule of hydrochloric acid is HC1, for it contains one atom of each of hydrogen and chlorine, and the molecular formula for hard soap (sodium oleate) is NaCi 8 H 3 302, because it contains one atom of sodium, eighteen atoms of carbon, thirty-three atoms of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen.
631.

Single molecules are represented by the respective

160

CHEMISTRY.

molecular formulas. Thus represents not only hydrochloric acid, but also one single molecule of hydrochloric acid. When two or more molecules are to be written, a large Arabic numeral is placed in front (or to the left) of the molecule. Thus three molecules of hydrochloric acid must be written 3HCI; two
of potassium iodide;

HO

molecules of water must be written 2H2O; and 5KI stands for five molecules 4NH3 represents four molecules of ammonia, and 2XaCi,.H3302 means two molecules of sodium oleate.

632. When a group of atoms or a compound radical is to be multiplied, the symbols of the atoms or the formula of the radical must be enclosed in brackets and the numeral placed outside below and to the right. Thus, Ca(OH) 2 represents calcium hydrate, which contains one atom of
calcium, two atoms of

oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen; but as each hydrogen atom is united directly to one of the oxygen atoms and the compound thus contains two groups of the radical HO, and as this radical is united to the calcium atom by means of bonds from the oxygen, the formula
correctly written Ca(OH) 2 The formula Pb(N0 3 ) 2 represents lead nitrate, which contains the group NO3 twice. [Entire molecules are occasionally multiplied in the same manner that is, by enclosing the molecular formula in brackets and placing the multiplicator or numeral outside, below, to the right.]
is
.

633.

A
is

large numeral placed


it

in

front of any formula applies

to all that follows

up

to the first period; except that


in

numeral
ula the
In
In

placed directly

if that frontof brackets enclosing a form-

number

multiplies

all

that

is

contained within those


it

brackets.

2K2CO3 the first 2K.CU3.3H2O

figure 2 applies to all

that follows

as a whole.
to
3

the

first

figure 2 applies to

more, and the large figure 3 applies to 3H0O), and in (2K2CO3. 3H s O) 3 the figure
within.
In
inferior figure

K0CO3, and But in the formula H0.


3

nothing (2K2CO3.
all

outside the brackets applies to


to

applies
In

4MgC0 .Mg(OH) .5H O the figure 4 applies only in Mg (OH), applies only to the group OH, to H 0.
3

MgC0

the

and the

figure 5

3Pb(C 2 H302) 2 the figure follows, viz., to Pb(C s H s O,) a


.

3 in front

applies to the entire formula which


that

In

6(NaC2H 3 02. 3H2O)

the figure 6 applies to

all

is

contained within
to all that

the brackets.

In 2(Fe 2 (C6H 6 OT)2.

6H2O)

the

large figure

in front applies

CHEMISTRY.
follows, while the inferior figure
2

l6l
7

in (C f,H

)2

applies only to

the group

CeHsO:, and the large figure 6 only to H 2 Q. In Fe 4 (P 2 4(Na 3 Cr,H 5 ). 8H 2 0. we see that there are four atoms of )3 iron, 3 groups of the radical P 2 then 4 times Na 3 CcH 5 7 and 8 molecules
7
.

of water.

be seen that in representing the formulas of some complex necessary to use both large and inferior numerals, more than one pair of brackets, and brackets within brackets. 634. The valence of elements is indicated by Roman numerals at the H> means univalent hydrotop and a little to the right of the symbol, thus: gen; O'i means bivalent oxygen; N^i means trivalent nitrogen; Nv, quinquiv-

Thus

it

will
is

molecules

it

alent

nitrogen;

C'v

means quadrivalent carbon;

quadrivalent sulphur; Svi, sexivalent sulphur; and Wvi, sexivalent tungsten.

S". bivalent sulphur; S'v, Tav, quinquivalent tantalum;

Chemical Equations. Chemical decompositions and 635. reactions are conveniently and clearly represented by the numbers and formulas of the molecules which are decomposed in the

and the numbers and formulas of the molecules resultThis is done in the form of an equation. The molecules which take part in the change are placed on the left of the sign =, and the molecules of the product or
reaction

ing by

it.

products on the right. Thus:

Na 2 HP0 4 2 0=Na 4 P 2 7 CaCl 2 + Na 2 C0 3 =CaC0 + 2NaCl;and Hg 2 (N0 3 2H 0=2HgO + N 2 4 + 2H 2 0.


2
;

Fe 2 + 2l 2 =2FeI 2

) 2

636.
icals

The number

of molecules taking part in a chemical

reaction varies according to the respective valences of the rad-

concerned, or the atomic rearrangement produced.

In

many

cases only one molecule of each reagent

is

required

to complete the reaction; but in other cases several molecules of each

may be

necessary.
of silver nitrate

One molecule
react

and one molecule of potassium iodide will upon each other to form one molecule of silver iodide and one molecule
3

of potassium nitrate, thus:

AgN0

-t-KI=AgI + KN0 3

In the preparation of solution of chloride of antimony, one molecule of

162

CHEMISTRY.

sulphide of antimony reacts with six molecules of hydrogen chloride, thus:

Sb a S 3 +6HCl=2SbCl 3 +3H a S. In the preparation of sodium valerate the reaction involves three molecules amylic alcohol, two molecules potassium bichromate and eight molecules sulphuric acid, thus:

=3C3H 0O. 4-2K. SO4 4-2(Cr SO4)3) + iiH O. Both Sides must be Equal. Both members of the chemical equation must contain the same kind and number of atoms, and the sum of the molecular weights on one side of the equality sign must be equal to the sum of the molecular weights
4
1
!

3C 3 H 12 O-l-2K 2 Cr.2 O 7 -(-8H 2 SO


637.

on the other
638.

side.
learn the use of symbols and
practice.

The student must

how

to write for-

mulas and equations by actual

This can best and most safely be

accomplished with the aid of a competent teacher, who will point out any errors. All that is necessary for the present is that the student shall thoroughly memorize the symbols employed to represent the most important elements, which are as follows
:

Element.

Symbol.

Element.

Symbol.
Sr.

Hydrogen.
Fluorine. Chlorine.

H.
F. CI.

Strontium.

Barium.

Ba.

Magnesium.
Zinc.

Mg.
Zn. Cd.
Al.

Bromine.
Iodine.

Br.
I.

Oxygen. Sulphur Carbon.


Silicon.

O.
S.

Cadmium. Aluminum.
Cerium.

Ce
Cr.

c.
Si.

Chromium.
Manganese.
Iron. Nickel. Cobolt.

Mn.
Fe.

Tin.

Sn.

Boron
Nitrogen.

B
N.
P.

Phosphorus.
Arsenic.

Lead.

Ni Co. Pb.

Antimony.
Bismuth.' Lithium.

As. Sb.
Bi.
Li.

Copper
Mercury. Gold.
Silver.

Cu. Hg.
Au. Ag.
Pt.

Sodium
Potassium. Calcium.

Na
K. Ca.
of all

Platinum.

Molybdenum.
Tungsten.

Mo.

W.

The symbols
origin of each

known elements will

be found on pages 112-113, and the

symbol will also be found on the same pages, as the table there given includes the Latinic titles of all the elements (465) The memorization of the symbols of important elements is absolutelynecessary before the student can make much progress in the study of chemistry. After the student has perused the whole number of pages devoted 639.

CHEMISTRY.
to chemistry in this
it

163
study of this chapter and learn
difficult to

book he should return

to a

thoroughly.

Doubtless the student will find this chapter

grasp at

this stage;

but after reading chapters XL. to XLII. he should read this again.

CHAPTER
640.
It is

XXXI.

THE ELEMENTS.

General Review.

Of the seventy elements about four-

fifths are metals,

the remainder being called non-metallic elements.

draw the line absolutely between and non-metallic elements, because several elements partake more or less of the characteristics of both classes,
impossible, however, to
metallic

physically as well as chemically.

The metals are: 641. Aluminum, Erbium,


Antimony,
Arsenic,

Molybdenum,
Nickel,

Tantalum,
Tellurium,

Gallium,

Germanium,
Glucinum,
Gold, Indium,
Iridium,
Iron,

Osmium,
Palladium, Platinum, Potassium,

Terbium,
Thallium,
Tin,

Barium, Bismuth,

Cadmium,
Caesium,

Calcium, Cerium,

Lanthanum,
Lead, Lithium,

Chromium,
Cobalt,

Rhodium, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Samarium,


Scandium,

Titanium, Tungsten,

Uranium, Vanadium,
Ytterbium, Yttrium,
-57.

Magnesium, Zinc, Silver, Sodium, Zirconium. Manganese, Mercury, Strontium, *Didymium, The non-metallic elements are: 642. Hydrogen, Selenium, Boron, Silicon, Iodine, Bromine, Nitrogen, Sulphur. Carbon, 13. Oxygen, Chlorine, Phosphorus, Fluorine,

Columbium,
Copper,

*( Split

into

two metals.)

164

CHEMISTRY.

The preceding classification is wholy artificial and 643. based upon external appearances and physical properties, especially
etc.
It is true that in some instances elements which naturally fall into characteristic groups according to their chemical proper-

upon metallic

lustre or

want

of

it,

tenacity or

want

of

it,

and compounds are not separated; but in other instances well defined natural groups are broken by this artificial classification.
ties

Sometimes arsenic antimony, bismuth, and tellurium are classed 644. with the non-metallic elements, the three first named because they are so closely related to nitrogen and phosphorus which are unquestionably nonmetallic, and tellurium because it so much resembles sulphur in its chemistry. But if these metallic substances are to be classed with the non-metallic for
chemical reasons, there are other metals, as which might with equal propriety be classed
tin, molybdenum and among the non-metals.

tungsten,

645. State of Aggregation. The metals, with but one The exception is mercury, which is liquid exception, are solid. under ordinary conditions, solid below 40 C. (4 F.), and

vaporizes at +350 C. (662. F.). Of the non-metallic elements boron, carbon, iodine, phosphorus, selenium, silicon and sulphur are solids; bromine is a liquid; and chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen
are gases.

ble,

Fusibility of the Solids. All the metals are fusisome of them at temperatures below the boiling point of water, some only at extremely high temperatures, others between
646.

these extremes. Among the solid non-metallic elements boron, carbon


silicon are infusible.

and

Mercury, potassium, sodium, zinc, magneVolatility. 647. sium, cadmium and arsenic can be distilled; tellurium and antimony can be distilled only with a current of hydrogen. Of the non-metallic elements iodine, phosphorus, selenium,
sulphur and bromine are vaporizable.
648.

Crystallization.

Many of

the metals are crystalliza-

CHEMISTRY.
ble; the greater

165

number

of

these form cubes or regular octoin

hedrons; tellurium, arsenic and antimony crystallize hedrons of the hexagonal system. Bismuth, zinc, copper, lead, tin, silver and gold
lize.

rhombocrystal-

all

All the solid non-metallic elements are crystallizable.

Opacity is given as one of the properties by which metals may be distinguished from the non-metallic elements. But gold in thin layers placed between two plates of glass transmits greenish light. Of the solid non-metallic elements boron, carbon (as charcoal, coal and graphite) iodine, selenium, silicon and sulphur are opaque; while phosphorus is translucent, and carbon as diamond is alone transparent. Lustre. The metals possess a peculiar lustre, espe650. Some metals have this quality in much cially when polished. higher degree than others. But boron, carbon (as diamond and as graphite), silicon, iodine and sulphur also possess a lustre. Color, When in compact masses the metals have 651. usually a white color with a more or less marked tendency toward grayish or bluish; but barium, calcium and gold have a yellowish or yellow color, and copper is reddish. In this respect the non-metallic elements vary greatly among
649.

each other and from the metals. Density. The specific weights of about two-thirds of 652. the metals exceed 5; but of the remainder several have specific weights below two. Of some of the heavy metals (674) the specific weights exceed 10, the heaviest being Platinum 21.5 and iridium 22.4. It is commonly stated that metals, as a rule, have higher specific weights than the non-metallic elements, but more than one-half of the non-metallic elements have specific Really we can only say in weights ranging from 1.83 to 4.95. this direction that the specific weights of two-thirds of the metals are higher than those of any non-metallic elements, and the specific weights of several non-metallic elements are lower

l66

CHEMISTRY.

than those of any metals, while the specific weights of the greater number of the non-metallic elements are higher than those of the alkali-metals (676) and several of the alkaline earth metals (678). In fact, several elements which resemble the non-metallic elements more than they resemble metals in their chemical properties have higher specific weights than many undoubted

metals which are chemically farthest removed from the nonmetallic elements.

Metals are relatively better conductors of heat and 653. of electricity than non-metallic elements. But the metals exhibit these properties in a high degree only when in solid, compact masses; obtained in a state of fine division by precipitation they are far less effective conductors of electricity and
heat.

Tenacity, ductility and malleability are properties 654. belonging to many of the metals, and to none of the non-metallic But there are also many metals which do not possess elements. these properties, as bismuth, antimony, arsenic, manganese, chromium, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium. No metal is soluble in any simple solvent. Solubility. 655. Most metals are soluble chemically in the stronger acids, and some also in strong alkalies; others only in "aqua regia." Of the non-metallic elements boron, carbon and silicon are insoluble in all simple solvents; but iodine and bromine are soluble in alcohol and in glycerin; phosphorus, selenium and sulphur in fixed oils and carbon disulphide. 656. Occurrence in Nature. Gold, silver, mercury, copper, lead, bismuth, arsenic and antimony occur free or uncombined. The metals of the platinum group occur together in the so-called platinum ore and osmium-iridium, in a metallic state. Iron and nickel, in the free state, occur in meteors. No other metals occur uncombined. It is also to be observed that silver, mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, antimony, iron and nickel occur only in small quantities uncombined, and in much larger amounts

in their native

compounds.
in

The most common forms

which heavy metals exist

in

nature

CHEMISTRY.
is

167

chemical combinations with oxygen and sulphur, and less frequently with other non-metallic elements and compound
in

radicals.

Of the non-metallic elements carbon (as graphite and diamond), nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur are found uncombined. These are also found, and in much larger quantities, combined with other elements: carbon and nitrogen chiefly with nonmetallic elements inorganic substances; oxygen with hydrogen in water, with silicon in silica, with nearly all the metals, and with carbon and hydrogen in organic substances; while sulphur occurs mostly combined with iron, copper, lead, zinc and other metals. Bromine, chlorine, fluorine and iodine (the "halogens") occur combined with sodium and other metals; and the remainder of the non-metallic elements chiefly combined with oxygen. Of all the seventy elements oxygen is the most abundant, then probably silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, carbon and
hydrogen.
657. Alloys and Amalgams. Some of the metals combine with each other, sometimes in definite proportions, forming

even crystallizable compounds. The most interesting compound is one consisting of two atoms of antimony and three atoms of zinc. The chemical union of metals in definite atomic proportions, and in accordance with their valence, is attended with the evolution of heat, which is strong additional evidence that the union is a true chemical re-action. But mixtures of metals prepared by fusing them together, in proportions other than such as would be in accord" with the atomic weights, are commonly employed in the mechanical arts, and they are called alloys. These alloys probably contain true chemical compounds of the metals, which, in a state of fusion, That this is the are soluble in (or miscible with) each other. case is indicated by the fact that when the molten mass is rapidly cooled a homogeneous mass in obtained; while, if the
of this kind

cooling be slow, the less readily fusible compounds may crystallize out, leaving the more fusible alloy still in a liquid state,

[68

CHEMISTRY.

so that,

when

the whole has

become

cold, the

mass

is

not uni-

form.

A most striking property of alloys is the fact that their fusing points are lower than those of their constituents. Thus cadmium melts at 315 C. (599 F.), tin at 227. 3 C. (442' F.), lead
C. (507 F.); yet an alloy (Wood's) cadmium, 2 parts of tin, 4 parts of lead, and 7 to 8 parts of bismuth melts at from 66' to 71" C. (i5o.8 to 159^.8 F ). Arcet's adoy is made of 8 parts of bismuth, 5 parts of lead, and 3 parts of tin, and melts at 94. 5 C. (202' F.). Brass, bronze, gun metal, bell metal, German silver, type melal, pewter, britannia metal, solder, coin metal, and several other metallic substances are
at 325

C. (617 F.), and bismuth at 264


1

made

of

to 2 parts

of

aFoys.

The
658.

alloys formed by mercury are called amalgams. But the alloys, although they evidently contain true chemical com-

pounds, retain the essential metallic characteristics of the constituents in a high degree, thus differing very greatly from other chemical compounds in which the characteristic physical properties of the component elements are
generally obliterated.

The

alloys are the only chemical

compounds formed

by the metals with each other.

The non-metallic elements, on the other hand, form with 659. each other numerous chemical compounds of the most varied nature, and they also severally combine with the metals. When a non-metallic element combines with another non-metallic element or with a metal the compound formed is usually radicallv different from either of the elements entering into that compound.

We have seen that the only compounds which metals 660. form with each other resemble in their essential physical propThey are erties the metals of which they are composed (658). solid, hard, opaque, lustrous, tenacious, ductile, malleable, or brittle, according to the character of their component metals in these respects, and their color also is such as would naturally result by a mere physical mixture of the constituents. But when non-metallic elements enter into chemical 661.
compounds, the state of aggregation, density, consistence, color, and other physical properties of the compounds have apparently no relation to the properties of the component elements (662).
solubility,

CHEMISTRY.
662.
liquid

169

Oxygen and hydrogen

are gases; they can be compressed to the

state only

when they combine chemically with each other


water.

by the aid of tremendous pressure and extreme cold; but the compound formed is by any means
at present

known, be converted into a But the compounds of carbon with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, are gases, liquids and solids. Iodine is a bluish-black solid of a peculiar, penetrating odor; but its compound with hydrogen is a colorless gas having a very different odor. Carbon, in its ordinary condition, is a black solid; sulphur is a yellow solid; both are inodorous. But the compound of carbon and sulphur is a colorless, offensively odorous liquid. Mercury is a bluish-white, shining liquid metal, and oxygen, a colorless gas: but they form two different compounds with each other, both solids, one of them either orange red, brick red or orange yellow, the other, grayish
not,
is

Carbon can

liquid or a gas;

it

infusible

and

fixed.

black.

663. Numerous other examples might be given to illustrate the radical change of properties which follows chemical reactions in which the non-metallic elements are concerned.

Indeed, it would seem as if these striking differences between the metals and the non metallic elements afforded reasons stronger than any others for Yet these the classification of the elements into metallic and non-metallic. striking distinctions, as far as they extend, are not lost by the more natural classification of the elements according to their chemical behavior and the character of their compounds, but are rather brought out more clearly. 664. The fact that the properties of the elements bear some simple relaIt has been formution to their atomic weights seems to be beyond doubt. lated in the conclusion that "the chemical properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights." The atomic weights in many instances differ by the number, 16, representing the atomic weight of oxygen (H=i), or by a number which is nearly a multiple of 16. It has also been shown that these simple differences are to be observed between the atomic weights of elements possessing many similarities in chemical behavior. Further, it has been found that in many natural groups of elements the atomic weight of one member is frequently one-half of the sum of two other members, etc. Many chemists have tabulated the elements in various ways to bring out these periodic co-incidences, in the hope of finding a true explanation of them. The most complete table of this kind is that of the Russian chemist, Mendeleeff. The properties which seem to bear such a periodic relation to the atomic weights include: relative electro-chemical polarity, valence, Mendeleeff's table is as specific weights, atomic volumes, specific heat, etc.
follows:

170

CHEMISTRY.

e'

'

pu
j

3'

>
i

g'S
iSft

2*1

<
>-i

2>

5?
3
OS
'

a-

5 >
s
00

|
i-!id

fc?

u
u
S>

ii
o*

<
s

2
tiz

o>

ft

ft

H
B

>

ds
>'

s>

>
< u
55

s,

u3
<
$!

^
s'r
s'i '?

*
n

fc

H u

>

iZ^

S3

S,

14

5 i
_ r

w^

-c:

<

>
32

2 H J

<

U
o'i
1/5

on

oo

B
o
ff

,1

u
<

5,

CHEMISTRY.

171

CHAPTER
665.
less gas,
air.

XXXII.
a colorless, odorless, tasteof the weight of the

OXYGEN, HYDROGEN AND SULPHUR.

Oxygen

(O;

at.

w. 16)

is

which constitutes over


liter

one-fifth

One
weighs

of

at o C.

and 760

mm

barometric pressure

8 parts of oxygen and 1 part of hydrogen, chemically united, nearly one-half of the weight of the rocks is oxygen, and a large proportion of oxygen is also contained in Its great abunthe earths and soils and in plants and animals. dance in nature is in itself sufficient evidence of its vast impor-

Grams. Water is composed of


1.43

tance.

Certain compounds containing are 666. Preparation. when heated, and these easilv decomposed, giving up their

compounds

are, therefore, utilized in

making
3.

the

2.

The most

common materials employed for that purpose are oxide of merBoth part with all cury, HgO, and potassium chlorate, KC10 of their oxygen when heated: 2HgO=2Hg+0 and 2KC10 3=
2

2KCI+3O2.
one-fourth of

[When

the potassium chlorate

is

mixed with about

its weight of manganese dioxide ("black oxide of manganese") the decomposition progresses more quietly and evenly, although the manganese dioxide does not take part in

the reactior.]
other elements except fluorunion of oxygen with other elements, or with compound radicals (804). Chemical combination with oxygen, or oxidation, is one of the most common and important of chemical reactions. When oxidation is very rapid
667.
all

Oxygen combines with


Oxidation
is

ine

alone.

the

and
fire

accompanied by the evolution of heat and light it is called Substances which take up oxygen and or combustion. become chemically united with it are said to be oxidized. Oxidization is necessary to the existence of plants and animals.
Respiration
668.
is

a process of oxidation.
role in

But although oxygen plays such an important

1J2

CHEMISTRY.

animal and plant life, and forms compounds with all other elements but one (667), it exhibits no great chemical energy at ordinary temperatures. The compounds formed by the union of positive radi669.
cals

with oxygen are called

oxides.

product of its combustion is 0; the product of the combustion of S is the irritating gas S0 2 P, when burned, forms P 2 O s which is a white solid; Mg when ignited burns with a brilliant flame, producing "magnesia," MgO; and three pounds of the metal will, when
670.
is

When H

ignited the

water,

H
;

"consumed

*'

by the

fire,

leave five pounds of ashes, consisting

of the oxide; carbon, as charcoal or coal, forms or combustion is completed in a free supply of l

C0 when its CO if the


3

supply of
stances,

is

deficient; alcohol,

oil,
2

and other organic sub-

when burned, produce

C0

and

0.

is is

The most intense degree of heat obtainable by combustion produced when a mixture of H 2 and 2 in proper proportions
ignited.

or Ozone is a molecule of three oxygen atoms: has a peculiar odor, which is noticed sometimes in a place where lightning has just struck, or in a room where an Ozone has a powerful electrical machine is in operation. chemical energy, causing, at ordinary temperatures, the oxidation of metals which can not be oxidized by ordinary oxygen,
671.
It
3.

decomposing potassium
672.
is

iodide,

and destroying vegetable

colors.

Oxygen

is

always bivalent.

It the strongest electro-negative element. It is, therefore, capable of linking together

strongly electro-positive metals with the strongest electro-negative elements, like sulphur, nitrogen, etc., to form The oxides of strongly neutral stable compounds called salts. electro-negative elements form acids (with water), while the
the most

oxides of strongly electro-positive elements, as potassium, sodium, calcium, etc., form bases (with water). Oxygen, then, is present in all hydroxyl acids (884), 673. It may, therefore, be truly bases (874), and oxy-salts (900).

termed the principal salt-former, being the only constituent in

CHEMISTRY.

173

the true salts (oxy-salts), and performing, in the formation of the salt molecule, the important function of uniting the positive
to the negative radical.

Oxygen
pound

is

also present in several of the

radicals, as in

HO, CO,

N0

2,

etc.,

most important comand compound radicals

containing O, but not H, are always negative. Hydrogen (H; at. w. i) is a colorless, odorless, 674. tasteless gas. It does not exist free. Its most abundant and

wonderful compound
stitutes one-ninth

is its

oxide, called water, of which


It is also

it

con-

by weight.

present in most of the

organic substances, animal or vegetable.

One
0.08958

liter

of

at o

C, barometer
It is
,

Gram

(called

1 critJi).

at 760 the lightest of

mm, weighs
all

gases.

A mixture of 2 and 2 when ignited, explodes with 675. great violence, except when a current of the mixed gases issues
fro n a tube through a small orifice, as in the oxy-hydrogen burner. The product is water. But water is decomposed by electrolytic

action into
676.

its

Preparation.

two component elements. by the action is produced 2

of zinc
2

Zn+H S0 4 upon sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid Zn SOt+H 2 and Zn + 2HCl=ZnCl 2 +H 2 Hydrogen is also formed together with CO by the decompo:
.

sition of

water resulting when steam


:

is

passed over coal heated


of

to an intense temperature

2H

0+C =2CO + 2H
2

2.

This mixture

CO

and

is

called fuel gas

and water gas


at

a high temperature, a powerful reducing has a strong affinity for oxygen, and, therefore, removes O from oxides and other molecules. 678. Water may be regarded either as the oxide of hydro677.
;

is,

agent

that

is, it

gen,

O, or as hydrogen

hydrate,

HOH.

It

is

colorless,

odorless, tasteless

At the ordinary temperatures it is liquid its boiling point is ioo C. (212 F.), and Its vapor is called steam, and its freezing point o C. (32 F.). and entirely neutral.
;

congealed water

is

called

ice.

Its

maximum

density

is

attained

174
at 4

CHEMISTRY.
C. (39".
18.
2 F.).

Its

vapor density

is

Sp. w. at 4' C.

1;

mol. w.

of hydrogen water does not form but it forms acids with the acid-forming oxides, and bases with the base-forming oxides. Water is the most important of all solvents. 679. Natural water that contained in the ocean, lakes, rivers, springs, wells and clouds is not pure. Sea water contains much salts. Spring water is called hard water because it generally contains calcium acid carbonate, and produces insoluble compounds with soap in washing. Well water is frequently contaminated with organic substances, which are the products of decomposing animal or vege-

The wonderful oxide


salt
;

any

table matter.

soft,

Lake water and river ivater are often comparatively pure and or nearly free from calcium compounds and other sub-

stances.

Rain water, collected after the air has been purified by the part of the shower, and in such a manner that the water has not come in contact with roofs or other dusty or soiled objects, is the cleanest natural water obtainable. Distilled water, carefully made, is the only perfectly 680. pure water. Natural water contains both volatile and fixed imfirst

purities.

When

it is

distilled the volatile constituents


;

accompany

the

first

portion of the water vapor


therefore, rejected.

the

first

portion of the disis

tillate

is,

The

distillation

discontinued

before

all

of the water has been vaporized, because there

may

be fixed organic substances present which might be decomposed by the heat when the water remaining in the still, flask, or retort, is but a small quantity. Distilled water must be used for all chemical and pharmaceutical purposes where calcium compounds, chlorides, sulphates, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other impurities common to natural water are objectionable.
681.

Peroxide of hydrogen

is

or

H O O H,

or

CHEMISTRY

175

HO

a colorless syrupy liquid, which acts as a powerful bleaching and oxidizing agent, because it is easily decomposed, giving up one-half of its oxygen, and thus becom-

united to

OH.

It is

ing reduced to water. A solution of peroxide of hydrogen is used in medicine, its value being dependent upon the oxygen which is being constantly liberated in it by the decomposition of the peroxide of hydrogen. Hydrogen does not under ordinary conditions exhibit 682. any marked affinity for other elements, except for chlorine and bromine but at high temperatures it has great affinity for oxygen and is, therefore, often employed as a reducing agent. Hydrogen is always univalent (612). In its chemical 683. behavior it is radically different from oxygen. It stands in the middle of the electro-chemical series (572) separating the It relatively negative from the relatively positive elements. generally acts as an electro-positive radical, but in many mole;

cules containing hydrogen

all or part of that hydrogen may be replaced by oxygen, chlorine, and other negative radicals. The hydrogen atom is, therefore, a frequently occurring

radical.

Thus

in

HC1

it

is

positive, in

KOH

it is

regarded as

and in HOH as both. It shares with oxygen the distinction of forming many compound radicals, especially with quadrivalent and trivalent elements but there is this notable difference that the compound radicals containing oxygen are generally acid radicals while those containing hydrogen are
negative,
;

basic.
684. Although it maybe said that hydrogen occupies the neutral ground between the univalent radicals, chlorine at one extreme (strongly negative) and potassium at the other end (strongly positive), yet it has been recognized It has, that hydrogen stands much closer to the metals than to chlorine. indeed, been called the gaseous metal. An alloy of hydrogen with palladium has been made, and a medal consisting of that alloy, containing nine hundred volumes of hydrogen, was once produced. Later hydrogen was compressed by Pictet
(at the close of 1877) into

a steel-blue liquid; a portion of this

liquid solidified, being deprived of its latent heat by the vaporization of another portion, and the solid pieces of hydrogen, striking the ground as they fell,

produced a

shrill metallic

sound.

176
685.

CHEMISTRY.

Hydrogen

is

contained in

all

acids as positive hydro-

gen, and

be displaced from .its position in the acid molecule by any other positive radical. It is contained in all bases as relatively negative hydrogen, and may be displaced from the
respect then
in acids

may

molecule of a base by any other negative radical. In this it acts wholly differently from oxygen, for the oxygen of an acid or a base is not thus displaced. Thus the hydro-

gen

and bases is a relatively weak radical. With the halogens (696) hydrogen forms binary compounds called hydrogen acids, which have the strongly marked corrosive and sour properties of true acids (hydroxyl acids), and which form with the bases other binary compounds resembling Hydrogen is displaced from its the salts and called haloids. position in the molecule of hydrogen-acids by other positive radicals, for the hydrogen in hydrogen-acids as well as in
686.
is

hydroxyl acids
687.
called

positive hydrogen.

a strongly alkaline body very opposite of acids in its properties; while oxygen forms with nitrogen several oxides, one of which produces one of our strongest acids nitric acid when it reacts

With nitrogen hydrogen forms

ammonia

the

with water.
688.

Hydrogen and oxygen

are, together with


in

carbon and

nitrogen, the most

important elements

organic chemistry.

But they play entirely dissimilar roles. With carbon hydrogen forms many compounds which are even more neutral, or chemically indifferent, toward other substances than the oxide of hydrogen. Among the compound radicals 689.
are

HO,

NH

4,

NH

2,

numerous others. but not oxygen exhibit Sulphur (S 690.


and
in alcohol,
;

NH, HS, CH C H All compound radicals


3, 2
;

5,

formed by hydrogen CH 8 CH, C 3 H 5 and containing hydrogen


, ,

electro-positive polarity.
at.

w.

32.)

is

tions a yellow solid, odorless

and

tasteless, insoluble in

under ordinary condiwater


volatile oils.

but soluble

in fixed

and

Melts at

115 C.

boils at 448 C.

CHEMISTRY.
It

177

occurs free as well as combined, its most important compounds being the sulphides (854) and sulphates (907). The sources of the sulphur of commerce are the native sul-

phur and iron pyrites. Sulphur occurs in two forms hard and soft. The soft plastic sulphur is obtained by heating the common sulphur at

200.

to 250.

C.
find roll sulphur ("brimstone"),

In

commerce we
(" flowers of

sublimed

sulphur

sulphur

"),

washed sulphur (U.

S. P.),

and

precipitated sulphur.

Like oxygen, sulphur is an artiad (611). The atomic 691. weight of S is precisely twice that of O. At ordinary temperatures sulphur exhibits no marked chemical energy but at high temperatures it has a strong affinity for the metals, oxygen, and some other elements. The compounds formed by positive radicals with S are called
;

sulphides (854).
692.

the
to

Many of the compounds of sulphur are analogous to compounds of oxygen. Thus the acid-forming oxides are some extent paralleled by analogous sulphides, the base-

forming oxides are also represented by corresponding basic sulphides, and there are sulphur salts which resemble the oxysalts in structure, the only difference being that one series contains atoms of sulphur where the other series contains the same number of atoms of oxygen in the same relative position.
The following oxygen compounds and sulphur compounds show their analogy
:

will suffice to

Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen Oxide Ferrous Oxide Calcium Oxide Ferric Oxide Arsenous Oxide Arsenic Oxide Sodium Carbonate
In
all

co 3 H,0
FeO CaO
Fe 2 O s

CS 2
FeS

H2S

CaS
Fe 2 S 8

Na 2 CO s

AS0O3 a s :o 5

As 2 S 5 Na 2 CS 3

Carbon Disulphide Hydrogen Sulphide Ferrous Sulphide Calcium Sulphide Ferric Sulphide Arsenous Sulphide Arsenic Sulphide Sodium Sulpho-carbonate

these compounds, in which sulphur occupies a position analogous

to that of the electro-negative

oxygen, the sulphur acts as a dyad.

But

in all

178

CHEMISTRY.
is

molecules and radicals in which sulphur playing the role of a positive element, it

united to oxygen, the sulphur thus


apparently a tetrad or a hexad.

is

693.

Selenium and Tellurium resemble sulphur in their chemistry. The oxides of sulphur are sulphurous anhydride,
.

and sulphuric anhydride, S0 3 Sulphurous anhydride, or sulphur dioxide, is formed when sulphur is burned in air, and is the " sulphurous vapor " observed in igniting sulphur matches, and which is so irritating to the Dissolved in w ater it forms sulphurous acid. It air passages.

S0

2)

has strong bleaching properties. The sulphuric oxide, or sulphuric anhydride, or sulphur but the acid it forms when trioxide, is not so readily prepared brought in contact w ith water is familiar to us under the name of sulphuric acid, which is chemically the strongest of all acids
;

and

terribly corrosive.

(or pyrites) to form SO>, which

prepared by first burning sulphur is conducted into a lead chamber, where it comes in contact with N 2 4 (generated separately), water vapor and air. The S0 2 is oxidized at the expense of
694.

Sulphuric acid

is

the

NjA
2

to

S0

2S0 +N 2 O t=2S0 +NoO,. The N 2 0<} then takes up O from


3

the

air,

forming

N^O^

again

+0,=N
2

4.

The S0 3 forms sulphuric

acid with the water

S0 +H
3

0=H S0
2

4.

Sulphuric acid is one of the most useful of all the strong because it decomposes numerous other compounds on account of the strongly electro-negative polarity of the sulphate radical. Other acids are thus prepared by decomposing
acids,

their salts

by sulphuric

acid.
,

sulphuric acid is nearly absolute H,S0 4 being required to contain at least 96 per cent. It is an oily, colorless liquid of 1.840 sp. w. (water 1).
official

The

With hydrogen, S forms the colorless gas H 2 S, known as hydrogen sulphide, or sulphuretted hydrogen, or hydrosul695.

CHEMISTRY.

,9

phurie acid, or sulphydric acid. This gas has the odor of rotten eggs, and is poisonous when inhaled. It is soluble in Its principal use is as a chemical reagent for the prewater. cipitation of the heavy metals from the solutions of their salts, which is possible because these sulphides are insoluble in
water.
It is prepared from ferrous sulphide by the action of sulphuric acid
:

FeS-t-

H S0 =FeSO + H
2
4 i

2 S.

CHAPTER

XXXIII.

THE HALOGENS.

The Halogens are a characteristic group of the four 696. elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The chemi

ical

energy of fluorine
its

is

so intense that

it

to study

properties in the free state.

has not been possible Chlorine is a gas, and

is endowed with very energetic chemism. Bromine is a liquid and also energetic. Iodine is a solid and has strong chemical energy, too, although relatively weaker than that of the other They form, respectively, chlorides, bromides, and halogens.

iodides with the metals.


But in cases where one metal forms two different series of haloids, the most stable chlorides, relatively, are the higher (or-" ic ") chlorides, while the most stable iodides are the lower (or-" ous ") iodides, and the bromides do not exhibit any marked difference as between the higher and lower. These elements are 697. The term "halogen" means salt-former. so called because they form with metals and positive compound radicals a class of compounds in many respects resembling the salts produced by the union of oxyacids with bases. They constitute a class of salt-formers very different from oxygen and sulphur. This is in some measure accounted for by the fact, that, while oxygen and sulphur are dyads, the halogens are monads. But when the dyad salt-formers are placed beside the monad saltformers, with the atomic weights appended, the exhibit becomes intensely interesting. Here they are:

t8o
Dyad Salt-Formers.

chemistry.
Monad Salt-Formers.
Atomic Weight.
19 35-4

Atomic Weight.
Sulphur...

80

Tellurium.

125

127

Iodine

698.

Oxygen, we have

said,

is

the

strongest electronegative element;

we may add now that fluorine is the strongest electro-negative monad. No compound of oxygen and fluorine is known. As to the remaining three members of each group, it should be observed
the middle members, selenium on one side and bromine on the other, are very nearly half of the sums of the other two, a coincidence which recurs in other groups of elements. It should also be remembered that these elements stand in their groups in exactly the same

that the atomic weights of

order as in the electro chemical series. 699. Chlorine, and its fellow halogens, do not exhibit a strong affinity for oxygen, notwithstanding their energetic action upon metals and hydrogen

compounds.
it is

This is significant. To induce chlorine to combine with oxygen necessary to strengthen the attraction between these elements by the presence of a strong base or, in other words, to take advantage of the pre-

disposing
lent,

affinity (548) of that

base for the united chlorine and oxygen.

It is

also to be observed

that negative chlorine

the

but the positive chlorine which enters into

former is always univachemical union with oxygen is


salt

apparently, as a rule, polyvalent.

700. Chlorine. (CI; at. w. 35.4) is a yellowish green gas of suffocating odor, soluble in water to the extent of 0.6 per cent. at about ioC. At 15 C. and under the pressure of four atmos-

pheres it can be rendered liquid. Chlorine does not occur free, but it exists abundantly in the combined state in the chlorides of potassium and sodium. Chlorine gas is poisonous when inhaled.

One
701.

liter of

Preparation.

chlorine weighs 3.17 Grams. is best prepared It

by the

mutual

decomposition of hydrochloric acid and manganese dioxide Mn0 2 +4HCl==Cl 2 +MnCl 2 2 H 2 0. (black oxide of manganese) Chlorine forms four different oxides, namely: 702. Cl 2 0=hypochlorous oxide or anhydride; Clo03=chlorous oxide or anhydride; Cl 2 5=chloric oxide or anhydride; and Cl 2 O =perchloric oxide or anhydride.
:

CHEMISTRY

l8l

These oxides form with water, respectively, hypochlorous,


chlorous, chloric and perchloric acid.

These acids are unstable.

703. With hydrogen CI forms a gas called hydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride, the solution of which is one of the most important of the strong acids. This acid is prepared by decomposing sodium chloride (common salt) with sulphuric
acid:

NaCl 4- H 8 S0 =NaHS0 4 + HC1. Impure commercial hydrochloric acid is commonly


4

called

"muriatic acid." The hydrochloric acid of the Pharmacopoeia tion containing 31.9 per cent, of HC1.

is

a water solu-

to elsewhere (860). is remarkable. It is capable Each molecule of of removing hydrogen atoms from organic molecules. chlorine consists of two atoms; one of these atoms unites with the atom of hydrogen while the other chlorine atom usurps the former position of that hydrogen atom in the organic compound. In numerous cases the chlorine

Other chlorides are referred


704.

The

affinity of chlorine for

hydrogen

seems, indeed, to remove the hydrogen even from its combinations with oxygen, after which the oxygen, in its nascent state, vigorously attacks other substances present.

powder," or "chlorinated lime" (generally of lime") contains as its only valuable constituent the unstable salt calcium hypochlorite, and the "solution of chlorinated soda" (or " Labarraque's solution ") contains sodium hypochlorite. These preparations are easily decomposed, yielding free chlorine, and their value depends

"Bleaching

misnamed "chloride

upon the amount


705.

of CL> they yield.


;

at. w. 79.85) is a dark, reddish-brown, heavy, volatile liquid, having an extremely irritating odor. When inhaled it is poisonous, and its vapor attacks the eyes and air passages dangerously. It must, therefore, be kept and

Bromine (Br

handled with great


bottles

care,

and

is

imbedded

in clay

enclosed

usually put up in glass stoppered in a tin box. It is insoluble

in water,

but soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and carbon

disulphide, and freely soluble in solutions of iodides and bromides. It occurs in the bromides of salt springs.

182

CHEMISTRY.
706.

of potassium, sodium, or magnesium may be used as the material for the production of Br 2 the salt being decomposed by passing the stronger electronegative element chlorine into a water solution of the bromide 2 KBr+Cl 2 =Br 2 + 2 KCl. A solution of hydrogen bromide, containing 10 per 707. cent, of the HBr, is official under the name of hydrobromic acid. It is a strong acid, and may be made by decomposing potassium bromide with sulphuric acid, a mixture of these two substances

Preparation.

Bromide

being subjected to distillation: KBr+H 2 S0 4 The bromides are referred to elsewhere (866).
;

=KHS0 +HBr.
4

at. w. 126.5) lustrous, Iodine (I ls a crystalline, 708. blackish, brittle solid, having a peculiar penetrating odor. It is

practically insoluble in water, but readily soluble in a solution

of potassium iodide

it is

also soluble to the extent of nearly 10

and less freely in fixed oils and in glycerin. Ether, chloroform and carbon disulphide dissolve I 2 rather freely. It liquefies at 113 C, and boils at 200^ C; but violet vapors of iodine are produced when the L is heated at much lower
per cent,
in alcohol,

temperatures. Iodine occurs in the iodides of salt springs and sea water. It \s prepared out of the ashes of sea- weeds which contain iodides. Hydrogen iodide, or hydriodic acid, is so unstable that 709. but its water solution can not be preserved from decomposition
;

the addition of a large quantity of sugar retards that


sition

decompo-

and hence there

is

an

official "

syrup of hydriodic acid."

CHAPTER XXXIV.
THE NITROGEN GROUP AND BORON.
710.
less gas,

Nitrogen (N;

at.

w. 14)

is

a colorless, odorless, taste-

which constitutes four-fifths of the weight of the air. By extreme cold and pressure it can be rendered liquid. It is neither combustible nor a supporter of combustion.

CHEMISTRY.

183

Combined with other elements nitrogen is contained in albuminous substances, alkaloids, and certain other organic substances. One liter of nitrogen weighs 1.25 Grams.
711.

The

oxides of

N
2 3 4

are five:

N
N N N N
The
The
and
trioxide
is

2
2 2 2 2

= nitrogen = = " = = "


"

monoxide.
dioxide.
trioxide.

"

tetroxide.

pentoxide.
liquids; the others, gases.

and tetroxide are

trioxide
2

blue; the tetroxide, red; the others, colorless.

is often called "nitrous oxide gas," or "laughing gas," used as an anaesthetic by dentists. It is prepared by heating dry ammonium nitrate: 4 N0 3=2H 2 0+N 2 0. When nitric acid acts upon metals the acid is usually 712. decomposed, giving of N 2 2 this takes up more oxygen from the air, forming red vapors of N 2 4 Nitrogen exhibits chemical properties wholly different 713. is

NH

from those of the dyad salt-formers, the monad salt-formers, and hydrogen. The fact that nitrogen is trivalent must, of itself, distinguish its chemistry from that of either oxygen, sulphur, hydrogen, or chlorine. Nitrogen is even more indifferent in its chemical combining energy than oxygen, sulphur, and hydrogen. It does not unite directly with other elements even at high temperatures. To compel the nitrogen atoms to separate from each other and unite with other elements unusual means are necessary; the chemical affinity must be re-inforced by such favorable condi-

And

tions as the status nascens (542), predisposing affinity (548), etc. the compounds of nitrogen, when formed, are generally

decomposing readily, and sometimes with explosive Heat is often sufficient to cause their decomposition. Hence, nitrates are effective oxidizing agents, and our most powerful explosives are nitrogen compounds. The nitrogenous substances in animal matter decompose rapidly. It is clearly
unstable,
violence.

184
these very

CHEMISTRY.
properties of nitrogen

which render nitrogenous matters suitable materials for the construction of certain anima! tissues, nitrogen acting largely as a carrier of other elements and
radicals.

[A remarkable exception to the generally unstable character of nitrogen compounds is the peculiar compound formed of boron and nitrogen, BN.]
714.

The polyvalence and


its
it

indifferent chemical energy of

nitrogen are
characteristics

ruling characteristics.

By reason

of these

forms, both with oxygen and with hydrogen,

powerful compound radicals, in the formation of which the nitrogen must be regarded as a passive agent. In forming compound radicals with oxygen the nitrogen is electro-positive, with hydrogen electro-negative.
The strongest compound
as might be expected.

even trivalent

formed by quinquivalent nitrogen, and nitryl, NO a are examples. But nitrogen forms strong radicals, as, for instance, cyanogen CN.
radicals are

Ammonium,

NH

715. The compounds formed by nitrogen with other nonmetallic elements are singularly interesting.
It does not unite directly with any metal. We have 716. seen that with oxygen it forms no less than five different which combines with itself to form oxides; but the radical 2

N0

and with OH to form nitric acid, and which enters into numerous organic molecules possessing striking properties, is the most remarkable group of N and O. With hydrogen it forms the extraordinary substance 717. which is so familiar to us under the name of ammonia. In this

N2

compound

the nitrogen

is

the electro-negative radical, as

we

have stated.

Ammonia

unites directly with the acids, forming

ammonium

salts, the valence of the nitrogen rising at the same time from 3 to 5. A saturated compound of hydrogen with quinquivalent nitrogen (NH 5) does not exist. But NH 3 4 and exist as powerful radicals.

NH

NH

Ammonia
nitride.

should be written

H N
3

instead of

NH

the hydrogen being the

positive radical of the molecule.

It is

not nitrogen hydride, but hydrogen

The

alkaloids,

which

in small quantities are

such valuable medicines

and

in larger quantities frequently so

deadly

in their effects

upon

man and

animals, are derivatives (S43) of ammonia, retaining the nitrogen.

CHEMISTRY.

1S5

With sulphur nitrogen forms no stable compound, but 718. only a violently explosive substance (N S S ). With the halogens, also, nitrogen produces only extremely
2

unstable molecules.
719.

pound
with

radical called cyanogen, which

With carbon nitrogen forms a very remarkable comis capable of combining


as well as with other radicals.
In
its

itself

chemical rela-

tions this

compound

radical conducts itself like the halogens,

forming cyanides with the metals and other positive radicals. Cynanogen is extremely poisonous, the acid it forms with hydrogen (HCN), called hydrocyanic acid (formerly called prussic acid), is also a terrible poison, and so are several of the other cyanides. Ammonia is prepared by double decomposition 720. between calcium oxide (" quick-lime ") and ammonium chloride:
2

NH

4
3

Cl

+ CaO=CaCl 3 + H 3 + 2H
is

N.

a colorless gas having an extremely pungent odor, highly caustic and poisonous when inhaled, and affecting the eyes and air passages so strongly that solutions of ammonia (called " water of ammonia") must be handled with caution.

H N

One

liter of

the gas weighs 0.762 Grams.

The Pharmacopoeia

contains one solution of ammonia containing 28 per cent, of N is N, and another containing 10 per cent. When 3 3

dissolved in water,
as containing

the solution

may

be properly regarded

ammonium hydrate: H 3 N -fH 3 0=NH 4 OH. Ammonia water is largely employed in pharmaceutical

chemistry as a convenient and effective alkali hydrate (874)


for the precipitation of metallic hydrates, the neutralization of
acids, etc.

721.
nitrate

Nitric Acid by the action


.

is

prepared from potassium or sodium


acid:

of sulphuric

NaN0 + H S0 4 =
3

HN0
of

+ NaHS0 4

It is
its

a highly corrosive acid and extremely


destructive chemical action.
is

poisonous because of

The

official nitric
s

acid

HNO

and having the


is

sp. w. 1.42

a solution containing 69.4 per cent, (water=i.).

This acid
agent.

used to dissolve metals (890) and as an oxidizing

l86

CHEMISTRY

Nitro722. Phosphorus and other polyvalent perissads. gen, phosphorus, vanadium, arsenic, antimony and bismuth are

generally placed together in one group, called the nitrogen group, because these elements all exhibit the same valence and many
parallel

compounds.

More than this, it is found that the members of this group disclose the same mutual relationship in their respective atomic weights as the members of the group of dyad salt-formers, the group of monad salt formers, and certain other natural

groups of elements.
is

723.

The nitrogen group (which


as follows
:

also

sometimes called the "antimonyAtomic Weight.


14.

group

") is

Elements.

Nitrogen,

Phosphorus,

31.
51.

Vanadium,
Arsenic,

75.

Antimony,
Bismuth,
All are preferably triads
;

120.

209.

and pentads but the closest relationship exists between phosphorus.arsenic and antimony, which from a sub group corresponding to the sulphur group (sulphur, selenium and tellurium) and the chlorine group (chlorine, bromine and iodine). The atomic weight of arsenic is very nearly one-half of the sum of the atomic weights of phosphorus and
antimony.

Phosphorus is widely and generally distributed throughout the 724. The waxy or ordinary phosmaterial world, but only in small quantities.
phorus has an extra-ordinary affinity for oxygen, with which it unites even at common temperatures, igniting when exposed to the air, and burning vioIt also burns in chlorine and bromine. [Red or amorphous phoslently. phorus, howerer, is comparatively indifferent as to combining energy.] The acid-radicals of phosphorus are the most important; but it may also form basic

compound
725.

radicals.

in their relations to nitrogen and phosand tellurium to oxygen and sulphur. But arsenic, antimony and bismuth have marked metallic properties, and bismuth has a number of salts in which it acts as a positive radical, while arsenic and antimony

Arsenic and antimony stand

phorus, as selenium

have not.

The gradual changes of the members of the nitrogen group from 726. nitrogen to bismuth are interesting. To show their similarities and divergencies, the

following table will suffice:

CHEMISTRY.
N.
P.
3

:S 7

As.

Sb.

Bi.
3

NH
N2

PH

AsH
3

SbH
3

NC1 3

PCI3 PCI5
6

AsCl 3

SbCl 3

BiCl 3
Bi 2 3 Bi 2 O s
3

SbCU
As 3 As s
5

n,6,

NH

4 Br

PH
3

p2 o p2 o5
4 Br

Sb 2 S 3 Sb 2 S 5

HNO3

HPO3

HSb0
3

HBi0
4

H P0

H3ASO3

H3PO4
Vanadium

K As0
3

H Sb0
3

As,S 3

As 2 S&
is

Sb 2 S3 Sb 2 S 6

Bi 2 S 3

a rare metal.

Phosphorus (P; at. w. 31) is a soft, waxy, semi727. translucent, nearly colorless or slightly yellowish solid, of
peculiar odor and taste.
in the dark, poisonous.
It is

of crystalline structure, luminous

melts at 44. C, and boils at 290. C. Insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol; but soluble in chloroform and carbon disulphide; in fixed oil it is soluble to the extent of 1 per cent.
It
It

has such strong affinity for oxygen that


it

if

allowed to come

in contact with air

and burns fiercely, forming phosphorus pentoxide, which is a snowy white solid and which forms phosphoric acid when brought in contact with water. Phosphorus must, therefore, be kept under water, and be handled
ignites

with great caution. Phosphorus occurs combined with calcium through oxygen in the calcium phosphate of bones. Preparation. The normal, ordinary, or yellow phos728. phorus is made from calcined bone, which is heated with charcoal in retorts, the P 4 distilling over: 3Ca(P0 3 ) 2 +5C 2 .+ 4

=P

Ca 3 (P0 4) 2 +ioCO. 729. Red phosphorus is formed when phorus is heated to 300 C, excluded from
It is called

the ordinary phosthe


air, as in

C0

2.

amorphous phosphorus, does not oxidize


is

in the

air, is
is

not luminous in the dark,

insoluble in carbon disulphide,


trioxide,

infusible

730.

and non-poisonous. P forms two oxides:


acids of

P2

3,

and pentoxide,

5.

The

are:

CHEMISTRY.

Hypophosphorous acid=H 3 P0 2 Phosphorous acid=H 3 P0 3 Phosphoric acid=H 3 P0 4 Metaphosphoric acid=HP0 3 Pyrophosphoric acid=H t P 2 Their salts are called hypophosphites (918), phosphites, orthophosphates (914), metaphosphates (916), and pyrophos. .

phates (917).
731.
4,

The ordinary phosphoric acid, orthophosphoric acid, and the Pharmacopoeia contains a 50 per cent, solution called " Phosphoric Acid," and a 10 per cent, solution called "Diluted Phosphoric Acid." It is most frequently prepared by oxidizing phosphorus by means of nitric acid. The phosphorus is placed in nitric acid of suitable strength; when the reaction is completed the product is freed from arsenic (derived from the usually impure phosphorus), and from other impurities, and diluted to the required
Phosphoric Acid.

H P0
3

is

strength.

The
finally

reaction
3
3

is:

3H P0 +2HX0

P^4HX0 + 2H,0=4H P0 =3H P0 +N + H 0.


3

+ 2\ 2

and

Phosphine, 732. hydrogen phosphide,

H
is

P, or "

phosphoretted hydrogen," or
in

made by heating P 4

a solution of
dis-

KOH
line,

or

NaOH.

It is

an inflammable, poisonous gas, of a

agreeable garlicky odor.

Arsenic (As; at. \v. 75) is a dark steel-gray crystalheavy solid of a dull metallic lustre. It is volatile, distilling without first melting, the vapors having a yellowish brown But in the solid state arsenic is odorcolor and garlicky odor. less and tasteless. Insoluble in all neutral solvents. Compounds of As It occurs mostly in combination with S. are white, yellow or red. They are made from the metal or its
733.

oxide.

Arsenic has two oxides, namely a trioxide or arsenous 734. anhydride, As 2 3 and a pentoxide, or arsenic anhydride, As 2 5 The ordinary "white arsenic," which the Pharmacopoeia
,

calls
is

"arsenious acid,"

is

arsenous oxide.

As

is

well

known,

it

poisonous.

CHEMISTRY.
735.
"

1S9

With

arsenic

forms a gaseous compound called


it

arseniuretted hydrogen;"
is

is

hydrogen arsenide, or

As,

and

also called
is

arst'ne.

Hydrogen arsenide has a garlicky

odor, and

very poisonous.

Sulphides and chlorides of arsenic also exist, and an 736. iodide of arsenic is contained in the Pharmacopoeia. Among
preparations of As are solutions of potassium arsensodium arsenate and arsenous acid; the solution of sodium arsenate is made of i part of the anhydrous salt to 99 parts of water, and the others of one per cent, arsenous anhydride.
the
official
ite,

Antimony (Sb; at. w. 120) is a heavy, bluish-white, 737. crystalline solid of decidedly metallic lustre. Melts at 425 C,
It occurs as " black sulphide of at white heat. antimony," or antimonous sulphide, Sb 2 S 3 Nitric acid does not dissolve antimony but oxidizes it, the oxide of antimony thus formed being insoluble in nitric acid. Compounds of antimony are white, black, yellow or red. They are prepared from the sulphide or the oxide. The oxides of antimony correspond to those of arsenic. 738. The pharmacopceial oxide cf antimony is the antimonous oxide Sb 2 3 which is a white powder, insoluble in water. Antimonic anhydride is Sb 2 5 There is also an antimonate of antimonyl,

and vaporizes

SbOSb0
739is

3.

antimony forms antimonous sulphide, which orange red when precipitated and antimonic sulphide, Sb 2 S 5 which is also orange red Sulphur salts of antimony exist, as, for example, the sulphantimonate of sodium, Na 3 SbSi, and sulphantimonite of sodium,
S,

With

black
;

when

in crystalline form, or

Na SbS
3

3.
.

chloride

With CI antimony forms SbCl 3 and SbCl 5 The triofficial in some pharmacopoeias in the form of a solution that "solution of chloride of antimony" must neces740.
is
;

sarily contain a considerable quantity of hydrochloric acid, for

the SbCl 3
it,

is

while

it is

not soluble in water but instead decomposed by soluble in a mixture of water and HC1.

190
741.

CHEMISTRY.

Potassium-antimonyl tartrate (KSbOQH^Og)


its official

is

com-

monly called tartar emetic, and antimony and potassium." It

title

is

" tartrate of

mony

is the only water-soluble antipreparation in the pharmacopoeias.

Bismuth (Bi; at. w. 208.9) is a heavy crystalline solid 742. melts at 267 C, and vaporizes at white of reddish-white color
;

heat.

It

occurs in nature uncombined.

Nitric acid dissolves


,

bismuth to form the normal nitrate, Bi(N0 3 ) 3 which is soluble in a mixture of nitric acid and water, but decomposed by water
alone.

The compounds of bismuth are white, black, red or colorless. They are made from the metal. The oxides of Bismuth are Bi 2 3 and Bi 2 5 Chlorides 743.
.

and sulphides also exist. The normal bismuth nitrate, Bi(N0 3 ) 3 being soluble in glycerin, is sometimes used as the material out of which other bismuth compounds are made. " Citrate of bismuth and ammonium " is the only water-soluble preparation of bismuth known to pharmacy. The so-called "subnitrate of bismuth" and " subcarbonate of bismuth " of the Pharmacopoeia are not bismuth salts but bismuthyl salts (BiONO s and (BiO) 2 C0 3 ). When a solution of normal bismuth nitrate in water and nitric acid is poured into water, the salt is decomposed and bismuthyl nitrate produced.
744.
It is, in

Boron (B; at. w. 11) the free state, a solid.


is

is

Its

an altogether unique element. most familiar compounds

are borax and boric acid (formerly called " boracic acid").

Borax
is

sodium pyroborate, Na 2 B
is

ioH 2 0;

boric

acid

H BO
3

Although B
gies to silicon.

a trivalent element,

it

possesses

some

analo-

CHEMISTRY.

191

CHAPTER XXXV.
THE CARBON GROUP.
745. This group embraces carbon, silicon, titanium all of which are quadrivalent.

and

tin,

746. Carbon (C; at. w. 12) occurs in nature in the free state as diamond, graphite and coal. It exists only as a solid, and can be neither fused nor vaporized.

Diamond is the hardest substance known, and possesses unsurpassed lustre and brilliancy. It crystallizes in various forms of the Regular System. Graphite is the so-called " plumbago," or the "black lead"
of lead pencils, stove polish,
Coal
is

etc.

hard and soft consists mainly of carbon, and charcoal


more or
less

also carbon; soot, lamp-black, " bone-black"

also different forms of

and coke are impure carbon.

The
called.

specific

modication as distinctly different forms of

weight varies according to the form, or alloiropic any one element are

Carbon
chemistry.
affinity

is

of the elements.

one of the most commonly occurring and abundant It is the most important element in organic

At common temperatures carbon exhibits no chemical whatever for other substances. At a very high heat it readily unites with oxygen, forming two different oxides, one of which is an acid-forming oxide, C0 2 carbonic acid is, however, a very weak acid. But its lower oxide, CO, figures as a most important compound radical, called carbonyl, and may also be said to form carbonic acid by uniting with (HO) 3 Carbon combines with hydrogen in numerous compounds, and forms with that element many compound radicals. Its compounds with sulphur are analogous to those it forms with oxygen. Carbon disulphide, CS 8 is an ill-smelling liquid. It also combines with the halogens. With nitrogen it forms the important radical cyanogen which has already been referred to (719).
747.
;
.

192

CHEMISTRY.
748.
its

Carbon has apparently a variable valence as indicated oxides CO and C0 2 But its other compounds show that its ruling valence is that of a tetrad. The most striking function of carbon is its passive agency in the formation of comby
.

pound

radicals.

In this respect

it

occupies

position analogous to that of nitrogen

among the artiads among the perissads.

is defined sometimes as " the chemcarbon compounds." It is also denned as "the chemistry of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."

749.

Organic Chemistry

istry of the

If the molecular formulas of inorganic compounds be placed beside the molecular formulas of organic compounds, and the two series compared, the' organic molecules seem very complex and the inorganic molecules compara-

tively simple.

The

differences in structure are, indeed, in

numerous cases so

great that the student might easily draw the erroneous conclusion that organic

chemistry must be governed by laws wholly different from the laws of inorganic chemistry. But the chemistry of the rose and ruby, the air and the bird, gold and the apple, calomel and quinine, stone and bread, must be subject to Inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry are not merely the same laws. near relatives, of whom we might know one intimately, while having barely a speaking acquaintance with the other they are not as two persons, but as the different parts of one man.
;

750.

The apparent complexity

of organic chemistry

is

the

natural result of the high valence of carbon, the power of the

carbon atoms to combine with each other, the stability of the carbon bonds, the ability of carbon to combine with other elements of the most dissimilar nature, the behavior of carbon toward hydrogen and oxygen with which it forms many com-

pound
751.

radicals, etc.

The

position of carbon in the

first

series of elements

arranged

according to their atomic weights (664) is not only the central position, but the elements on both sides of it are the first members of important natural
groups, thus
:

II
(7),

III

IV
C(i2),

III

II (16),

Li

Be

(9),

B(ii),

N(i 4 ), O

(19).

from one
752.

The valence of these elements, beginning with lithium, increases regularly to four (C), and then decreases as regularly toward the other end of
Carbon, being quadrivalent, has four bonds.

the series.

Each

of

its

four

valence units raav be satisfied bv a different radical.

CHEMISTRY.
Carbon atoms
ways, as follows
:

193
in three possible different

may combine

with each other

C C
two, four or six free bonds.
still

C=C,
to

II II

or

CC
II
may
present together either
of carbon

II

Thus two carbon atoms united

each other

greater

number

atoms must produce

greater variety.
753.

in a similar manner, though not to and as both sulphur combine with carbon, directly and indirectly, nitrogen, oxygen and would appear to be without limit. Two nitrogen the possible combinations or N=, and three nitrogen atoms atoms may give us N N=, or N=, etc. But oxygen atoms combining with each other can only form simple chains with two free bonds, and sulphur atoms

Other polyvalent elements may,

the

same

extent, be capable of forming different chains, etc. (831},

=N
likewise.

N=N N=N

=N

754.

Add

to these possible combinations the

further fact that not only

univalent atoms, as those of hydrogen or of chlorine, may unite with the free bonds presented by the chains or clusters of carbon atoms, but that compound
radicals may be united to these free bonds, and, finally, polyvalent radicals, elemental or compound, may link the carbon chain or cluster to still other radicals, as, for example, in
:

HC
\

O O / O

CH

\ / HC

CH
Carbo7i.

Paraldehyde

The Oxides of carbon undergoes com755. bustion in a limited supply of 2 or of air, the product of the reaction is CO, or carbon monoxide, or carbonous oxide. This is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, which burns with a blue flame to C0 2 Carbon monoxide is poisonous when inhaled. The higher oxide is formed when carbon is burned in a free supply of O s ,and is also produced by the decomposition of carbonat ates by the stronger acids, because carbonic acid, 2 C0 3 once splits up into CO2 and H^O. Carbon dioxide is also called
.

When

194

CHEMISTRY.

carbonic oxide and " carbonic acid gas." It is colorless, slightly pungent, of a refreshing, faintly acidulous taste, soluble in water. At ordinary temperatures and pressure it dissolves in an equal volume of water; but with the aid of cold and strong pressure much larger quantities of C0 2 can be forced into a state of solution in water, and such a solution is called " carbonic acid water." When inhaled the C0 2 acts as a poison, and a comparatively small proportion of C0 2 in the atmosphere of a room is sufficient to render it unhealthy.
756.

Silicon (Si;

at.

silicates of the earth's crust, as in

w. 28.3), which is so abundant in the quartz rock and sand, is analo-

gous

to carbon in the structure of its


its

compounds.

It is

of the

greatest importance in
Glass
is

geological relations.

composed

of silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium

and

lead; glass containing the silicates of

and Ca

is

hard and

not easily fused, while flint glass made of the silicates of K and Pb is more readily fusible and brilliant, and soft glass made of the silicates of Na and Ca fuses very readily.
757.

Tin

(Sn;

at.

w. 119)
it

is

also

industrially important,
its

although not very abundant.


metallic physical properties

Notwithstanding
presents

decidedly

many

points of resemIt is

a silver-white melting point It does not oxidize on 228C, vaporizable at white heat. exposure to air, and is, therefore, used to coat iron ware. Tin also enters into several very useful alloys. This metal occurs in nature as stannic oxide, called "tinstone," or "tin ore." Compounds of tin are mostly white or colorless, and are made from the metal or its chloride. "Tin salt" is chloride of tin, SnCl 2 and is used as a 758. mordant in dyeing. It is soluble in water mixed with hydroits

blance to carbon in

chemical compounds.

metal, soft, ductile,

of crystalline

structure,

cloric acid.

is

Titanium is also chemically a relative of carbon, but 759. so rare an element that it will not be described here.
760.

it

side,

The carbon group and the nitrogen group, show some interesting parallels:

side by

CHEMISTRY.
Negative Tetrads. Negative Polyvalent. Perissads.

195

Atomic Weight.
Silicon
a8 -3

Atomic Weight.
14 31 51
'

.Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Vanadium
Antimony Bismuth

Tin

"9

120 209

CHAPTER XXXVI.
SUMMARY.

The electro- negative monads and dyads are sal> formers. They are active agents in producing compound radicals, which they do by saturating only a portion of the
761.

valence units of the trivalent and quadrivalent electro-negative elements.


are of the greatest importance in the between other elements and their most numerous compounds. While these two elements are the principal active agents in forming compound radicals, they are opposite to each other, in this respect: Oxygen characterizes the negative compound radicals, while hydrogen characterizes the positive comrelations

Oxygen and hydrogen

trivalent and quadrivalent elements are not salt-formers; they are passive agents in the formation of

pound radicals. The electro-negative,

compound

radicals, and act as links, centers, and skeletons, by which radicals are united into molecules.

9&

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER
762.

XXXVII.

THE LIGHT METALS.

The

invariably electro-positive elements are

all

metals.

These have been classified in various ways. Thus they have been divided into two groups: light metals, whose specific weights are less than 5, and lower than the specific weights of their oxides; and heavy metals, whose specific weights are over 5, and higher than the specific weights of their oxides. They have also been classified into: alkali metals; alkaline
earth metals; earth metals, proper; etc. The several methods of classification adopted by
necessarily coincide in
tionships.

many

places as they are

all

different chemists must based upon natural rela-

may first place the five strongest electro-positive 763. metallic radicals together, in the order of their atomic weights:
Atomic Weights.

We

Lithium

2
,.

Sodium
Potassium

^9
gt-

Rubidium

>2

Caesium 132.7 All these metals are monads. It will be observed that the atomic weight of sodium is exactly one-half of the sum of the atomic weights of lithium and potassium, and that of rubidium is almost exactly one-half of the sum of the atomic weights of potassium and caesium, a pretty regular gradation is apparent in the atomic weights of the whole group, and these five metals
are the strongest electro-positive radicals known, from caesium to lithium, in just the order in which their atomic weights place them; caesium being the strongest, and lithium the least pronounced alkali metal.
764. As this group includes all of the alkali metals, the table becomes all the more significant. Still greater emphasis
will
all

be given to this exhibit

if

we

place opposite the alkali metals

dyad metals having nearly coincident atomic weights:

CHEMISTRY.
Dyads.
Atomic Weights.

'97

Monads.
Atomic Weiglits.
7

Glucinum

9.

Lithium

Magnesium
Calcium Strontium Barium

24.

23.

Sodium
Potassium

40.

87 3
137.

39 85.2 132.7

Rubidium
Caesium

These

five

dyad metals stand next

after the alkali metals

in the electro-chemical series in precisely the order in

which

they stand in the preceding table, beginning with barium and ending with glucinum.
All of the ten metals included in
" (762) are

the table are light metals, and

all

the

" light metals


27)

included except

Aluminum

(with the atomic weight

and the rare metals Yttrium (At. wt. 89), Zirconium (At. wt. 90.4), Lanth(At. wt. 138), Cerium (At. wt. 140), Didymium (At. wt. 142 now split up into two elements), Erbium (At. wt. 166) and Thorium (At. wt. 232), which are not so well known.

anum

765.

The

low

specific weights;

alkali metals, then, are their hydrates, or

all

monads, and have

compounds with HO,

are the true alkalies, which are very readily water soluble (with the exception of lithium hydrate which is not readily soluble); their normal carbonates and phosphates are also freely water

soluble
soluble).

(except those of lithium, which are rather sparingly

by heat.
766.
for

Their carbonates and hydrates are not decomposed Their normal salts have either an alkaline or a neutral

reaction on test paper.

The

alkali metals

have such intense chemical

affinity

oxygen that they must be kept immersed in naphtha. They even decompose water, appropriating the oxygen so that the hydrogen is liberated. Caesium decomposes water with great These metals also have an violence; lithium more quietly. intense affinity for the halogens and sulphur. Observe that the alkali metals decompose water by taking to themselves its oxygen, while chlorine decomposes water by uniting with the
hydrogen.

!q8

chemistry.

Potassium oxide
flame results. hydrates when they
that
767.

is

0.

It

reacts with water so violently

The oxides of the alkali metals form come in contact with water. Potassium (K; at. w. 39) exists in nature only in

compounds. In minerals as silicate; in the salt deposits at Stassfurth, Germany, it is contained in the form of chloride; and the ashes of plants contain potassium carbonate. The juice of grapes contains acid tartrate of potassium, which deposits on the bottom and sides of wine vats and casks in the
form called
argots or crude tartar, which,

when

freed from color-

ing matter and other impurities, furnishes cream of tartar. Potassium is a soft bluish white metal which oxidizes 768.
rapidly

when exposed
,

to

the

air,

and decomposes water, from

It is produced by strongly appropriates the oxygen. heating K 2 C0 3 with C 2 the reduced metal being distilled over. To protect the metallic potassium from oxidation it is kept in

which

it

some

liquid hydrocarbon, as in petroleum.

769.

white.

The potassium compounds are, as a rule, colorless or They are either alkaline or salty to the taste. They are

frequently anhydrous, generally water-soluble, and the hydrate, carbonate and acetate are deliquescent. Of the common potassium compounds of the drug store the least soluble are the acid
tartrate or

cream

of tartar, the sulphate, chlorate,

and perman-

ganate.

The materials employed for making potassium prepa770. rations are first the crude chloride from Stassfurth, then the carbonate made from that chloride, and the bicarbonate. The
pharmacopoeias prefer the bicarbonate as the material from which to prepare the other potassium compounds, because the bicarbonate is crystallized and generally sufficiently pure as
well as cheap.

The most common potassium compounds


manganate, acetate,
citrate, tartrate

are the hydrate,

carbonate, bicarbonate, bromide, iodide, nitrate, chlorate, per-

and

bitartrate, all of

which

A solution of potassium are described in the Pharmacopoeia. " hydrate, called "liquor potassae is also official.

CHEMISTRY.

199

Potassium hydrate, KOH ("potassa"), is extremely caustic and corrosive, and, therefore, poisonous. Even the carbonate
("potash," or " pearl-ash," or "salt of tartar")
is

destructive
sufficient

and poisonous when introduced into the body without


previous dilution or in too large quantities.
are vinegar,
milk, etc.
"

The
oil,

best antidotes
oil,

lemon
" is

juice, citric

acid, olive

cotton seed

Saltpetre

potassium

nitrate.

Sodium (Na; at. w. 23) occurs most commonly as 771. chloride of sodium, which constitutes " salt." From this the
carbonate ("sal sodae
It is ") is

manufactured on a large

scale.

a soft, silver-white metal which, like potassium, must

be kept in hydrocarbons to keep it from oxidizing, and it is produced from sodium carbonate by a process analogous to that by which K 2 is made. Compounds of sodium are, as a rule, white or color772. less, and water-soluble. Their taste is either alkaline or purely salty, or bitterish. Water of crystallization occurs more commonly in sodium salts than in the salts of potassium, and many of the crystallized sodium salts effloresce when exposed. Sodium preparations are made from the carbonate 773. which is both cheap and generally sufficiently pure, being crystallized.

The most commonly used sodium compounds


phate, acetate,
salicylate,
is

are the hydrate,

carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, bromide, nitrate, sulphate, phos-

and the tartrate of potassium and alsoan official solution of the hydrate, NaOH. Sodium hydrate is called "soda" by the Pharmacopoeia; "washing soda" is the crystallized sodium carbonate; and " baking soda "'is the bicarbonate. The sulphate is sometimes called "Glauber's salt," and the tartrate of potassium and sodium is " Rochelle salt." Lithium (Li; at. w. 7) is a comparatively rare metal, 774. and its compounds, therefore, expensive. The most common compounds are the carbonate, bromide,
sodium.

There

and salicylate. They are all white, and prepared from the carbonate derived from the mineral lepidolite.
chloride, citrate

200
775.

CHEMISTRY.

Ammonium

is

NH

positive

compound

radical

which forms salts in many respects closely resembling those of K, Na, and Li. It indeed behaves as if it were a compound
alkali metal.

liquor obtained

Ammonia, or hydrogen nitride, H 3 N. is contained in the gas in the manufacture of illuminating gas, and. when purified, this ammonia is now the chief material used for the production of the ammonium compounds. Ammonium compounds are white or colorless, and waterAll are odorless except the hydrate and the carbonsoluble. ate, which have the strong odor of ammonia; all ammonium compounds develop the odor of ammonia on the addition of potassium hydrate or sodium hydrate. Their taste is alkaline, or salty sometimes bitterish. The most common ammonium compounds are the hydrate, Ammonium carbonate, chloride, bromide, nitrate and acetate. hydrate is contained in the "water of ammonia" of the pharmacopoeias it is sometime: called "caustic ammonia," and also "spirit of hartshorn." The "carbonate of ammonium " of the Pharmacopoeia is a complex substance containing carbamate as this mixed salt is sometimes called "salt of well as carbonate hartshorn," and also "sal volatile." Ammonium chloride is often called "muriate of ammonia," and also "sal ammoniac." The alkaline earth metals are calcium, strontium 776. and barium. They are dyads, and have low specific weights. Like the alkali metals they have such an intense affinity for oxygen that they decompose water. Their oxides, however, can be kept and do not react with water so violently as do the oxides of the alkali metals. Their hydrates are only sparingly soluble in water, and their normal carbonates as well as their phosphates are insoluble, while their acid carbonates are water-soluble to a small extent. Their normal salts, as far as water-soluble, have a neutral reaction on
;
; ;

test paper.

The sulphides

are

water-soluble.

The sulphates

and oxalates are insoluble.

CHEMISTRY.

201

By reference to the comparative exhibit on page 197 it will be seen that the atomic weight of strontium is very nearly onehalf of the

sum

of the atomic weights of calcium

and barium.

Barium

the strongest electro-positive dyad, strontium the second; and calcium, the third
is

form

Calcium 777of lime-stone

(Ca; at. w. 40) occurs abundantly and other calcium compounds.

in the

The metal
" Chalk
'("

is

light-yellowish.
"

"

and
") is

quick-lime

marble " are calcium carbonate, and " lime " calcium oxide, while "slaked lime " is cal-

cium hydrate. The most abundant and convenient materials for preparing calcium compounds are the carbonate and the chloride. The chloride, which is freely soluble in water, is made by saturating hydrochloric acid with calcium carbonate; the many insoluble calcium compounds are made by precipitation from the
chloride.

The oxide

("

lime

")

has the

name

" calx " in

Latin and the


it.

words calcium

and calcination are derived from

When

(impure calcium carbonate) is strongly heated in the "lime-kiln," it is said to be calcined, the carbonate being decomposed into oxide and CO s
lime-stone
:

common

CaC0 3 =CaO+C0
is

When
water

the lime or calcium oxide


to the lime,

added

CaO+H

Ca(OH) 2 2 The lime water of the drug


.

is put into water, or when calcium hydrate is formed:

stores, then,

is

solution of cal-

cium hydrate. The most common calcium compounds not already named
are the precipitated calcium carbonate, prepared chalk, dried

sulphate of calcium, and the phosphate of calcium. " Plaster of paris " is the dried sulphate of calcium, which when mixed with water unites with it chemically to form a hard
crystalline solid.
"

Bone-ash

"

is

calcium phosphate from " calcined bones."

202

CHEMISTRY.
Preparations of calcium are white or colorless. The insoluhave a disagreeable caustic or bitterish

ble are tasteless; others


taste.

Strontium (Sr; at. w. 87.3) is of comparatively little 778. importance to pharmacists; and even Barium (Ba; at. w. 137)
is

of

minor

interest.

The hydrates
779.

of Ca, Sr,

their carbonates, phosphates, sulphates

and Ba are sparingly soluble in water and oxalates insoluble.


naturally following those of
is

The next group,


(At. wt. 9)
is

the

alkali metals

and the alkaline earth metals,


often classed
in this

the zinc group.


it

Glucinum
metal

group, but as

is

a rare

we

shall omit further

mention

of

it.

The

zinc group, then, consists of:


Atomic Weight.
24 65

Magnesium
Zinc

112 Cadmium It will be seen that in this group, again, the atomic weight of the middle member is about one-half of the sum of the atomic weights of the other two; but in this case the metal having the lowest atomic weight is the strongest positive element and the metal having the largest atomic weight is the weakest. But all

are strongly electro-positive radicals.


as those before considered; they

They

are dyads.
affinity for

These metals do not exhibit so strong an

oxygen

may even be

freely exposed to

Their hydrates are not the air without becoming oxidized. water-soluble; but zinc hydrate is soluble in solution of potassi-

hydrate or of ammonium hydrate. Their carbonates, phosphates and sulphides are insoluble; but the sulphates, soluble. The carbonates of these metals, precipitated from the solutions of their water-soluble salts by alkali carbonates are not normal but basic (containing hydrate as well as carbonate); but normal magnesium carbonate can be prepared in other ways. But we will take up zinc later and treat for the pres780. ent of magnesium and aluminum, only, because zinc is decid-

um

edly one of the heavy metals. The medicinal effects of the

compounds

of the light metals

CHEMISTRY.
are alkaline, antacid, laxative
as other medicinal

203

and

cathartic, except so far only

properties are imparted to them by the negative radicals they contain. They are poisonous only when corrosive or chemically destructive. In this they differ from the compounds of the heavy metals, which, with the exception of the iron compounds, are poisonous,

and all of which have more decided medicinal properties determined by their positive radicals. Magnesium (Mg; at. w. 24.3) occurs as carbonate 781. and silicate, and in spring waters as sulphate and chloride. Talcum and asbestos are magnesium silicate with carbonate. The principal material used for the production of other magnesium compounds is the native carbonate. From this the sulphate may be made, and the sulphate is used for the production of purer carbonate and other compounds. The metal is silver-white, can be ignited, and burns with a most intense light to magnesium oxide. 782. The compounds of magnesium are white or colorless, tasteless when insoluble, bitter when soluble, except the citrate. The most commonly used insoluble magnesium compounds are the oxide and carbonate; the soluble are the sulphate and
citrate; chloride is

much used
is

in the

manufacture of mineral
the

waters.

Magnesium oxide
copoeia,

called

" magnesia " by

Pharma-

and

is

also

frequently

called "calcined

magnesia,"

because it is made by heating the carbonate. The magnesium carbonate of the pharmacopoeias is not the normal carbonate, but a compound of carbonate and hydrate. Sulphate of magnesium is commonly called " Epsom salt," because it is contained in the water of the Epsom Springs, England. Aluminum (Al), a tetrad metal with the atomic 783. weight 27, stands alone. It is destined to be one of the most important of all metals in the near future, for it does not oxidize in air at any temperature, and dilute acids have scarcely any effect upon it, except hydrochloric acid.

204

CHEMISTRY.

Aluminic

salts

so that but six of the eight radicals (786).

contain two atoms of aluminum tied together bonds are free to combine with other
All water-soluble alumi-

The most common salt is "alum." num compounds are astringents.


Sulphate, chloride, nitrate

and acetate are water-soluble


;

hydrate and phosphate, insoluble

carbonate does not

exist.

CHAPTER
784.

XXXVIII.

THE HEAVY METALS.


Zinc (Zn;
;

at.

w. 65.1)
;

is

a bluish-white metal of crys-

talline structure

sp. w. 7.2

melting point, 412

C;

volatilizes at

about 1,000" C. It occurs as calamine, which consists of carbonate and silicate, and as zinc blende, which is sulphide. The metal is obtained by reducing the ore with carbon at a high heat. Zinc compounds are white or colorless, and when 785. soluble they have a disagreeable, bitter, astringent, metallic taste, and are poisonous. The materials used for the preparation of officinal zinc compounds are the metal, oxide, carbonate and sulphate. The sulphate is made by dissolving the metal in dilute sulphuric acid, the carbonate from the sulphate by precipitation with sodium carbonate, the oxide by calcining the carbonate, and the acetate as well as other soluble salts by saturating the proper acid with
the oxide or carbonate.
786.

The
are
:

Iron Group.

This group

is

a peculiar one.

Its

members

Atomic Weight.

Chromium,
Manganese,
Iron,

52. 55. 56.

Nickel,

58.6

Cobalt,

53.6

CHEMISTRY.

205

The atomic weights

same. they form series of compounds in which two atoms of the metal are tied to each other and act together as one radical with six free bonds, thus:

be observed, are nearly the Like aluminum, these metals are pseudo-triads that is,
of
all, it

will

-Al Al

II II

Fe Fe

II II

But while aluminum never acts as a dyad or a hexad, the metals of the iron group seem to have three separate valences, although nickel and cobalt do not exhibit decided evidences of
sexivalence.

The metals of the iron group have two principal series of compounds the -ous compounds, in which they act as dyads,
and the
-ic

compounds,

in

which they act as tetrads, two atoms)

tied together, acting each as a pseudo-triad.

For convenience, the metals themselves are distinguished by their own adjectives with the terminations -ous and -ic to specify their respective valence. Trill's ferrous iron is a bivalent iron atom ferric iron is two tetrad atoms tied together, and together acting as a pseudo-triad. In the same manner we speak of chromous chromium and chromic chromium; manganous manganese and manganic manganese; nickelous nickel and nickelic nickel; cobaltous cobalt and cobaltic cobalt.
derived
;

great chemical energy

These metals are slowly oxidized in air, and do not exhibit and their compounds are not as stable
;

Their oxides, hydrates, phosphates and sulphides are insoluble. Their carbonates are so unstable as to begin to decompose rather rapidly as soon as they have been formed. Their nitrates, sulphates and haloids
as those of the metals before described.

are readily water-soluble.

Iron (Fe at. w. 56) is one of the most common and 787. familiar of the metals. The best iron ore is the magnetic oxide
;

of iron, or ferroso-ferric oxide.

The metal

is

ore by reduction with charcoal at high heat.


distinct forms of

obtained from the There are three

commercial iron

steel, cast iron, and wrought

iron, differing in properties

according to the amount of carbon

they contain.

2o6
788.

CHEMISTRY.

There are two classes of iron compoundsferrous compounds, which contain ferrous iron (Fe) and ferric compounds
;

containing ferric iron (Fe 2 ). The ferrous compounds are generally green or greenish blue when they contain water, white or nearly white when dry. The ferric compounds are reddish-brown, or yellowish-red when containing water, white or pale yellow when dry. But some iron compounds have a lively blue color (as "Prussian Blue"), others a pure yellow color (as the oxalate), and other colors are represented by them. Ferrous compounds are produced from metallic iron or from
ferrous sulphate.
Ferric

compounds

are

made from

ferric sul-

phate or chloride, or from ferric hydrate, or by changing the ferrous compounds to ferric by means of nitric acid or chlorine. As iron dissolves readily in either hydrochloric or sulphuric
acid, the ferrous chlorides

and sulphates are easily made by saturating these acids with the metal. The iron compounds used in medicine are numerous. When water-soluble they usually have a peculiar inky or styptic astrintaste,

gent

except the

" scale

salts "

which are comparatively

free from the disagreeably inky taste. " Green vitriol " is ferrous sulphate.

"Tincture of Iron
;

"

contains ferric chloride.

Lead (Pb at. w. 206.4) is also a common metal, com789. paratively soft, and of great density, melting at 325 C.
occurs most commonly as galena, which is lead sulphide. is obtained from this ore. It is preferably a tetrad, but sometimes also acts as a dyad. Besides these variations in its valence it also has the oxide Pb 2 0,
It

The metal

must be assumed that the two lead atoms are tied See Silver (797). Lead does not oxidize except superficially in the air. It has greater affinity for sulphur than for oxygen. The carbonate of lead is a basic carbonate similar in composition to the carbonates of the metals of the zinc group.
in

which

it

together.

CHEMISTRY.

207

some white, others The nitrate and the acetate are the only water-soluble lead salts. They are poisonous, and even the insoluble lead compounds are poisonous because they slowly yield sufficient quantities of soluble lead compounds
of various colors,
colorless, others
red, yellow or

Lead compounds are

black.

to produce the poisonous effects.

The nitrate and acetate serve as materials for the production of most of the other lead compounds.
791.

Copper and Mercury.


in their

These

formly bivalent
Copper Mercury

compounds.

two metals are uniTheir atomic weights are:


Atomic Weight.
63.2 200

They have been grouped in several different ways with other metals (793). Notwithstanding their uniform valence, they have two series of compounds the -011s compounds containing mercurous mercury ( Hg Hg ) or cuprous copper ( Cu Cu ), and the -ic compounds formed by mercuric mercury ( Hg ) and cupric

copper Cu
(

).

The metals are not readily oxidized in air without the aid of The oxides of copper are stable compounds; those of heat. mercury readily decomposed by heat. The hydrates, phosphates and sulphides are insoluble. Normal carbonates do not exist;
the basic carbonates
rare and unstable.
curic chloride and
are the mermercuric cyanide. Nitrates of mercurous and mercuric mercury and mercuric sulphate are decomposed

are

insoluble.

Sulphate, nitrate

and

chloride of cupric copper are water-soluble.

Cuprous

salts are

The only water-soluble mercury compounds

by water.

Copper (Cu; at. w. 63.2) is a reddish metal, harder 792. than lead, but softer than iron; it does not become tarnished in dry air. It occurs in the free state in large quantities. The only common copper compound used in pharmaceutical work and in medicine is the sulphate, which is a blue, crys-

208

CHEMISTRY.

tallized, water-soluble salt, often called blue vitriol.

Other copAll are poi-

per

compounds

are blue, green, brown, or black.

sonous.
It

(Hg; at. w. 200) is the only liquid metal. and is also called quicksilver. Sp. w. 13.6. Boils at 360 C. It occurs in the form of sulphide, or cinnabar. All mercury compounds are more or less poisonous, and
is
is

Mercury 793silver white,

their poisonous character


bility,

as usual in the ratio of their solu-

the mercuric

compounds being more dangerous than


itself,

the

mercurous. ous effect.


black.

The metal

however, does not have a poison-

Mercury compounds are white, colorless, red, yellow, or Only mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide are watersoluble. Mercury nitrates decompose on contact with water. The materials used for making compounds of mer794. cury are the metal itself and the mercuric chloride. The solution of nitrate of mercury in water containing nitric acid is also used. Sulphate of mercury is prepared by heating the metal with sulphuric acid, and the sulphate is then used for preparing calomel and corrosive sublimate, by double decomposition with sodium chloride, the mixture being subjected to sublimation.

795.

Among

the most important preparations of mercury


all

are

blue mass, blue ointment and mercury with chalk,


finely divided metallic

of

mercury, and the official compounds of mercury include the red and yellow oxide, the chlorides and iodides, the mercuric sulphate and subsulphate and white precipitate. "Calomel," or "mild chloride of mercury," is the mercurous chloride, Hg2 Cl 2 " Corrosive sublimate," or " corrosive chloride of mercury," is mercuric chloride, HgCl,. "Red precipitate," or "red oxide of mercury," is mercuric oxide prepared by decomposing the nitrate by heat; it is not a The "yellow oxide of mercury" is also mercuric precipitate.

which contain

CHEMISTRY.
oxide

209

double decomposition between mercuric chloride and potassium hydrate. " Green Iodide of mercury " is mercurous iodide; " red iodide of mercury" is mercuric iodide.
precipitation resulting from

made by

"White precipitate"

is

mercur-ammonium

chloride,

NH

HgCl.

796. Silver (Ag; at. w. 107.7) is a beautiful white metal, capable of receiving a high polish; soft, ductile, not tarnished in pure, dry air. It occurs free as well as in the form of sulphide. The only silver compound much used is the nitrate which is obtained by dissolving the metal in nitric acid, and the product is
either crystallized or fused

and moulded into

sticks or pencils.
is

Silver nitrate,

when

cast into cylindrical sticks,

often called

"lunar caustic."
Silver oxide
is

seldom used.

It is

a dark brown, insoluble

powder.
Silver is a metal which has been placed by many 797chemists in the same group with potassium, sodium and lithium. Others class it with lead and copper. By reason of its specific heat and for other reasons it has been recognized as a monad, and on that account assigned a place beside the alkali
metals. Its atomic weight is 107.7, which would place it between rubidium and caesium. Although silver exhibits but slight affinity for oxygen, it forms one of the most powerful bases. Nevertheless, it is a metal of high specific weight not affected by air, oxygen, or water and its compounds do not resemble
; ;

those of the alkali metals to such an extent as to justify

its

assignment to the
its

group

of potassium,

sodium and lithium.


only readily
;

Its

oxides correspond perfectly with those of lead, and


is

water-soluble salt

the nitrate, while the acetate

is

slightly soluble

these

are the only water-soluble salts of lead, too.

798.

It is

interesting to note that the only other perissad metal which has

some compounds reminding us of the alkali metals is thallium, which also exhibits some relationship to lead, has very nearly the same atomic weight as lead, and is often placed together with lead in what is then called the lead group, containing only these two metals. The properties of thallium and its compounds have been described as intermediate between those of lead and the alkali metals, and their compounds. The hydrate, carbonate and sulphate of
thallium are water-soluble.

CHEMISTRY.

Many chemists put gold, silver and the platinum group together 799. others put silver, copper and mercury together others, again, place lead and
; ;

platinum

in the

same group, gold and thallium


group.
it is still

in another,

and copper and


a classifica-

mercury

in a third

All these facts prove that

extremely

difficult to effect

tion so natural as to receive general acceptance.

The following
parallel perissads
is

exhibit of the atomic weights of artiad metals with their

suggestive

ARTIADS.

l'EKISSADS.

Atomic Weight.
Palladium
io7.

Atomic Weight.
108 '97
.

...

Silver

Lead
In Mendeleeff

207.

204

Thallium

s table (664), upon which much in this chapter is based, we and mercury together in one column, beside the alkali metals, where they naturally fall by reason of their atomic weights, and it is a remarkable fact that all of them have corresponding oxides, Ag 2 0, Cu s O and Hg.,0, like those of the alkali metals, K,0, Na 2 and Li 2 0. But gold, lead and thallium also have analogous oxides, Au a O, Pb 2 and Tl s O.

find copper, silver

800. Gold appears to be generally a triad, but also sometimes a monad, having such compounds as AuCl 3 and AuCl, Au 2 3 and Au 2 0, etc. Its atomic weight is 196.7. It is one of the weakest of the metallic radicals, nearly all its compounds being very unstable. The metal itself is not affected by oxygen, sulphur or acids. The only reagent which will attack and dissolve gold is "aqua regia " or some other solution of free Occurs in nature in the free state only. chlorine. (See also preceding paragraph.) The Platinum Group. The metals of this group 801. occur in nature only in the free metallic state. They are:

Atomic Weight.

Ruthenium

101.4
103.

Rhodium
Palladium

106.4
I I I

Osmium
Iridium

9-3
92
-5

Platinum
By
their atomic weights, therefore, they fall

94-3 into two groups, three of

CHEMISTRY.

211

them having atomic weights of from 101.4 to 106.4, the others from 190.7 to 194 3. The specific weights correspond in the same ratio, the first three having Relatively the greatest similarity exists the sp. w. 12 and the others 21.
between: Platinum and palladium. Iridium and rhodium.

Ruthenium and osmium.


Pt and Pd exhibit bivalence and quadrivalence; the others also sexivalence. But the ruling valence of Pt and Pd is 2, and that of Ru and Os, 6;
while Ir and

Rh occupy

the middle ground.

No

acids attack any of these metals; they are not directly

affected

by oxygen or sulphur, but

free

chlorine (in

"aqua

regia ") attacks them. Their alloys, however, dissolve in the stronger acids. Soluble double salts are the least unstable com-

pounds of the platinum metals; extremely unstable.

all

their other

compounds are

CHAPTER

XXXIX.

SUMMARY OF METALS.
802.

The

electro-positive elements, or metals, omitting very

may now be reviewed in a general way, with the following conclusions: The alkali metals possess such energetic affinity for oxygen that they oxidize completely and even violently in either air or water. The alkaline earth metals do not oxidize in air as rapidly
rare elements,
as the alkali metals, but
still

completely; and they decompose

water, though with less violence than the alkali metals.

No

other metals oxidize perfectly in either air or water, at ordinary temperatures, and the direct affinity for oxygen is entirely

absent in aluminum,

silver,

gold and the platinum metals.

212

CHEMISTRY.

with water to form hydrates with such energy that they are instantly changed, and with evolution of great heat, if permitted to come in contact with moisture. The oxides of the alkaline earth metals maybe kept in dry air, but are hydrated by water, though with far less
oxides of alkali metals react

The

The oxides of other metals are not readily or completely hydrated when brought in contact with water. The hydrates of alkali metals are freely water-soluble, except the lithium hydrate. Lithium stands midway between the other
rapidity and heat than the alkali oxides.
alkali metals

and the alkaline earth metals, the hydrates of which are very sparingly water-soluble. The oxides and hydrates of all other metals are insoluble in

water.

The only normal

carbonates

are those of the alkali metals,


;

but the carbonates of potassium and sodium are very freely soluble, those of lithium and thallium comparatively sparingly, and those of the alkaline The carbonates of the metals earth metals insoluble in water. of the zinc group and of lead are basic, and insoluble in water. All metallic carbonates, except those of the alkali metals, are decomposed by heat. Of many of the heavy metals, no carbonates exist. The only water-soluble phosphates are those of potassium, sodium and ammonium the same positive salt radicals which have soluble carbonates. The only water-soluble metallic sulphides are those of the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Soluble sulphates are formed by the alkali metals, thallium, the sulphates the zinc, aluminum and iron groups, and copper of the alkaline earth metals and lead are insoluble, and that of

thallium and the alkaline earth metals

mercury

is

decomposed by water.
Chloride of antimony

All metallic chlorides are water-soluble, except those of silver,


lead, thallium
is

and mercurous mercury. decomposed by water.

CHEMISTRY,

213

The

metallic nitrates are

all

water-soluble, except those of

mercury and bismuth, which are decomposed by water. The compounds of the alkali metals are the most numerous and generally very stable or permanent they are also either
;

neutral or of alkaline reaction to test paper.

The

salts of the

alkaline earth metals are also comparatively stable, and usually

of neutral reaction; and next in order those of the metals of

the zinc group.


cury, silver,
tively few.

and frequently

other metals are less permanent and the compounds of mergold and platinum generally unstable and comparasalts of

The

of acid reaction,

CHAPTER

XL.

COMPOUND RADICALS.
Atoms unite with other atoms either singly or in groups. When a atom unites with another chlorine atom to form a molecule of chlorine, or with a hydrogen atom to form a molecule of hydrogen chloride, commonly called hydrochloric acid, each of these atoms exercises active chemical energy or affinity in the creation of the molecule; and when zinc is dissolved in the solution of the hydrogen chloride the reaction which sets in produces molecules of zinc chloride and hydrogen,, each chlorine atom passing from the molecule of hydrochloric acid to the new molecule of zinc chloride; from this molecule of zinc chloride the chlorine atoms can be transferred to still another molecule that of silver chloride by mixing a solution of the zinc chloride with a solution of silver nitrate. At the same time the silver which unites with the chlorine to form the silver chloride must part from the group of atoms with which it was combined in the silver nitrate and that group unites with the zinc which was robbed of its chlorine by the silver. In this last reaction, then, we have both single atoms and groups of atoms passing from one
803.
chlorine

molecule to another.

Atoms of different kinds very commonly travel together in certain definite groups, the several atoms in such a group being united to each other while

214
some one
of the

CHEMISTRY.
atoms
in

the

group

still

has one or more unsatisfied valence

units or free bonds, by which the whole group

may

thus be united to

some

other atom or group of atoms.

group N0 3 consisting of one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms, and in that group one of the oxygen atoms must have one unsatisfied bond or valence unit left, for nitrogen acts here as a pentad and oxygen is always a dyad, so that three oxygen atoms have six valence units together. The group NO a is called the nitrate group or the nitrate
Thus,
all

nitrates contain the

radical, because

all

nitrates

contain this characteristic group;


is

every comto a hydro-

pound containing
does not contain

this
it.

group

a nitrate, and no
If

compound

is

a nitrate that

The

nitrate

group or nitrate radical united


.

gen atom makes


remains

nitric

acid=HN0 3

we

place a piece of silver in the solu-

and that product of the reaction which AgN0 3 The molecule of nitric acid, HN0 3 has, then, become transformed into the new molecule AgN0 3 by the exchange of an atom of hydrogen for one of silver; but the nitrate group has passed into the new molecule unaltered. Lead put in the solution of silver nitrate will take the nitrate radical away from the silver and cause the liberated silver atoms to form molecules of silver which separate from the The lead nitrate is Pb(N0 3 2 liquid in the solid state as a blackish powder. because lead is a dyad or has two bonds or valence units, while, as we have seen, the nitrate radical has only one, and we must accordingly have two nitrate groups to satisfy one atom of lead. Copper placed in the solution of lead Cu(N0 3 ) 8 while nitrate usurps the place of the lead producing copper nitrate From the copper nitrate the nitrate radical can in turn lead is precipitated. be transferred to iron nitrate by putting iron in the solution of the copper Now we might mix the solution of nitrate; the iron nitrate is Fe(X0 3 ) 2 iron nitrate with a solution of sodium carbonate, which would result in double decomposition (529), the products being iron carbonate and sodium nitrate NaNO s Thus, we have transferred the nitrate radical, N0 3 from molecule
tion of nitric acid a reaction ensues,
in the liquid
is

the salt called silver nitrate

to molecule, uniting

it

successively to several different positive radicals.

There are many other compound radicals besides transferred from one molecule to another.

X0 3

and

all

can be

Compound radicals are groups of atoms united to 804. each other but having one or more unsatisfied valence units or free bonds. They, therefore, act in the same manner as free atoms, being united by their free bonds toother radicals of opposite electrochemical polarity. Compound radicals have an invariable valence.

CHEMISTRY.
805.
All oxysalts
all

215

(900) contain

compound

radicals.

The

sulphates

compounds containing the pound can be a phosphate


guishes the oxalates.

contain the characteristic sulphate radical S0 4 ;all radical CO s are carbonates no com;

unless

it

contain the radical


the group

P0 4
4

all

chlorates contain the group

C10 3 ;and

C2

distin-

The compound radicals as well as the elemental radibe divided into two great classes -positive and negative radicals. Compound radicals containing oxygen but no hydrogen are as a rule electro-negative those containing hydrogen but no oxygen are as a rule electro-positive. But there are many negative compound radicals containing both oxygen and hydrogen together with carbon, and also many positive radicals containing the same elements. Hydrogen and oxygen together form the very impor807. tant compound radical HO, or OH, called hydroxyl. This radical combines with itself to form the so-called peroxide of hydro806.
cals

may

gen

=H

2.

It

unites with

acids; with

to form one hydrogen atom and any number of groups of CH 2 the hydroxyl forms alcohols, and all alcohols contain HO. It is, of course, univalent since the hydrogen atom has but one bond which ties only one of the two bonds of the oxygen atom, leaving one oxygen bond free. Nomenclature of the compound radicals. They have 808. been given names with the termination -yl, as, for instance,

or hydroxides, and with

many of the metals to form many different negative radicals

hydrates

hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, nitryl, nitrosyl, sulphuryl, phosphoryl, methyl, ethyl, amyl, glyceryl, phenyl, acetyl, bismuthyl, antimonyl, etc. But many compound radicals have names which are not in accordance with this system.

2l6
809.

CHEMISTRY.

Acid-forming radicals are those which form acids


to the radical

when united

hydroxyl,

HO.
:

The

principal acid-

forming radicals of inorganic chemistry are


Radical.
CI

Acid Formed.

CIO cio 2
C103

HO. CI HO.CIO HO.C10 HO.CIO3


2

Hypochlorous Chlorous
Chloric Perchloric

so so

(HO) 2 .SO
2

(HO),.SO,

s2 o

(HO) 2 .S

Sulphurous Sulphuric Thiosulphuric


Nitrous
Nitric

NO N0 H PO HPO
2 2

HO NO
HO.N0 HO.H PO
2

Hypophosphorous
Phosphorous Orthophosphoric Pyrophosphoric Metaphosphoric Arsenous
Arsenic Pyroarsenic

PO po po HAsO
2 3
2

(HO) 2 .HPO (HO) s.PO (HO),P 2 3

HO.PO,
(HO).,HAsO (HO) .AsO
a

AsO
As 2
3

(HOVAs.0,
(HO) 8.HSbO HO.SbO,

HSbO
Sb0 B B
4
2

Antimonous
Metantimonic
Boric Pyroboric

(HO),B

CO CO CN
SiO

(HO),BA (HO) CO
2

Carbonic
Oxalic

(HO) 2 .(CO) 2

HO.CN
(HO) 2 .SiO

Cyanic
Silicic

SnO

(HO) .SnO
2

Stannic

Cr0

Cr2 O s

(HO),.CrO, (HO),.Cr 2 5
e

Chromic
6

Mn,O

(HO) 2 .Mn

Dichromic Permanganic

CHEMISTRY.
810.

17

The

principal positive
:

compound

radicals of inor-

ganic chemistry are

Ammonium,
Antimonyl, Bismuthyl,

NH NH
3

4.

SbO. BiO.

Mercur-ammonium,

Hg.

Ammonium is the radical contained in all ammonium salts ^nd other ammonium compounds. Antimonyl occurs in the
antimony and potassium; " bismuthyl, in bismuth;" and mercur-ammonium, in so-called "ammoniated mercury." In organic chemistry the most important compound radi811.
so-called "tartrate of
so-called
" subnitrate of

cals of
.are

common
itive
'

occurrence or of special interest to pharmacists


radicals:

the following:

compound
4
3

NH

Ammonium
Methyl

CH CH CH CH C HU CH CH CH
2
2 5

Methene Methenyl Ethyl

5
6 3 2

Amyl
Phenyl
Glyceryl Acetyl (CH3.CO.)
radicals:

5 5 3

ative

compound

HO
CO

Hydroxyl Carbonyl
Nitrosyl
a

NO NO

Nitryl

CN CNS

Cyanogen Sulphocyanogen

In paragraph 809 the radicals which form acids with 8l2. the radical HO are enumerated, and the formulas and names of the acids are placed opposite the corresponding radicals, respectively.

Thus you

find that the radical

which forms sulphuric acid by

o H

218

CHEMISTRY.

uniting with hydroxyl


for sulphuric acid
is

HO,

is

S0

(sulphuryl), and the formula


.

given as (HO) 2 .S0 2 This is a very explicit formula, showing that sulphuric acid consists of one group of atoms represented by SOo, and two groups such as are called hydroxyl, HO. But for the sake of convenience the formula for sulphuric acid is not written as above (HO) 2 S0 2 but instead it We will now explain this. is written H,S0 4 That S0 2 is a bivalent radical you can readily ascer813. tain for yourself when you know that in sulphuric acid and all other sulphates the sulphur atom is a hexad. There must
,
.

accordingly be six sulphur bonds and four oxygen bonds in S0 2 leaving two sulphur bonds free. These are each united to one group of hydroxyl, thus:
,

O
I

o=s
I

O
which may also be more
briefly written:

S0 2 /OH

\OH
or
still

more

briefly

S0 2 .(OH) 2
or finally:
814.
2

or

(OH)2.S0 2
4
.

H S0 Whenever sulphuric acid forms a sulphate by com-

bining with any base, it is only the hydrogen of the groups of hydroxyl that is exchanged, and one or both of the hydrogen atoms may be replaced by another positive radical, as you will see clearly by the following formulas:

H,S0 4

Sulphuric Acid.

KHS0 4
K.>S0 4

Acid Potassium Sulphate. Normal Potassium "

Na o S0 4 CaS0 4 FeS0 4 (NH 4 2 S0 4


)

Sodium Sulphate.
Calcium
Ferrous

Ammonium

Sulphate.

CHEMISTRY.
In other words,

21

when sulphuric

acid forms a sulphate with

any base or

metal, the hydrogen of the hydroxyl being replaced,

the change would be most correctly represented as follows:

S0 2 /0

NO
Sulphuric Acid.

S0 2 /0

\0
Potassium Sulphate.

But for the sake of convenience, and since the linking oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl remain in their position, the general practice is to write the formula for every acid not by representing the radicals of which
hydrogen
is
it

is

composed, but

the replaceable

from and placed in front of the rest of the formula. The remainder, after removing the hydrogen, is called an acid residue. Thus in H 2 S0 4 the H 2 is all that is replaced by another base in the formation of other sulphates, and S0 4 is the
separated
residue,

and, in fact, SO.

may

well be treated as a radical, because


is

the oxygen of the hydroxyl

still

united to the

S0

2,

which

makes

it

815.

This

is

done, then, in writing the formulas of

all acids.

Although all acids contain hydroxyl, only the hydrogen of the hydroxyl can be displaced or replaced in the formation of salts, and that hydrogen is written first in the formula, the residue being placed after it and considered as the characteristic acid
radical.

816.

Acetic acid
is

is

composed

of the three radicals,

CH CO
3
,

and OH, and the


molecule

structural formula (838) for the acetic acid therefore .CO.OH, but it is for convenience 3

CH

H 3 2 and sometimes it written 2 write formulas in such a way that the

HC

is

written

C3 H4

2.

To

number

of

replaceable

at once be seen is a very valuable point, however, and, therefore, we should always write the molecule of As it has only one hydroxyl group it acetic acid as HC2H3O2. can have only one atom of basic hydrogen which can be replaced by any other positive radical if the other hydrogen atoms or anyone of them should be removed, exchanged or replaced, the compound would no longer be an acetate.
;

hydrogen atoms can

220

CHEMISTRY.

It follows from what has been stated in the preceding 817. paragraph that we have for every acid, inorganic or organic, an acid-radical which is shown in its molecular formula, and in the molecular formula of every salt (905). You can at once recognize any acid or a salt of any particular acid by its radical, if you learn what that radical is, and if you will learn not only the formula but also the valence of every such radical, together with the formula and valence of every positive radical of common occurrence, you will possess the knowledge necessary to construct the molecular formulas of all the normal compounds formed by these radicals respectively.

CHAPTER

XLI.

TABLES OF RADICALS.
818. Tables are here given (819 and 820) of all the important and commonly occurring simple and compound radicals, positive as well as negative, grouped according to their valence, together with the generic name of the class of compounds formed by each
to a radical of opposite electro-chemical polarity. we will explain how these tables can be used, and how formulas are constructed from the radicals according to their polarity and
[In the next chapter

when united

valence.]

819.

Valence of Positive Radicals.


(Basylous Radicals.) Compounds formed.
Acids Potassium

Univalent.

H
K Na
Li

Sodium
Lithium
Argentic
4

Ag

NH
2

Ammonium
Methyl
Ethyl

CH CH

3 5

CHEMISTRY.

22

[Basylous -Radicals. - -Continued^

QH U
C,H

Amyl
Phenyl

NH Hg
2

Mercurammonium
Bismuthyl Antimonyl

BiO

SbO
Bivalent.

Ca Ba
Sr

Calcium Barium
Strontium

Mg
Zn

Magnesium
Zinc

Cd Pb Cu Cu 2

Cadmium
Plumbic Cupric Cuprous
Mercuric

Hg Hg
Sn

Mercurous Stannous

Mn
Fe

Manganous
Ferrous Cobaltous Nickelous

Co
Ni
Trivalent.

Sb
Bi

Antimonous Bismuthous
5

Glyceryl
Stannic
Platinic

Quadrivalent

Sn
Pt
Sexivalent.

Ce 2
Al 8

Cerium
Aluminic

222

CHEMISTRY.

Mn
Fe 2 Cr2 Ni 2

Manganic
Ferric

Chromic
Nickelic

COjj

Cobaltic

820.

Valence of Negative Radicals.


(Acidulous Radicals.)
Forming.

Univalent.

H
CI

Hydrides
Chlorides

Br
I

Bromides
Iodides Fluorides
or (CN)

F Cy

HO
CIO

Cyanides Hydroxides (Hydrates)


Hypochlorites Cyanates Hydrosulphides Sulphocyanides
Nitrites

CvO HS
CyS

or

(CNO)
(CNS)

or

N0 N0
2

2
3 2

Nitrates

H P0

CH0
C H CH
2 5 3
9

Hypophosphites Formiates
2 2

Acetates Valerates
Palmitates
Stearates

Ci 6 H 3I 2 C18H35OJ

CigH^Oj

CH C H S0
3 5
5

Oleates Lactates

QH (NO,) O
a

Sulphocarbolates
t

Picrates
Salicylates

C H 6 0,
7
7

CH CH
9

Benzoates

Oj
4

Mn

Cinnamates Permanganates

CHEMISTRY.

223

[Acidulous-Radicals.
Bivalent.

Continued.}
Oxides
Sulphides
Sulphites

O
s

so

s2 o3

so
2

Thiosulphates Sulphates

4 3 4

co co

Carbonates Oxalates
Arsenites

HAsQs

HSbO
t 4
4

s 4

Antimonites
Succinates

QH QH QH 0,
CrO, Cr2
7

Malates
Tartrates

Chromates Dichromates
Pyroborates.

Trivalent.

PO*

Phosphates
Arsenates
4

As0 Sb0

Antimonates
4

B0
C
7

Borates
3

QH

Citrates
5 7
7

H0
7

Meconates
Silicates

Quadrivalent.

Si0 4

po
2

Pyrophosphates
Pyroarsenates
7

As s Sb 2

7 6

FeCy

Pyroantimonates Ferrocyanides
Ferricyanides.

Sexivalent.

Fe 8 Cyia

224

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER

XLII.

COMPOUND MOLECULES.

We have learnt that all molecules are made up of 821. atoms that elemental molecules are made up of atoms of but one kind; and the compound molecules are made up of two or more atoms of two or more different kinds. 822. Atomicity. The number of atoms any molecule contains is expressed by the term atomicity. A molecule consisting of but one atom is mo/iatomic, a molecule containing two atoms (not two kinds of atoms, but two atoms, only, whether of the same kind or not) is diatomic, a molecule made up of three atoms is triatomic, one of four atoms is tetratomic, and one of five atoms is pentatomic, and a molecule containing six atoms is hexatomic. Molecules containing more than two atoms are polyatomic. The number of atoms which may unite to form one 823. molecule is indefinite and subject to extreme differences. Most of the elemental molecules are assumed to contain each two atoms. There are, however, elemental molecules supposed to contain one (mercury, zinc, cadmium and barium), three (oxygen as ozone), four (phosphorus and arsenic), and six (sulphur under certain conditions) atoms, respectively. Of the compound molecules all binary compounds contain but two kinds of atoms, and many of them only one of each kind. Thus the chlorides, iodides and bromides of all univalent (612) metals, and the oxides and sulphides of the bivalent (612) metals, contain but two atoms in each molecule. But molecules composed of compound radicals may contain a large number of
;

atoms.

A molecule of potassium iodide or calcium oxide contains two atoms; a molecule of water, three; ammonia, four; lead nitrate, five; copper sulphate, six; sodium sulphate, seven; phosphoric acid, eight; phenolphthalein, thirty-eight; olive oil (glyceryl oleate), one hundred and sixty-seven atoms, and the molecules of many organic compounds contain even a greater number of atoms. Inorganic substances have, as a rule, a far more simple molecular structure than organic substances, if the. present formulas of inorganic chemistry
are the true ones.

CHEMISTRY.
824. Compound molecules are formed in various ways. By direct union of the component elements, as: 1.

225

X-hY=XY.
however, in most cases less simple than the equation It is really not a mere addition followed by chemical union, for indicates. the elemental molecules must first be decomposed into their constituent atoms, and in many cases the direct union of atoms depends upon a change of valence in the factors of the reaction under the influence of energetic chemical agents, as the elevation of bivalent C to quadrivalent C, or of CivtoCvi, or of Niii to Nv, etc.
This reaction
is,

2.

Chemical reactions may also consist of apparently simple

subtraction:

YXZ X=YZ+X.
This
is

often the result of a reduction of valence of an element under the

influence of high heat, as the reduction of Svi to Siv, or


ples of this splitting

up

of

one molecule into several

Nv to Niii. Exammay be found in the

products of the destructive distillation of organic substances. Heat has a tendency to lower the valence of elements. But molecules may be divided by the influence of heat without any change in the valence of the atoms involved in the reaction, as when CaCO s is split up into CaO and CO s or when phosphate of sodium is converted into sodium pyrophosphate, by heat.
,

tution takes place, as

Molecules are formed by single selective affinity when substiwhen zinc is dissolved in hydrochloric acid Zn 2 + 4 HCl=2ZnCl 2 H-2H 2 or when chlorine is introduced into the molecule of a hydrocarbon taking the place of its hydrogen, atom for atom. Double decomposition is, however, the most frequently 4. occurring form of chemical reactions; it is much more common than the three other kinds together. In double decomposition the products of the reaction generally have the same general structure as the factors, and there is simply a mutual interchange of radicals brought about by the chemical attraction working simultaneously in two directions but toward the same result.
3.
,

825.

All molecules, then, are

composed

of

radicals,

and

all

chemical reactions take place between radicals. When two different molecules are in contact with each other there may be a mutual interchange of radicals between them or there may be a
;

226

CHEMISTRY.

transfer of a radical from one molecule to another; or


cals

may

be formed by the splitting up of existing

new radicompound

by the removal of an atom or group of atoms; or by atom or group of atoms for some other atom or group of atoms; or additional radicals may be inserted between those already contained in a molecule. 826. Compound molecules are formed in accordance with the valences of the atoms or radicals of which they are constiradicals; or

the substitution of one

tuted.

Equivalent (614) atoms or radicals unite directly in equal numbers, or in the ratio of one to one. Whenever any two atoms or radicals are united directly to each other, each must present the same number of free bonds. In other words, when two opposite radicals unite, there must be an equal number of bonds on each side. There can be no molecule with any free bond or bonds. 827. Every bond or valence unit presented by the atoms or radicals present in the molecule is tied or saturated. It follows from the preceding statement that the whole number of bonds in any molecule must be even. Again, if there are any perissads in the molecule, their number must be even, as otherwise the total number of bonds would not be even. If there were an odd number of bonds or valence units, not all could be paired and there would then of necessity be one or more free bonds, which is impossible in a molecule. Both simple and compound radicals may unite with 828. each other directly, or they may be joined together, like links,
in chains, or
It is

groups, or circles.

evident that two equivalent atoms can only form a pair, directly

But one dyad unites with two monads, two dyads with four monads, monad, or with one tetrad; three dyads with six monads, or two triads, or with one monad, one dyad and one triad together etc. When more than two atoms or radicals are contained in one molecule they can not all be directly united but of three, four, or five radicals, one may be in the center of the whole group directly united with each of the
united.

or with one triad and one

others (713).

CHEMISTRY.

227

Direct union of atoms. The simplest possible com829. pound molecules are those formed by two equivalent atoms. Two monads, or two dyads, or two triads, or two tetrads

mutually saturate each other. Thus: H and CI, both monads, form

HCI,
K
1

or
or or
or

HC1
AgBr

Kand

Ag and

Br,

Ca and O, Zn and S,

dyads,
triads

Ag Br, Ca=0,
Zn=S, B=eN,

or KI

CaO
BN.

or ZnS.

Band

N,

But when the atoms or radicals are not equivalent the 830. molecule is not so simple, for the number of free bonds on each side must then be the smallest common multiple of the numbers
of their respective valence units. Thus, if the valence of one radical is 1 and that of the other 3, it follows that each radical must present three bonds ;and if one has a valence of 2 and the other of 3, each radical must present 6 bonds, or such a number of atoms or groups as will have that total number of bonds.

Thus

H H
H

1
1

and

O"
S"
Cli

s2o

HCL
CuO
Cu 2
CaCl 2

Cu 11 Cuo"

O" O"
Cli

Ca"
S*v

CJv

111
1

As "
Al 2
vi

O" 0" O" 0"


CI
1

so 2

co 2 N
2

3 3

As 2
1

A1 2 C1 6

(OH)

KOH
BiO.OH
Ba(OH) 2 FeS

(BIO)*

Ba" Fe"

(OH)' (OH)'

S"
CI 1 CI 1 CI 1

Hg 2 " Hg"
Sn'v

Hg

Cl 2

HgCl 2
SnCl 4 Fe 4 (FeCy 6 ) Sb 2 S 5

Fe 2 VI Sbv

(FeCy c

S"
(NO3) 1

Pb

Pb(N0

3)2

HH

228

CHEMISTRY.

Ca" (NH )<


4

and
" "
"

(OC1) 1

form
"

(SO)

(NH

Fe 2 v

(S0 4 )

Ca 11
K'

(CO

" "

Ca(OCl) 2 4 )2S0 4 Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3


3 3

"

(CsHsO,)" 1 "
etc., etc., etc.

CaC0 K C H
8

831. Chains. Atoms and compound radicals with their so-called bonds may be likened to a number of boys with their hands. Any number of boys may form a chain by joining their hands together one hand to the left, the other to the right. So can any number of atoms or compound radicals that

have each two bonds,

as:

OOO
There will still be one free bond at each end, just as the end boys in the chain would each have one hand free. But suppose you and I join hands, you taking my left hand in your right and my right hand in your left; both your hands and mine would be tied just as are the bonds of a calcium atom and an oxygen atom united into calcium oxide

Ca=0.
But if one boy with two hands and two one-armed fellows form a chain, the boy with two hands will have to be in the middle and the others at the ends (we do not care much if one turns his back to us as would necessarily be the case if both boys had lost their left hands, or both the right hands), and there would be no chance of joining in with any more boys at either end, just as when two hydrogen atoms, each with but one bond, are united by an oxygen atom between them H. A boy with three hands, if we could have one, would act like a nitrogen atom

H O
\ N
I

and

coftld hold three other beys,

one with each hand:

H N
I

or, instead of

NH

we might have

H H

H N C
I I

H
for carbon has four

bonds.

You can
at the

see, then, that all monads which enter into any molecule must be ends or on the outside (the one-armed boys at the end of the line); that

CHEMISTRY.

229

dyads can form a long chain by extending their two bonds in opposite directions or they can form a ring; that triads can form the centers of triangles>

and

tetrads the centers of squares, as well as rings, etc.

Linkage. In any molecule consisting of more than two atoms, then, one or more of these atoms, or any group of atoms through one of their number, must perform a linking function. In other words, the atoms in such molecules are not so cotnbined that each and every atom is united directly to every other atom, but two univalent atoms may be linked together by a bivalent atom as in the water molecule, H O H, or in potassium hydrate, K O H; or, if the molecule consists of at least two monads and at least two dyads, a longer chain may be formed, as in CI O O O H; or if tetrads perform the linking function there may be branched chain, as in H H H H H
832.


I I I

-CC C C -CC H H cC -C-CI

H H H H H
in

which the hydrogen atoms are linked together by carbon; or we may have a triad linking together three monads, as in

H N H;
I

or a triad tying together one monad and one dyad, as in 0=Bi CI; or a tetrad uniting two dyads as in 0=C=0, or a tetrad uniting one monad and one triad as in K C^N, or three or four dyads joined together in a closed chain or ring, as in

OO

/ \
and
in

O \

O;
/

O
or such structures as indicated by the following examples
result:

may

H O

HC C O H;
I

II

O / 0=P O \ O H;

230

CHEMISTRY.

H C CI;
I

H O C C O H;
II II

H H
I

O H
I

H
I

H H

/ \
I

C C H;
II

H H

III
C
C C
I

/ \ /

C C

C
I

C
I

H
833.

H
of

H
bonds as the
sev-

In all cases of indirect union or linkage, each linking

atom must present the same total number eral atoms linked together by it.

834. The formulas shown in paragraph 832 are presented only for the purpose of illustrating the manner in which the several atoms are held together in molecules, and how the valence units or bonds of the several atoms are all tied or satisfied, each bond from any one atom being united to one bond from some other atom, all the bonds being paired off in this manner. But such formulas as these are not generally used because they are too unwieldly except for the purpose of portraying the internal structure of molecules

(583),

Molecular formulas are based upon the atomic theory 835. the theory of electro-chemical polarity (564), and the

theory of valence (607); they may also be derived from or verified by the hypothesis of Avogadro (599), and the relation of

atomic and molecular weight (589). molecular formula of any compound stands for one molecule of the compound and for one molecular weight of it expressed in hydrogen units, just as any single symbol stands for one atom of the element it represents, and for the fixed relative weight of that atom as compared with that of hydrospecific heat to

gen.
836.
to the simplest

Empirical Formulas are molecular formulas reduced form of expression showing the kinds of atoms

CHEMISTRY.

23 L

and the number of each.


acetic acid
is

CH
2

2.

Thus the empirical formula for Such formulas are deduced from the

percentage composition ascertained by ultimate quantitative analysis. An empirical formula is correct so far as it goes, but

does not show the interior arrangement of the atoms or their relative positions, except in compounds of simple radicals. The molecular formulas of inorganic compounds, as 837. commonly written, are nearly always the empirical formulas, and they show the structure in many cases because the compounds of inorganic chemistry are very simple. When more than three different kinds of atoms enter into a molecule, however, the commonly-used formulas seldom express the internal structure.

The almost universal practice is to write the molecular formulas of salts (892), as if they consisted of a metal as the positive radical and an acid-residue (814) as the negative radical, and this method has been found sufficient as well as convenient.

Rational, Constitutional or Structural Formulas 838. are molecular formulas which express the relations existing

between the several groups of atoms composing the molecule.

The relations which exist between the several parts of any compound may be determined by its reactions or decompositions, its syntheses

which

it is

and the valences of the several elements of composed.


,

Thus, the groups CH 3 CO and because these groups of atoms can be

OH

are

assumed

to exist in acetic acid,

made
and

to enter or leave the

molecule

unchanged.

As

CO

is

a bivalent radical, and

OH

CH

each univalent, the rational

formula of acetic acid is written CH 3 .CO.OH, and it is assumed to be composed of methyl (CH 3 ), carbonyl (CO) and hydroxyl (OH). Rational, constitutional or structural formulas are valuable, because they explain the character and conduct of compounds, in addition to their atomic composition, indicating their origin or the substances from which they are derived and those into which they may be resolved. 839. Type Theory. Some chemists have classified all chemical compounds into a few groups, each group being referred to some fundamental

type

(Dumas, Laurent and Gerhardt).

23 <

CHEMISTRY.

The proposed types are: H2 H N H C HC! Water Ammonia Methane Hydrogen Chloride compounds are derivatives all other of one or the was assumed that It other, or of more than one of these types, or that the molecular structure of any other compound conforms to the general plan of one or more of the four
3 4

fundamental types. As developed by Gerhardt the theory of types gradually led to serious difficulties, greater importance being attached to the new theory than to the atomtic weights. Out of it grew the modified or modern type theory of Kekule, and the graphic formulas of Kekule and Frankland. The types and their derivatives are illustrated by the following table:

Hydrochloric acid

H
CI

Ammonia
\

H H VN
/

Hj
Methylamine

Ethyl chloride

Ca H 5
CI

>

CH H -N H
3

Acetyl chloride

C2 H O
s

Clj

Dimethylamine

CH CH -N
3

H
3

Cyanogen

chloride

CN
CI

Trimethylamine
f

CH CH ^N CH
)

3 3

Water

H H
Ca H 5

H
/
\

Methane

si
n
Chlormethane

Ethyl alcohol

H
C H C H
2 5 6

H Vr H tC
CI
)
i

OH
|

Ethyl ether

Methyl alcohol

H H H
9?, CH
3 3

f.
.

c C

Acetic acid

C 2 H O) n
a

Isopropyl alcohol

) (

OH
H

C
)

c C

CHEMISTRY.
840.

233
is

The

relationship of natural groups of elements

generally dis-

closed by the molecular formulas of their compounds, and the difference between radicals as to their valence may at the same time be illustrated by placing several groups of molecular formulas beside each other, thus

C1H

OH
SH

2
2 2 2

NH
PH

CH

BrH IH

SiH 4
TiCl 4
3

SeH

FH
CyH
KC1
841.

TeH

AsH 3 SbH
BiCl 3

SnCl 4

MgCl 2
ZnCl 2

But the relative combining value of an element is not always evident from the molecular formulas of its compounds compared with other similar formulas.
it is easy to be led into erroneous ideas in some cases by a supercomparison of formulas. For instance, the formulas Sb 2 3 As 2 3 N 2 3 Bi 2 3 Cl a 3 Fe 2 3 Mn 2 3 Cr 2 3 A1 2 3 Ni 2 3 and Co 2 3 might lead us to suppose that each of the several elements united to oxygen in these formulas must be trivalent, which is not the case. A thorough examination of all the known compounds has led to the adoption of some one ruling valence for each element, and the apparent inconsistencies can be explained more or less satisfactorily. If the formula for ferrous chloride is really FeCl 2 and not Fe 3 Cl 4 we would naturally regard Fe as bivalent and not quadrivalent in that compound; but the Fe in Fe 2 Cl 6 is not trivalent but quadrivalent. Graphically the two chlorides of

In fact

ficial

iron

may

be portrayed as follows:
CI

CI
I

CI Fe CI
Ferrous chloride

and CI FeFe CI
|

CI CI Ferric chloride
In mercurous and cuprous compounds the groups Hg 3 and Cu 3 are apparently bivalent; but in mercuric and cupric compounds the single atoms
of

Hg

and Cu are also

bivalent.

radicals have the power to crowd from molecules. Those of equal valence replace each other in equal numbers (614). But a bivalent radical may replace two monads, etc. The atom or radical thus displaced and replaced may be at the end of a chain, or in the middle of it or of a ring or closed chain, or in the center of a group, or it may be one of the atoms in a compound radical. Chlorine can be introduced into the molecule CH 4 one or two or three or all of the atoms of H being replaced by CI, producing CH 3 C1, CH 2 C1 2 CHC1 3 or CC1 4 as the case may be. Chlorine is then said to be substituted for the hydrogen.

842.

Substitution.

Certain atoms or

out other atoms

or radicals

234
In the

CHEMISTRY.
same manner guncotton
replacing H.
is

derived from cotton by substitution, the

group
of

N0 2

Derivatives are compounds formed by substitution or replacement 843. one or more atoms or groups of atoms in a molecule, the general structThe terms "derivative" and "substitution ure of which remains similar. product" are synonymous. Entire series of compounds, differing from each other by some fixed group The marsh gas series of of atoms or by a multiple of that group, are known. hydrocarbons beginning with CH 4 consists of many members, each differing Such a series is called a homolofrom the next preceding member by CH 2 It can be assumed that these compounds are formed by substitugous series. tion, one atom of H being replaced by onegroupof CH 3 by which CH 4 would
.
,

give rise to

C2H6

the latter to

C3 H 8

etc.

CHAPTER
844.

XLIII.

CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS.

molecules consist of two or more kinds of atoms. Those that contain but two kinds of atoms are called binary compounds those that are composed of three kinds of atoms are ternary compounds; if four kinds of atoms are united in one

Compound

molecule the compound is called quaternary. But these distinctions are of little value as compared with a classification based upon the manner in which the atoms are united and the chemical behavior of the resulting compounds.

Chemical compounds are commonly classified into 845. certain natural groups according to their general structure and chemical properties. The principal classes are as follows:
A.
1.
2.

Inorganic Compounds.

Oxides.

3.

Sulphides. Haloids (Chlorides, Bromides, Iodides and Cyanides).


Bases. Acids.
Salts.

4.
5.

6.

CHEMISTRY
B.
I.

2 35

Organic Compound
7.

2.

Hydrocarbons. Organic Haloids.


Alcohols (and Mercaptans). Aldehydes. Ketones. Acids.

8.

3-

9.
10. 11.

456.

Ethers or Oxides Ethereal Salts. Carbohydrates. Glucosides. Akaloids.

CHAPTER

XLIV.
oxygen

OXIDES AND SULPHIDES.

Oxides. Whenever any radical unites with 846. directly the resulting compound is called an oxide.
All elements except fluorine

combine with oxygen, and there


of oxides of both non-metallic

are accordingly a great

number

and metallic elements. There are also oxides formed by compound radicals. Many of the elements form each more than one oxide (579), combining with oxygen in more than one proportion. Higher oxides contain a greater proportion of oxygen than the lower oxides of the same radicals. Acid-forming oxides are those oxides which have 847. the power to form acids with water. They are also called
anhydrides of the acids. added
Sulphuric oxide, or sulphuric anhydride, is the oxide S0 3 which, when to water, forms, by chemical reaction, sulphuric acid, H 2 S0 4
,
.

Phosphoric anhydride, P a 5 forms phosphoric acid with water. Nitrogen pentoxide, or nitric anhydride, with water, forms nitric
,

acid.

The oxides

of the non-metallic elements, especially their higher oxides,

are acid formers or anhydrides.


salts (892).

Acid-forming oxides can unite directly with basic oxides Thus SO3 with MgO will form MgS0 4
.

(848) to

form

Basic oxides are oxides which have the power to 848. form basic hydrates (874) with water, or which combine with The basic oxides or base-forming oxides, acids to form salts. as a class, do not contain as much oxygen as the acid-forming Oxides of the metals are nearly always basic. oxides. Indifferent or neutral oxides are those oxides which 849. form neither acids nor bases.

'

2X6

CHEMISTRY.

N 2 0, N 2
850.

N2

Mn0

Mn

Pb0 2

etc

are examples.

All oxides

may

be said to be

insoluble in

water
;

either react with water to

form

acids

or

bases

or,

if

they not

changed chemically by water, they are not dissolved Preparation of Oxides. The metallic oxides are 851. produced by heating the hydrates or carbonates (919), or by oxidizing the metals (802), or by double decomposition between the metallic salts and the alkali hydrates (874). Water, Chromic Anhydride (called Officinal Oxides. 852. " chromic acid Arsenous Anhydride (called " arsenous ") acid"); Calcium Oxide (called "lime"); Magnesium Oxide (called " magnesia ") Zinc Oxide, Mercuric Oxide (red and yellow), Silver Oxide and Antimonous Oxide.

853.

Table of

Common

Oxides, with

their

Molecular Formulas

and Molecular Weights:

Na
Hydrogen
Potassium
(water)

Formulas

Molecular
Weights.

H3

18
94

KoO

Sodium
Lithium
Silver

Na 2
Li 2

62 3

Ag.O

232

Mercurous Cuprous
Nitrogen Monoxide

Hg

416
143

Cu 2

44
56 153 103 40.3
81

Calcium

Barium
Strontium

CaO BaO
SrO

Magnesium
Zinc

MgO
ZnO

Cadmium
Mercuric

CdO

128

HgO

216

CHEMISTRY.

37

Names.
Cupric

Molecular
Weights.

79.2

Carbon Lead

28 222.4
7i

Manganous
Ferrous Cobaltous Nickelous

72 74.6 74.6
64

Sulphur dioxide

Carbon dioxide
Tin dioxide

44
87.

Magnanese dioxiae
Nitrous Anhydride Arsenous Anhydride

76.

Antimonous Bismuthous Boron

198 288

466

Aluminum
Chromic Manganic
Ferric Cobaltic Nickelic
*5 2

158 160 165.2 165.2

Chromic Anhydrid
Nitrogen
92

Manganese
Iron

229 232
683.

Lead
Nitrogen v

Phosphorus
Arsenic

Antimonic

108 142 230 320

238
854.

CHEMISTRY.

any positive radical unites with sulphur the compound thus produced is a sulphide. Analagous with the acid-forming and base-forming oxides are the acid-forming and base-forming sulphides, which have the power to unite with each other to form sulphur-salts. The sulphides of hydrogen, carbon, arsenic, antimony, and the electro-positive radicals generally, are commonly occurring
Sulphides.

When

compounds.
855. The only 7ca/er- soluble sulphides are those of hydrogen, the alkali metals, and the alkaline earth metals.
856.
in

Preparation of Sulphides. Sulphides are prepared

various ways.

Sulphur does not combine with hydrogen except when both and hence hydrogen sulphide can only be made by decomposing other sulphides with acids. Carbon sulphide is produced by slowly heating carbon and sulphur together. Metallic sulphides are made by strongly heating the metal (or its hydrate or carbonate) with sulphur, or by double decomposition between metallic salts and hydrogen sulphide or other
are in the nascent state,

water-soluble sulphides.

Hydrogen Sulphide (used as a Officinal Sulphides. 857. reagent only), Carbon Disulphide (called commonly " bisulphide of carbon "), impure Potassium Sulphide (called " sulphurated potassa," or "liver of sulphur") Sodium Sulphide, Ammonium Sulphide (as a reagent only), impure Calcium Sulphide (called " sulphurated lime "), Ferrous Sulphide (as a material for preparing hydrogen sulphide), Antimonous Sulphide (as crude "black sulphide of antimony "), purified black sulphide, and precipitated brownish orange-yellow sulphide (called "sulphurated antimony "), Antimonic Sulphide, and the very indefinite so-called
Oxy-sulphuret of Antimony (also called " Kermes Mineral
").

CHEMISTRY.
858.
Table of

239

Common

Sulphides with their Molecular Formulas

and Molecular Weights.


Names.
Formulas. Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen
Potassium

H
K

Sodium

S S Na 2 S
2 2

no
S

34
78

Ammonium
Silver

(NH
Ag
2

4 ),

68
247.4

Mercurous Cuprous
Calcium Strontium Barium
Zinc

g s ?u;s

432
158.4
72

CaS
SrS

"9-3
169.

BaS ZnS

Cadmium
Cobalt Nickel

CdS CoS
NiS

97.2

144
91 90.7
87.

Manganous
Ferrous
Mercuric Cupric

MnS
FeS

88
232 95-4
238.9

HgS
CuS
PbS
FeS
3

Plumbic
Iron Bisulphide

120
246 336
513.8

Arsenous Antimonous Bismuthous


Arsenic

As 2 S 3 Sb 2 S3 Bi 2 S 3
As 2 S 5 Sb 2 S5

Antimonic

310 400

240

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER
859.
tive

XLV.

Haloids are the compounds formed by metals or posiradicals with any one of the halogens (696), which are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, cyanogen (and

compound

ferrocyanogen). The haloids are also called " haloid salts," which is tautological. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, and cyanides are the principal haloids. The haloids of hydrogen are the so-called hydrogen acids (888).
860.

Chlorides are formed by direct union

of positive radi-

cals with chlorine.

Thus we have chlorides of hydrogen and of all the metals, and also of positive compound radicals, as of NH 4 NH 2 Hg, CH 3 CH 2 CH, BiO, SbO, etc.
,
,

861.

By oxy-chloride

is

meant a metallic chloride which

is in

some man-

ner combined or associated with the oxide or hydrate of the same metal.

Bismuthyl and antimonyl chlorides are both commonly called oxy-chlorides, because they contain oxygen; but they seem to be normal chlorides of com-

pound

radicals.

862.

Chlorides are generally water-soluble; those of

silver,

lead, bismuthyl, antimonyl,

and mercurous mercury are familiar


produced by saturat-

exceptions.
863.

Many

of the chlorides are readily

ing hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride), with the metals or their oxides, hydrates, or carbonates. Other chlorides are

obtained by the action of free chlorine upon the proper radicals or their compounds, or by double decomposition between chlorides and other compounds. Insoluble chlorides are, of course, prepared by precipitation
(1022).

Hydrochloric Acid, and the Officinal Chlorides. 864. chlorides of Potassium, Sodium (common "salt") Lithium,

Ammonium, Barium

(as

a reagent), Calcium, Zinc, Ferrous

and in the tincture); Mercurous Mercury (the Mercurous Chloride is commonly called "calomel"); Mercuric Mercury (the Mercuric Chloride is comIron, Ferric Iron (solid as well as in solution

CHEMISTRY.

241

monly

called "corrosive sublimate "); Mercur- Ammonium


is

(the

Mercur-Ammonium Chloride
Sodium Chloride). Table of Common 865.
and Molecular Weights:
Names.

commonly
"),

called "

ammoniated

mercury," and also " white precipitate

and Gold (mixed with


Formulas

Chlorides with their Molecular

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen (Hydrochloric
Acid)

Potassium

Sodium
Lithium

HC1 KC1 NaCl


LiCl

36.4 74.6 58.5


42.5 53-5 25i-5

Ammonium
Mercur-ammonium
Silver

NH C1 NH HgCl
4 2

AgCl AuCl

143-4
232.7

Gold (Aurous)
Antimonyl Bismuthyl
Nitrosyl

SbOCl
BiOCl

NOC1

I7I-4 258.9 55-4

Mercurous Cuprous

Hg

Cl 3

470.9
197.7

Cu 8 Cl 2

Calcium Strontium
"

CaCb
SrCl 2 SrCl 3 .6H 2

no.
158.5 266.6

with water
with water

Barium
"

BaCl 2 BaCl 2

Magnesium
"

MgCl 2
with water

Zinc

MgCl.6H 2 ZnCl 3

207.9 243.9 95-2 203.3


136.2 182.9 218.9

Cadmium
"

CdCh
with water

CdCl

Mercuric

HgCl 2

270.9

242

CHEMISTRY.
Molecular
Weights.
134-3 152-3

JVames.

Formulas.

Cupric
"

with water

CuCL CuCU 2 H8
Mo-Cl,

Molybdous
Platinous

PtCl 3
with water

Stannous
"

SnCL Sn CU 2 H
PbCl,

166.9 265.9 189.9 207.9

Plumbic

277-9
123 125-9 198 126.9 198.9 129.9

Chromous Manganous
with water

CrCU
MnCl*

MnCU 4 H O
s

Ferrous
" with water Cobaltous " with water Nickelous " with water

FeCl, Fe C1.j4 H 2

Co CI, CoCl,6H sO NiCl Ni CL6H.O


a

238
129.6 237-7

Nitrogen trichloride " Phosphorus


Arsenic

NCI,

PCI
(ous) (ous) (ous)

:1

Antimony
Bismuth
Goid (Auric)
Stannic

" " "

AsCl
Sb

CI,

Bi Cl 3

120.4 137-4 181.3 226.3 3I5-3


3

AuCl

303-6
260.8 237-8 336.8 381.4
209.3 297.3

Molybdic
Platinic

SnCU Mo Cl Ptd,
uci.

U-ranous

Phosphorus pentachloride Antimonic


Tungstic chloride

PCI
Sb

CI,

W CI,
Mn
2

396-7 322.7

Manganic

CI,

CHEMISTRY.

243

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Ferric

with water Cobaltic

"

Chromic
"

Co 2ci 6

Fe 2Cl 6 Fe 2ci 6 -i2H 2

3M-7
540.9 271.7 316.9 533
266.7

with water

Cr2Cl 6 Cr2ci 6 .i2H 2


CeClo

Aluminum
Cerium
866.

493

Bromides are

the

compounds

of positive radicals with

bromine.

Hydrobromic acid and the bromides of Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Ammonium, Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Iron are used in medicine and pharmacy. All of these are water-soluble. They are prepared in various ways, as by saturating hydrobromic acid with oxides, hydrates, or carbonates; by the action of bromine upon a metal in the presence of water; by the chemical solution of bromine in the solution of potassium or sodium hydrate, and by double decomposition between bromides and other compounds.
867.

and Molecular-

Table of Common Bromides with the Molecular Formulas Weights.

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen (Hydrobromic
Acid)

HB r
KB r
NaBr
LiBr

80.9

Potassium

Sodium
Lithium

Ammonium
Silver

NH.Br
AgBr

119 103 87 98
187,9

244

CHEMISTRY.
Molecular
Weights.

Names.

Formulas.

Calcium

CaBr,

Magnesium
Zinc

Mg Br,
ZnBr,
FeBr,
Fe 2
Br,
;

199.9 184.2 225.2

Ferrous
Ferric

215-9
59i-7

868.
iodine.

Iodides are the compounds of positive radicals with


iodides which are

The
lead;

met with
is

in

pharmaceutical work are

water-soluble with the exception of those of silver,

mercury and
mercuric

mercurous iodide
is

quite insoluble

in water;

iodide

nearly insoluble in cold water and sparingly soluble in

and lead iodide requires about 200 times its weight of boiling water to dissolve it. They are prepared from iodine, 869. Preparation of Iodides. potassium iodide or iodide of iron. Hydriodic acid is made by bringing hydrogen sulphide in contact with iodine in water, when the sulphur gives up its place Iodides of potassium and to the iodine: 2l.,+2H,S=4HI-)-S2. sodium may be obtained (together with some iodate) by dissolving iodine in solutions of the alkali hydrates, or by double decomposition from iron iodide. Iodides of sulphur, iron, zinc and mercurous mercury can be prepared by direct union of the Other methods of preparation of iodides depend elements. upon double decomposition between some water-soluble iodide and some other compound, as when hydriodic acid is made from potassium iodide and tartaric acid: KI + H e C 1 H 4 6=HI 4-KHC 4 H 4 6 The insoluble iodides of silver, lead and mercuric mercury are made by precipitation (double decomposition), potassium iodide being one of the factors of the reaction.
boiling water;

CHEMISTRY.
Tii2 most

245

sium,

common methods of making the iodides of potassodium, ammonium and calcium depend upon double
iron.

decomposition with iodide of


870.

Acid (in the form of Syrup) and the Iodides of Sulphur, Arsenic, Potassium, Sodium Lithium, Ammonium, Calcium, Zinc, Ferrous Iron (in the form of the solid salt, saccharated iodide, syrup and glycerite), Lead, Mercurous Mercury (this iodide being commonly called " green iodide of mercury " or " protiodide of mercury") Mercuric Mercury (the mercuric iodide being commonly called "red iodide of mercury " or " bin-iodide of mercury ") and Silver. Table of Common Iodides with their Molecular Formulas 871.
Officinal Iodides.

Hydriodic

and Molecular Weights:


Names.
Formulas. Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen
Potassium

H K

127.8 166 749.9 133-9 144.9

Sodium
Lithium

Na I L I

Ammonium
Silver

NH

Agl
BiO
I

234.8

Bismuthyl

351-8
653.7
293.7 390-7 341-3

Mercurous

Hg
Ca Ba
Zn

I2

Calcium Barium
Strontium
Zinc

I2
I2

Sri,
I2 I2

319
365.7

Cadmium
Mercuric

Cd

Hg h
Pb
I2

453-7
460.7
308.7

Plumbic

Manganous

Mn

Ia

246

CHEMISTRY.
Molecular
Weights.

Names.

Formulas.

Ferrous

Fel,

309-7

Sulphur
Arsenous
Ferric
872.

S2 I 2
Asi,

317.8 455-6

Fe 8 I 6
,

873

Cyanides are the compounds of positive radicals with the compound radical CN called cyanogen; ferro-cyanides with the radical FeCy The only cyanides of pharmaceutical interest are hydrogen
fl

cyanide or Hydrocyanic Acid (also called "Prussic acid"), Potassium Cyanide, Silver Cyanide, Mercuric Cyanide, Ferrocyanide of Potassium (called commonly " yellow prussiate of potash"), Ferricyanide of Potassium (as a reagent only), and Ferrocyanide of Iron (commonly called "Prussian blue"). The cyanides of hydrogen, potassium and mercury are watersoluble.

Hydrocyanic acid is prepared by the decomposition of ferrocyanide of potassium with sulphuric acid, or by decomposing Other cyanides, and the silver cyanide with hydrochloric acid. ferrocyanides, are also made by double decomposition.
ides,

Table of Common Cyanides, Ferrocyanides and Ferricyan873. with their Molecular Formulas and Molecular Weights:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
11 'eights.

Hydrogen (Hydrocyanic
acid)

Potassium
Silver

HCN KCN
AgCN
Zn<CN) 2

27

65
133-9

Zinc

"7-3

CHEMISTRY,

247

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Mercuric
Ferrocyanides.

Hg(CN) 2

252

Potassium
Iron
Ferricyanide.

K Fe(CN),.3H O
4
a

422.5

Fe i (FeCy 6 ) 3

860

Potassium

K Fe(CN)
3

329

CHAPTER
BASES.

XLVI.
formed

Bases or Hydrates are the compounds 874. positive radicals with the compound radical or

by-

HO

OK.

called

hydroxyl.

Hydrates are also called

hydroxides.

Bases are formed when basic oxides are brought in contact with water. Sometimes the metallic oxides react violently with water, as the oxides of the alkali metals, and in a less degree the oxides of the alkaline earth metals; other metallic oxides react .with water but slowly; others, again, not at all. Bases unite with acids to form salts. The hydrates of potassium, sodium and ammonium are called alkalies, and these are extremely caustic, corrosive, or destructive to organic matter, so that they must be cautiously handled. The freely water-soluble hydrates are the alkalies. Spar875. ingly water-soluble are the' hydrates of lithium, barium, strontium and calcium. The other, metallic hydrates are insoluble in
water.

The water-soluble bases turn

certain red vegetable colors blue.

248

CHEMISTRY.

The hydrates of potassium and sodium are prepared 876. from the carbonates by double decomposition with calcium hydrate. Ammonium hydrate is prepared by decomposition of ammonium chloride with calcium oxide. The alkali hydrates are largely employed in pharmaceutical chemistry as precipitants in

making insoluble hydrates and oxides, etc. The hydrates of calcium and barium are made by adding
-

water to the oxides.


Insoluble
metallic

hydrates

are

made by

precipitation

(double decomposition).

Potassium Hydrate (commonly Officinal hydrates. 877. called " potassa " and " caustic potash"), Sodium Hydrate (com-

monly
(in

called " soda," or "caustic soda

the form of solution called


"spirit

ammonia," or
tion

volumetric analysis),

"), Ammonium Hydrate " ammonia water," or " caustic of hartshorn"), Barium Hydrate (used in Calcium Hydrate (in the form of solu-

called,

water"; in the solid state it is "slaked lime"), Aluminum Hydrate, and Ferric Hydrate (called "hydrated oxide of iron").
called "lime
in

commonly

common

parlance,

878.
las

Table of

Common Hydrates with

their

Molecular Formu-

and Molecular Weights.


JVames.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Potassium

KPH
NaOH
LiOH
4

r5

Sodium
Lithium

Ammonium
Bismuthyl

NH OH
BiO.OH
Ca(OH),

40 24
35

241.9
74 171

Calcium Barium
with water Strontium " with water
!

"

Ba(OH) 2 Ba(OH),.8H 2
Sr(OH) 2 Sr(OH) a .8H 2

3*5
121.

Magnesium

Mg(OH)

265.4 5S.3

CHEMISTRY.

249

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Zinc

Cadmium
Cobaltous Nickelous

Zn(OH) 2 Cd(OH)

99-3 146
93 92.7 89 90 96.4
156 206 212 214 228.4 219.4

Co(OH), Ni(OH),

Manganous
Ferrous

Mn(OHf
a

Copper
Aluminic

Fe(OH) Cu(OH),
Al,(OH),

Chromic Manganic
Ferric

Mn (OH)
2

Cr8 (OH)

5
.

Fe 2 (OH) s

Cobaltic Nickelic

Co 2 (OH)

Ni 2 (OM)

Basic Hydrates. By the term "basic hydrate,"which 879. commonly used in works on chemistry and pharmacy, we mean a hydrate apparently combined in some way with the
is

oxide of the same metal, as, for instance, the basic ferric hydrate which is represented as being Fe 2 3 .Fe 2 (OH) 6 880. Base residues. When the replaceable hydrogen of a base the hydrogen of its hydroxyl is taken from its moleThus KO cule, the remainder is called the residue of the base.
.

is

the base residue of

KOH.

881. The saturating power of a base that is, its power to saturate acids with reference to valence, is indicated by the number of hydroxyl groups contained in its molecule. As

is a monad group, it follows that each such group is united to the positive element or radical by one bond, and that the base is capable of satisfying as many valence units of any -acid radical as there are hydroxyl groups in the basic molecule. The number of hydroxyl groups in any base is expressed by the term acidity. A base with one hydroxyl group is said to be

hydroxyl

mon-acid because

it

satisfies

but one acid valence unit: a base

250

CHEMISTRY.

with two hydroxyl groups is di-acid, for it has the power of saturating a molecule of an acid having a bivalent acid radical, or of saturating two molecules of a mono-basic (885) acid; etc. 882. When a base is saturated by an acid, and a salt thus formed, the hydroxyl of the base is replaced by an acid radical. saturated by Thus KNO s 3 becomes

KOH

HN0

CHAPTER

XLVII.

883.
classes:

All

Acids are the salts of hydrogen. They ar,* of two Hydroxyl Acids, and 2, Hydrogen Acids. the so-called strong acids, by which expression is meant
1,

soluble acids exhibiting such chemical energy that they readily react with metals or metallic oxides, have a sour or acid taste,

and turn blue litmus and certain other blue vegetable colors
red.

combine with bases and metallic oxides forming water being simultaneously formed. Several acids are so energetic as to attack and dissolve metals, metallic oxides, hydrates and carbonates, and to decompose
All acids
salts (992),

sulphides, etc.

This hydrogen can be All acids contain positive hydrogen. replaced by other positive radicals, as by metals and certain In the acid the positive hydrogen is compound radicals.
united directly or indirectly to a negative radical, elemental or

compound. Hydrogen
yields
its

is

such a weak positive radical that

it

readily

place to other positive radicals.

Each acid contains

one or more atoms of hydrogen which can thus be replaced. The acid properties of hydrogen salts, their energy in attack-

chl:,iistry.

251

ing other substances, and their utility as materials for the production of various other compounds, depend upon the weak character of their positive radical the hydrogen. Any acid molecule may be split up into two parts its replaceable hydrogen alone forms one part, and all of the remainder is called an acid-residue, or acid-radical. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric

acid, hydrobromic acid, and oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, and acetic acid are among our most characteristic and pronounced acids, and the six first named are so extremely corrosive and destructive that they must be handled with great care. 884. Hydroxy! acids. A hydroxyl acid is a molecule con-

sisting of a negative radical united

to

hydroxyl.

Hydroxyl acids are very numerous. As the hydrogen of the hydroxyl can be exchanged for other positive radicals, each hydroxyl group represents one valence unit of the residue (883). In other words, the number of hydroxyl groups in any acid
determines
its basicity (885).

Hydroxyl acids are also frequently called "true acids," or "oxy-acids," or " oxygen-acids," to distinguish them from hydrogen acids.
885.

The

Basicity of
It is

an acid

is

the valence of
it

its

residue or

acid-radical.

so called because

indicates the

power of

the acid to saturate bases by satisfying the valence units of the


positive radical of the base.

Thus an acid having but one hydroxyl group


is monobasic,

in its

molecule

as

it

contains but one basic hydrogen atom; an acid

containing two hydroxyl groups and, therefore, two basic hydrois a bibasic acid; an acid with three hydroxyl groups, or having a trivalent acid-radical, is tribasic; and an acid having four hydroxyl groups is tetrabasic, because its radical is capable of saturating four basic valence units, or has four replaceable positive or basic hydrogen atoms. 886. The most common hydroxyl acids are the following:

gen atoms,

(See also 809.)

252

CHEMISTRY.

i
<^>

*,

v 5

? Q
Basicity.
replac

Name.

Formula.
Number

droxylgt

hydrogen

or

Hypochlorous Acid
Chloric Acid
Iodic Acid

H cio HC103 hio


H H P0 HPOs H C H 0, HCH HCH H QgHjjOj H C H SO
2
2

Monobasic
" " "
<

Nitrous Acid Nitric Acid

HN0 hNo
2 6

2
3

Hypophosphorous Acid
Metaphosphoric Acid Acetic Acid Valeric Acid Lactic Acid Oleic Acid Phenyl-Sulphonic Acid Salicylic Acid Benzoic Acid

"

3 9
5

2 3

" "
u
1

H QH

HCH
7

" "
'*
11

5 6

3
8

Sulphurous Acid Sulphuric Acid Thiosulphuric Acid Phosphorous Acid Arsenous Acid Antimonous Acid Carbonic Acid Oxalic Acid Silicic Acid Stannic Acid Pyroboric Acid Tartaric Acid Succinic Acid
(Ortho-) Phosphoric Acid (Ortho-) Arsenic Acid Boric Acid
Citric

H H H H H

2 2 2 2

S0 S0

3
4

Bibasic.
" " "

S2 O a

2 2
3
:1

HP0
3
4

H C0 H C H Si0
2

HAsO H HSbO
2

2 2 2

"
<< <<

2 2 2
:!

"
" "
<(

H.,

qh o H QH
h: 2
2
4 4

H SnO BO
2
4

"2

2
6
4

2
2

" "

H P0 H As0
3
4

3
4

Tribasic.
" "
"

Acid

Malic Acid

H QH o H C H,0
3

H, B
3

3 3
;

3
3

"

Pyrophosphoric Acid Pyroarsenic Acid

H H

PA
As 2 0.

4 4

Tetrabasic
"

CHEMISTRY.

"

253

Reactions of Bases and Acids with each other. We 887. have seen that bases and acids are both hydroxyl compounds. It has also been stated that acids and bases react upon each other, forming salts, and at the same time water. It may be added that we can look at this double decomposition in several different ways: while it is commonly said that the basic hydrogen of the acid molecule is replaced by the positive radical of the base, we could with equal propriety say that the negative
hydrogen
of the base
is

replaced by the acid-forming radical of


is replaced by the hydroxyl of the acid is

the acid, or that the hydroxyl of the base


acid-residue or acid radical, or that the

replaced by the base residue.

KOH + HNO
exchanged exchanged
its

= KNO3 + H
2
,

Thus

of the four different ways, for

may be explained in either 2 we can say that the HN0 3 has

for K; or that the

for

the

HN0
KO.

3;

or that the

H -of the KOH has been N0 which together with HO forms the OH of the base has- been replaced by N0
3
;

or that the hydroxyl group of the acid has been exchanged for
It may also be said that when a base and a hydroxyl acid neutralize each other, the positive radical of the base unites with

the negative acid radical, while the"hydroxyl of the base unites with the positive hydrogen of the acid to form water.
888. Hydrogen Acids are the compounds of positive hydrogen with the halogens. They .are also called hydracids. The hydrogen is replaceable by Other positive radicals, resulting
in the

formation of haloids (859).


acids are
all monobasic,

The hydrogen
tain but

because they

all

con-

one hydrogen atom.

They

are as follows:

Names.
Hydrofluoric- Acid

Formulas.

HF
H CI
HBr
HI

Hydrochloric Acid Hydrobromic Acid Hydriodic Acid Hydrocyanic Acid

HCN

254

CHEMISTRY.

hydrogen acid and a base neutralize each 889. other, the hydrogen of the acid unites with the hydroxyl of the
a
base, while the halogen of the acid unites with the positive element or group of the base: K0H + HC1=KC1 + H 2 0. Hydrochloric acid 890. The action of acids on metals. dissolves zinc, aluminum, iron, nickel and tin; but does not attack lead, copper, mercury, silver, arsenic, antimony and bismuth. When a metal is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the hydrogen of the acid is always liberated, while the metal is turned into a

When

chloride.

and dissolves zinc, iron and forming sulphates; dilute sulphuric acid does not attack aluminum, lead, copper, mercury, silver, arsenic, antimony and bismuth. The hydrogen of the acid is liberated, being displaced by the metal. Concentrated sulphuric acid attacks copper, and, if hot, it In these cases a poralso attacks mercury, silver and bismuth. tion of the acid is decomposed into hydroxyl and S0 2 and another portion into hydrogen and SO t the S0 2 passes off as a gas, the hydroxyl forms water with the hydrogen, and the metal forms sulphate with the S0 4 so that the products of the reaction
Sulphuric acid, diluted, attacks
nickel,
,
;

are three.
Nitric acid,

when

cold and dilute, dissolves zinc and iron with

the formation of nitrates of the metals together with


nitrate, the latter salt resulting

ammonium

from the decomposition of a portion of the acid by the nascent hydrogen replaced by the Strong nitric acid does not attack iron. metal.

When warm

dilute nitric acid attacks zinc, iron, nickel, lead,

copper, mercury, silver, arsenic and bismuth, the acid radical itself is decomposed, either N 2 2 or N 2 4 being formed,and red

fumes given off. Strong nitric acid acting upon tin forms insoluble metastannic acid; antimony is oxidized by strong nitric acid to insoluble antimonous oxide.

CHEMISTRY.

2 55

Gold and Platinum are not attacked by any acid, but are dissolved by aqua regia. Aluminum is attacked by hydrochloric
acid; silver by nitric acid.

The following equations


891.

represent the reactions which take

place between acids and metals as described:

carbonates in
soluble.

Strong acids dissolve metallic oxid es, hydrates and all cases where the new salt thus formed is water Thus we have:

MgO
ZnO PbO

+
+

H S0
2
2

4
?
?

HgO
Fe 8
3
2

Mn0
Bi 2
2

2HC H + 2HNO3 + 2HNO3 + 6HC1 + 4HCI + 6HN0


3
t-

NaOH
2
6

HaSO,

+ 6HNO3 6H Fe (OH) + 6HC1 6H Ca(OH) + 2HNO3 H + 2HCI CaC0 + C0 H 8 + HBr LiC0 + co + 4HCI 2 Fe + 6HC1 Al ^3H + 4HCI Sn + 2H 2 2 + 2H2SO 2 Zn + 2H 8 + 2 HJS0 2 Fe + 2H 4 =- 2CuSOt + 4H S0 Cu + 4 H + 2 S08 S0 + 4 HN0 = 6CuS0 + 8H + 2 N 3 Cu + 6H = 2 HgSO, + 4 H + 2 S0 Hg + 4 H S0 + 4 Fe(N0 + 3 H 8 2 Fe + 10H.NO3 = NH 4 NO + 4H C Fe + 8HN0 = 2 Fe(N0 ) + 2N + 20NA 5Sn + 4 oHN0 = 2 (H Sn0 + 2HNO3 = Sb2O s + N 80, Sb + H aO
Al 3 (OH) 6
2

2 2

t 4

= MgS0 = Zn(C H = Pb(NO = Hg(N0 = Fe Cl, = MnCl = Bi(N0 = Na S0 = Al (N0 = Fe Cl - Ca(N0 = CaCl = LiBr = FeCl = A1 CI = 2SnCl = ZnS0 = FeS0
4
2

2)2

+ H2 + H
2 2 2

s)2

3)2

H + H

3) 3

3) fl

3) 8

+ + + + + + + +

3H 2
Cl 2

+ 2H
2 2

3H
2

2 2

MH

2 2

3) 2

3 2
4

>

256

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER

XLVIII.

SALTS.

Salts are neutral compounds consisting of a metal or 892. other positive radical united to an acid radical or to a halogen. They are produced by the action of acids upon metals, oxides,
hydrates and carbonates, and sometimes by other means. Insoluble salts are generally produced by double decomposition of
soluble salts.
Salts may be regarded as formed by replacing the basic hydrogen of an acid by some other positive radical; or by replacing the hydroxyl of an acid by a base-residue; or by replacing the oxvgen of a basic oxide (84S) bv an acid radical
(815)-

The

reactions presented in the

illustrate

the formation of salts by the

two preceding paragraphs action of acids upon

metals, oxides, hydrates

and carbonates.

Salt radicals. Salts may be regarded as consisting of two opposite kinds of radicals positive salt radicals, which are either metals or other salt-forming positive radicals such as the compound radicals CH 3 C,H 5 CH Uj BiO, SbO, etc. 4)
893.

NH

(810

and

811);

and

negative salt radicals,

cals (or acid residues)

which are the acid and the halogens.

radi-

Normal Salts (sometimes called neutral salts) are which the acid radical is wholly saturated by any posiIt is formed tive salt radical or radicals other than hydrogen. when all of the basic (or replaceable) hydrogen of an acid is replaced by one or more metals, or by any other positive salt radical. A normal salt results when an acid is saturated or neutralized by a base, or by a basic oxide. Thus, a normal salt does not contain any hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or other positive radical. Each acid can form but one normal salt with each base. Acid Salts are salts containing replaceable basic 895. hydrogen, or salts in which the valence units of the acid radical are only partly neutralized by a salt radical, the remaining
894.
salts in

CHEMISTRY.

257

valence unit or units being united to hydrogen. They are formed when an acid containing more than one atom of replaceable hydrogen (more than one hydroxyl group) retains one or

more of these hydrogen atoms, the other basic hydrogen atom more salt radicals. Thus monobasic acids (885) can not have any acid 896. salts, but bibasic acids can each have one normal and one acid salt, and tribasic acids can have one normal and two different acid salts, with each monacid base. 897. As nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are both monobasic (885), they have no acid salts, and their normal salts have
or atoms being replaced by one or

formulas like the following

KNO3
KC1

Pb(NO
PbCl 2

s) 2

Bi(N0
BiCl 3

3) 3

Sulphuric acid, carbonic acid and tartaric acid are bibasic, and they can, therefore, have each one normal and one acid salt with each monacid base Fe 2 (S0 4) 3 K 2 SO, CaSO t
:

KHSO, K C0
2

CaCo
6

KHCO
2

K QH KHQH
4
:

Phosphoric acid and have

citric acid are tribasic,

and we, therefore,


2 2

Na 3 P0 4 Na C 6 H 5
3

Ca 3 (PO,) 2

Na2 HP0 4 Na 2 HC H CaH*(P0


6

4) 2

NaH PO, NaH C H CaHP0


6 4.

There are some compounds which seem to consist of 898. Basic Salts. a normal metallic salt combined with the hydrate or oxide of the same metal. These are called basic salts. Thus we have basic acetate of copper (verdigris),
basic acetates of lead (of which the

compound contained

in solution of

sub-

acetate of lead
(in

an example), basic acetate of iron, basic sulphates of iron Monsel's solution) and of mercury (yellow sulphate of mercury or turpeth
is

258

CHEMISTRY.
and basic carbonates of magnesium, zinc for some of these basic salts are as
)4

mineral), basic nitrates of mercury

and

lead.

The molecular formulas given

follows:

Magnesium Carbonate
Zinc Carbonate

= (ZnC0 3Zn(OH) = (PbCO Pb(OH) Lead Carbonate = Fe 0(S0 Ferric Subsulphate Basic Mercuric Sulphate = (HgCMoHgSCV = Pb(C H Basic Lead Acetate Pb(OH)
3 )3
.

=(MgCO a

.Mg(OH)..5H 8 0.
s
.

s) 8 .
4

)5.

8) 8 .
3

Basic Cupric Acetate

=C

899.

Double

salt radicals

Salts containing two different positive Salts. united to one negative salt radical (893) are called

u 2 0(C 2

0,) a

double salts.
its basic hydrogen atoms and the other hydrogen atom for another metal, the result is a double salt. Thus, sulphuric acid, H 2 S0 4 may form KXaS0 4 tartaric acid, H a C H 4 6 forms KN aC 4 H 6 and KSbOCiHjOe; and the alums are also double salts:

If

a bibasic acid exchanges one of

for one metal

A1 2 K2 (S0 4) 41

A1,(NH (S0 Fe 2 (NHJ 2 (S0


4) 2

4)4

and

4)4

The scale salts of iron called citrate of iron and ammonium, citrate of and quinine, tartrate of iron and ammonium, tartrate of iron and potassium, phosphate of iron and pyro-phosphate of iron (both combined with sodium citrate), are not true double salts. Oxy salts are the salts produced by hydroxyl acids or 900.
iron

their acid radicals.

Haloids are also commonly referred to as

"salts' (859), although the definition just given, which is now generally accepted by many chemists, excludes them. In this

and the and haloids. Nevertheless we have placed the several groups of haloids by themselves by way of emphasizing the difference between haloids and oxy-salts. The principal groups of oxy-salts of inorganic chemistry are
of salts (892) includes the haloids, as applicable to both oxy-salts

book the definition term will be used

the nitrates, chlorates, hypochlorites, sulphates, sulphites, phos-

CHEMISTRY.
phates, hypophosphites, carbonates and silicates.
also very important groups of salts

259

But there are

formed by the organic acids with inorganic bases; these groups are: Acetates, valerates, lactates, oleates, oxalates, tartrates, citrates, phenyl-sulphonates,
salicylates

and benzoates.

CHAPTER

XLIX.

NITRATES, CHLORATES, ETC.


901.
salts

Nitrates are the salts formed by nitric acid, or the containing the characteristic group NO? This acid-radical
is

(N0

3)

a monad.

The

nitrates

of mercury and bismuth are

split

up by water into

insoluble basic salts and acid; they can, therefore, not be dis-

solved in water alone, but are soluble in water containing a large

All other nitrates are, water-soluble. may be prepared by saturating nitric acid with the metals, or their oxides, hydrates, or carbonates, or by double decomposition if the bye-product (1026) be insoluble. Even the nitrates of mercury and bismuth are prepared by dissolving these metals in nitric acid, but an excess of nitric acid must then be used to retain the nitrates in solution. The nitric radical (N0 3 ) is an unstable group, easily 902. giving up a portion of its oxygen. The decomposition of the
acid.

amount of nitric The metallic

nitrates

nitrate radical takes place both


nitrates

in
a-'

is Nitric acid and sometimes other nitrates are, therefore, used as oxidizing agents (1006). The decomposition referred to is generally rapid and accompanied by the evolution of a colorless: gas, N 2 2 which, however,
,

whenever a radical having brought in contact with them.

nitric acid and in other strong affinity for oxygen

immediately changes in the air to N 2 4 which is red. Red fumes accordingly make their appearance on dissolving metals in
,

260
nitric acid.

CHEMISTRY.

The application

of heat hastens the decomposition

of the nitric acid or the nitrate,

and

therefore, also the simul-

taneous oxidation (667) of the radical, which, by its affinity for oxygen, helps to cause the reaction. That radical is frequently
the hydrogen of the nitric acid
8

itself,

as in

3Cu +i6HNOs=6Cu(NOs) 8 +2N 8 2 +8H a O. The oxygen removed from the nitrate radical
directly or indirectly to

is

utilized

change certain -ous compounds

to -ic com-

pounds (989 to 991).


903.
acid),

The

officinal filtrates

are those of hydrogen (called nitric

potassium (called "nitre" or "saltpetre"), sodium (called "Chile-saltpetre") ammonium, silver (called "lunar caustic " when fused and molded into sticks), bismuthyl (called "subnitrate of bismuth "), barium (used as a reagent), mercuric mercury (contained in the "solution of nitrate of mercury"), lead, and ferric iron (in the "solution of nitrate of iron ").
904.

The following table contains the Common Nitrates, with their Molecular Formulas and Molecular

Weights.

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen
Potassium

(nitric acid)

Sodium

HNO3 KNO3 NsNOa

63
IOI

85
a

Ammonium
Silver

NHj*O

80
169.7

AgN0

Bismuthyl

BiONOa. H 2

305
5 24
5

Mercurous
"

HgiN0
with water

3) s

Hg^NOa) .2H 2
Ca(NO,),

$0

Calcium
"

with water

Cc<NO s

)2

164 236

CHEMISTRY.

26l

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Barium
Strontium

Ba(N0
with water

3 ),

261
211.

Sr(N0 3 ^

Magnesium
Zinc

Mg(N0 Mg(N0

3 ), 3) 2 )2

148.3

.6H 2

25 6 -3

Zn(N0 3

189
324

Mercuric Cupric
"

with water

Hg(N0 Cu(N0 ), Cu(N0 3 )


3 2

V 3 3
.

187.2 241.2

Lead
Manganous
with water

Pb(N0 )
3

330.4
179 287 180 183 291 182.6 290.6

Mn(NQ ) Mn(N0
Fe(NC).,).,

3 2
3)2

.6H 2

Ferrous Cobaltous
"

with water
with water

Co(NO s Co(NG 3 > .6H 2


)2 2

Nickelous

Ni(NO,) 2

NifNQ 3 2 .6H 2
)

Bismuthous

Bi(NO,),. 5
3 ) r>

485 652 426 75

Cerium Aluminum
with water
Ferric Cobaltic

C e2(N0 Al (N0 Al (N0 .i8H


2 2 3 ) f>
3)6
)

Fe,(N0 3

(;

Co (NO
2

s) 6

484 490

The

Chlorates are the salts containing the radical C10 3 905. chlorates of potassium and sodium are officinal. These
.

salts are unstable,

exploding violently by percussion or by

tritu-

ration with sulphur, tannin, sugar, etc.

Potassium chlorate is soluble in about 16 times its weight of water at common room temperatures, and sodium chlorate in about its own weight. They may be prepared by passing

262

CHEMISTRY.

chlorine into solutions of the hydrates, by which hypochlorites are first formed and these afterwards decomposed by heat

6KOH +

3 C1 2

3KCIO + 3KCI

3H 0; and
2

then

3KCIO

KCIO3 + 2KCI.
Instead of the alkali hydrate admixture of calcium hydrate with the chloride of the alkali metal is now generally employed. The formulas and molecular weights are

Potassium Chlorate

Sodium Chlorate
906.

= K ClOa = 122.4 = Na C10 == 106.4


3

Hypochlorites contain ClO yielding chlorine upon the addition of


that

They
acids, or

are

unstable,
called

even without

addition.

The "chlorinated

lime,"

commonly

"chloride of lime" and "bleaching powder," depends upon its hypochlorite of calcium for its effects, and " Labarraque's Solution " ("solution of chlorinated soda") and Eau de Jarelle (containing potassium hypochlorite) are similar. They are used as disinfectants and for bleaching cotton and linen.

Potassium Hypochlorite

Sodium
Calcium

"

= K CIO' = 90.4 =NaC10 == 74-4 = Ca CIO = 142.8

CHAPTER

L.

SULPHATES AND SULPHITES.

The sulphate radical is SO* and it is a 907. Sulphates. dyad. Sulphuric acid is, therefore, a bibasic acid. Sulphuric acid decomposes the salts of other acids, as a rule, and may be
considered as the " strongest " of all the acids. The great energy with which sulphuric acid attacks other substances, or its extremely destructive effects, may be regarded as the resultant

CHEMISTRY.
of the chemical union of so powerful a negative radical as so

263

S0

to

and the ever present strong tendency of the acid radical to exchange the hydrogen for a more strongly positive element or group. Thus sulphuric acid may be considered an unstable compound, while the sulphates of the strongest electro-positive radicals are

weak a

positive radical as hydrogen,

among

the

most stable of

all

compounds.

The sulphates of lead, barium and strontium 908. Solubility. are insoluble in water. Calcium sulphate is very sparingly
water-soluble.

The other

officinal metallic

Sulphate of mercury is decomposed by water. sulphates are water-soluble.

Preparation. The soluble metallic sulphates, and also 909. mercury sulphate, are made by the action of sulphuric acid upon the metals or their oxides, hydrates, carbonates, or chlorides, and the alkali sulphates are often obtained as by-products
in the preparation of other salts.

The

insoluble sulphates are

obtained by double decomposition as precipitates.


910. The officinal sulphates are many, and are included in the following
Table of Common Sulphates with their molecular formulas molecular weights:

and

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen(sulphuric acid) Potassium, normal Potassium, acid Sodium, normal Sodium, normal, cryst. Sodium, acid

H S0 4
2 2

K S0 4 KH S0 4 Na3 S0 4 Na S0 4 .ioH 2
(NH,) 3 S0 4

Ammonium
Calcium
"

NaHS0 4

98 174 136 142 322 120


132 136 172 233 183.3 120.3

with water

Barium
Strontium

CaS0 4 CaS0 4 .2H 2 BaS0 4


SrS0 4

Magnesium, anhydrous

MgSQ 4

:6 4

CHEMISTRY.
Molecular Weights.
!5 6 -3

Names.

Formulas.

Magnesium, dried
il

MgS() 4 .2H 2
a

cryst.

MgSO,7H O
ZnSO, ZnSO,7H
FeSC> 4
2

246.3
161

Zinc
"

cryst.

287
152 170

Ferrous, anhydrous " dried


cryst.

FeSO,H FeSO 7H
2

Manganous
"
cryst.

MnSO

278
151
a

MnSO,7H O

223
159.2 249.2

Cupric
"
cryst.

CuS0 CuSO 5H
4
f

Mercuric

HgSO,
A1 8 (S() 4 ) Al 8 (S0 4 ),i8H g O K 2 A1 2 (S0 4 ),2 4 H 2 K 2 A1 2 (S() 4 ) 4 4 ) 2 Al 2 (S0 4 ),2 4 H 2 f (NH 4 2 Fea (SO,) 24H 8
:)

Aluminum
with water Potassa alum Dried alum
"

Ammonia alum Ammonio-ferric alum Ferric Sulphate


Ferric sulphate, basic Mercuric, basic

NH

Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 Fe 4 0(SO,),

(HgO) .HgSQ
2

296 342 666 948 516 906 964 400 73o 728

911.

Thiosulphates.

The only thiosulphate of interest to


"

hyposulphite of sodium," which and the molecular weight 248. Sulphites are characterized by containing the radical 912. S0 3 which is bivalent. Sulphites are reducing agents, being converted into sulphates by taking up more oxygen. They are not freely soluble in water, and are generally prepared by the action of S0 2 upon hydrates, or carbonates. The solution obtained by
pharmacists is the so-called has the formula Na 2 S 2 0j.5H 2
,

passing the gas S0 2 into water is properly regarded as containing sulphurous acid, and is so named in the Pharmacopoeia.

CHEMISTRY.
913.

265
molecular formulas and

The common

sulphites with their

weights are:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen
acid)

(sulphurous

H 2SO,
K 3S o
Ca S0
.2H 2 3 Na 2S0 3 -7 H 20
.

82
194.2 252 156 212.3

Potassium

Sodium
Calcium

Magnesium

Mg S0

.6H20.
3

CHAPTER
Phosphates

LI.

PHOSPHATES, ETC.
914.

(ortho-phosphates).
is

The
pq

acid radical
,

which forms the ortho-phosphates

the group
is

which acts

as a triad, so that ortho-phosphoric acid

tribasic.

The

phos-

phates are very stable compounds, for the phosphate radical is a powerful negative radical. The phosphates of potassium, sodium and ammonium are Ferric iwater-soluble; all other phosphates are insoluble in water. phosphate is soluble in solutions of citrates of potassium,

sodium or ammonium, and the "phosphate of iron " of the Pharmacopoeia is a compound consisting of the water-soluble scaled residue obtained from a solution of ferric phosphate in solution of sodium citrate. The soluble phosphates may be produced by the action of phosphoric acid upon hydrates or carbonates, but all phosphates

c66

CHEMISTRY.

by double decomposition. Phosphates and some other phosphates which are insoluble Hence phosphate in water, dissolve in ortho-phosphoric acid. of iron can be made by the action of phosphoric acid upon
are generally prepared
of calcium, iron
iron.

The phosphoric
phoric acid.
915.

acid of

the Pharmacopoeia

is

ortho-phos-

The

officinal phosphates

are

all

contained

in the follow-

ing
Table of Common Phosphates with their Molecular Formulas and Molecular Weights:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Phosphates.

Hydrogen (ortho-phosphoric acid)

Potassium

Sodium
"

cryst.
salt

H P0 K HP0 Na HP0 Na HP0


3 4 2
4

98
4 4 .i

H
4.

174.2 142 358.1


2

Microcosmic

Ammonium
Calcium
"

NH NaHP0 4 H (NH HP0


4
4)2 4

418
132

Cas (P0 4) 2
Acid

CaH (P0
4

4 ),

310 234

Manganous
Ferrous

Mn

iPOj,.
4

Fe 3 (P0 ),,8H 2

481 502

Manganic
Ferric
Ferroso-ferric
2

Mn (P0
2
4

4 )

Fe 2 (PO i \4 H 2

425.9 374
4 ) 2 .2

Fe 3 (P0 ),Fe 2 (P0

4H2

4 50.2

CHEMISTRY.

267

The so-called "glacial phosphoric 916. Metaphosphates. acid " is meta-phosphoric acid more or less contaminated with
pyrophosphoric acid and with phosphates, as found in commerce. The relations of meta-phosphoric, ortho-phosphoric and pyro-phosphoric acid to each other are shown by these equations:

2HPO,
Meta-phosphoric acid

+ +

H H

Water
2

Pyrophosphoric acid; and

H,P Or
2

= =

PA

2H 3 PO,

Pyrophosphoric acid Water Orthophosphoric acid Metaphosphoric acid is changed to orthophosphoric acid by being boiled in water. Ferric metaphosphate and ferric pyrophosphate are insoluble in ortho-phosphoric acid, but soluble in metaphosphoric acid. Metaphosphoric acid is HP03 80. Pyrophosphates contain the radical P 2 7 which acts 917. Pyrophosphate of sodium is formed when phosas a tetrad. phate of sodium is heated strongly; but the pyrophosphate is not decomposed even at extremely high temperatures. Insoluble pyrophosphates are made by double decomposition from pyrophosphate of sodium. Crystallized sodium pyrophosphate is Na 4 P 2 0,ioH 2 446.1; dried sodium pyrophosphate is Na 4 P 2 7 266; ferric pyrophosphate is Fe4 (P2 7 ) 3 746. Ferric pyrophosphate is insoluble in water, but soluble in diluted metaphosphoric acid; it is also soluble in solutions of " alkali citrates, and the pharmacopoeial " pyrophosphate of iron is the water-soluble scaled residue obtained from a solution of ferric pyrophosphate in solution of sodium citrate. Hypophosphites contain the group H 2 PO s which acts 918. as a monad. The hypophosphites of potassium, sodium, calcium and iron are used as medicines; they are all water-soluble, except that the iron hypophosphites are so sparingly soluble as to be practically nearly insoluble.

268

CHEMISTRY.

Calcium hypophosphite is produced by boiling phosphorus with calcium hydrate; the others are prepared from the calcium
hypophosphite or from the sodium salt. The formulas and molecular weights of the
phosphites are:
officinal

hypo-

Hypophosphorous Acid Potassium Hypophosphite " Sodium


Calcium
Ferrous
Ferric

= H HoPCX. = K H P0 = Na H PO Ca (H P0 = Fe (H P0
2 2
3 s

= = = io
2)

66.

104>
6.

2=

I?0

2)2

l8 6.

F e 2 (H

PO,)

=502

CHAPTER
919.

LII.

CARBONATES, ETC.

decomposed by acids, the gas C0 2 being given off with effervescence. The carbonates of the alkali metals are the only carbonates not decomposed by heat. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are produced in immense quantities by heating the sulphate with chalk
which
is

Carbonates are the bivalent. They are

salts

containing the group

CO^

easily

and coal. Insoluble carbonates are prepared from the soluble carbonates by double decomposition. Acid carbonates are commonly called " bicarbonates." Magnesium, zinc and lead form "basic carbonates."

CHEMISTRY.
920.
Table of Common

269

Carbonates with their Molecular Formulas

and Molecular Weights:


Names.
Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen (carbonic
"

acid)

Potassium, anhydrous " ordinary


acid

Sodium, anhydous
" " "

dried
cryst.

H C0 K CO K C0 3 H O KHCO3 Na C0 Na CO,. 2 H Na CO s ioH


2 3
2

62 138

330
100 106 142 286 84 74 96 79
2

acid

NaHCO,
Li 2
acid

Lithium

CO
4

s
r!

Ammonium, normal
officinal

(NH ),CO

NHJ-1CO,

NH.HCO* NH,NH C0
2

157

Bismuthyl

(BiO) 2

CO s H

0.

528
100 197
JI 5

Calcium

Barium

CaC0 3 BaC0 3

Manganous
Ferrous

MnC0
s

3
.

FeCO H
2

134
2

Magnesium
Zinc

4MgC0 9 Mg(OH), 5H
ZnCO, 3 Zn(OH)o 2 PbCCs Pb(OH) 2

Lead

487.5 548.5 774-9

Borates. Boric acid is H 3 B0 3 =62. No normal 921. borates are used. Borax or " borate of sodium " is a pyro-

borate^a^Ov.ioHaO
water-soluble.
to

= 382.1.

Both boric acid and borax are

Silicates contain the radical SiO^ which is analogous and of the same exchangeable value. The silicates of potassium and sodium are water-soluble; all others insoluble
922.
3

C0

270
in water.

CHEMISTRY.

Solution of sodium silicate is called "water-glass." Flint glass is silicates of lead of potassium; crown glass consists of silicates of sodium and calcium, and Bohemian glass chiefly
of silicates of potassium

and calcium.
n

The formulas and molec-

ular weights of the principal silicates are:

Potassium Silicate

Sodium

Silicate

Calcium Silicate Lead Silicate


923.

= K, SiO = 154.5 = Na Si() = 122.3 =CaSi0 am 116.3 = Pb SiO 282.7


2
:1

phosphates.

to that of the Ortho-arsenates contain the radical AsO which, like PO, is trivalent. Sodium arsenate is an official preparation and is water-soluble; the crystallized sodium arsenate is Na 2 HAs0 4 .7H 2 312; the effloresced salt is

Arsenates have a structure analogous

Na2 H As0 2H

and the dried Na,HAs0 4 186. Iron arsenate is sometimes used as a medicine; it is usually of the composition 2Fe 3 (As0 ) 2 .Fe (As0 4 ) 2 .24H 17 14. 2. When arsenous oxide is dissolved in water 924. Arsenites. the solution may be regarded as containing arsenous acid,

=
2

= 222;
2

H AsO =
3 s

126.
in "

Arsenite of potassium
salt

is

contained
of

being

K HAs0
2

= 202.2.
sodium
it is

Fowler's Solution," the

925.

Pyro-arsenate
is

is

formed when sodium

ortho-arsenate

strongly heated;

water-soluble and has the

formula (dried)

Na As,0
4

= 368.

Permanganate of potassium, which is so valuable as 926. an oxidizing agent, has the formula K 2 Mn 8 Of= 316 and is soluble in about 16 times
its

weight of water at ordinary room temis

peratures.
927. so-called

Normal potassium chromate


"bichromate
of

potassium

" is

K CrOj= 194 and K Cr. 0-= 294.


2

the

CHEMISTRY.

271

CHAPTER
928.

LIII.

METALLIC SALTS OF THE ORGANIC ACIDS.

CH
2

3 02

Acetates are the which is univalent.

salts

formed by the acetate

radical,

All acetates are water-soluble,

and

they are generally made from acetic acid and the oxides, hydrates or carbonates of metals. Other acetates are made by double decomposition. The Common Acetates with their Molecular Formulas and 929.
Molecular Weights are:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Acetates.

Hydrogen
Potassium

H C2H3O2
KCH
2 2 3
2

Sodium
"
cryst.

Ammonium
Magnesium
Zinc
"

Na C2H3O2 Na C H 0, 3 H 2 NH 4 C H
3 2
3 2

60 98 82 136

Mg

(C 2 H 3

2) 2
)2 )

cryst.

Zn (C 2 H30 2 Zn (C 2 H 3 2

g3

142.3 183 237

Lead
"

basic

Copper

Pb (C 2 H 3 Pb (C 8 H 3 Cu (C 2 H 3
.

2 ) fi3 8)e

2 2

Pb(OH)

378.4 565-4
199.2

2 ),H-2

Aluminum
Ferric

Al 2 (OH) 2 (C 8 H 3 Fe 2 (C 2 H 3 2) 6
'

2) 4

324 466
the radical

930.

Valerates, or
is

valerianates,"

contain

QHgQj which
macy

a monad,
is
is

Those used
5 9

in

medicine and phar-

are water-soluble.

Valeric acid

Sodium Valerate

Ammonium

Valerate Zinc Valerate is

is

=H CH = Na C H = NH C H = Zn (C H
5 9 4 5 5

2
9

2 2

)H

= 102 = 124 = 119 = 285

272
931. used.

CHEMISTRY.

Lactates contain the


3

radical

C H
S

03.

They

are

little

= HC H = NaC H Calcium Lactate = Ca(C H = Zn(C H .3H Zinc Lactate Ferrous Lactate = Fe(C3H,0 .3H Oleates. The oleate radical 932.
Lactic Acid
5
3

Sodium Lactate

3 )2

3) 2
)

2 2

:!

= 90 = 112 =218 = 297 = 288


,

monad.
oleates.

Fats, soaps,

C 18 H3g02 which is a and lead plaster are the most familiar


is

All oleates except the soaps are insoluble in

water.

Soft soap consists entirely or chiefly of potassium oleate; hard soaps contain almost exclusively sodium oleate; the oleates of
lead,
zinc, iron,

copper, and other heavy metals are plasters.

The

liquid fats or fixed oils are mainly oleate of glyceryl.


is

Oleic acid

made from

fats,

and

all

other oleates from

either oleic acid or fats.

933.

The Common Oleates are:


Molecular Weights.

Names.

formulas.

Hydrogen
Potassium

(oleic acid)

Hv.

18

ri330 2

KC

Sodium
Silver

NaC H
18

lg

H33 (J2
33
2

AgCigHssOg

Mercurous
Zinc Mercuric Cupric

Hg 2 (C ls H33()2)2
Zn(C 18 H3302)a
HgCQgHjBOgJjs

282 320 34 389 962

Lead
Bismuth

Cu(C 18 H330 2 2 Pb(C 18 H 33 2 ) a


)

627 762 625 769


i5

Bi(C,JL,0 2 ) 3
Al 2 (C,s H, 0,
;
i;

Aluminum
Ferric

Fe*(C M H B 0,).

174 179

CHEMISTRY.

273

Oxalates are salts of the oxalate radical 934acid is bibasic.

C,0 4

Oxalic

The
soluble,

oxalates of potassium sodium and

ammonium

are wateralkali

and made by neutralizing oxalic acid with the


all

hydrates or carbonates;

other oxalates are insoluble and

made by
acids.

precipitation.
is

Oxalic acid

probably the "strongest" of the organic

No
"

oxalates, except the cerium

and

ferrous, are official,

but

several are officinal.

Oxalic acid
with water

Potassium oxalate, normal " " acid

= H2C2O4 =HC = K C 0i. = KHC


2 2
4

=
2

90

Ammonium
Cerium
Ferrous

"
"

(NHJ

= 202 =162 0,0^,0 = 142


2 4. 2
2

H 2H 2H
2

=126

Ce 2 (QA)3, 9 H

0=76

FeQO^HaO

= 162

Tartrates. The tartrate radical 935. acts as a dyad. Acid tartrate of potassium
juice of grapes

is

QH^Og, and

it

and other fruits. potassium acid tartrate is called " argols," or "crude tartar;" and the pure is called "cream of tartar," or "bitartrate of potassium." All other tartrates are made from the acid tartrate of potassium, directly or indirectly. Acid tartrate of potassium is only sparingly soluble in water, requiring about 200 times its own weight of water at ordinary room temperatures; the acid
tartrates of

contained in the In the crude, impure state the


is

The
and

acid tartrates form soluble

the official

sodium and ammonium are also sparingly soluble. compounds with iron, of which tartrate of iron and potassium and tartrate of iron
are examples.

ammonium

274
936.

CHEMISTRY,

The common

tartrates are:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hvdrogen
"

(tartaric acid)

Potassium, normal
acid

KC
2

H QH 0,
2
4

KHQHA
KNaQH Na QH NaHQH
2
4 4
6. 6
.

HA

15 226 188
4H H
2

(cream of tartar)
Rochelle
"
" salt

Sodium, normal
acid

2
6

Ammonium, normal
acid

(NH C H 6 NHiHQH.Oe
4)2 4 4

.H 2

282 230 190 184


167
2

Potassium Antimonyl ("Tartar Emetic

KSbOQH O H
4
fr

664

")

Magnesium
937.

MgQH
salts

4 C> 6

172

Citrates are the


trivalent.

formed by the radical C 6 H 5 0^


kinds of citrates
in

which
(897).

is

There
is

are, therefore, three

Citric acid

contained

various fruit juices, espe-

cially those of

lemons, limes and currants. Other citrates are prepared from citric acid. The citrates are generally waterThe water solutions of alkali citrates dissolve ferric soluble. phosphate, pyrophosphate and hypophosphite, all of which are
insoluble in water.

Bismuth

citrate

is

soluble

in

ammonia

water.
938.

The most common

citrates are:

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Hydrogen (Citric Acid) Potassium, normal


Di-Potassium Hydrogen Potassium Di-Hydrogen

Sodium, normal

C H5 Na 3 C H 5

KH

K HC H
2 6
6

H 3 C H 5 .H 2 K,C 6 H 5 0-.H g O
6
7

3 24

7
7 7

286 248 258

CHEMISTRY.

275

Names.

Formulas.

Molecular
Weights.

Di-Sodium Hydrogen Sodium Di-Hydrogen Ammonium, normal Di-Ammonium Hydrogen Ammonium Di-Hydrogen Lithium, normal Magnesium, normal
"

Na

NaH
4

HC H
6

NH H
3

(NHJ (NH

4)2

QH QH HQH
5 7

2C

acid

Mg (C H MgHc H
6 6

Li 3 C 6 H 5

H
7 5

5
7

7) 2
7

236 214 243 226 209 210 4So.9


214-3 598.1

Ferric

anhydrous Bismuth

"

Fe 2 (QH 5 Fe 2 (C 6 H 5 BiC 6 H 5 7

7 )2
7

.6H 2

)2

490 398

Phenolsulphonates are salts containing the complex 939. radical C 6 5 SO r [Ortho-sulphonic acid is C 6 4 .OH.HS0 3 .] The

phenolsulphonates used in medicine and pharmacy are commonly called " sulphocarbolates." We have phenolsulphonates

of
Sodium
Calcium Barium
Zinc

555 The 940. Salicylates contain the acid radical C7H5CV salicylates used in medicine are all made from salicylic acid or

= = = =

NaC H S0 .2H
6 5 4
2
.
.

Ca(C 6 H 5 S0 4 ) Ba(C 6 H 5 S0 4 ) 2 Zn(C 6 H 5 S0 4 ) 2 .8H 2

= = = =

232

386 483

from salicylate of sodium. Salicylic acid is made from phenol (commonly called "carbolic acid"). The volatile oil of wintergreen contains 90 per cent, of methyl salicylate. The alkali salicylates are readily water-soluble, and salicylate of zinc
moderately soluble, while salicylic acid is nearly insoluble. The common salicylates are: Salicylic Acid 138 HC 7 H 5 3

Sodium
Lithium
Zinc

Salicylate
" " "

Bismuth

= = = = =

H 2LiC H Zn(C H Bi(C H


2NaC
7
7

5
3

.H 2

3)2
3) 3

.H 2 .3H 2

= = 338 = 306 = 393 = 620

276
941.

CHEMISTRY.

Benzoates.
from

The
toluol,

acid-radical
in etc.

of

the
is

benzoates
also

is

C H
7

2.

Benzoic acid occurs

benzoin, and

synthetically

The benzoates

produced of sodium,
all

lithium and

ammonium

are used medicinally; they are

water-

soluble and prepared


alkali carbonates.

from

benzoic acid

and the respective

The formulas

are

Benzoic acid Potassium Benzoate

Sodium
Lithium

HC H KC H NaC H LiC H
7

2 2

6
2

,H

Ammonium
Calcium
Ferric

NH 4 C H 6 O s Ca(C H 5 )
7 7 2

Fe 8 (C

= = = = = =

122. 160.

162

128
139 282

838

CHAPTER LIV
HYDROCARBONS.

Hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons are compounds Hundreds of of only the two elements, carbon and hydrogen. them are already known, and numerous others are possible.
942.

The hydrocarbon molecules may contain any number of carbon atoms, from one up to at least thirty-five. In all hydrocarbons containing more than one carbon atom, all the carbon atoms present are, of course, united by a portion of their bonds into a continuous chain or ring, or cluster, while all of the hydrogen atoms are united to the remaining carbon bonds.

As carbon is a tetrad it follows that the highest proporhydrogen that can unite with carbon is present in the compound CH called methane (commonly called " marsh943. tion of
4,

gas").
All hydrocarbons may be arranged into several differ944. ent series, each series represented by one general formula, and

H H H H HH

CHEMISTRY.

27}

the several members of each series differing from each other by the group CH 2 or a multiple of it. Such series are called homologous series.

The first series, or methane series, of hydrocarbons 945. begins with the following members:

H
1

H C
I

H
H H
2.

H C C
I
I

H H H H H
3.

H C C-C
I I I

H H
I

H
I

H
I
I

H
I I

H C C C C
H H H H H H H H
H
I

5.

h C C C C C
I I I

H H H H H H H H H H H
6.

H-C C C CC C
I
I

H H H H H H
It will

additional hydrogen atoms.


series differs

be seen that for every additional carbon atom there must be two This explains why it is that each member of the
-

from the preceding member by CH 2 you examine the formulas just presented you will find that this whole series may well be represented by the general formula: H(CH 2 )H, for
946.
If

6 2

278

CHEMISTRY.

every

member

of the series consists of

any number

of

groups of

CH

linked

together by their carbon bonds and the chain united to a hydrogen atom at each end. As commonly written the formulas are:

CH 4
and so on.

C 2 H 6 C 3 H 8 C 4 H l0

H
I

In another series the

first

number

is:

C H

11
I

H
i 1

the second

member H-

c c=c
1

1 1

H H H H H
1 1

H
1

and the third member

H C C C=C
H H H H
I
I I

formula (CH 2 )w might be assigned. But the general formulas for the homologous series of hydrocar947. bons are usually expressed as follows: Series 4-2 1. I. CH CH, Lowest member known, CH 4 2 +2 2. CH 8 C2H4 CH 2 C 2 Hg 3For
this the general

45-

6.
7-

CH 2 - 4 CH 2 CH 2 -^8
C;/H 8 m
C;?H 2
2

10 14

8.

CH 2 12

9-

10.
11. 12.
13-

CmH 2 h 16 CH IS CH 2 20 CnH 2 n 22
C>iH 2 n
2

14. 1516.

24

17-

18.

CH 2 - 26 CH 28 CH 2 m 30 CH,-32
1,

C6 H 6 C6 H6 CH C8 H 6 c ioH 8 C 12 H 10 C 14 H 13 C 14 H 10 c i?H 14 C 16 H 10 C 18 H 12 C 20 H 14 C 22 H 14 C 26 H 20
written

means any number. Thus the m4-2 means: any number of carbon atoms united with twice the same number plus two of hydrogen atoms;
In these general formulas the italic letter n

general formula for Series

CmH

CHEMISTRY.
the general formula for Series
2,

279

means: any number of carbon atoms united to twice the same number of hydrogen atoms; the general formula for Series 3, written CH 2 2 means: any number of carbon atoms united to twice the same number less 2 of hydrogen atoms; etc. Knowing the number of carbon atoms in any member of any one 948. of these series we can write its molecular formula in accordance with the general formula for its series; thus the member of Series 1 having 12 carbon atoms must be C 1S H 26 of Series 2 it would be Ci 2 H 34 of Series 3, C 12 H 22
written

CH 2

C 18 H 30 of Series 5, C i2 H 18 of Series 9, C 18 H 10 of Series 14 there could be no member with but twelve carbon atoms, and of Series 10 to none known having twelve atoms of carbon. are 13 949. Hydrocarbons are generally gaseous when containing less than four
of Series 4,
;
;

if containing more than four but less than twelve carbon atoms; solid if they contain a higher number of atoms of carbon. 950. According to the properties of their derivatives, the hydrocarbons are divided into two series the fatty series and the aromatic series. Fats or fixed oils belong to the derivatives of the fatty series of hydrocarbons, and the aromatic acids and other aromatic or odorous compounds are derivatives of the aromatic series. Marsh gas, CH 4 is a colorless and tasteless gas, which is generated 951. in swamps by the decay of organic matter it is the principal constituent of the so-called "natural gas," and in coal mines it exists as " fire-damp."

atoms of carbon; liquid

oil,

Hydrocarbons occur in coal oils, paraffines, petrolatum, paraffin 952. illuminating gas, natural gas, oil of turpentine, oil of lemon and many
oils, etc.

other volatile

Among
Paraffin

the

common
C

hydro-carbons are:

Benzin

= Ci H =C H
5

34

l2

andC c Hn.

Turpenes= (CioHm). Benzene C6 H 6

953.
are:

Among

the derivatives or substitution

products of hydro-carbons

Chloroform, CHC1 3 which is tri-chlor-methane. Iodoform, CHI 3 which is tri-iodo-methane. The haloids of the hydro-carbon radicals correspond to the chlorides, bromides, iodides and cyanides of the metals. Thus, trichlormethane may be regarded as formyl chloride, or the chloride of the radical CH. Haloids of methyl (CH 2 ), ethyl (C 3 H 5 ) and other positive organic compound radicals
,

(263) are

well-known.

Hydrocarbon Radicals are groups of carbon and hydrogen atoms having free carbon bonds.
954.

2g

CHEMISTRY.
a hydrogen

a hydro-carbon molecule, the When valence unit; for every addiremainder constitutes a positive radical with one valence unit is added to the radical. tional hydrogen atom removed another we have the radical CH.left. Thus, if we take one hydrogen atom from CH 4 atoms would leave the radwhich is univalent; the removal of two hydrogen removed, if still another hydrogen atom be ical CH, with two free bonds; and

atom

is

removed from

we get

the trivalent radical

CH.
4
,

the The hydrocarbons (942) may be regarded as the hydrides of 955 can be looked upon as the hydrocarbon radicals. Thus Methane, CH ethyl hydride, C a H 6 H, etc. hydride of methyl. CH 3 H; ethane, C E H,, as Hydrocarbon radicals, in fact, form the same classes of compounds 956. sulphides, chlorides, bromides, as are formed by metals, namely, oxides, Their oxides are called ethers, their iodides, cyanides, bases and salts. the acids are called ethehydrates are alcohols, and the salts they form with
real salts.

CHAPTER
957.

LV.

OTHER IMPORTANT CLASSES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

Alcohols. The alcohols

of organic

chemistry cor-

They respond to the metallic hydrates of inorganic chemistry. is united to the hydrocarbon which HO, hydroxyl, contain all hydrate or base is radical just as the' hydroxyl in a metallic
united to the metal. secondary There are three classes of alcohols, namely, primary,

and

tertiary alcohols. Primary alcohols all have the general formula H(CH,)n 958. OH. groups, 2 and is, they all contain the two that OH; When oxidized the primary alcohols yield first aldehydes,

CH

and then
959.

acids, containing the

same number
contain
the

of

carbon atoms.

Secondary alcohols

all

two groups,

CH

and OH.

When
number

acetones; and,
of

subjected to the action of oxidizing agents they form upon further oxidation, acids containing a smaller

carbon atoms.

CHEMISTRY.
960.
Tertiary alcohols

261

all contain C.OH. oxidized they form neither aldehydes nor acetones, but are directly converted into acids having a smaller number of

When

containing hydroxyl of which the hydrogen can be replaced by an acid-radical, is an alcohol. If this alcohol yields aldehyde when oxidized, and then an acid, it is a primary alcohol; if its oxidation results in acetone and subsequently acid, it is a secondary alcohol; and if upon oxidation it splits up, yielding an acid without first forming an aldehyde or an acetone, it is a tertiary alcohol.

carbon atoms. 961. Any organic compound

The simplest primary alcohol is methyl alcohol, CH 3 If two (commonly called wood alcohol, or wood spirit). of the hydrogen atoms of the group CH 3 in that alcohol be
962.

OH

replaced by hydrocarbon radicals, the resulting products are secondary alcohols; if all three of the hydrogen atoms of the methyl group are replaced by hydrocarbon radicals, tertiary
alcohols result.
963.
differ
It will be seen that the characteristic alcohol groups from each other by one or two hydrogen atoms, since

Primary alcohols contain " Secondary "


Tertiary
964.
"

CH OH
2

"

CH.OH C.OH

Alcohols containing but one hydroxyl group are sometimes called monatomic alcohols, while those containing two hydroxyl groups are called diatomic alcohols, and alcohols with three hydroxyl groups are called triatomic alcohols. A monatomic alcohol is, of course, the hydrate of a univalent hydro-

carbon radical
radical
;

a diatomic alcohol is the hydrate of a bivalent hydrocarbon and trivalent hydrocarbon radicals must furnish triatomic alcohols.
;

965.

Among

the alcohols the following are familiar:


spirit

Methyl alcohol, or wood

Ethyl alcohol, or ordinary alcohol

Amyl

alcohol, or fusel oil

Phenyl alcohol, or "carbolic acid " 6 5 Glyceryl alcohol, or "glycerin" 3 5 3 Ethyl alcohol is formed by the fermentation of glucose ( 102)
.

= CH OH. = C H OH. = CgHjjOH. = C H OH. = C H (OH)


3 2

CH
6

12

CH
2

OH

C0

Glucose

Alcohol

Carbon dioxide

252
966
structure,
of

CHEMISTRY.
compounds analogous but containing HS instead of HO. They
Mercaptans
are
radicals.
to the

alcohols in general

are, then, hydrosulphides

hydrocarbon

Aldehydes. When primary alcohols are oxidized in 967. a limited supply of oxygen they are transformed into aldehydes
by the removal of hydrogen. words rt/cohol efc/nv/rogenated.
oxidized to water.
alcohols
is

The name is coined out of the The hydrogen thus removed is


in

was stated (958) that the characteristic group contained is CH 2 .OH; when the alcohol is changed to an aldehyde, converted into CO.H or 0=C H, which is a univalent group.
It

that

primary group

aldehyde is CH 3 CO.H. There are no aldehydes corresponding

Common

to

the

secondary and tertiary

alcohols.

Ketones or acetones are formed by the incomplete 968. oxidation of secondary alcohols (959).
Secondary alcohols contain the characteristic group CH OH; becomes CO when a ketone is formed. The group CO, carbonyl,is bivalent, and in the formation of ketones or acetones both of the free carbon bonds of the carbonyl unite with hydrocarbon radicals. The simplest ketone is CH 3 .CO.CH 3 Organic Acids are formed by the complete oxidation 969. of alcohols. They all contain hydroxyl and correspond in their general chemical properties to the inorganic hydroxyl acids. But all organic acids contain, besides hydroxyl, the group CO, called carbonyl. The two groups, CO and OH have been written together as C0 2 H. or CO. OH, and called by one name, carboxyl. The simplest organic acid known is H.CO.OH, which is called
this
.

formic acid.
acetic acid

= CH .CO.OH.
3

The next member

of the

same

series

of acids

is

The general formula for the series of organic acids 970. corresponding to the methane series of hydrocarbons and the primary alcohols of the hydrocarbon radicals of the same series,
is

H(CH

2) n

CO OH.

Thus we have:

Formic Acid Acetic Acid


Propionic Acid

= HCO.OH = HCH.,.CO.OH = H(CH .CO.OH


2)
:i

CHEMISTRY.
Butyric Acid Valeric Acid Myristic Acid Palmitic Acid Stearic Acid

2S 3
2) 3 2) 4

= H(CH = H(CH = H(CH = H(CH = H(CH

2 ) 13

2 ) 15

2 ) 17

.CO.OH .CO.OH .CO.OH .CO.OH .CO.OH


all

The
acids.

acids included in the preceding table are

monobasic

and has

Lactic Acid, which belongs the formula

to a different series

is

monobasic

H.CH 2 .CH(OH).CO.OH.,

or

H CH
HO- -CH
I

HC3H5O3

CO

OH
Oleic Acid
Salicylic Acid
is
is

Benzoic Acid Gallic Acid

is
is

HC 18 H 33 HC H HC H HC H
7
5

2
3 2 5

971.

Among

the bibasic organic acids are:

Oxalic Acid,

HO. OC. CO. OH.,

or

OH
I

CO
I

(CO.OH)2
H2O2O4

CO

OH
Tartaric Acid
is:

OH
I

CO

HO CH HO CH
I
I

C4 H4

(CH.OH) 2 (CO.OH) 8 (CH.OH.CO.OH)j

CO

OH

284
Succinic Acid
is:

CHEMISTRY.

OH
CO
I

CH 2 CH 2
I
I

H CH
2

(CH 2) 2(CO.OH)2
(CHj.CO.OH),

CO
972.

OH Among OH
\ CH 2

the tribasic acids are:

Citric Acid,

HO C
CH
I

CO
8

or

or(CH g ) ,.C.OH.(CO.OH) s H C 6 H 6 0,.


!

OH

CO

OH
Malic Acid,

O
I

CO
I

HO- -CH

or or

CH 2 .CHOH.(CO.OH),
H C H
3 4 3 6
.

CH
I

CO

OH
Ethers. The oxides of hydrocarbon radicals (or 973. hydrocarbon residues ') are called ethers, or "simple ethers." The most common simple ethers are ethyl oxide, which is the ether of the Pharmacopoeia, and methyl oxide:
'

CHEMISTRY.

285

CH

C2 H 6

and

O, or

CH /
3

Ch/
and
(C 2

(CH ) 2 Methyl ether


3

6) a

Ethyl ether.

Ethereal Salts, or Compound Ethers. These are the formed by the positive hydrocarbon radicals with the inorganic and organic acid radicals. These ether salts are also
974.
salts

called esthers.

They are formed when acids and organic hydroxides (alcohols) upon each other, just as metallic salts are formed when acids and metallic bases act upon each other.
act
oils,

Thus we have among composed mainly of

the most

common

ethereal

salts the fats or fixed

the oleate, palmitate

and

stearate of glyceryl; the

ethers (amyl acetate has due to amyl valerate; pine-apple flavor is chiefly due to ethyl butyrate, and combinations of the acetates, valer ates and butyrates of ethyl and amyl produce flavors resembling those of many fruits), and the pharmacopoeia contains preparations of the nitrates of amyl and ethyl, and acetate of ethyl, while oil of wintergreen is salicylate of

delicious flavors of certain fruits are also

compound
is

the flavor of pears; the flavor of apples

methyl.

Methyl acetate is Methyl salicylate


Ethyl nitrite Ethyl nitrate
is
2

CH C H O
3

is
5

C H is C 2 H 6

CH3.C7H5O3 .N0 2

N0

Glyceryl oleate (olive

is C 2 H 5 .HS0 C H 5 .C 2 H 2 Ethyl benzoate is C 2 H 5 .C,H 5 2 Amyl nitrite is C 5 H n .NO s oil) is C 3 H .Ci&H 33 2

Ethyl acid sulphate


Ethyl acetate
is
2

975.
the

Recapitulation.

The

constitution of the hydrocarbon radicals of

methyl series and their compounds may be shown by the following genRadicals of the methyl series

eral formulas:

Hydrocarbons

of the

methane

series

Oxides or simple ethers


Chlorides

= H(CH = H(CH H(CH =


I

2 )n

2 )n

H
.0
Cl

2 )n

<

Bromides
Iodides
Alcohols, or hydrates

Aldehydes
Ketones, or acetones
Ethereal salts

= H(CH \,I = H(CH )OH = H(CH n CO H = H(CH .CO.(CH )H = H(CHo)n .CO.OH(CH n


2 2

=H(CH =H(CH

2 )n 2 )n

Br

2)

2 )n

B)

286
Radicals:

CHEMISTRY.

HCH
2
)2

H(CH 2 H(CH 2 H(CH 2 H(CH 2 HtCH 2


Hydroca rbons

)g )4
)

= = =
=

Methyl

Ethyl Propyl == Butyl

=
etc.

Amyl
Hexyl

)6

HCH H
2

H(CH H(CH H(CH H(CH H(CH


Ethers :-

2) 2

2)3
2) 4 2)5 3) 6

H H H H H
\

= Methane = Ethane = Propane = Butane = Pentane = Hexane


etc.

H(CH.

HCH, / 0= H(CH \ H(CH / H(CH 0=


2

HCH

Methyl Oxide
Ethyl Oxide

2) 2
2)2

2)

Propyl Oxide
Butyl Oxide

;)3

H(CH H(CH H(CH H(CH


Alcohols:

2) 4

2) t
2) 5

/ =

\ 2)5 /

0= Pentyl Oxide

HCH OH = Methyl alcohol H(CH OH = Ethyl alcohol H(CH OH = Propyl alcohol H(CH OH = Butyl alcohol H(CH OH = Amyl alcohol
2 2)2 2) 3 2) 4 2)5

Aldehydes:

etc.

H.CO.H H.CH .CO.H

= Formic aldehyde = Common aldehyde

287

H.(CH

2)2

.CO.H

H.(CHg),.CO.H. H.(CH 2 ) 4 .CO.H.


Acetones:

= Propyl aldehyde = Butyl aldehyde = Amyl aldehyde

2
2

etc.

H.CO.CH .H H.CH .CO.CH


2 2 2) 3

H.
2

H.(CH ) .CO.CH .H. H.(CH .CO.CH 2 .H.


or

HCH,/;CO H(CH n rn LU
2 2) 2

HCH

H(CH,)/

H(CH H(CH
Acids:-

2) 3 2) 3

\L rn U
/
'

H.CO.OH.

H.CH .CO.OH H(CH .CO.OH H(CH .CO.OH H(CH .CO.OH


2 2) 2
2) 3

2) 4

= Formic acid = Acetic acid = Propionic acid = Butyric acid = Valeric acid

etc.

Carbohydrates are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and no other elements, the carbon atoms being six in number or a multiple of six, while the hydrogen atoms present are twice as many as the oxygen atoms present.
976.

The word "carbohydrate"

is

based upon the general constitution just

described, which suggested to the originator of the term carbohydrate that

these substances might be likened to hydrates of carbon.

The formula

C 6 Hio0

looks like six atoms of carbon and five molecules of water, Ci 2 H 22 O u looks like twelve carbon atoms and eleven molecules of water, and hydrates
6

were formerly considered as compounds containing water. But the hydrogen and oxygen in carbohydrates are not combined into water molecules, nor can carbon combine with water, so that the name is confusing.

288

CHEMISTRY

The

principal classes of carbohydrates are as follows

Cellulose

Group

Saccharose Group

Glucose Group

(C 6 Hi

5)

C H On
12 22

QH^Oe
Grape Sugar Fruit Sugar

Cellulose Starch

Cane Sugar Milk Sugar


Maltose Melitose

Dextrin

Gums
weak

Glucosides are complex bodies, sometimes having 977. acid properties, sometimes neutral, which are split up
of dilute acids, ferments,
etc., especially

under the influence

with the aid of heat, yielding, as one of products, sugar of the glucose group.

the decomposition

Many
978.

of the neutral principles of plants are glucosides.

and amygdalin are examples of glucosides. Alkaloids are organic compounds resembling ammonia in that they contain nitrogen, have an alkaline reaction on test-paper, and are capable of neutralizing acids with which they combine to form salts. The chemical structure of alkaloids
Salicin, santonin,
is

not yet clearly understood.


Alkaloids occur in

many

plants of decided medicinal potency.

them

are so powerful in their effects

upon

the animal

Most of organism as to be

poisonous, but some of the alkaloids appear to be simply bitter tonics.

Among
By

the

common

alkaloids are quinine, morphine, strychnine,


of the alkaloids are solids, inodor-

veratrine, atropine, codeine, caffeine, cocaine.

far the greater

number

ous, bitter or acrid, non-volatile,

and contain

in

their molecule

carbon, hydrogen and oxygen as well as nitrogen.


called amides, or quaternary alkaloids.

These are

Other alkaloids contain only carbon, nydrogen and nitrogen; these are called amines, or ternary alkaloids, and are liquid, volaThe only common volatile alkaloids tile, and strongly odorous.
are
nicotine,

which

is

contained

in

tobacco;

coniine, in

conium

and

lobeline, in lobelia.

When alkaloids combine


exactly as

ammonia does
its

molecule, including

with acids to form salts they behave they unite with the whole acidhydrogen, thus
in that
:

CHEMISTRY.

289

NH
NH

Ammonia,
3

Ammonia,

NH CH
2

Methylamine,

2C 21 H 22 N 2 (J 2
Strychnine,

= HC1 = + Hydrochloric Acid, HNO3 = + Nitric Acid, -L = H S0


+
HNO3
Nitric Acid,
2 4

NH N0
4

Ammonium

Nitrate,

NH
2

Ammonium
3

C1 Chloride,
3

NH CH HN0

Methylamine Nitrate, (C 2l H 22 N 2 2 ) 2 H 2 SO,


Strychnine Sulphate,

Sulphuric Acid,
2

QoH N
24

HC1

C H N O HCl
20

24

Quinine,

Hydrochloric Acid,

Quinine Hydrochlorate.

CHAPTER

LVI.

CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE.
979. The names of chemical compounds are generally constructed out of the names of the constituent radicals so far as
eral different molecules contain the

When, however, the molecule is complex and sevsame elements that plan is impracticable, and the technical names given to such compounds are based upon their internal structure, source, or propSome names in comerties, or upon other facts or conditions.
practicable.

mon

use are entirely arbitrary and unscientific, and have mostly been transmitted from early times. The technical names of chemicals usually consist of two 980.
parts.

Whenever

the

name

of a

chemical

compound

is

derived

from the radicals which enter into it, then the first part of the name is derived from or consists of the name of the positive radical, while the second part is derived from the negative
radical.

Thus we say silver oxide, potassium chloride, mercuric iodide, sulphur dioxide, calcium sulphide, copper nitrate, ethyl nitrite,

magnesium

sulphate,

magnesium

sulphite, etc.

29O

CHEMISTRY.

many other compounds 981. consisting of two radicals directly united have generic names ending with -ide and derived from their respective negative
Binary compounds (844) and
radicals.
directly united to
to

Thus compounds consisting of positive radicals (elemental or compound) oxygen are called oxides; when the positive radical is united sulphur the compound is called a sulphide, etc. If we designate he posiby the
letter
-t-

tive radical

R, then

+
RO=oxide.

+
RH=hydride.
4-

+
RS=sulphide.
-+-

RP=phosphide.

+
RSe=selenide.
4-

RCl=chloride.

+
RI=iodide.
-+-

RCH
4-

=methylide.
etc.

RBr=bromide.

RN=nitride,

+
RCN=cyanide.

But it often happens that two or more different compounds are formed by the same two radicals. There are five five oxides of manganese different oxides of nitrogen four oxides of chlorine three sulphides of arsenic two chlorides
982.
;

of iron or of

mercury,

etc.

[The fact that any two radicals may form more than one compound by combining in more than one proportion is explained on the assumption that many of the elements have a variable valence, as explained elsewhere. Sometimes this assumption seems unnecessary, as in the case of the oxides of nitrogen and chlorine, which may be represented by chains N O N, N O O N, CI O CI, CI O O O CI. etc.; but in other cases no explanation seems possible except that afforded by the assumption of variable
:

valence (617 to 619).]

983.
other.
fix

different

names must, of course, be given to these compounds in order to distinguish them from each The simplest method, and, therefore, the best, is' to preDifferent

the Greek numerals to the second part of the name, to indi-

cate the

number

of times the negative radical

is

multiplied.

CHEMISTRY.

29I

The oxides
and

of nitrogen all contain

two atoms
:

of nitrogen

They are, accordingly, j, 2, 3, 4 or 5 atoms of oxygen. represented by the following names and formulas
.

Nitrogen monoxide, N s O. Nitrogen dioxide, N 2 2 Nitrogen trioxide, N 2 3 Nitrogen tetroxide, N 2 4 Nitrogen pentoxide, N 2 5 This system is very explicit, and might .advantageously be employed to a greater extent than it is. In some cases, however, this method of numeral pre984. fixes (983) in connection with the negative radicals is not applicable as, for instance, in compounds of mercury which contain the same number of atoms of the negative element but differ.

ent numbers of atoms of the positive element.

method is to prefix numerals to Thus we might say di-nitrogen monBut this oxide, di-nitrogen di-oxide, di-nitrogen tri-oxide, etc. would seem to be superfluous in the naming of the nitrogen oxides, because all of them contain two nitrogen atoms. In naming certain compounds of polyvalent radicals 986.
985.
still

more

explicit

both of the radicals.

the use of numerals as prefixes


explicit

is the most convenient as well as method. Thus we would distinguish normal sodium phosphate Na 3 PO, from Na 2 HP0 4 and NaH 2 P0 4 as follows: Na 3 P0 4 tri-sodium phosphate, or normal sodium phosphate. di-sodium hydrogen phosphate. Na 2 HP0 4 NaH 2 PO i sodium di-hydrogen phosphate.

= =

so-called peroxide of

call water di-hydrogen monoxide, and the hydrogen, H 2 2 might be called di hydrogen dioxide. NH 2 CH 3 is mono-methyl amine; NH(CH 3 2 is di methyl amine; and N(CH 3 ) 3 is tri-methyl amine. In organic chemistry the use of numeral prefixes is invaluable, as may

In a similar

manner we might

be seen in the following: Ethylene diamine

Diethylene diamine
Triethylene diamine

Diethylene triamine Triethylene triamine


Triethylene tetramine

= C H (NH = N (C H H = N (C H = N (C H H = N (C H H
2
4
2) 3

4)2

2 2
2

4 )3

4)2

6 3

4)3

=N4(C 3 H

4)3

9:

CHEMISTRY.
987.

The numeral

prefixes of

mono-, or mon-, di- or dis-,


tri- or iris-,
tetra-,

Greek origin are: meaning one or single. " two or twice.


" "
three or thrice.
four.
five.
six.

penta-,
hexa-,
hepta-,
octo-,

" "

"
"

seven.
eight.

ennea-,
deka-,

" "

nine.

988.

The

ten numeral prefixes of latin origin are:

un-, or uniduo-, or hi-, or bis-,


ter-,

or

tri,

quadri-, or quadra-

quinque-, or quinqui
j^ra- or jajwhepta-,
<v/0-

non-, or nona-, or nonideca- or </i-

= one or single = two or twice = three or thrice = four = = six = seven = eight = nine = ten
five

The oxides of chlorine might well be named in the same manner as the oxides of nitrogen, but they are usually
989.

named

as follows:

Hypoc\\\oxous oxide

C1 2

QMlorous Oxide

C1 2

ChlonV Oxide Cl 2 5 Perc\\\oric Oxide Cl 2 Or These names show the use of two terminal syllables, -ous and -*V, which are very frequently employed, and nearly always used when only two compounds containing the same elements are- to be distinguished from each other. There are also two prefixes, hypo- and per in the foregoing names of the oxides of chlorine. These and some other prefixes commonly employed in chemical
,

nomenclature

will

now be explained

together with the meaning

of the terminations -ic

and -ous. 990. The endings, -ic and -ous, give an adjective form to Thus the noun argentum^ the nouns to which thev are affixed.

CHEMISTRY.

293

turned into the adjectives argentic and argentous; the noun ferrum, meaning iron, is transformed into the adjectives ferric and ferrous; the word mercury into mercuric and mercurous; antimony into antimonic and antimonous; arsenic (or arsenum) into arsenic and arsenous; sulphur into sulphuric and sulphurous, etc. Lexicographically the adjectives argentous and argentic both mean silvern, mercuric and mercurous both mean mercurial, antimonic and antimonous both mean antimonial, arsenous and arsenic mean arsenical, and ferrous and ferric are adjectives which stand for and mean the same as the word

meaning

silver, is

iron in the expression iron mortar.


tion

But a Latin adjective with the termina-ic. Thus argentous compound means one containing contained in a ferric compound; mercur-

-ous

differs

in

degree from one with the ending

means more

silvern than argentic; a ferrous

a greater proportion of iron than is ous chloride contains relatively more mercury than mercuric chloride does; arsenous oxide contains a greater percentage of arsenic, or, which is the same, a smaller percentage of oxygen, than the arsenic oxide contains; etc.

Therefore,

when any two compounds, both


by

consisting of the

same two

radicals, are to be distinguished

different titles the

lesser proportion of the negative radical

one containing the greater proportion of the positive radical or is called an -ous compound; and the other, which contains the greater proportion of

the negative radical, or the lesser proportion of the positive radical, receives the name of an ic compound. Of the two chlorides of iron the higher chloride, containing proportionately

more
is

chlorine,

is

called ferric chloride, while the lower chloride, conto iron

taining less chlorine in proportion ferrous chloride.


is

than the other,

higher oxide

is

an

-ic oxide,

and a lower oxide

an -ous oxide. The endings 991.


different

-ic

and -ous are

sufficient to distinguish

two

there are

As there are only two chlorides of iron, it is sufficient to call one the ferrous chloride, and the other the ferric chloride. But when more than two different compounds are formed by the same two radicals, the terminations -ic and -ous are not only insufficient, but often mis-

compounds of the same two not more than two such compounds.

radicals, provided

applied, or even confusing.

294
992.

CHEMISTRY.

The additional

prefixes, other than

numerals, which

have been employed in chemical nomenclature, are: Super- and hyper-, meaning above, over, in excess. per-, meaning thorough, to the full extent, through. sesqui-, half-as-much more, or one and one-half. sub- and hypo-, under or below.
proto-, first or lower.
multi-,

or poly-, many.

normal, original. beyond, after, derived from, deviating, altered, different. pyro-, as produced by fire or high heat. para-, beside, beyond, different, changed.
ortho-, straight, regular,

meta-,

manganic acid means

Thus, super-oxide means a higher oxide; hyper-manganic acid or perthat acid of manganese which contains the greater pro-

which conwhich iron can combine; sesqui-chloride of iron (which is the same as the per-chloride and ferric chloride) means a chloride of iron containing one and one half times as much chlorine as the lower chloride contains; sub-chloride of mercury is the lower chloride of mercury, or calomel, or mercurous chloride, while per-chloride of mercury is the higher or mercuric chloride; hypochlorous oxide is a lower oxide than the chlorous oxide, and perchloric oxide is a higher oxide of chlorine than the
the chloride of iron
tains the greatest possible proportion of chlorine with

portion of oxygen; per-chloride of iron

means

chloric oxide, while chloric oxide

is a higher oxide than chlorous oxide; orthophosphoric acid means the ordinary phosphoric acid, but meta-phosphoric acid is a different phosphoric acid derived from the ortho phosphoric acid by II.O=HP0 3 ), and pyrothe subtraction of one molecule of water (H 3 PO^

phosphates are formed when either meta phosphates or orthophosphates are strongly heated; arabin is the acacia gum, but metarabin is a modified gum formed when acacia is subjected to heat; aldehyde has the formula C 2 H 4 0, and paraldehyde which has different properties is (C s H 4 0) 8 but the difference between them arises from the internal structure.
,

Nomenclature of Acids. Whenever any element 993. forms more than one acid-forming oxide, and accordingly has more than one acid, the different acids are distinguished from each other by names analogous to those given to the respective Thus, the acid formed by an -ous oxide is called an oxides. -ous acid; the acid formed by an -ic oxide is called an -ic acid; a hypoous oxide forms a hypoous acid, a per-ic oxide forms a
per-ic acid, etc.

CHEMISTRY.

295

Hypochlorous oxide forms hypochlorous acid, chlorous oxide forms chlorous acid, chloric oxide forms chloric arid, perchloric oxide forms perchloric acid, sulphurous oxide forms sulphurous acid, and sulphuric oxide forms sulphuric acid.
994. acids are

Nomenclature of Salts. The salts formed by -ic named after the acid by changing the terminal syllawhich
at the

ble of the adjective to -ate,

adjective into a substantive noun.


nitrates,

same time converts the Thus nitric acid gives


cashonates

suXxyhates are the salts

of

sulphur/V acid,

are formed by carbonzV acid, etc.


Salts

instead of -ate.
phites,

formed by -ous acids have names ending with -tie Thus hypophosphonwj- acid forms hypophosnitrous acid forms nitrites, sulphurous acid sulph/V^, and

hypochlorous acid hypochlorites. Other characteristic terminal syllables. The names given to 995. compound radicals generally end in -yl, as methyl ethyl, butyl, amyl, bismuthyl, nitrosyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl, phenyl, etc. Names of alcohols sometimes end with -ol, as in carbinol, phenol, cresol, thymol, etc.; but the same ending is unfortunately also used in the names of
other compounds, as in benzol, toluol, etc.

Aldehydes and
-at, as in chloral.

their derivatives are

sometimes given names ending with

in the names of hydrocarbons of the methane methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, etc. In the names of other hydrocarbons and their derivatives the terminal ene is oflen used, as in benzene, toluene, xylene,

The terminal -ane appears


in

series, as

naphthalene, anthracene,
In the

etc.

names

of alkaloids the

ending -ine

is

used, as in

strychnine,

aconitine, belladonnine, hyoscyamine, emetine, etc.

Simple derivatives of

ammonia, not containing oxygen, have names ending with the word amine, as
methyl-amine, ethyl-amine, propyl-amine, phenyl-amine, etc. Glucosides and other neutral principles have names ending with -in, as in salicin, populin, aloin, saponin, etc. Sugars receive technical names ending in -ose, as in sucrose or saccha-

But other carbohydrates also have received similarly constructed names, as, for instance, cellulose, which is not a sugar, but is the matter of which cotton, linen, and the
rose, glucose, la^vulose, maltose, melitose, mannitose, etc.

walls of vegetable cells consist.

296

CHEMISTRY.

CHAPTER

LVII.

LAWS GOVERNING THE DIRECTION AND COMPLETENESS OF CHEMICAL


REACTIONS.
996.

take

is

The course or direction which a chemical reaction may governed by various forces, among which the most

important are electro-chemical polarity, and the solubility or non-solubility and state of aggregation of one or more of the
products.

Malaguti's Law. In double decompositions between 997. substances in a state of solution "the most energetic acid tends to combine with the most powerful base." We may put
this

law more comprehensively and correctly


to the

in the

following

form: All chemical reactions tend

union of the strongest positive

with the strongest negative radical present.

To illustrate its application we will enumerate a few of the most important positive and negative radicals, respectively, in the order of their electro-chemical energy or position, and use the compounds produced by these radicals to show how the law operates.
Positive radicals.

Neg ative

radical V.

Potassium

Sodium
Calcium

K Na
Ca

Sulphate
Nitrate

n idical

SO,

NO
CI

Chloride

" "

Magnesium
Iron

Mg
Fe

Bromide
Iodide Tartrate Acetate

Br

Copper Mercury Hydrogen

Cu

Hg

QHA
C H
2
3

'

Carbonate
is

"

C0

In the preceding table potassium

the most powerful of

all

the positive radicals enumerated, then sodium, next calcium,

etc.,

down

to hydrogen,

which

is

a weaker electro-positive radical


the negative radicals the sulphate

than any of the others.


radical
is

Of

the strongest, and of the others included in this table,

CHEMISTRY.

297

the nitrate radical stands next to the sulphate radical, the chlorine, bromine, iodine, etc., down to the carbonate radical, which
is

the weakest of them

all.
is

Now, according
hydrogen sulphate,
rides,

to Malaguti's law, sulphuric acid (which

H S0
2

4)

must decompose
nitrate,

all nitrates,

chlo-

bromides, iodides, tartrates, acetates, and carbonates.


is

Nitric acid (which


all

hydrogen

chlorides, bromides, iodides, tartrates, acetates,

Hydrochloric acid (which is all bromides, iodides, tartrates, acetates and Potassium must displace sodium, calcium, carbonates, etc. magnesium, iron, copper, mercury and hydrogen from their compounds. Iron must take the place of copper, and copper in turn can usurp the place of mercury. Potassium being a stronger positive radical than copper, and the acetate radical being a weaker negative radical than the nitrate radical, if we mix a solution of potassium acetate with a solution of copper nitrate, there must be a reaction, resulting in the formation of potassium nitrate and copper acetate, for the reaction tends to the union of the strongest positive radical (potassium) with the strongest negative radical (the nitrate
ates.

must decompose and carbonhydrogen chloride, HC1)


s )

HNO

must decompose

radical).

In the same way and for the same reason following reactions:
2

we would

get the

6KC H
2 2

= K S0 +Mg(N0 = 6KCl+Fe (C H +MgBr = CaBr +Mg(C H Ca(C H KBr+FeS0 = K S0 +FeBr +Pb(N0 = Pb(C H Mg(C H Na C0 + HCl = NaCl+C0 + H
KN0 +MgS0
3
3

3) 8

+Fe
2) 2

Cl 6

2) 6 3 2) 2

2) 2

3) 2

8) 8

+ Mg(N0

3) a

Malaguti's law, as stated and illustrated above, holds good at ordinary temperatures if the products of the reaction are both soluble salts; but the reactions are not complete (998).
Berthollet's investigations prove that the operation of 998. Malaguti's law (997) is greatly modified by the relative masses of the factors of the reaction, and by the relative solubilities

298
of the possible products,

CHEMISTRY.

observed that a never quite complete unless one of the products of the reaction is either a volatile or an insoluble compound (999). Thus, while, in obedience to Malaguti's law, a solution of potassium chloride mixed with a solution of copper sulphate should produce potassium sulphate and copper chloride
it

and

has

been
is

reaction in accordance with Malaguti's law

CuSO +2KCl = K S0 +CuCl


t

the resulting liquid will in reality contain

all

of the four salts

named; a mixture made of sulphuric acid with a solution of sodium nitrate wiil contain sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sulphuric acid, and nitric acid; and a mixture made of a solution of magnesium sulphate with a solution of potassium tartrate will contain potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, potassium .tartrate and magnesium tartrate. These are the results obtained when the proportions of the compounds mixed are the proportions required by theory for
complete double decomposition according to the equations representing the reactions which should ensue according to
Malaguti's law.

But although the reactions which take place in accordance with this law do not progress to completion, the tendency of the reaction is unmistakable, and it is simply obstructed by physical
conditions.

between
if

Reactions, incomplete though they be, may thus take place salts in a state of solution without any outward sign

the factors and products of the reaction are colorless as well

as soluble.

of the Formation of Insoluble any two of the radicals taking part in a chemical reaction between salts in solution would produce an insoluble compound

Compounds. If

999.

Berthollet's

Law

if united to each other, then these radicals will unite. In other words, "when we cause two salts to react

by means

of a solvent,
salt

if,

in

the course of double decomposition, a

new

can be produced which is less soluble than those we have mixed, then that new and less soluble salt will be formed."

CHEMISTRY.

299

Or, whenever, in any double decomposition between compounds in


solution,

an

insoluble product is possible, then that insoluble product will

inevitably be formed.

This law

is

general in
all

its

operation
it

it

reactions in the direction which

indicates,

produces complete and it nullifies


in

Malaguti's law in
to each other.

cases

where the two laws are

opposition

A knowledge of the relative solubilities of chemical compounds, therefore, enables us to predict with certainty the direction of the reaction in all cases where the factors of the reaction
furnish the radicals required for the

products, and
aration of

it

also enables us to devise

formation of insoluble methods for the prep-

numerous substances.

that lead iodide is insoluble, we also know that it must be formed whenever a solution of any soluble lead salt is mixed with the soluKnowing that lead iodide is a yellow insoluble tion of any soluble iodide. solid, we know that we can not mix a solution of lead acetate or lead nitrate with a solution of potassium iodide, sodium iodide, of of the iodide of either

Knowing

ammonium,
cipitate.

calcium,

magnesium,
of

zinc, or iron,

without getting a yellow pre-

solution of

any one

the soluble salts of

any

of the

heavy metals can

not be mixed with a solution of any soluble hydrate, or carbonate, or phosphate, without producing a precipitate, for, as we know, the hydrates, carbonSalicylate of ates and phosphates of the heavy metals are all insoluble. quinine being insoluble in water we know that it would be impossible to mix an aqueous solution of hydrochlorate of quinine with a solution of sodium salicylate without getting a precipitate of quinine salicylate; but if enough

alcohol
that

is

present, in which the quinine salicylate is soluble, no precipitate of

will be obtained, although quinine salicylate is of course formed in accordance with Malaguti's law, but we might expect instead (if enough alcohol is present) a precipitate of sodium chloride, which, although

compound

soluble in water,
of alcohol.

is

not soluble in a liquid containing a considerable

amount

Most of the chemical incompatibilities met with in making extemporaneous liquid preparations arise from the formation of insoluble compounds. Hence the great importance of knowing the relative solubilities of chemicals. Common water, containing carbonates, chlorides, and sulphates, will not make clear solutions of the water-soluble salts of silver, lead, mercury, etc., because the carbonates, chlorides or sulphates of these and some other metals
and bases are
insoluble.

300
iooo.

CHEMISTRY.

Berthollet's law of the formation of volatile products. When dry heat is applied to a mixture of two compounds, if any volatile product can be formed by double decomposition, then that volatile product will be formed. Thus when ammonium chloride and calcium oxide are heated together, the products calcium chloride, ammonia and water are formed; when a mix-

ture of mercuric sulphate

and sodium chloride

is

heated, mercuric chloride

sublimes and sodium sulphate remains. It may be said in addition that compounds which
or

may

be split up into two*

more other compounds, of which one is volatile, are comparatively unstable and may be decomposed either by heat alone, or by double decomposition aided by heat, or even by double decomposition without the aid of heat. In
as a rule,

words, simple decomposition or double decomposition takes place, more readily when one or more of the products of the reaction are volatile than when no volatile products are formed.
cither

Thus carbonates are comparatively unstable; they are easily decomposed by even weak acids, and are split up by high heat. The student should here refer again to the action of heat upon salts (538).
1001. Whenever a chemical reaction ensues in accordance with the law of Malaguti (997), it progresses to completion provided one of the two products is gaseous, as in the decomposition of carbonates, sulphites, etc., by stronger acids. 1002. It will now be readily understood by the student that the synthetical and analytical reactions applied in the production of chemical compounds and in analytical work are based
chiefly

upon the laws

of Malaguti
to

just been presented

and

and Berthollet which have which indirect reference has been

made

also in the preceding pages.

CHEMISTRY.

301

CHAPTER
1003.

LVIII.

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION.


Oxidation.

To induce any metal

or other element,
is

or any compound, to take up or unite with oxygen that element or compound.

to oxidize

Zinc oxide

may be made by
is

heating the metal strongly

in free access of air.

slow or rapid,

Combustion in oxygen or air, whether oxidation. To cause a lower oxide to take


so
as
to

up more oxygen

form a higher oxide and

to con-ic salt

vert an -ous acid into an -ic acid, or an -ous salt into an must also be called oxidation. Thus when an arsenite

is converted into an arsenate, a sulphite into a sulphate, or phosphorous acid into phosphoric acid, or nitrogen dioxide into nitrogen

tetroxide, oxidation takes place. But the direct union of oxygen with an element, or the addition 1004. of oxygen to any compound, or the introduction of oxygen into a molecule, is not the only methods of oxidation possible. The proportion of oxygen in a molecule may be indirectly increased by removing some other element. When alcohol, C2H5OH, is changed to aldehyde, C2H4O, this change is really effected by oxidation because two atoms of the hydrogen of the alcohol are oxidized to water and thereby removed from the C2H5OH, leaving C 2 H40, which at the same time contains a greater proportion of oxygen than is contained in the alcohol, for alcohol contains 16 parts of oxygen in 30, while the aldehyde contains 16 parts in 28. 1005. When the ferrous sulphate is converted into ferric

sulphate by means of nitric acid, it phuric and nitric acids used that

is

is

the hydrogen of the suloxidized to water at the

expense of the nitrate radical, thus:

3Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 +N 2 2 + 4 H 2 0, 6FeS0 4 +3H 8 S0 4 + 2 HN0 3 and when ferrous chloride is converted into ferric chloride with hydrochloric and nitric acids the hydrogen of the acids is oxidized to water, while the chlorine from the hydrochloric acid raises
the ferrous chloride to ferric:

6FeCl 2+ 6HCl+2HN0 3 Both reactions are instances

3 Fe 2 Cl 6

+N

2+4 H 2 0.

of oxidation.

The following reaction is also an example of oxidation: As 2 3 +2NaN0 3 +Na 2 C0 3 ==Na 4 As 2 +N 2 3 +C0 2
7
.

302
Nitric acid
is

CHEMISTRY.
also

decomposed by organic substances, the molecule of nitric acid being split up into the two radicals, N0 2 and HO, of which it is composed, and the group NO a is thus made to enter into the organic molecule, where it replaces one atom of hydrogen, this hydrogen uniting with the hydroxyl to form water, as when cotton is converted into gun-cotton:

C 19 H M O l0 +6HNO = C 12 H 14 (O.N0 2 +6H 0. The oxidizing agents are either oxygen itself or some oxygen compound which readily gives up all or a portion
s
4

)6

1006.

its oxygen, such as nitric acid and other nitrates, chromic anhydride, potassium permanganate, potassium chlorate, man-

of

ganese dioxide,
1007.

etc.

Chlorine and the other halogens may act as indirect oxidizing agents in organic chemistry by removing hydrogen from the organic compounds; or, still more indirectly, by first introducing chlorine in the place of
the hydrogen of the molecule,

and subsequent introduction

of

hydroxyl

to take

the place of the chlorine, which can be effected with

some

metallic
It

hydrate.
is

1008.

Reduction

is

the opposite of oxidation.

the

removal of oxygen from a molecule, or the diminution of its proportion by the introduction of other elements into the same molecule, or the replacement of a portion or all of the oxygen by some other radical. The reduction of oxides to metals is sometimes easily accomplished by heat alone, as in the case of the oxides of silver, mercury and gold. Reducing Agents are substances having a strong 1009. affinity for oxygen, either at ordinary temperatures or when strongly heated with the oxygen compound. Carbon and hydrogen are often employed as reducing agents. Thus, iron ore is reduced to metallic iron by smelting it down in a furnace with charcoal, and " reduced iron " of the Pharmacopoeia is made by passing a current of hydrogen over oxide of iron heated to redness. Sulphurous acid and other sulphites are also sometimes used as effective reducing agents. Less effective reducing agents are glycerin, alcohol, sugar, tannin, and many other organic substances.

CHEMISTRY.

30,3

CHAPTER

LIX.

NEUTRALIZATION.
Soluble normal salts are most frequently prepared by1010. neutralizing the proper acids by the proper bases, or by metals,

Thus any soluble sulphate maybe prooxides, or carbonates. duced by neutralizing sulphuric acid, any acetate by neutralizing acetic acid, etc., by the requisite metal, oxide, base or carbonate. Test papers. Litmus is a blue coloring matter 1011. made from certain lichens. Acids turn it red. Alkalies restore

the blue color.

When

suitable unsized paper, like thin, white

filter

paper,

is

dipped in a

weak solution of litmus and then dried it forms what is called " test paper." The solution of litmus used for this purpose is made with weak alcohol, and when used without the addition of acid it forms blue litmus paper, which is turned red by acids, by certain acid salts, and by some normal salts in which
the acid radical
is

a powerful one while the positive radical


is

is

comparatively

weak.
so that

If

the litmus tincture

treated with a

little

diluted hydrochloric acid

its blue color is just changed to red, then paper dipped in this liquid and dried constitutes red litmus paper, which is turned blue by soluble bases and by some salts of strong bases with weak acids. The litmus solution or tincture may be made of one ounce powdered

litmus to ten fluidounces diluted alcohol; macerate for a day, shaking occasionally,

and then

filter.

1012.

Whenever

it is

stated in the Parmacopceia or in any

other book that any certain substance has " an acid reaction on test paper," or that it exhibits an acid reaction, the statement means that the substance turns blue litmus red; whenever a substance is said to give an alkaline reaction, this means that it turns red litmus blue; and when a liquid or substance has a neutral reaction
it

does not change either the blue or the red litmus paper. Remember that acids turn blue litmus red, that alkalies turn red litmus
and
that neutral salts do not effect litmus paper at
all.

blue,

Certain other blue vegetable colors are affected by acids and alkalies in precisely the same way as litmus.

When a strong acid and a strong base neutralize 1013. each other the normal salt formed has a neutral reaction on test
paper.

304
Thus,
if

CHEMISTRY.

you put 200 grains of diluted acetic acid in a beaker, or in a graduate, and then add ammonia water, a little at a time, until the liquid no longer turns blue litmus paper red, but not so long that the liquid will
turn

red

litmus blue

in
;

other

words,

until

the

reaction

is

neutral
;

you have used just 31 grains of water of ammonia the diluted acetic acid turns blue litmus paper red, and the ammonia water turns red litmus paper blue but if you mix exactly 200 grains of strictly pharmayou
will find that

copceial diluted acetic acid with exactly 34 grains of water of

ammonia
is

of
too

precisely the strength prescribed by the Pharmacopoeia,


the resulting liquid has a neutral reaction.
If,

you
too

will

find that

however, the acetic acid

weak

the reaction will be alkaline, and

if

the

ammonia

is

weak

the reac-

tion will be acid.

In

making the

solution of acetate of
is

macopoeia, diluted acetic acid


is,

neutralized with
little
is

ammonium according to the Pharammonium carbonate; that


at a time,
t
>

carbonate of

ammonium

is

added, a

the diluted acetic

acid until

the reaction

of the solution

neutral to test paper, or litmus

paper.
In testing liquids with litmus paper to ascertain their reaction, it 1014. necessary that the coloring matter of the paper (the litmus) be soluble in or wetted by the liquid, for otherwise the color is not affected. Thus, to test
is
it is necessary to moisten the litmus paper with water before applying the ether to it. In testing solutions obtained by neutralizing acids with carbonates, it may be the case that the solution is charged

strong ether, for instance,

") and will, therefore, give an acid reaceven if the acid has been neutralized by the carbonate; if the liquid be heated sufficiently to expel the " carbonic acid gas," or carbon dioxide, the reaction obtained will, however, be true and may be found to be neutral notwithstanding the fact that it was acid before the liquid was

with carbon dioxide (" carbonic acid


tion

on

test paper,

heated.

always alkaline in reaction, although salts of an acid constitution that is, salts still containing replaceable positive hydrogen may have a decidedly alkaline reaction, as, for instance, potassium bicarbonate (acid carbonate of potassium), which at once turns red litmus paper blue. But this is because the carbonate radical is a very weak negative radical, while potassium is the
1015.
salts are

Some

they are normal

salts,

and even

strongest positive radical.

Several normal salts of iron, zinc,


acids,

etc.,

with the stronger

have an acid reaction, and even the basic ferric sulphate This is because the sulphate radical is a gives an acid reaction.

CHEMISTRY.

305

very powerful negative radical, while the iron is not sufficiently strongly positive to neutralize it as to its effect on vegetable
colors.
that a normal salt, which is with a neutral reaction on test paper, and that a salt having such a reaction is not necessarily a normal or neutral salt chemically. In other words neutrality to test paper and neutrality as to chemical structure or composition are two wholly different things.
It is,

therefore, to be

always borne
does not

in

mind
salt

often called a neutral

salt,

mean a

Soluble salts can not advantageously be prepared by 1016. double decomposition except when the bye-product is insoluble, so that the reaction is complete. But they can be made from,
acids

by neutralization or saturation.

Sulphate of zinc can be made by dissolving zinc in diluted sulphuric acid^ All thatis necessary in this case is to add enough zinc a little more than the-

acid can dissolve


solve any

and to let the acid act upon the


it.

metal until

it

will not dis

The zinc will continue to dissolve just as long as there but when all the acid has been saturated, or turned into zinc is any acid left sulphate, no more zinc can be dissolved, for zinc is insoluble in' a solution of Similar results are obtained in many other cases when its own sulphate.
more
of
;

metals are dissolved in acids

but not in

all, for

sometimes basic
zinc,

salts are

formed
If,

used in excess. instead of zinc, we should add the oxide of


if

the metal

is

or zinc hydrate, or

zinc

carbonate, to the diluted sulphuric acid, the

final result

would be the

same

zinc sulphate
the

is

obtained in either case.

If

proportions of acid and metal, oxide, hydrate, or carbonate are

exactly those required by theory, according to the chemical reaction,

a nor-

mal

salt will

generally be obtained; or,

if

the metal, oxide, hydrate or car-

is insoluble in a solution of the normal salt formed with the acid used, an excess of either of them may be added to the acid with the assurance that a normal salt is formed, and the bye-products in these reactions are either gases which pass off or water which is unobjectionable. When one of the products of a reaction is either a gas or water the reaction also progresses to com-

bonate

pletion.

When

carbonates are dissolved in acids the gas


(1026).

C0 2

together with:

water are the bye-products

1017.

tralization or double decomposition are

The proportions required by theory to an even neushown by the chemical


Zn +
65

equations which represent the reactions:

H S0 =
3 4

ZnSOi +
161

H
2

98

306
Thus
it

CHEMISTRY.
requires
time.
it

make
at the

161

pounds

of zinc sulphate,

same

sulphate of zinc,

and 98 pounds of sulphuric acid to and 2 pounds of hydrogen will be formed As the hydrogen is a light gas insoluble in solution of easily passes off. But these proportions are theoretically
65

pounds

of zinc

right only in case the sulphuric acid

is

absolute (or <z//sulphuric acid,


is.

H 2 S0 4 ,or

100 per cent, strength), which

it

never

The sulphuric

acid of the pharma-

copoeia and of the market

is generally of from 96 to 98 per cent, strength, or contains from 96 to 9S percent. If it should contain 98 per cent., then a S0 4 of course 100 pounds of it would be required for 65 pounds of zinc, for 100

pounds of a sulphuric acid of 9S per cent, strength would of course be equal to On the other hand, as the zinc ought to be used in 98 pounds of H 2 SC) 4 excess, 98 pounds of ordinary sulphuric acid is sufficient for 65 pounds of zinc and 100 pounds of ordinary sulphuric acid (equal to 98 pounds of H,S0 4 ) would require a little more than 65 pounds of zinc. Again Zn + 2HCI ZnCl a + H
.

65

73

136

This reaction indicates that 73 pounds of HC1 must be used

for

65

pounds of ZnCl B It is, of course, 73 pounds of absolute HC1 and not 73 pounds of the hydrochloric acid as we find it in
to

pounds of zinc
the market;

make

136

that in order to get 73

the hydrochloric acid used contains only 31.9 per cent, of HO, so pounds of HC1 we must take 229 pounds of the ordi-

nary acid.

CHAPTER
PRECIPITATK
I0l8.
liquids.

LX.
>.\.

Precipitation

is

the formation of insoluble solids in


in liquids,

Precipitation can occur only

and the

precipitate

is

always

solid.

Precipitation results

into insoluble matter, or

when the dissolved matter is converted when the solvent is changed so as u>
is

become a non-solvent.

When
When

the dissolved matter

changed that change


is

is

the

result of chemical reaction.

the liquid in which the precipitation

caused to take

CHEMISTRY.

37

place becomes changed from a solvent to a non-solvent while

the previously dissolved matter remains the

same

in kind, this

change

generally produced by the addition of a non-solvent miscible with the first liquid. Thus resins, camphor and other alcohol-soluble substances insoluble in
in the liquid is

water are precipitated from their alcoholic solutions on the addition of water, and gums, albumin, and other water-soluble substances insoluble in alcohol are precipitated from their water solutions by the addition of alcohol. Precipitation resulting from a change in the liquid, by which it is 1019. rendered incapable of holding the dissolved matter any longer in solution, is sometimes called "physical precipitation" because it is a purely physical phenomenon unaccompanied by any chemical change. The formation of new and insoluble solids in a liquid by chemical reactions is called " chemical precipitation."

The separation of solid matter from a solution by a reduction of 1020. temperature, or by loss of a portion of the solvent from evaporation, is not but crystallization. precipitation, usually
Nor is the separation of a liquid from its solution upon the addition of a non-solvent called precipitation, as for instance the separation of castor oil from its solution in alcohol by the addition of water.
1021. Precipitation frequently takes place as the result of slow chemical reactions caused by the influence of changes of temperature, the action of light or of air, and other natural causes. But by far the most frequent cause of precipitation is the intentional

mixing of two or more substances, generally

in the

form

of solution for the purpose of producing certain products or for

analytical purposes,

result of double chemical decomposition attended

and these intentional precipitations are the by the formachemical compounds are insoluble

tion of insoluble products.

1022.
in water,

A great number of

and these compounds can, therefore, usually be pre-

pared by double decomposition. Moreover, the value of many of the most important analytical reagents depends upon precipitations caused by them. Precipitation is accordingly of very great importance in chemistry and pharmacy. But this chapter will be devoted wholly to the consideration
of precipitation as a synthetical process.

308
1023.

CHEMISTRY.

For the preparation of insoluble pharmaceutical chemby double decomposition is found to be a more advantageous method in a great majority of instances than any other. To produce precipitation by double decomposition 1024. there must be two factors of the reaction. One of these is called the precipitand and the other is the precipitant.
icals precipitation

The precipitand is always a liquid. The vessel in which precipitation is


the precipitating
vessel.

to be

performed

is

called

It

may be

a beaker, a wide-mouthed

bottle, a stone jar, a barrel, or

to the quantities operated

any other suitable vessel, according upon and the nature of the materials.

The precipitand is the liquid first put in the precipitating vessel; and the precipitant is the other factor of the reaction which must be added to the precipitand.
It is

obvious from the preceding statements that you can

make
will.

either

of the two substances used the precipitand or the precipitant at

Which-

ever solution you place in the precipitating vessel first is by reason of that fact alone the precipitand, and the other must consequently be the precipitant and must be added to the precipitand. But we shall soon see that it makes a vital difference which of the two substances is used as a precipitand.

The

precipitant

may

be either a liquid, a

solid, or a gas.

and the precipitant are liquids. generally solutions of salts. Solutions which are to be used for the preparation of chemical products by precipitation must be perfectly clear; they are invariably to be filtered through good white filter
paper, unless so corrosive as to disintegrate the paper; or, if they can not be filtered through paper, they must be allowed to

1025. cipitand

The

best results are obtained

when both They are

the pre-

stand long enough to become clear by the subsidence of any


solid particles in them, or by filtration through asbestos or glass

wool, or in some other effective manner.


solutions constitute the precipitand and very generally the case, they must be mixed with each other in just the order and manner required by the circumstances of each case and the course of the ensuing reaction. When they have been properly mixed and the double
1026.
precipitant, as
is

When two

CHEMISTRY.

309

decomposition completed, there are usually two products of the reaction contained in the precipitating vessel. One of these is the precipitate or insoluble solid, which is usually the principal product, and the other is the soluble matter held in solution in
the liquid.

which the precipitate is formed is sometimes which term is also used to designate the liquid remaining after the deposition of crystals from a solution. The matter held in solution in the mother liquor is usually the secondary product, or bye-product. It sometimes happens, however, that the soluble product is the principal product, and the preliquid in

The

called the mother liquor,

cipitate a bye-product.

When
tom
is

the precipitate

is

heavy enough

to

descend to the bot-

of the vessel, leaving the greater part of the liquid stand-

ing over it and free from solid particles, then the mother liquor frequently referred to as the supernatant liquid.
1027.

Proportions of the Factors of Reaction. The two factors of the reaction necessary to complete mutual decomposition are, of course, easily calculated from the molecular weights in accordance with the chemical
relative quantities of the

equation representing the reaction.


if we want to make mercuric iodide we must have a soluble mercompound and a soluble iodide as our materials; we select mercuric chloride and potassium iodide as the most convenient and suitable. The

Thus,

curic

reaction between

them would be HgCl 2 + 2KI 271 2X166


:

Hgl 3
454

4-

2KC1.
2X74-6.
;

The molecular weight of mercuric chloride is 271 of potassium iodide, but two molecules of potassium iodide are necessary, as seen by the equation, so that 2X166 or 332 parts of it must be taken for 271 parts of mer166
;

curic chloride; these


iodide,

materials will give as products 454 parts of mercuric

or 149 parts of potassium chloride. To prove the correctness of these quantities add together the numbers on each side

and

2X746

271

454

and
332
149

603

603

3IO

CHEMISTRY.
The sums
are equal and, therefore, correct
it is, if

the reaction

is

correctly rep-

resented by the equation, as in this case


of
tal

by the valences the four radicals Hg, K, I and CI, and the fact that the same four elemenradicals, and the same number of atoms of each of them, are to be found
for
will find
sides.
It is

you

on both

1028.

evident that

if

exactly 271 ounces of mercuric chloride and

if the reaction between them decomposed, then we would get exactly 454 ounces of mercuric iodide and 149 ounces of potassium chloride. In some cases the exact proportions required by theory (according to the equation representing the reaction) are the proper proportions; but in by far the greater number of cases of double decomposition it is absolutely necessary to vary these proportions and to use an excess of the precipiiand

332 ounces of potassium iodide are used, and

is

complete, so that every grain of each

is

(1024).

The theoretical proportions will not do when it is necessary to insure complete decomposition of at least one of the factors of the reaction the precipitant; and this is generally necessary to insure a pure product.
1029.

As

a rule that factor of the reaction

which supplies

the positive radical of the product


factor,

must be completely decom;

posed and must, be used as the precipitant while the other which furnishes the negative radical of the product must accordingly be used in excess of the amount required by theory, and must be the precipitand. In such a case, at the end of the reaction, all of the precipitant is completely decomposed, while a small quantity of the precipitand remains in the mother liquor together with the bye product(io26). Any considerable deviation from the proportions required by theory would, however, involve unnecessary loss or waste, so that the excess used of the precipitand is to be moderate.
In the production of mercuric iodide from mercuric chloride and potassium
iodide (1027) the potassium iodide must be used in excess, and its solution must therefore be put in the precipitating jar first, because the mercuric

chloride which furnishes the positive radical (Hg) of the product

(Hgl 2 must
)

be completely decomposed.

ucts

The Solutions employed in making chemical prod1030. by precipitation must be of suitable degree of strength and
in the

temperature; and they must be mixed ually and with brisk stirring.

proper order, grad-

CHEMISTRY.
Dilute and cold solutions generally tend to produce
divided, light

3II
finely-

and bulky precipitates, while strong and hot solutions, as a rule, produce coarser and heavier precipitates. 1031. Physical character of the precipitate. This depends upon several conditions. Aside from the fact that each particular substance has a tendency toward a given form or

physical condition,

may

it is generally the case that this condition be more or less modified by external influences, as has been indicated with regard to the degree of strength and temperaInstant precipitation usually ture of the solutions (1030). results in a finely divided product, while a precipitate slowly

formed may be coarser.


hot solutions are employed and the substance precipinot insoluble in hot water the precipitate will be distinctly crystalline, whereas the same substance can be obtained in very fine powder when precipitated from cold liquids.
tated
is

When

Precipitates vary, then, in density, state of division, and form according to their chemical composition, and the conditions under which they were formed. They may be light or heavy, fine or coarse, amorphous or crystalline, gelatinous or curdy, pulverulent or stringy, etc. The precipitate is frequently materially affected by 1032. Experience has continued contact with the mother liquor. demonstrated that in some cases it is necessary to allow the precipitate to remain in the liquid for a time before it is washed, while in other cases it is necessary to remove it from the liquor The method of procedure must, therefore, as soon as possible. be determined in each case according to the requirements. 1033. As the precipitate is in contact with the second product in the liquid, it is not sufficient to simply collect and dry it, but it must be washed first.

The washing and


pharmaceutical ways.
If

collection

of precipitates in synthetical

processes

may

be

accomplished

in

various

the precipitate

is

precipitating vessel, the washing

heavy so as to sink to the bottom of the may be effected by affusion and

3 I2

CHEMISTRY.

decantation of water.

After the precipitate has been formed and allowed to subside, the mother liquor may be decanted, or poured Then the preoft", or it may be removed by means of a siphon.
cipitating vessel
tate stirred
is filled

up with pure water, and the


this water, after

precipi-

which subsidence is allowed to take place again, and as soon as the precipitate and the supernatant liquid, which now consists of wash water or washings, have separated, the wash water is immediately again decanted and the vessel filled up with pure water. This alternate affusion and decantation of water is repeated several times, being continued until the washings no longer contain any soluble matter, which may be detected by the taste as long as the amount is considerable and by chemical tests when less. When the precipitate is very light and large quantities operated upon, the washing may be effected by mixing the magma (a finely divided, bulky, light precipitate which does not readily separate from the liquid is called a "magma") with water in a suitable vessel, and then pouring the mixture upon a muslin strainer, so that the wash water may run off; then returning the magma to the vessel again to be mixed with a fresh portion of pure water and pouring the mixture again upon the strainer as

up well with

many times as may be necessary. small quantities of precipitates are best washed on a paper filter, the wash water being in this case poured over the
before, repeating this as

Wry

precipitate in the

more water
precipitate

is

filter and allowed to run through, after which added, and the washing thus continued until the

is

freed from the soluble matter.


is

The washing some cases with


temperature
IO34.
is

sometimes effected with hot water, and

in

alcohol or other liquids, but water of

common

for this purpose. completed, the wet precipitate is put on a paper filter or a muslin strainer, according to quantity, and allowed to stand until drained free from the end washings as far as practicable, after which the moist product is spread out on paper or muslin to dry.
in

most cases employed


is

When

the washing

Sometimes the precipitate retains the water so tenaciously

CHEMISTRY,

313

that it is necessary to expedite the work by forcibly pressing The magma or other precipitate is for this purthe water out. pose put in a press cloth or press bag and the water squeezed

out of

it

by means

of a screw press.

it is necessary to bear in mind that substances are decomposed or altered by contact with the air or by the influence of light, and such precipitates as are liable to be injured in this way must be protected as far as

In drying precipitates

many

possible.

lieat;

Sometimes the drying process may be hastened by the aid of but in many cases the product is damaged by heat. 1035. When the precipitate has been dried (it must be made perfectly dry) it is powdered and sifted through a fine sieve,
unless already in uniformly fine powder.

PART

III.

ABOUT DRUGS.

PART

III.

ABOUT DRUGS.
CHAPTER
LXI.
INTRODUCTORY.
All substances used to relieve or remove 1036. Medicines. They include crude drugs, pain or disease are called medicines.

medicinal chemicals, and pharmaceutical preparations. 1037. Crude Drug's are medicines consisting of natural or unprepared products derived from the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms, such as minerals, plants or parts of plants, exudations like gums, resins and oleoresins, and animals or animal substances like cantharides, castor, musk, etc. Many substances not in their natural state, but more or less prepared, are, however, also called crude drugs when common articles of commerce aside from their pharmaceutical and medicinal uses, or articles not prepared by pharmacists or chemists, as oils, etc. Inorganic Drugs are those derived from the mineral 1038. kingdom, either in the natural state, or such as have passed through some process of manufacture or purification, but not yet in a condition suitable for medicinal applications: For Ex. Native sulphide of antimony, lime, impure sulphates of iron, zinc, magnesium and copper, sugar of lead, litharge, common potash,
borax, alum, soda, sulphur, commercial acids, etc. Organic Drugs are crude drugs derived from the 1039.
817

318

ABOUT DRUGS.

vegetable and animal worlds. animal drugs few.


1040. drugs.

The

plant drugs are numerous,

Vegetable Drugs

are the

most important
at

of

all

There are thousands of plants which have been


to eight hundred are commerce. In the
still

one time

or another used for medicinal purposes, and of these about six

used sufficiently to be articles of

Pharmacopoeias of the United States, Great Britain,

Germany, France and Sweden there are very nearly 600 vegethan than 100 in two pharmacopoeias only. But one-fifth of these drugs are not active medicinal substances being used only pharmaceutically in preparations employed as vehicles for other and more active medicinal substances, or as flavoring agents, etc. Plant drugs sometimes consist of the entire plant 1041. sometimes of several of its organs but generally of only one
official in all five, less

table drugs, of

which about 100 are


little

60 in four only, a

over 40

in three only,

and

less

plant part, as the root,

leaf, seed,

bark, flowers,

etc.

Other

vegetable drugs consist of starches, crude gums, resins, gumresins, oleoresins, fixed oils, volatile oils, etc.

Animal Drugs were at one time more common than At present the only drugs of animal origin contained in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States are Suet, wax, spermaceti, lard, lard oil, cod liver oil, pepsin, ox-gall, castor, musk, cantharides, cochineal, isinglass, and yolk of egg. Chemicals are substances of definite chemical com1043.
1042.

now.

position, such as oxides, hydrates, acids, salts, chlorides, bro-

mides, iodides,

etc., prepared by chemical manufacturers or pharmaceutical chemists. The chemicals are, of course, grouped into two classes inorganic chemicals derived from materials belonging to the mineral kingdom, and organic chemicals derived from plants or animals, or from hydrocarbons. Pharmaceutical Chemistry is the chemistry of 1044. pharmacy. It includes not only the study of chemistry, in its
:

ABOUT DRUGS.
relations to the preparation, identification

319

and examination

of

medicinal chemicals, both inorganic and organic, but also the study of the chemical constituents of the crude drugs, and the chemistry of "dispensing."

Pharmaceutical Preparations are medicines preconvenient forms for direct administration or application, such as solutions, powders, pills, mixtures, syrups, tinctures, extracts, liniments, ointments, plasters, gargles, injections,
1045.

pared

in

suppositories, etc.

Galenical Preparations are pharmaceutical prepa1046. rations prepared by methods which do not include any chemical
reactions or changes.

When the constituents of the preparation are simply mixed, or when the active principles of a drug are extracted by means of simple solvents, the product is a Galenical preparation and the method of preparing it is a Galenical process. It is named so after Galen, a celebrated physician who lived in the second century and whose teachings were of the highest authority for about thirteen or fourteen centuries. Galen's medicines were, of course, limited to teas, decoctions, tinctures, vinegars, electuaries, and other preparations in no way dependent upon a knowledge of chemistry, a science which was unknown in Galen's time. When chemistry at last became an inportant power in the hands of the pharmacist there were warm controversies between the adherents of Galen and the disciples of Paracelsus, Valentine, and others who introduced chemicals into the Materia Medica. Materia Medica is the Latin for medicinal substances, 1047. and as commonly used the term is synonomous with pharmaIn its more appropriate application materia medica cology. means simply the materials from which medicines are prepared. In this sense the term has been used in pharmacopoeias and other books thus the medicines were divided into two classes, one class comprising the " materia medica list," and the other the "preparations."
;

320

ABOUT DRUGS.

For the purpose of classifying medicines by placing 1048. the crude drugs, or raw materials, in one group and the preparations to be made from them into another, the expressions pharmaca simplicia, " simple medicines," and J>/iarmaca prceparavda " medicines to be prepared," have also been used. But a considerable number of pharmaceutical sub1049. stances or materials have no medicinal action, being used simply
%

as diluents,

solvents, vehicles, bases, excipients,

flavoring or

sweetening ingredients, etc. For the sake of convenience these are treated as if they were drugs, and the general term Materia Pharmaceutica is used to designate all substances used in the preparation of medicines whether these substances be medicinally active or inert.

Among
etc.

the materia pharmaceutica not possessing medicinal

activity are water, sugar, starch, lard, wax, glycerin, tragacanth,


tdp^aKov, " medicine," and ao V o?, branch of the study of medicine which treats of the Materia Medica, and of the sources, commercial history, preparations, effects, uses and doses of medicinal

1050.

Pharmacology (from
is

"discourse")

that

substances.
It

enumerates the individual preparations

<>r

forms of admin-

istration used or useful, but does not treat of the general principles,

processes and manipulations of pharmacy.

1051.
ywao-is,

Pharmacognosy
is

(from

twnucor,

"medicine,"

and

"knowledge")

that branch of the study of medicines

which treats of the natural origin, appearance, structure and other means of identification of organic drugs. The study of pharmacognosy necessarily demands a fair knowledge of the organs, tissues, and microscopical structure of plants, and also a sufficient general knowledge of systematic
botany. Botanical drugs are sometimes so nearly alike that necessary to resort to the microscope to remove doubt.
1052.
it

is

Identification

of

Medicinal

Substances.

The
and

ability to identify or recognize individual drugs, chemicals

ABOUT DRUGS.

32

pharmaceutical preparations is extremely valuable, since it is Many of the means of detecting and preventing mistakes. these substances may easily be recognized with the aid of the Familiarity with the physical senses sight, smell and taste. more important drugs, chemicals and pharmaceuticals that possess striking physical characteristics should, therefore, be cultivated. Crude drugs, especially, may often and with certainty be recognized by the form, color, odor and taste. In other cases we may not be able to positively identify a drug by these physical properties, and yet when a mistake has been made we may detect it by our ability to at least see that the article before us is not what it should be. But, although the external appearance and other physical properties of medicines should be familiar to us, and are the most valuable aids in detecting oravoiding errors, yet we must also make use of such other aids as we can render available for this purpose.

good knowledge

of plant structure

and plant organs, and

ability to

use the microscope, are necessary to proficiency in

pharmacognosy.

identify chemical substances

knowledge of chemistry is requisite to by appropriate qualitative tests

and chemistry frequently aids us in identifying even Galenical preparations which are the most difficult of medicines to identify. Notwithstanding the difficulties, every good pharmacist
should be able to identify such common preparations as the tinctures of opium, rhubarb, aloes or arnica; he should immediately recognize the odors of jalap, ipecac, aloes or any other drugs which are equally characteristic in this respect. Varieties of Drugs. Of many crude drugs there !053Thus we have several varieties of ginger, are several varieties. cinnamon, sarsaparilla, catechu, cinchona, senna, etc. It is important that in each such case the particular variety or varieties intended should be plainly specified or described. Whenever any two varieties of the same drug differ greatly from each other they are in fact to be distinguished from each other as if they were different drugs, which, in effect, they really are.

322
1054.
If
it

ABOUT DRUGS.
Grades. Each
drug should be
it

in

good condition.

should be gathered at the proper season and the right stage of development, it should be properly cleaned and garbled; and carefully dried and preserved so as to be perfectly sound. But climate, soil and season, together with various other influences affect the quality of drugs to so great an extent that there are nearly always different grades of each drug. The elevation at which the plant grows may increase or diminish its medicinal value. Wild growing plants frequently differ from the cultivated as to their virtues. If to these causes of variation be now added the ignorance, or carelessness, or accidents by which the drugs are gathered too early or too late, in unsuitable weather, from plants that are too young or too old, or from unsound plants, or are badly cleaned and dried, and ill preserved, it is not a matter of surprise that there are widely differing grades of drugs. When several grades of the same drug are simultaneously found in the market the competent, conscientious and prudent pharmacist will, of course, select the best. Sometimes the differences are so great as to be self-evident. Thus no one can fail to observe the difference between dry, sound, well-preserved, bright flowers, and mouldy, discolored ones; between lean ergot grains scarcely half an inch long and plump ergot over an inch in length; between green, healthy-looking leaves and brown or yellow, faded ones; between a sample having the proper strong characteristic odor of the drug, and one either having no odor at all or an odor not belonging to the sound drug; or between a drug full of inert stems, wood, sticks and stones, and another quite clean and free from all impurities or admixtures. But it happens most frequently that it requires special knowledge and training, such as only well educated and experienced pharmacists possess, to distinguish between good, bad and indifferent grades of the same drug As the vegetable drugs are not only the most, numer1055.
consists of a plant part

ABOUT DRUGS.
ous, but also the

323.

most important

of the materia medica, a


is

good

knowledge

of pharmaceutical

botany

necessary to every intelAd 7 o?,

ligent pharmacist.

Morphology (from w^t, "form," and


of the organs of plants
relations.
root,
leaf,

"

discourse ") treats

and their forms, transformations, and


external

The study

of the conspicuous organs of plants (as

flower, seed) as to their

conformation

is

also called organography.


flowers, fruits

Ability to distinguish between roots and stems, leaves and and seeds, etc., is acquired by the study of organis

ography, and
of

a necessary preparation for the s}^stematic study

pharmacognosy (105 1). A fair knowledge of the minute details of plant structure, or of the tissues of plants and the cells of which these tissues are composed, is also necessary to the intelligent study and identification of drugs. This is called vegetable histology, and sometimes micro-botany.
Finally, the acquisition of a sufficient knowledge of botany and pharmacognosy absolutely requires the use of scientific terminology and nomenclature. Technical terminology is, indeed, necessary to satisfactory progress in any scientific study. By technical terminology is meant a system of precise words or terms, suitable for constructing brief accurate descriptions and for exact expressions and descriptions of facts, conditions and ideas. A good technical term or word expresses a great deal, and expresses it accurately. Some valuable technical terms are so expressive that in their absence it would require a great number of words to express their meaning without ambiguity.

right study of science serves to teach the student to use

his five senses with fidelity,

and

to report with accuracy

what

they perceive. He learns to see all that is to be seen, not with and he learns also to state his imagination, but with his eyes no more, and no less. But quickness and just what he sees truthfulness of observation and reasoning must be followed by

accurate expression, and hence science has formed for

itself

324

ABOUT DRUGS.

language by which knowledge maybe faithfully preserved, communicated and increased. That language embraces technical terminology and nomenclature in its glossary. The term nomenclature is frequently used in the same sense as terminology, but nomenclature is a system of titles or names, only, whereas terminology embraces all other technical words as well as names. Officinal drugs, chemicals, and pharmaceutical prep1056. arations are those commonly found in the "officine."

By
stores

" officine" is

Any

meant the apothecary's shop. medicinal substance or preparation usually kept


therefore, "officinal."

in

drug

is,

Any drug
(1059) or not.

or preparation

maybe

officinal

whether

official

Magistral formulas and preparations are unofficial 1057. recipes and remedies prescribed by widely recognized high
medical authorities.

Extemporaneous preparations are those not kept made " but always prepared for the occasion whenever required. They are, of course, such preparations as
1058.
in stock

or "ready

would deteriorate
1059.

if

kept on hand.

Official drugs, preparations

and processes are those

included in the national pharmacopoeias. But an official medicine is not necessarily an officinal one (1056). 1060. Pharmacopoeias (from tww, "medicine," and jtoiAo, I "make") are books, compiled by governmental authority, or by authoritative national conventions, containing titles, definitions, descriptions, tests, formulas, and other information, directions and standards of quality, purity and strength for the medicines in common use. The Pharmacopoeia of the United States is pre1061. pared and published by authority of the National Pharmacopoeial Convention. This Convention consists of delegates appointed by the several incorporated medical and pharmaceutical colleges and societies of the United States, the American Medical Association, the American Pharmaceutical Association, and by the

ABOUT DRUGS.
Surgeon Generals
pital Service.

325

of the

Army, the Navy and the Marine Hosof the

The meetings

are held in
in ten

Washington on or about the

years.

Pharmacopceial Conventions first day of May once Pharmacopceial Conventions were thus held in

and 1890. Authority of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States has been repeatedly sustained and enforced by Courts of Justice, by Congress in certain legislation, and by the Executive Departments in official orders and regulations. The Objects of the Pharmacopoeia are to estab1063. lish the identity of medicines^ and to prescribe standards by which we may insure uniformity in the quality, strength and methods of preparation of the officially recognized drugs, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Uniformity in the materia medica and pharmacy is of the
1820, 1830, 1840, 1S50, i860, 1870, 1SS0

1062.

The

highest importance, for without


therapeutics.

it

there can be no science in


definitions, descriptions,

The Pharmacopoeia provides


identity tests,

titles,

purity

tests,

working

formulas,

standards

of

strength,
1064.

etc.,

commonly employed. The Pharmacopoeia is the only national authority


for medicines

by which the
are governed.

quality, purity

and strength

of official medicines

The several " dispensatories " and other compilations and commentaries are valuable according to their respective merits; but they are subordinate to the Pharmacopoeia in all matters
touching the
official

standards.

No

physician and no pharmacist

who

has proper respect for

and its responsibilities can do without a copy of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Every physician should be acquainted with it; and every pharmacist should be
his profession

familiar with all

its details.

1065. medicines.

is the art of selecting and preparing importance is manifest and great. Without medicines the physician is powerless without the co-operation

Pharmacy
Its

326

ABOUT DRUGS.

must be either the narrow beaten path of mere routine, or doomed to disappointment and even dangers. An accomplished physician who has had time enough to become at the same time an accomplished pharmacist must be an extraordinary person, or must have very few patients and little else to attend to. An active physician finds it in every way disadvantageous to
of a competent pharmacist his course

be his

own

dispenser.

good pharmacist must be able to identify medicines, must be a good judge of the quality of drugs and preparations, know how to test medicinal substances as to their purity and strength, to prepare them properly, and to combine and dispense them He must know enough about the accurately, safely, and well. drugs and their preparations to avoid incompatibilities, overdoses and all other dangers. The word " pharmacy " is derived from the Greek word 4>apjuaKo>', which means medicine.
1066.
Ti X vv,

Pharmaco-Technology (imm

<.,,

"medicine,"

and Adyos, "discourse,") is a treatise on the art of pharmacy, or the principles, processes, and manipulations applicable in preparing, examining and dispensing medicines.
"art,"

Dispensing Pharmacy is the art of combining and 1067. the It is the most important of all dispensing medicines. To be an responsible work which the pharmacist has to do. ideal dispenser of physicians' prescriptions demands many He must be familiar with the substances to be qualifications. combined or dispensed and with their properties, their behavior toward each other, and their general effects upon man. He must be generally well informed, clear headed, wide awake, and He must at all times be calm, courteous, and exhibit careful. He must be scrupulously neat, prompt, deft, unfailing tact.
accurate, and conscientious.

1068.

Pharmacodynamics

(from ^p^a*,

"medicine,"

ABOUT DRUGS.
"power,")
is

327

branch of pharmacology which and straw, treats of the quality, quantity and direction of the action or
that
effects of medicines.

1069. Therapeutics (from tepa*, to "cure") is that branch of the study of Medicine which treats of the effects and modes of action of medicinal agents, and their applications for
the relief or cure of pain or disease.

1070. Posology (from TOtros, "how much," and Ad Y os " discourse") is the consideration of the proper quantities or doses of medicines to be administered. A " posological table" is a tabular statement of doses. Doses are, of course, to a certain extent arbitrary. But they vary according to the age. sex, and condition of the patient and according to the effect it is intended to produce. A " medicinal dose " is a proper and safe dose; a " maximum single dose" is the largest dose of any particular medicine which it is considered proper and safe to administer; the " maximum daily dose" is the largest total quantity of any medicine which it is proper or safe to administer in the course of a day or of twenty-four hours. A "toxic dose" is the quantity which when given at a single dose is liable to produce dangerous or injurious effects, or death. An "adult dose" is the full dose usually administered to a

man

of about 21 to 30 years.
for children "
its

is found by dividing the age (in next birthday by 24 the fraction thus obtained is the proper fractional part of the adult dose that may properly be administered to the child. Thus, if the child's age at next birthday is 6 years, divide 6 by 24, which will give of the dose for an fa or }(, the proper dose being, therefore, adult (Dr. Cowling). 1071. Human Physiology is the study of the functions of the organs of the human body. Anatomy is the study of the structure, organs and parts of the body. Every intelligent pharmacist should know what a stomach

The "dose

years) of the child at

328
is.

ABOUT DRUGS.
vessels,

or the liver, the heart, the blood

muscles, bones,

joints, etc.

He should also have a fair knowledge of the elements of human physiology, as of digestion, the blood, circulaHe tion, respiration, animal heat, the nervous system, etc.
know something
should certainly
of hygiene, food, ventilation, etc.

should

He
tic,

know what

is

meant by a

tonic, cathar-

astringent, emetic, stimulant, sedative, diuretic and other

common

therapeutic terms.

Finally, he should

know what drugs

are narcotic, the safe


;

as well as toxic doses of poisonous substances

what are the

by the common poisons, and the appropriate antidotes that should be used in such cases in the absence

symptoms

of poisoning

of a physician. All of these things are taught in

any good college of phar-

macy.
I072.

Toxicology

is

the study of poisons and their effects


fatal or

and proper antidotes.


Poisons are substances producing

dangerous

effects

upon the organs

of the

body or

their functions.

CHAPTER

LXII.

THE COLLECTION OF PLANT DRUGS.

The medicinal value of plant drugs depends upon 1073. various conditions, as season, climate, soil, age, and development, whether the plant is wild-growing or cultivated, the part
used,

manner

of collection, cleaning,

pruning and garbling, cur-

ing or drying, and preservation. Plant drugs are generally sensitive to exposure, and 1074.

by

far the greater

number

deteriorate so rapidly, even

when

must be procured annually. The new annual supply of each drug should, of course, be procured at the season when it is in its best condition. There is a
carefully kept, that a fresh supply

ABOUT DRUGS.

329

proper annual season for gathering each plant drug, and it soon afterwards reaches the market through the drug brokers, and the new crop can then be obtained by the pharmacists, who ought to renew their stock of perishable drugs at that time. Some plant drugs can scarcely be preserved through one season without material deterioration; others are difficult to procure, of good quality, at any time, owing to the carelessness with which they are gathered, cured and shipped. Among the many perishable drugs are such important ones as ergot, digitalis,

erythroxylon, belladonna,

pilocarpus, besides

all

herbs

and flowers
1075.
at

The time
it

for gathering

any plant drug

is

that season
active prin-

which

contains the greatest proportion of

its

ciples.

The plant part which constitutes the drug should be well developed and perfectly sound; it should neither be so young, immature and poorly developed as to be deficient in active constituents on that account, nor should it be so overgrown or old as to have begun to degenerate.
In most cases
fresh natural

possesses in
taste

assume that a drug which has the it well preserved, and which a high degree and unaltered the peculiar odor and
it is

safe to

color belonging to

which characterize it, will prove to be of satisfactory medicinal quality. It is always true that when the drug is discolored, or its odor or taste impaired, it can not be of good
quality.
In many plant drugs every part of the tissues is 1076. equally active in others again the softer, more friable portions
;

are

defines a drug as consisting of any given plant organ or plant part, then no other portions of the plant must accompany the drug. Thus, when the bark of a root constitutes the drug, the whole root must not be used when the inner bark is the drug, it would not do to use both inner and outer bark together, nor to use the bark with pieces or shavings
;

moie active than the tougher Whenever the Pharmacopoeia

tissues.

3$0
of

ABOUT DRUGS.

wood attached; when the leaves constitute the drug, the stems do not belong to it, too and when the drug consists of the seeds, only, the whole fruit must not be used. Again, when the drug is denned to be leaves of the second year's growth, this definition clearly excludes the leaves of the first year's growth as unequivocally as it excludes the root, or the leaves of an entirely different plant. To illustrate the care with which the Pharmacopoeia 1077. defines plant drugs, we may quote a few official definitions Anthemis consists of " the flower-heads of Anthemis nobilis collected from cultivated plants/' Conium is defined as " the full grown fruit of Conium maculalu/n, gathered while yet green." Calendula is defined as "the fresh flowering herb of Calen;
:

dula officinalis."

Digitalis is "the leaves of Digitalis purpurea, collected from plants of the second year's growth.''

Eucalyptus is "the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, collected from rather old trees." Frangula is "the bark of Rhamnus Frangu/a, collected at least one year before being used."
Juglans
consists of " the inner bark of the root of Juglans
in

cinerca, collected in

We

also find
:

autumn." the Pharmacopoeia such directions

as the

following

Belladonna Root. "Roots which are tough and woody, breaking with a splintery fracture, should be rejected." Colchicum Root " which is very dark colored internally, or breaks with a horny fracture, should be rejected." Cubeb "should not be mixed with the nearly inodorous
rachis or stalks."

Ergot "should be preserved be kept longer than a year."

in a

dry place, and should not

Light, spongy and whitish-colored Xutgalls should Galla. be rejected."


'"

ABOUT DRUGS.

33

Prunus Virginiana.
to be rejected."

" The

bark of the small branches


stalks, etc."

is

Senna.
1078.

"It should

be freed from

Roots and rhizomes

are generally gathered in the

autumn, from plants of two or three years' growth, when the plant has withered or the leaves fallen; or they are sometimes gathered in the spring before tne leaf buds expand. They must be freed from earth; best by washing them with
water.
versely or longitudinally, before

and succulent, they are cut or sliced, either transbeing dried. Thick, juicy roots must be rapidly dried at a sufficiently high temperature to
If

thick

prevent discoloration, mould or fermentation. Spongy, decayed, discolored or otherwise unsound portions must be rejected. Some roots of biennials are to be rejected if woody; but the roots of trees and shrubs are always woody. Bulbs are sometimes preserved whole, as garlic and 1079Whole onions; but other bulbs are sliced and dried, as squill. bulbs may be kept in nets or in dry sand. Barks and woods are taken in the spring before 1080. the leaf buds expand. The bark from branches of two to four years' growth is generally better than younger or older bark. Sometimes the whole bark is used, because a separation is impracticable; but whenever a separation can be effected, the The old, dry, dead, outer corky layer inner bark alone is used. is always worthless. Barks are easily dried when well spread out over enough surface in an airy, shaded place at ordinary summer heat. Herbs, leaves and flowers should be gathered in 1081. clear weather when the plants are dry and free from dew. Herbs must be fully grown, but gathered before flowering, or, if aromatic, immediately after the expansion of the flowers. Biennial herbs may generally be gathered at the end of the first summer, but sometimes (when narcotic). not until the second
season.

332

ABOUT DRUGS.

The herbs are dried in bundles hung up on strings, or spread out in thin layers on paper or muslin in an airy, shaded
place.

Leaves

are

treated

much

like the

herbs.

If

of

narcotic

plants those of the second year's growth are used.

Flowers are extremely sensitive, and require to be dried with great care to preserve their natural colors. They are gathered as soon as expanded, spread out well on paper, and dried in an airy, shaded place at ordinary summer heat, being stirred or turned frequently until quite dry. 1082. Fruits are gathered when fully ripe, except when succulent. Hard, dry fruits are easily sufficiently cured to
insure their preservation.
1083. Seeds must be fully developed are easily dried. Sometimes they are best
capsules.

when gathered, and


preserved
in

their

1084.
tles,

When

sufficiently dried the plant

drugs should be put

into suitable receptacles, such as tin cans, or tightly closed bot-

or well made drawers with snugly fitting covers. They must be protected against light, exposure to

the air or

and against too high temperature. In other words, plant drugs must be kept in well closed receptacles in a moderately warm, shaded place.
to moisture,

CHAPTER
1085.

LXIII.

THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF PLANT DRUGS.


of plant drugs are the chemical constituents naturally formed and contained in plants and separable from the plant parts as well as from each other by the aid of different solvents.

The proximate principles

several kinds of

ABOUT DRUGS.

333

1086. The Classification of Plant Constituents. The proximate principles of plant drugs may be grouped into a

limited
1.

number
Cellulin

of classes, as follows
(or cellulose)

and

its

modifications, as lignin

etc. (1090).
2.
3.

Starches, or amylaceous substances (1092).

Gums,

4.
5.

or vegetable mucilages (1093). Pectinous substances (1099). Sugars, or saccharine substances (1 100).

6.
7.

8.
9.

Albuminous substances, or Fixed oils, or fats (1105). Organic acids (mi). Volatile oils (mz).

vegetable albumin (1104).

10.
11.

Resins (1118). Neutral principles not belonging


(t

to

any of these other

classes 12.

125).
(1

Alkaloids

128).

1087.
all

Of these twelve

classes of proximate principles only

cellulin (or cellulose) in its various

forms

is

entirely insoluble in

the ordinary simple solvents, such as water, alcohol, ether, benzin and chloroform.

All the other classes of proximate principles are soluble in one or more of the solvents named, and can, therefore, be extracted irom. the drugs in which they are contained. The Inert Constituents of Plants. The sub1038. stances belonging to either of the first eight classes enumerated they are either (1086) exhibit no decided medicinal action absolutely inactive or have but a very mild effect. 1089. The Active Principles of plants are either volatile oils, resins, neutral principles belonging to class n (1086), or

alkaloids.

Manv plant drugs contain but one "active principle "; others In a drug containing several active two, or three, or more. constituents, all of them may belong to the same class of proximate
principles, or each

may belong

to a different class.

334
1090.

ABOUT DRUGS.

The substance of which cell Cellulin and lignin. membranes, and fibres are constructed is called cellulin or cellulose, and it occurs in various modifications and forms. Lignin is the altered cellulin which constitutes wood and ivoody
walls, cell
fibre.

Plant drugs containing large quantities of


called fibrous,

woody

fibre are

and their powders are

fibrous powders.

Woody
1091.

roots are tough because of the large proportion

of

lignin they contain.

As the other proximate constituents of plants are in the little closed sacs or cells, which are made up of cellulose, or in the little spaces between those cells, or in canals, cavities or vessels bounded by cell walls or cellular tissues, it follows that whenever the extractable substances are to be removed from any drug consisting of plant organs, or when its soluble matters are to be extracted, the solvent used must either be capable of passing through the vegetable membranes into the closed cells and other cavities, dissolving the substances
contained
contained within them, and then passing out again carrying with it the dissolved matters, or, if the solvent can not thus pass through the membranes, the drug must be disintegrated so that the solvent can come in direct contact with the proximate principles when the cells and intercellular spaces shall have been broken open. Starches or amylaceous substances are contained in 1092. numerous plant drugs. You are acquainted with corn starch, laundry starch, arrow root, and perhaps other kinds of starch. Similar starches are found in drugs. Starch consists of little granules so small that they can be The size, well seen only with the aid of a good microscope. form and markings of the starch granules differ according to Hence many drugs the plant in which the starch is contained. may be identified by their peculiar starch granules. Starch in its normal condition is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether and other simple solvents. But when starch is heated it With hot water is altered in properties and becomes soluble.

ABOUT DRUGS.
it

335

forms a translucent mucilaginous solution or paste, according to the proportions of the two ingredients. When boiled with water to which a little sulphuric acid has been added, the starch is converted into glucose (iiot). When dry starch is subjected to high heat it is converted into a gummy, water-soluble substance called dextrin. Gums. Two gums are contained in the Pharmaco1093.

poeia.

They

are acacia and tragacanth.

But there are several


materia medica.

so-called

mucilaginous

drugs

in

the official

"Mucilaginous drugs" are drugs containing considerable quantities of gum and from which mucilages or mucilaginous infusions can be made. Thus the Pharmacopoeia contains mucilages made of quince seed, sassafras pith and slippery elm bark, as There are also well as mucilages of acacia and tragacanth. other drugs containing large quantities of gum or vegetable
mucilage,
as,

for instance, althaea, flaxseed, senna, buchu, etc.

Gum, or vegetable mucilage, is a substance which 1094. either dissolves or swells in water, forming, if the quantity of

gum

is sufficient,

like paste, called

a thickish, viscous, sticky solution, or a jellya mucilage. The various kinds of gums, dif-

fering according to their source, are grouped into two classes:


1, those which, like acacia, are entirely soluble in water, forming perfect or homogeneous solutions; 2, those which, like tragacanth, simply absorb a large quantity of water, swelling in it

so as to form translucent gelatinous masses or pastes, but do not form perfect or homogeneous solutions.

1095.
less

Nearly

all

plants and plant drugs contain


is

gum

or vegetable mucilage, which


tissues, as,

morphosis of plant

more or formed by the metafor instance, of seed coats, on the

inner surface of inner barks, etc.; or, in large accumulations, by the breaking down of plant tissue. Gum is hard when dry; does not soften, but, on the 1096. contrary, hardens when heated, and if the temperature is raised higher the gum becomes decomposed charred or carbonized,

but does not ignite and burn with a flame. Gums in solution readily ferment or become sour.

336

ABOUT DRUGS.

Gum
and

is

insoluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, volatile oils

fixed oils.

we

1097- The term "gum " is very generally misapplied. Thus hear camphor, aloes, opium, guaiac, copal, kino, catechu,

asafoetida,

and many other substances called gums.

ing that

is

soluble in alcohol or diluted alcohol can be a

But nothgum.

1098. Gums and mucilaginous drugs are used for preparing demulcent drinks and injections, to hold insoluble substances in suspension in mixtures, as binding excipients in pill masses and troches, etc. Pectinous substances are contained in very many 1099. fruits, and often also in other plant parts. The most striking property of pectin is that it forms jelly. Jellies can be made of
fruits

because they contain so

much

pectin.

Pectin
it

is,

like

gum,

water-soluble, but not soluble in alcohol, and

readily under-

goes fermentation.
1100. Sugars of various kinds exist in plants, and also in animal substances, as in milk and honey. They are more or less sweet to the taste, cane sugar being the sweetest, and milk sugar the least sweet. Sugars are always water-soluble, but milk sugar is not freely soluble in water, while other sugars dissolve in such large proportion as to form very thick syrups.

Sugar

is

also alcohol soluble to a limited

extent.

satu-

rated water solution of sugar can be mixed with alcohol without

separation of the sugar from


1101.
sucrose.

its

solution.
is

Ordinary white sugar

"cane sugar,"

saccharose, or

Beet-root sugar, sorghum sugar and maple sugar are precisely the same kind of sugar as that obtained from the sugar cane; but maple sugar is mixed with other substances

derived from the maple sap which give it its peculiar agreeable flavor; when purified it can not be distinguished from cane sugar, nor can pure sorghum sugar and pure beet root sugar be

recognized as in any manner differing from the refined sugar of the sugar cane.

ABOUT DRUGS.

337

Rock candy

is

crystallized cane sugar or saccharose.

Milk

sugar is also crystallizable. Grape sugar is the non-crystallizable sugar contained in grapes and many other fruits. It is also frequently called glucose. But the term " glucose " is now generally applied to the sugar manufactured from starch (1092). The saccharine substances used in pharmacy include: cane sugar, milk sugar, honey and manna. Sugars belonging to the class known as " glucoses " 1102. and readily undergo fermentahave the composition 12 6 tion. Sugars belonging to the class called "saccharoses " have the composition C^H^Ou, and do not ferment unless first changed into glucose sugar. The products of the fermentation of sugar are alcohol and carbon dioxide. But fermentable sugar does not undergo fermentation when in the form of very dense syrup, while even cane sugar rapidly passes through the glucose stage and ferments if in the form of In fact a syrup of sugar, or simple a weak water-solution. syrup made of pure white sugar, will keep in warm Weather only if so strong as to contain nearly two-thirds sugar. The official " syrup " is a solution of 65 pounds of sugar in 35 pounds of water, and is not too concentrated, for it would ferment in the summer season if weaker. Contact with air is a necessary condition to the fermentation A weak solution of sugar ferments because it disof sugars. solves air; but a dense syrup can not contain air and, therefore, does not ferment. 1103. Sugar is used in pharmacy and medicine for three purposes: 1, as a diluent; 2, to sweeten medicinal preparations; 3^ to preserve organic medicinal substances from fermentation and Both ordinary sugar (cane sugar and other chemical changes. beet sugar) and milk sugar are used as diluents of powders. Sugar is much used to sweeten medicinal preparations, as

QH

in lozenges, confections, syrups, mixtures, etc.

338

ABOUT DRUGS.

It preserves moist drugs and preparations by taking up the moisture forming a thick syrup or a coating of sugar by which the moist organic matter is enveloped and air excluded. 1104. Albuminous matters are nitrogenous substances soluble in water when in their normal condition but coagulating when heated. A typical example of albumin is furnished by the white of egg; as taken from a fresh egg it is transparent, liquid, and water-soluble; but when boiled it becomes white, opaque, solid, insoluble, and this change is called coagulation. There are similar substances contained in plant drugs and called vegetable albumin, or albuminoids. The white fleshy portion of the almond is a vegetable albumin which has received the

name

emu/sin, and sometimes the name synaptase. Albuminous substances do not ferment, but they undergo

putrefaction.
tions
is,

Their presence
heat,

in certain

pharmaceutical prepara-

therefore, to be avoided,

and removed by
is

and they may be coagulated or by the use of alcohol in which albumin

insoluble.

Fixed oils or fats. There are many different kinds 1105. of fixed oils or fats employed in pharmacy and medicine, especially in the preparation of

positories, etc.

ointments, cerates, liniments, supFats are also used in the manufacture of soaps.

Among
ter,
oil,

the most familiar examples of fixed oils or fats are:

lard, butter, suet, tallow,

wax, spermaceti, Ianoleum, cacao butoil,

lard

oil,

cotton seed

mustard seed

oil,

olive

oil,

castor

cod liver oil, flaxseed Fixed oils are 1106.

oil, etc.

all

absolutely insoluble in water; with


oil)

rare exceptions (castor

soluble in alcohol, readily soluble

they are but slightly disulphide of carbon, benzol and benzin; and they form true soaps with the alkalies. Nearly all the common fixed oils or fats consist chiefly of
oil

and croton

in ether,

the oleate, stearate and palmitate of glyceryl. Glyceryl is a trivalent hydrocarbon radical C 3 H 5 Its hydrate is familiar to us
.

under the name oi glycerin, C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 The oleate of glyceryl is often called olein, and olive oil is nearly all oleate of glyceryl, or olein. Chemically considered the oleate of glyceryl is a
.

ABOUT DRUGS.
salt.
It is
it,

339

a very fluid

fat,

and

all

liquid fats or fixed oils con-

tain

their fluidity being proportional to the percentage of


fats contain greater proportions of the

olein, while the solid

and palmitate of glyceryl (palmitin). Oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid, are always made from fats; their glyceryl salts are the true fats; their salts with
stearate of glyceryl (stearin)

potassium and sodium are soft or hard soaps; and their salts with the heavy metals are the true plasters. When perfectly pure the fats are usually colorless or white, odorless, tasteless, perfectly bland, without any medicinal effect. They always have a greasy or unctuous feel, are lighter than water so that they always float upon it, and they are non-volatile or fixed so that they can not be distilled, and when dropped upon clean white paper, leave a permanent stain.
II07oils,

The

liquid fixed oils or fats are classified into drying

oils. The drying oils harden or dry upon exposure to the air in thin layers, as is the case with flaxseed oil; the non-drying oils like oil of almond never dry or harden. Castor oil is a remarkable fixed oil because unlike all 1108. other fixed oils it is entirely soluble in or miscible with* strong alcohol in all proportions forming perfectly clear mixtures. Croton oil, when old, is also soluble in alcohol to a considerable extent but forms turbid solutions or mixtures with it.

and non-drying

Under the combined 1109. warmth most of the oils become

influence of moisture,
rancid, especially the

air,

and

animal fats.

and other fatty substances become rancid have an offensive odor, and are irritant instead of bland. They are then unfit for any medicinal uses. Fixed oil is always contained in seeds. Hence drugs 1110. consisting of seeds sometimes require special treatment in making solid extracts and other pharmaceutical preparations of them,
oleic acid, lard,

When

they contain oxyoleic

acid,

for

if

their active constituents are such as require a strongly

alcoholic

menstruum

for their extraction a considerable quantity

of fixed oil or grease will also be simultaneously dissolved

by

the menstruum, and the product rendered greasy. hol does not extract the fixed
oil.

But the

fat

Weak alcomay often be

340

ABOUT DRUGS.
ether, before extracting the medioil is
it

removed from the seed with


cinal constituents; or
if

the fixed

extracted by the alcohol

together with the active constituents,


the product afterwards.
1111.

can be separated from


all

Organic acids

are contained in

plants.

In

some

fruits there are large quantities of fruit acid, as tartaric, citric,

and oxalic acids. But these acids do not possess any decided medicinal action, except that their salts are laxative
malic, succinic

or cathartic, or are used as cooling drinks or fever-mixtures, or


as mild diuretics.

Other organic acids occurring


tities

in

comparatively small quan-

numerous in the plant world, but there is no important plant drug possessing decided physiological effect that has been shown to owe its medicinal action to any organic acid. 1 1 12. Volatile Oils are a numerous and mixed class of substances widely distributed among the plants. They seem to
are

occur in nearly all plants, although generally in extremely small amounts, and although they are more common and abundant in certain fruits and flowers, they occur also in leaves and all other plant parts. The volatile oils contained in the Pharmacopoeia are many and include such typical representatives of the whole class as the oils of: turpentine, lemon, orange, anise, peppermint, cinnamon, sassafras, cloves, wintergreen and camphor. There are also many drugs containing volatile oils as their most important constituents, as, for instance: cloves, cardamom, buchu, eucalyptus, etc. Volatile oils are generally liquid at ordinary tempera1113. tures, have an aromatic odor, are very slightly soluble in water but generally readily soluble in alcohol and ether, they have a pungent taste, and are volatile so that they can be easily distilled and do not leave a permanent stain when dropped on
paper.
Volatile oils are also called "essential oils," and "ethereal

and the terms "otto" and "attar" have recently been proposed to distinguish volatile oils from fixed oils. There
oils,"

ABOUT DRUGS.
is

341

no similarity between fixed oils and volatile oils except that both have an "oily appearance " and are immiscible with water. Volatile oils are not salts; they contain neither glyceryl nor fat acids. But a large number of the volatile oils are saturated hydrocarbons of the series called terpenes, having the formula (C 10 H 16 ) n other volatile oils are oxidized hydrocarbons, and some volatile oils contain sulphur, cyanogen, and other radicals. Most of the volatile oils are lighter than water; but some of them, as the oils of cloves and wintergreen, are heavier.
;

called

1114. Many of the volatile oils consist of a liquid portion the eltzopten, and another portion called the stearopten,
is

which

solid

when separated from

the elaeopten.

The

stear-

optens of volatile

oils are often called

camphors, and ordinary

is not a single definite substance, but a mixture of several different kinds of substances. Most of the volatile oils of the terpene series, if not 1115. all of them, deteriorate rapidly unless kept in small, filled, tightly stoppered bottles in a dark, cool place. If exposed to air, that is, they take up oxygen, light and warmth they resinify and as they are oxidized resinous products are formed by which the volatile oils are changed in composition, color, density and

camphor is a stearopten. As a rule a volatile oil

odor.

1116. Volatile oils are obtained from the plants and plant parts either by distillation (with the aid of water), or by expression, or

by extraction with alcohol or with

fixed oils.

Nearly all flowers, fruits, herbs, leaves, and other 1117. plant parts possessing an aromatic odor contain one or more
volatile oils, to

which their odor

is

due.

All volatile

oils,

and

plant drugs containing them, are aromatic stimulants, and some of them are anthelmintics, while nearly all act upon the kidneys.
1118. Resins are solids or semi-solids, they soften and then liquefy when heated; they are non-volatile, readily combustible, being easily ignited, burning with a sooty, smoky flame; insoluble in water, always alcohol-soluble, and often also soluble

342

ABOUT DRUGS.
and chloroform.

in ether, benzin, volatile oils, fixed oils,

They

are generally
oils.

weak acids, and formed by They do not contain nitrogen.

the oxidation of volatile

Resins
erally

may
and

be classified into dry, hard

resins,

amorphous and

of a glassy fracture,

which are genthough sometimes

crystalline,

as a rule not acrid or irritating

when applied

to

the skin; and soft resins, which are usually acrid, non-drying.

Some

of the acrid resins are hard, however.

eral resins so

acrid as to vesicate the skin.

There are sevOther resins are

cathartics.

1119.
cerates

Resins are used

in

the preparation of

some
in oil

plasters,

and even ointments.

Solutions of resins

of tur-

pentine, benzin, or alcohol are varnishes.

Resins, being
1120. copal,

weak
the

acids,

form soap-like compounds called


resins

resin-soaps with the alkalies.

Among

common
"

are

ordinary "rosin,"

dammar,

benzoin, shellac, so-called


1121.
oils,

scammony, amber, spruce-gum," burgundy pitch, etc. As the resins are formed by the oxidation of volatile
mastic, sandarac, guaiac resin,

and as the volatile oils are mixtures, the resins thus produced are also mixtures. Moreover, resins and volatile oils are commonly associated together. Oleoresins are mixtures of volatile oil and resin; thick turpentine, Canada turpentine, copaiba, etc. are oleoresins. Balsamic resins are such resins as contain either benzoic or cinnamic acid, or both, as benzoin and tolu; and balsams are fluid balsamic resins, as "balsam of Peru and
,

storax."
1122.
resins, or

Spices are

pungent

resins, or

drugs containing agreeable pungent oleopungent volatile oils. They are

mostly oleoresinous drugs. But there are also several oleoresinous drugs which are used solely for medicinal purposes and are not spices or condiments. Capsicum, pepper, cubeb, asarum, aspidium, cypripedium,
iris

versicolor, ginger, lupulin, are oleoresinous drugs.

1123.

Gum-resins

are mixtures of

gum and

resin,

usually also contain small quantities of volatile

oil,

and they which is fre-

ABOUT DRUGS.
quently the only constituent of any medicinal value.
resins

343

The gumgal-

of the Pharmacopoeia are ammoniac, banum, gamboge and myrrh.


1

asafcetida,

124.

Coloring matters are very generally of a resinous nature.


is

Thus

the green coloring matter of leaves, called chlorophyll,


in water.

resinous, alcohol soluble, insoluble

matters

red, yellow, and brown are more frequently alcohol


water soluble.

Other coloring

soluble than
rations.

extracts are as a rule

Hence alcoholic tinctures and more highly colored than aqueous prepa-

Neutral principles, not belonging to any of the dif1125. ferent classes of proximate principles enumerated in this chapter,

are of a very miscellaneous chemical character.

often of the class


acids,

known

as glucosides (977), sometimes

They are weak

sometimes other compounds.


to their physical properties

As

many

neutral principles are


;

crystallizable while

soluble and a
in

still

amorphous many are watergreater number soluble in diluted alcohol or


others are

undiluted alcohol, but others

may

be insoluble

in

one of these

liquids.

A large number of the neutral principles are purely bitter stomachic tonics others are acrid, or even narcotic and others, again, seem to be wholly inert, as, for instance, asparagin. The Glucosides possess medicinal activity more frequently and more decidedly than other neutral principles contained in
;

plant drugs.

Among

the most

common
elaterin;

neutral principles of plant drugs

are salicin, populin, phlorizin, amygdalin, saponin, coumarin,


aloin, cathartin,

and

and among the important drugs

whose

active principles belong to this class are rhubarb, senna,

senega, squill, digitalis, brayera, aloes, and colocynth. Many of the acrid drugs, such as squill, digitalis, 1 126.

senega,

etc.,

are drugs containing glucosides.

But there are

also acrid drugs

which owe their acridity


oil,

to acrid soft resin or

some

acrid volatile

or to

some

acrid alkaloid.

344
1127.
is

ABOUT DRUGS.

acid,

Astringent Drugs contain tannin. Tannin, or tannic weak acid, having a Tannin darkens iron salts, and powerfully astringent effect.
a peculiar neutral principle or a

forms insoluble compounds with all metallic salts. Ink is made by mixing decoction or infusion of nutgall or madder (containing tannin) with solutions of sulphates of iron. Tannin also has the property of tanning hides, forming a tough substance called
leather

Insoluble

when it acts upon the tissues of compounds are formed by tannin


the

the fresh

rawhide.

also with a

number

of other organic substances, as gelatin, alkaloids, etc.

Among
tannin

most important of our astringent drugs are

itself,

nutgall, oak bark, logwood, catechu, kino, krameria,

geranium, rubus, rhus glabra, and uva ursi. Alkaloids are the most powerful of 1 128.
principles of plant drugs.

all

the active

test

Alkaloids are organic bases having an alkaline reaction on paper and capable of combining with and neutralizing the

acids to

form salts. resemble the alkalies


1129.

They
in

are called

alkaloids

because they

the before-mentioned properties.

Many

alkaloids are formed and contained in

plants; others are not found in the living plants but

growing formed by

certain reactions in the contents of plant juices after death, as

when morphine and

the other

opium

alkaloids are formed during

the process of drying the juice of the

poppy capsule.
and aconiwhose medicinal value
coffee,

Among
tine.

the most important of our alkaloids are quinine, mor-

phine, strychnine, atropine, cocaine, physostigmine,

Among

the most important drugs

depends upon alkaloids we have aconite, belladonna,

cinchona, colchicum, conium, erythroxylon, gelsemium, hydrastis, hyoscyamus, ipecacuanha, lobelia, nux vomica, opium, physostigma, pilocarpus, sanguinaria, stramonium, tobacco, and vera-

trum viride. Over two-thirds


loids are poisonous.

of all

known
free

plant drugs containing alkastate

1130.

Alkaloids in

the

are

generally alcohol-

soluble, rarely water-soluble; but

their salts with the stronger

ABOUT DRUGS.
acids
are

345

generally

water-soluble,

not

generally

alcohol-

soluble.

Alkaloids and their salts are bitter or acrid to the taste. They may be classified according to their chemical composii, the amines', and 2, the amides. tion into two groups The amines consist of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and
;

are called ternary alkaloids for that reason.


tile,

They

are liquid, vola-

odorous. Nicotine (the alkaloid of tobacco), coniine (the alkaloid of conium), and lobeline (the alkaloid of lobelia), are amines. The amides contain oxygen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. They are accordingly called oxygenated or quaternary alkaloids. They are solids, not volatile, odorless. By far the
greater

number

of alkaloids belong to this class.

CHAPTER
1131.

LXIV. AND BULBS.

ROOTS, RHIZOMES, CORMS

Aconitum.
districts of

Aconite.
.

From Aconitum
Mountain

Napellus (Ranunculacece)

Europe and America.

Tuberous, tapering, about 2 in. long, % to }( in. thick at the top; very dark grayish-brown exteriorly, whitish interiorly; odorless; taste first insipid, afterwards acrid; produces tingling and numbness in the throat. Active principle The alkaloid aconitine.

cardiac sedative.
of the

Dose

drug

to 2 grs.; Abstract,

to 1 gr.; Extract, y% to

% gr.;

Fluid Extract, ]/ 2 to 2 min.; Tincture, 1 to 5 min. Poisonous effects. The action of an overdose

stupor, and paralysis are the successive

Death

results

Antidotes.

is rapid. Weakness, symptoms. from paralysis of the muscles of respiration and of the heart. The patient should lie down, the stomach be emptied, and

alcohol, ether, or spirit of


1

ammonia administered. Allium. Garlic. The fresh bulb of Allium sativum (Liliacece).
132.

346 The

ABOUT DRUGS.
garlic consists of about S

wedge-shaped bulblets.

Strong, offensive odor and a disagreeable, acrid taste.

Contains acrid volatile


1

oil.

133.

From

Althaea. Marshm allow. Alth&a officinalis {Malvaceae).


nearly so, 3 to 6
in.

Continental Europe.
Cylindrical, or

long,

wrinkled; decorticated, white, fibrous,

starchy;

in. in diameter, deepz / odor faint; taste sweetish,


x

mucilaginous.

Demulcent.

1134.

Aspldium.

Male Fern.
and A. marginale
(Filices).

The rhizome

of AspiJium Filix-mas

All temperate countries.


in. thick; either peeled or Pieces about 3 to 6 in. long, about % to covered with the remnants of the stipes; should be pale green, all brown odor disagreeable though faint portions to be removed taste slightly
; ;

astringent, bitterish, acrid, disagreeable.

Contains volatile
It is

oil,

resin, fixed oil

and

Jilicic acid.

a tanicide.
resin
is

The Oleo
1135.

the only official preparation; dose, 10 to 30 min.

Belladonnas Radix.

Belladonna Root.

From

Atropa Belladonna (Solanaccce)


2 y

Central and Southern Europe.


Long, generally tapering pieces,
terish,

in

or more thick, wrinkled length-

wise; grayish exteriorly, whitish interiorly; odor faintly narcotic; taste bitfinally acrid; should break with a nearly smooth fracture; tough, woody, splintery roots are to be rejected. Active principles. The alkaloids atropine, belladonnine and hyoscyaminc* Mydriatic, anodyne, antispasmodic, cardiac and vaso-motor stimulant. Dose. Fluid extract, 1 to 3 min. Poisonous effects. Headache, vertigo, greatly disturbed vision, delirium, motor paralysis, stupor, convulsions Antidotes. Evacuation of the stomach, followed by the administration of opium, morphine or physostigma.

1136. Calamus. Sweet Flag. The unpeeled rhizome of Acorus Calamus The United States. Europe.

{Aracece).

Long
bitterish,

pieces, about

ish, interiorly whitish-

in. thick, wrinkled lengthwise; exteriorly brown]/2 spongy, fracture short; odor aromatic; taste sweetish,

pungent.

ABOUT DRUGS.
Contains volatile oil, resin and the bitter principle acorin. Aromatic stimulant and tonic. Dose of the Fluid Extract, 15 to 60 minims.
1 137.

347

Calumba.

Columbo.

The

root of Jateorrhiza Calumba {Menipermaceaz)

Eastern Africa.
Circular slices, 1 to 2 in. diameter, about to^ in. thick; cut surfaces concave; outer edge brownish gray, broad surface yellowish-gray and often bright yellow near the epidermis; fracture short; odor faint; taste bitter, mucilaginous.

Constituents.

The

bitter principles calumbin, calumbic acid and berberine.

Also starch and mucilage. A bitter stomachic tonic. Doses. Fl. Extr. 15 to 75 min.; Tinct.,

to z\

fi.

dr.

1 138.

Cimicifuga.

Black Snakeroot.
of Cimicifuga racemosa {Ranunculacea>)
covered with
.

Rhizome and rootlets The United States.


Rhizome
short,
thick,

branched,

many

long rootlets,

tirownish black, nearly odorless, bitter, acrid.

Contains a very acrid neutral principle and resin.

Dose.
1

Fl. Extr., 10 to 30

minims;

Tinct., 30 to 75

minims.

Colchicum Root. Colchici Radix. The corm of Colchicum autumnale {Melanthacece). Middle and Southern Europe.
139.
Ovoid, flattish, with a groove on one side. Generally sliced. Exteriorly brownish, somewhat wrinkled; interiorly white, starchy, odorless, sweetish,
bitter, acrid.

Active principle. The acrid alkaloid Alterative and diuretic.


Dose.
30 minims.

colchicine.

Extract, \ to i grains; Fluid Extract, 2


effects.

to 5

minims; Wine, 10

to

Poisonous
collapse.

Pain

in the

stomach and bowels; watery

stools;

Antidotes.
stimulants.

Emetics,

purgatives, and afterwards opium and alcoholic

Gelsemium. Yellow Jasmine. Rhizome and rootlets of Gelsemium se?npervirens


1140.

(Loganiacea).

Southern United States.


Branched rhizomes about i
to
1

inch or

much
taste.

thinner; brownish-yellow; tough,

more thick; rootlets longer and woody fracture; heavy odor, bitter

348

ABOUT DRUGS.
Active principle. The poisonous alkaloid Gelsemine. A motor and sensor depressant and cardiac sedative. Depression, respiration and heart action becoming Poisonous effects

labored; cerebral disturbance; general paralysis.

Antidotes.
of

After evacuation of
warmth and

the stomach, alcoholic stimulants, spirit

ammonia;
1141.

artificial

respiration; digitalis

and belladonna.

Gentiana.

Gentian.

From Gentiana lutea (Gentianacece). Central and Southern Europe.


Pieces about 2 to 3 inches long, inch thick; thicker pieces usually split; deeply wrinkled lengthwise, more or less distinctly marked by transverse rings; exteriorly dark yellowish brown, interiorly lighter. Brittle when dry,
flexible

when damp; odor

characteristic,

somewhat aromatic;

intensified

by

moisture; taste bitter.

Contains the bitter principle gentiopicrin. Also gentisic acid which darkens iron salts. Gentian is a bitter stomachic tonic.
1

142.

Glycyrrhiza.

Licorice Root.

From

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Lcguftiinosoe).

Southern Europe.
Long, cylindrical pieces, from J^ to 1 inch in diameter, wrinkled lengthwise, exteriorly (the bark) grayish-brown, interiorly yellow; fracture woody,
coarsely fibrous;
taste.

inodorous; taste sweet, leaving a somewhat acrid


called glycyrrhizin; also starch,

after-

Contains the sweet substance some acrid resin.


Preparations.

gum, and

Extract, Fluid

Extract,

Ammoniated

Glycyrrhizin.

Com-

pound Powder.
1

143.

Hydrastis.

Golden Seal.
canadensis {Ranuncu-

The rhizome and


lacece).

rootlets of Hydrastis

The United

States.
long, rhizomes,

About ij inches

^ inch thick,

wrinkled, yellowish-gray;

fracture short, orange-yellow;

rootlets thin, brittle;

odor

faint; taste bitter.

Active Principles.
Tonic, diuretic,

white alkaloid, kydrastine, and the yellow, alka-

loid berberine, both bitter.


etc.

Preparations. Fluid Extract and Tincture.

ABOUT DRUGS.
1144.

349

Ipecacuanha.

Ipecac.

From

Cephaelis Ipecacuanha (Rubiacece).

Brazil.

Crooked

pieces, about 3 to

inches long,

)/&

inch thick; dull grayish-brown,

finely wrinkled,

marked by numerous

rings, close together,

bark thick, often

broken transversely; easily separated from the

thin, tough, ligneous cord;

odor

not strong, but quite characteristic, nauseous; taste bitterish, acrid, sickening. Active principle. The alkaloid emetine.

The drug is emetic; in small doses expectorant and diaphoretic. Doses Emetic: Powder, 15 to 30 grs.; Fluid Extract, 15 to 30 minims;

extract,

Syrup, 4 to 6 fluidrachms; Wine, 3 to 5 fluidrachms. Expectorant: Fluid 1 to 4 minims; Syrup, 1 to 2 fluidrachms; Wine, 10 to 30 minims.
1

145.

Iris Versicolor.

Blue Flag.

The rhizome

of Iris versicolor {Iridacece).

Middle and Southern United States.


Long, jointed pieces, cylindrical or
flattish,

marked by

scars, wrinkled,

annulated, grayish-brown; taste acrid, nauseous.

Contains
Dose.
1 146.

volatile oil

and acrid
1

resin.

Purgative and diuretic.

Extract, % to

gr.

Fluid Extract, 30 to 60 minims.

Jalapa. Jalap. The tuber of Exogonium purga (Convolvulaceoz) Mexico.


Turnip-shaped, or oblong, varying in size, larger roots split, wrinkled, with short transverse ridges, dark brown, hard, heavy, interiorly pale grayishbrown; fracture smooth, resinous; odor slight sweetish, but quite peculiar,

smoky; taste sweetish, acrid. Each 100 grains of Jalap must yield at least 12 grains of more than 1 .2 grains of that resin should be soluble in ether. Contains the cathartic resin called Convolvulin.
Purgative

resin;

and not

Dose.

Powder 10 to 20 grs.; Abstracts to 10 grs.; Alcoholic Extract 2 to


Extract,

8 grs.: Fluid

10 to 20 minims;

Compound Powder,

10 to 30 grs.;

Resin, 2 to 6 grs.
1

147.

Krameria.

Rhatany.
{Polygalacece).

From Krameria

and K. tomentosa Northern parts of South America.


triandra

more

Knotty, irregularly shaped, branched roots, sometimes about one inch or thick; rust-brown; but the better Krameria consists of long, cylin-

350
drical roots not over

ABOUT DRUGS.

y
3

to

)/?,

inch thick, dark purplish-brown; bark thick, and

should constitute about one-third of the drug;

wood
cent.).

tough, light brownish.

Contains kramerio-lannic acid (about 20 per


Astringent.

Dose.

Extract,

4 to isgrs.; Fluid Extract, 30 to 60


z /
x

minims; Syrup, y z

to

4 fluidrachms; Tincture
1

to 3 fluid

drachms.

148.

Leptandra.

Culver's Root,
{Scrophulariacece)

From Leptandra virginica The United States.


Rhizome from
a woody fracture,
bitter, acrid.

4 to 6 inches long,

and about

inch thick,
;

somewhat
hard, with

irregular in shape, blackish-brown, with cup shaped scars above

wood

yellow;

rootlets thin, wrinkled, brittle;

inodorous,
resin, etc.

Contains the acrid principle called saponin together with acrid Dose. Extract 1 to 2 grs.; Fluid Extract 30 to 60 minims.

1149.

From

Pareira. Pareira Brava. ChondodcnJron tomentosum (Menitpermacea).

Brazil and Peru. Round, crooked pieces, about 4 to 10 inches long, from ^ to 3 inches thick exteriorly brownish-gray furrowed lengthwise, with transverse ridges and fissures interiorly paler brown, marked by two or more irregular, con; ; ;

centric circles of distinct rays.

Contains
" pelosine
"

the

bitter

alkaloid

buxine,

also

called

" cissampeline," or

Tonic and diuretic.

Dose
1150.

of Fluid Extract, 30 to 60 minims.

Phytolacca^ Radix.

Poke Root.

From Phytolacca decandra The United States.


fibrous, the

{Phytolaccaceaf).

hard Large, usually sliced, fleshy, wrinkled, light grayish wood bundles in concentric circles; taste sweetish, acrid.
;

fracture

Active principle possibly an alkaloid.


cotic.

Contains acrid resin.

It

is

nar-

Dose
1151.

of Fluid Extract, 10 to 30

minims.

Podophyllum. Mandrake. Rhizome and rootlets of Podophyllum pcltatum (Berberidacetz). The United States. Long, jointed pieces, each joint about i^to2 inches long, about % inch
or

more

thick

a circular scar on the upper side at each joint, rootlets on the

ABOUT DRUGS.

35

under surface, or small white scars left after them; smooth or slightly wrinkled; exteriorly light orange brown, interiorly nearly whitish; odor slight, but
peculiar; taste sweetish, bitter, acrid.

Contains from 4 to 5 per cent, of resin, called " resin of podophyllum," or " podophyllin,"and consisting of various substances.
It is

purgative.

Dose.

Powder,

8 to

30 grains; Abstract, 3 to 10 grains; Extract,

to 4

grains; Fluid Extract, 8 to 20 minims; Resin, 1-6 to )/ z grain.

Rheum. Rhubarb. 1152. From Rheum officinale (Polygonacece).


Thibet and China.
Large, thick pieces of various shapes and sizes, deprived of the outer layer, exteriorly smooth, reddish-brown, covered with a light yellowish-

brown powder; interiorly of an irregularly marbled appearance, orangeyellow and white veins, stria;, or rays alternating; odor peculiar, taste bitterish, somewhat astringent; when chewed, rhubarb is g. itty from crystals
-

of calcium oxalate.

Active principles.
rhubarb.

Several resinous cathartic principles are contained in


Chrysophan, chrysophanic acid, cathartin,emodin.

Among

these are:

Has a
acid.

cathartic effect, followed

by an astringent action due


10 to 30 grs.; Extract,

to rheo-tannic

Preparations and doses.


Fluid
Extract,

Powder,

to 15 grs.;

to

1%

fluidrachms;

Compound Powder,

15 to 60 grs.;

Syrup, 1 to 4 fluidrachms; Aromatic Syrup, 1 to 2 fluidrachms; Tincture, Aromatic Tincture and Sweet Tincture, each 1 to 6 fluidrachms; Wine, 1 to

4 fluidrachms. 1153.

Sanguinaria. Bloodroot.
canadensis (Papaveracetz).

The rhizome of Sanguinaria The United States.

Y inch or
3

About two inches long, cylindrical, tapering somewhat at the ends, about more thick, somewhat wrinkled; brown-red; fracture short; taste
extremely acrid.

bitter,

Contains the acrid, narcotic alkaloid sanguinarine. Used as an expectorant. Dose. Vinegar, 10 to 30 minims; Fluid Extract, 5 ure, 10 to 60 minims.

to 15

minims; Tinct-

1154.
(Smilacece).

Sarsaparilla. Sarsaparilla.
S. medica,

From Smilax officinalis,

and other species

of Smilax

Mexico, and Central and South America.

352

ABOUT DRUGS.

About Yz inch thick, very long, cylindrical, deeply wrinkled lengthwise, grayish brown or orange-brown interiorly starchy, somewhat horny odor
;

very faint; taste mucilaginous, bitterish, acrid

The knotty rhizome


parillin

or

"chump,"

if

Contains the acrid principle saponin, also


"
Alterative.

present, should be removed. called " parillin," or " sarsa-

Preparations.

Fluid Extract, Compound Fluid Extract, Compound Syrup


Squill.

and Compound Decoction.


1155.
Scilla.

The bulb
Slices

of Urginea Scilla (Liiiacecz).


inches long,

Mediterranean coasts.
about
2

inch

thick, yellowish-white,

or reddish-

white, slightly translucent, brittle

when

dry, tough

and

flexible

when damp;

inodorous

taste mucilaginous, bitter, acrid.

Contains several acrid substances of which the most important are scillitoxin, scillipicrin, and scillin. Squill also contains much mucilage. Diuretic and expectorant. Fluid Extract, 3 to 15 minutes Syrup Dose. Vinegar, 10 to 30 minim and Compound Syrup, 30 to 60 minims Tincture, 8 to 30 minims.

156.

Senega.

Seneka Snakeroot.
States.

From

Polygala Senega [Polygalacea).

Middle and Southern United

About 4 inches long, with a knotty crown, branched, spindle shaped, somewhat tortuous, with a keel running spirally from crown to apex;
Exteriorly wrinkled lengthwise, slight yellowish-brown or yellowish-gray; bark thick; odor slight, but peculiar, disagreeable; taste first insipid, sweetish, afterwards acrid. Contains the acrid principle saponin, which is also called "senegin,"

"polygalic

acid,"' etc.

Expectorant and diuretic.

Dose.
1

Abstract,
drachms.

3 to 12

grains

Fluid Extract,

to

20

minims

Syrup,

to 2 fluid

1157.

Serpentaria.

Virginia Snakeroot.

From Aristolochia Serpentaria (Aristolochiacece). The Middle and Southern United States.
long, with remnants of stems on the upper and on the under side; rootlets long, slender, brittle; dull brown, interiorly lighter; odor aromatic, camphoraceous, terebinthinate; taste warm, bitterish,

Rhizome about one inch

rootlets

resinous.

ABOUT DRUGS.
Contains volatile oil and resin. Aromatic stimulant tonic. Dose. Fluid Extract, 30 to 60 minims; Tincture,

353

z y

to 2 fiuidrachms.

1158.

From

Pinkroot. Spigelia. Spigelia marylandica (Zoganiacece)


States.
2

The United

Rhizome about
thin, brittle rootlets

inches long and }4 inch thick; scars above, and numerous below; dark brown; slightly aromatic, bitter.

Contains a

bitter principle, volatile oil

and

resin.

Anthelmintic.

Dose
1159.

of Fluid Extract, 30 to 60

minims.

Stillingia.

Queen's Root.

From
Long
thick with

Stillingia sylvatica {Euphorbiacecz).

Southern United States.


pieces, about 2 inches thick, wrinkled, tough, grayish-brown;
taste bitter, acrid.

bark

numerous resin cells; odor disagreeable; Contains a soft, pungent, acrid resin.
Alterative.

Dose
1

of Fluid Extract,

to 2 fiuidrachms.

160.

Taraxacum.

Dandelion.

From Taraxacum
About
3 to 6

Dens-leo7iis {Composite).

Europe and America.


inches long,

to

inch thick, branched head, wrinkled


old, lighter

lengthwise, exteriorly dark


rings; inodorous, bitter.

brown when

when

recently dried,
in concentric

interiorly yellowish, bark thick

and white, with milk-vessels

Contains the
Dose.
1

bitter principle taraxacin

and acrid
1

taraxacerin.

Tonic, diuretic.

Extract,

15 to 40 grs.; Fluid Extract,

to 3 fiuidrachms.

161.

Valeriana.

Valerian.
(

From

Valeriana officinalis

Valerianacecz).

Europe.

inches long, brown, interiorly lighter; rootlets brown, with thick bark; odor strong, peculiar, disagreeable; taste bitter, aromatic, nauseous. Contains valeric acid, volatile oil and resin. When fresh it contains much volatile oil and little valeric acid; as the drug becomes older the proportion o acid increases and the volatile oil diminishes.

Vermont. Rhizome about ^ to 1^


brittle,

numerous, slender,

Antispasmodic.

354
Dose.
to

ABOUT DRUGS.

Abstract,

8 to 30 grains; Extract, 10 to 40 grs.; Fluid Extract,

iy z
1

fluidrachms; Tincture, and

Ammoniated

Tincture,

to 4 fluidrachms.

162. Veratrum Viride. American Hellebore. From Veratrum viride (Melanthacece).

Northern United States.


Rhizome about
2 to 3

inches long,

to 2 inches thick, exteriorly blackish-

gray, interiorly grayish-white; numerous light brown rootlets, from 4 to 6 inches long and about TV inch thick; inodorous; powder extremely irritating,
sternutatory; taste bitter, very acrid.

Active principles. and pseudojervine.

The

acrid alkaloids jemine, veratroidine rubijervine,


,

Cardiac sedative. Dose. Fluid Extract,

2 to 5

minims; Tincture,

3 to 10

minims.

1163.

Zingiber.

Ginger.

From

Zingiber officinale {Zingiberacca).

Tropical Asia (Cochin) and the West Indies (Jamaica). Rhizomes about / inch or more broad, flattish, lobed or branched; 2
x

deprived of the epidermis: pale buff-colored; fracture fibrous, starchy, showing scattered resin cells; odor peculiar, aromatic, pungent; taste hot, spicy.

Contains
Dose.

volatile oil

and

resin.

Carminative.

Fluid

Extract, 4 to 30 minims; Oleoresin,

to 3 drops; Syrup,

to 2 fluidrachms; Tincture, 30 to 60

minims.

CHAPTER
1 164.

LXV.

WOODS, BARKS, ETC.

Guaiaci Lignum. Guaiac wood. The heart wood of Guaiacum officinale (Zygophyllacece). West Indies and South America.
Heavy, hard, dark greenish-brown, resinous; when heated
resinous odor; taste
Alterative.
it

emits a

somewhat

acrid.

Contains about 25 per

cent, resin.

Used
Syrup

in

the preparations called

Compound Decoction and Compound

of Sarsaparilla.

ABOUT DRUGS.
1165.

355

Haematoxylon.

Logwood.

The heartwood

of Hcematoxylon campechianitm (Legttminosce).


faint, peculiar; taste sweetish, astringent;

Tropical America.
Heavy, hard, brown-red; odor
colors the saliva dark reddish-pink. Contains tannin, and a crystallizable, sweet substance called hamotoxylin.

The tannin
Dose
1166.

is

the valuable constituent.

Astringent.
of the Extract, about 10 grains.

Quassia.

Quassia.

The wood of West Indies.


Contains the
in
it.

Picrcena excelsa (Simaritbacece).

Yellowish-white chips or raspings; inodorous; intensely


bitter neutral principle quassiin.

bitter.
is

No

tannin

contained

Bitter stomachic tonic.

Dose.

Extract,

to 2 grs.; Fluid

Extract, 30 to 60 minims; Tincture,

to 2 fluidrachms.

1167.

Aspidosperma.

Quebracho Bark.

From

Aspidosperma Quebracho (Apocynacece).

Brazil.

Large pieces, about

inch thick, more or less curved, the rough corky

layer and the inner bark being of about equal thickness; outer bark fissured,

gray; inner bark fawn-colored; fracture fibrous; inodorous; inner bark (active
portion) very bitter.

Active principles:

Several

alkaloids, the

most important of which are

aspidospermine and quebrachine.

Dose
1168.

of Fluid Extract, 15 to 45 minims.

Aurantii

Amari Cortex.

Bitter Orange Peel.

The

rind of the fruit of Citrus vulgaris (Aurantiacece)

Southern Europe.
the outer surface, white on the inner side.

Thin, spiral bands or oval, curved pieces, greenish-gray and reddish on Odor agreeable, aromatic; taste

aromatic, bitter.

Constituents.
(This volatile

The

bitter

principle

oil is

known

in

commerce

hesperidin and a little volatile as " essence de bigarade. ")


to 2 fluid

oil.

Used as an aromatic,
Dose.

bitter,

stomachic tonic.
1

Fluid extract,

30 to 60 minims; tincture,

drachms.

Cinchona. Cinchona Bark. The bark of any species of Cinchona


1169.

(Rubiacece),

containing

at least three per cent, of total alkaloids.

356

ABOUT DRUGS.
Calisaya Bark;

Cinchona Flava. Yellow Cinchona; Yellow Peruvian Bark. The trunk bark of Cinchona Calisaya.
Peru and Bolivia.
Cultivated in India.

Cinchona Rubra. Red Cinchona; Red Peruvian Bark. From Cinchona Succirubra.
Ecuador.
"

Cultivated in Java, Ceylon,

etc.

The Pharmacopoeia recognizes under


Cinchona
"

the general

title

of

"

any cinchona bark containing


it

of

the total cinchona alkaloids;

at least 3 per cent. requires the "yellow cin-

chona

and "red cinchona"

to contain at least 2 percent, of

the alkaloid quinine, without reference to the other cinchona


alkaloids.

Yellow Cinchona occurs

in

flat

pieces or quills of various sizes, of a

light yellowish-brown color; inodorous; taste bitter.

Dose. Extract, 10 to 30 grains; Fluid extract, 15 to 50 minims; Infusion, 6 to 24 fiuidrachms; Tincture, z to 2 fiuidrachms. Red Cinchona occurs in quills, irregular pieces, or in shavings; dark brown red; odor faint; taste bitter, astringent. Dose. Fluid Extract, 15 to 60 minims; Comp. Tincture, J to 2 fluid drachms. Constituents. Both yellow and red cinchona contain the alkaloids quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine; but yellow bark contains a greater proportion of quinine than the red bark, while red cinchona contains a Both barks contain a greater proportion of cinchonidine and cinchonine. peculiar tannin called cineko tannic acid. The red bark contains also a resin-

ous coloring matter called cinchona red. Uses. Cinchona is a valuable bitter tonic and antiperiodic,

it

is

also

astringent.

1170.

Cinnamomum.

The inner bark


(Lauracece).

of the shoots of

Cinnamon. Saigon Cinnamon. some species of Cinnamomum

Grown

in

China.
in

Saigon cinnamon occurs

regular quills, from i to nearly

inch

in

diameter, exteriorly rough, brownish-gray, light

brown on

the

inner side;

odor very fragrant, taste sweetish, aromatic, quite pungent, but agreeable. Ceylon cinnamon is in long, slender multiple quills, consisting of the thin, smooth inner bark; of a light yellowish-brown color. It is of very fine
flavor.

ABOUT DRUGS.
Chinese cassia cinnamon
quills of
is

357

thicker than Ceylon cinnamon, occurs in single

much

thicker bark, darker brown,


volatile oil.

and

of inferior flavor.

Contains

Used

as an aromatic stimulant and as flavoring ingredient.

Frangula. Buckthorn Bark. 1171. From Rhamnus Frangula (Rhamnacece), Must have been
lected at least one year before being used.

col-

Throughout Europe.
Quills or troughs about i to f inch in diameter, the bark about 1-24 in. thick, brittle. Outer surface smoothish, grayish or brown; inner surface smooth, orange or brownish-yellow. Odor faint but peculiar; taste sweetish,
bitter, disagreeable.

Constituents.

Frangulin,
is

Colors the saliva yellow.


or rhamnoxanthin, which
is

cathartic;

also

several other laxative and cathartic principles of a resinous character.

Old

bark contains emodin, which


Purgative.

also found in rhubarb.

Dose
1172.

of the Fluid Extract,

to 3 fluidrachms.

Gossypii Radicis Cortex. Cotton Root Bark. The bark of the root of the cotton plants, Gossypium herbaceum and other species of Gossypium (MalvacecB.). Southern United States.
Long,
thin,
flexible
strips,

brownish-yellow exteriorly, inner surface

whitish; tough, fibrous; inodorous; taste

somewhat

acrid.

and red coloring matter. Its medicinal properties and uses are similar to those of Dose of the Fluid Extract, 30 to 60 minims.

Contains

resin, tannin,

ergot.

Granatum. Pomegranate Root Bark. 1173. The bark of the root of Punira Granatum (Granatacece.)
Cultivated in subtropical countries as on the Mediterranean
borders.
Troughs,
quills, or

fragments of various
lighter

sizes,

mostly

in pieces

about two
taste

to four inches long, bark about 1-24 inch thick; outer surface yellowish-gray

or brownish-gray; inner surface


astringent,

grayish-yellow; inodorous;

somewhat

bitter.

Colors the saliva yellow.


pelletierine
,

Contains the alkaloid

and other alkaloids have also been

reported as found in this drug. It is anthelmintic or taenicide.

Dose
1174.

of the Fluid Extract, 30 to 80 minims.

Mezereum. Mezereum. From Daphne Mezereum and other


acece)

species of

Daphne (Thymel-

358

ABOUT DRUGS.
Mountain regions
of

Northern Europe and Asia.

Long, thin, tough bands, exteriorly brownish-yellow and light greenish, on the inner side whitish, shining. Inodorous; extremely acrid. Contains soft, acrid resin, and an acrid volatile oil, besides the bitter principle daphnin.

Preparations.

Extract,

Fluid Extract and Ointment; used externally as

stimulants and rubefacients.

Prunus Virginiana. Wild Cherry. From Prunus serotina {Rosacea). The United States.
1175.
Wild Cherry Bark
is

collected in the

of sound, not too old, trees.

autumn from medium large branches The bark from small branches as well as cork1-12 inch thick, exte-

covered old bark, must not be used.

Curved or
riorly

flat,

irregularly-shaped pieces at least

greenish-brown or yellowish-brown, more or less glossy, with transverse scars; inner surface light brown, sometimes striate or fissured. When dry it has a faint tan bark odor; when moistened it develops a decided odor of bitter almond. Taste astringent, bitter-almond like, and bitter.
prunin.

Contains tannin, amygdalin, emuhin, some resin, and the bitter principle When macerated with water the amygdalin decomposes and yields hydrocyanic acid and a volatile oil similar to that produced from bitter almond. It is a bitter tonic and slightly sedative. Mostly used for its agreeable
flavor.

Dose.

Fluid
z y
fl.

Extract,
oz.

30 to 60 minims; Infusion.

to 3 fluid

ounces;

Syrup, about

Quercus Alba. White Oak Bark. From Quercus alba [Cupuliferai). The United States.
1176.
Flattish pieces, about % inch thick, with corky layer removed; pale brown; with short ridges lengthwise on the inner surface; coarse fibrous
fracture.

faint

tan bark odor; taste very astringent.


called quercitannic acid,

Usually coarsely

ground.

Contains tannin,
an astringent.

from

6 to 15 per cent.

Used as

Rhamnus Purshiana. Cascara Sagrada. 1177. The bark of Rhamnus Purshiana (Rhamnacece). Rocky mountains and the Pacific slope.
in

younger bark, the brown

Thin, brittle troughs or quills of various lengths, externally brownish-gray is mottled with nearly black alternating with

ABOUT DRUGS.
side.

359

whitish or ash-colored spots; yellowish-brown or orange-yellow on the inner

Odor

faint; taste bitter, disagreeable.

Constituents similar
Purgative.

to those of

Frangula

(1171).

Dose
1178.
acea)

of Fluid Extract, 15 to 60

minims.

Rubus.

Blackberry Root Bark.


Rubus
villosus

The bark
.

of the root of

and Rubus

trivialis

{Ros-

The United
light

States.
bitter.

Quills, troughs, or flexible bands, externally blackish-gray, inner surface

brownish; inodorous, astringent,


is

Contains tannin and


Astringent.

used as an
1

Dose

of Fluid Extract,

to 2

fl.

drs.

Sassafras Bark. 1179. Sassafras. The root bark of Sassafras officinalis (Lauraceae).

The United
tle,

States and Canada.

Irregular pieces deprived of the corky layer, bright rust brown, soft, brit-

with short fracture.


astringent.

Odor strongly aromatic;

taste

sweetish,
a

aromatic,
tannin.

somewhat

Contains about 3 per cent, volatile oil, some resin, and Used mainly as a flavoring constituent. 1180. Ulmus. Slippery Elm Bark. The inner bark of Ulmus fulva (Urlicacea;.)

little

The United

States.

Flat pieces, about y% inch thick, tough, pale brownish-white, fracture fibrous; odor faint, peculiar; taste insipid, mucilaginous.

Contains mucilage. Demulcent.

1181. Galla. Nutgall. Excrescent growths upon the bark of Quercus lusitanica r var. infectoria {Cupulifercz) caused by the punctures and deposits of ova made by the insect Cynips Gallce tinctorice. The Levant.
Subglobular, about %" inch in diameter, tuberculated above; heavy, hard, dark olive green or blackish-gray; fracture granular, grayish; nearly inodorous; taste, strongly astringent.

Contains from 40

to 70 per cent, tannin,

and

2 to 3

per cent, gallic acid.

Powerfully astringent.

360

ABOUT DRUGS.

CHAPTER
HERBS,
1182.

LXVI.

FLOWERS, AND LEAVES.

Cannabis Indica.

Indian

Cannabis or Indian
of Cannabis sativa (Urti-

Hemp. Flowering tops of the female plant cacece), grown in the East Indies.
flowers,

Branching, brittle, with small linear lanceolate leaflets, small pistillate and occasionally some hemp seed, the whole top resinous and sticky when warmed in the hand. Color greenish brown; odor peculiar aromatic,
narcotic; taste slightly acrid.

Contains

resin

and
]/(,

volatile

oil.

Intoxicant.

Hypnotic.
lo

to 30

Dose. Extract, minims.

gr.

Fluid Extract, 2 to

minims; Tincture, 8

1183.

Eupatorium.
leaves

Boneset.

The

and

flowering tops of Eupatorium pcrfoliatum

{Composite).

North America.
Leaves opposite, united at the base, lanceolate, 4 to 6 inches long, rough on the upper side, downy beneath; flowers numerous, in corymbs, florets white; odor aromatic; taste bitter, astringent. Contains volatile oil, the bitter eupatorin, and a little tannin.
Emetic, diaphoretic.

Dose
1184.

of Fluid Extract, 15 to 60

minims.

Grindelia. Grindelia Robusta. Flowering tops and leaves of Grindelia robusta (Composites).
of the Rocky Mountains, especially in California. Leaves about two inches long, narrow, pale green, brittle; heads manyflowered, about one-half to three-fourth inches in diameter; flowers yellow, the whole top resinous; odor aromatic- taste pungent, aromatic, bitter. Contains volatile oil and resin.

West

Stimulant, diuretic.

Dose
1185.

of Fluid Extract. 30 to

60 minims.

Lobelia.

Indian Tobacco.

a portion of the

Leaves and tops of Lobelia inflata (Lobeliacetz), collected after capsules have become inflated. The United States.

ABOUT DRUGS.

361

Leaves alternate, oblong, about two inches long, pale green; flowers pale "blue; odor slight; taste acrid, nauseating.
Active principle, the volatile alkaloid lobeline. Emetic, powerfully depressant, narcotic. Dose. Vinegar of Lobelia, 15 to 60 minims; Fluid Extract, 3 to 30 minims; Tincture, 10 to 45 minims. Much smaller doses are given when the drug is used as an expectorant.

1186. Marrubium. Hoarhound. The leaves and tops of Marrubium vulgare Europe and America.
"beneath,

(Labiatcz).

Leaves about one inch long, opposite, ovate, obtuse, downy above, hairy
flowers

white

in

whorls;

odor

slight,

herbaceous; taste

bitter,

aromatic.

The

Peppermint. 1187. Mentha Piperita. leaves and tops of Mentha piperita (Labiatce).
Leaves about
2

Cultivated in North America and Europe.


inches long, pointed, stems quadrangular, flowers small,
purplish; odor peculiar, aromatic; taste

pungent and cooling.

Contains

volatile oil.

Stimulant.

1188.

Anthemis. Chamomile. The flower-heads of Anthemis nobilis

(Composite?),

from

culti-

vated plants.
Cultivated in Europe.
Subglobular, about
taste aromatic, bitter.

inch broad, florets white; odor aromatic, peculiar,

Contains
Stimulant.

volatile oil.

The flower-heads
About

Arnicae Flores. Arnica Flowers. of Arnica montana (Composite:). Europe and North America.
1189.
i\ inches broad, florets yellow, pappus hairy; odor feeble, aro-

matic; taste bitter, acrid.

Contains volatile oil. Used only externally.


1 190.

Brayera.

Koosso.
of Brayera anthelmintica (Rosacea:).

The female
Abyssinia

inflorescence

Clusters of panicles of reddish flowers; odor feeble, tea-like, reminding of

elder flowers; taste bitter, disagreeable, acrid.

362
Contains the

ABOUT DRUGS.
bitter resinous principle Koossin.
2 to

Anthelmintic.
I

Dose. Powder, sion, one pint.

4 drachms; Fluid Extract,

to 4 fluid

drachms; Infu-

1191.
Africa.

Caryophyllus.

Cloves.

The unexpanded

flowers of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtacece)

A little over )/ z inch long, consisting of a calyx mounted by four spreading sepals, surrounding the four petals which overlap each other forming a globular bud about \ inch in diameter; color, rich brown; odor, strongly aromatic; taste, aromatic, pungent. Volatile oil exudes when the clove is
scratched or indented by the nail.

Contains from
constituent.

15 to 20 per cent, volatile oil,

which

is

the

most valuable

Aromatic and stimulant.

1192.

Crocus.

Saffron.

The stigmas

of Crocus sativus {IridaccoS).

Austria, Spain, France, Italy, etc.


Separate, or three together attached to a portion of the style; the stigmas
are thread-like, about
flexible, of

1%

inch long, flattened and notched at the top, soft,

a rich orange brown color; odor, decided, peculiar, agreeable, aro-

matic; taste, aromatic, bitterish.

Colors the saliva a deep golden-yellow. Contains volatile oil as its most important constituent. Used as a flavoring ingredient and a coloring agent, but is stimulant and

diuretic.

Dose
1 193.

of the Tincture,

to 2 fluid

drachms.

Lavandula.
in

Lavender.

The

flowers of Lavandula vera (Labialu).

Cultivated

Europe.

Small, with tubular blue-gray calyx, violet-blue corolla; odor fragrant; taste
bitterish, aromatic.

Contains

volatile oil.

Stimulant, used mainly as an aromatizing ingredient.

The

Rosa Gallica. Red Rose. 1195. petals of Rosa gallica {Rosacea:), collected just before the
Cultivated
in

expansion of the roses.


ish, slightly

France.

Roundish, deep purplish red petals


acidulous,

of a rose-like fragrance; taste, bitter-

somewhat

astringent.
oil

Contains a very small amount of volatile Used as a mild astringent for children.

and a

little

tannin.

ABOUT DRUGS.
Matricaria. German Chamomile. The flower heads of Matricaria Chamomilla (Composites). Europe.
II94.

363

About

inch broad, ray-florets white, flowers yellow; odor aromatic;

taste, bitter, strongly aromatic.

Contains volatile oil. Used as a diaphoretic and stomachic.


1 196.

Sambucus.

Elder Flowers.

The

flowers of Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceee).


cream-colored or pale yellow; odor
-eculiar,

North America.
Small,

aromatic;

taste,

sweetish, aromatic,

somewhat
a

bitter.
little

Contains

volatile ^z'/and

acrid resin.

Stimulant and diaphoretic.

1197. seed.
posite)

Santonica.

Levantic Wormseed, or German Wormof Artemisia maritime/, (Com-

The unexpanded flower-heads


.

Turkestan.
Nearly T^ inch long, ovoid, grayish-green; odor strong, peculiar; taste
aromatic, bitter. Contains the peculiar feebly acid principle santonin, and some volatile
oil

and

resin.

Anthelmintic.

1198.

Belladonnae

Folia.

Belladonna Leaves.

From

Atropa Belladonna (Solanacece). Central and southern Europe.


Four to 6 inches long, broadly ovate, tapering, smooth, thin, brownishgreen above, grayish-green beneath; odor faint, herbaceous; taste bitterish, unpleasant. Active principles. The alkaloids atropine, belladonnine and hyoscyamine. Mydriatic anodyne (1135). Dose. Extract, \ to \ grain; Fluid Extract, 3 to 5 minims; Tincture, 15

to 30 minims.

Poisonous Effects and Antidotes. See

1135.

1199.
crenulata,

Buchu. Buchu Leaves. From Bar osma and B. serratifolia (Rutaceoe).

betulina,B.

Southern Africa.

364

ABOUT DRUGS.
There are two recognized betulina, and B.
serratifolia.

varieties
crenulata,

Buchu from B.
B.
Long buchu
thin, green.

of the drug Long and short buchu from


:

consists of narrow, lanceolate leaves, about one inch long,

Short buchu

consists

of

leaves about

-?-

inch

long,

roundish

oval,

obtuse, thickish, pale green.

Both kinds of leaves have serrate or crenate edges, are strongly aromatic and have a strong, pungent, bitterish taste, somewhat reminding of mint. Contains volatile oil, which is the only active constituent. Mucilage is
also contained in the drug.

Used Dose
1200.

as an aromatic stimulant and diuretic.


of the Fluid Extract, 15 to 30 minims.

Digitalis.

Foxglove.
collected

The

leaves of Digitalis purpurea {Scrophulariacea)

from pl-ants of the second year's growth. Europe.


Leaves 4
veined,
to 12

inches iong;
the

downy on

under

side,

oblong, crenate, wrinkled, coarsely netmid-rib thick; dull green above, paler
bitter,

beneath; odor feeble; herbaceous; taste

disagreeable.

Active Principles. The principal active constituent is digitoxin. Digitalis is a heart stimulant and a diuretic. grain; Extract, 4 to Dose. Powder, ^ to 3 grains; Abstract, y z to 1 grain; Fluid Extract, 1 to 3 minims; Infusion, 2 to 5 fluid drachms; Tincture, 5 to 20 minims. Poisonous Effects In large doses it may cause a too powerful contracOr the excitement of the heart produced tion of the heart, or tetanic spasm. bv the drug may be followed by fatal exhaustion. Headache, dizziness, delirium, exhaustion, are among the symptoms of poisoning by digitalis. Opium, aconite, saponin, etc. Stimulants are given to counAntidotes

teract depression.

1201.

Erythroxyion.

Coca Leaves.

From

Erythroxylon

Coca

Erythroxy laceai).

Peru.
and a curved
Oval, 2 or 3 inches long, pale green, net-veined, with prominent mid-rib, line from base to apex on each side of the mid-rib; odor feeble,

herbaceous; taste bitterish, slightly aromatic.

Active principle.
Stimulant.

The alkaloid cocaine.


1

Dose

of Fluid Extract.

to 4 fluid

drachms.

ABOUT DRUGS.
1202.

365

Eucalyptus.

Eucalyptus.

The

leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrlacece) collected from

rather old trees.


Australia.

Cultivated in California.

Scythe-shaped, from 6 to 12 inches long, tapering, thick, gray-green, feather- veined; odor, camphoraceous, strong; taste, pungent, aromatic, bitterish, a little astringent.

Contains

volatile oil

and

resin.

Stimulant, diaphoretic, antiseptic, diuretic.

Dose
1203.

of the Fluid Extract, 15 to 60

minims.

Hyoscyamus.

Henbane.
(Solanacece) collected

Leaves of Hyoscyamus niger


of the second year's growth.

from plants

Europe.
Oblong, from 4 to 10 inches long and 2 to 4 inches broad, soft, hairy, glandulous, wrinkled; have a broad, whitish, prominent mid-rib; grayishgreen; odor strong, narcotic; taste
bitter, acrid.

Active principles
Dose.

The alkaloids hyoscyamine and hyoscine.


2 to 6 grains; Extract,
fi.
1

Anodyne, hynotic, narcotic.

Abstract,

to 2 grains; Fluid Extract,

to

30 minims; Tincture, 15 minims to 2

drs.

Poisonous Effects similar


the same.

to those of

belladonna

(1135),

and antidotes

1204.

Matico.

Matico.

The

leaves of Arthante elongata {Piperacece).


to 6 inches long, about an inch or more broad, pointed, venaprominent on the under side, upper surface wrinkled; brittle, hairy;

South America.
They are 4
tion very

odor, aromatic, spicy; taste, pungent, bitterish, astringent.

Contains
Dose.

volatile oil

and

resin,

and a

little

tannin.

Stimulant, blennhoretic, diuretic.

Fluid

Extract, 30 to 60 minims; Tincture,

to 4 fluid

drachms.

1205.

Pilocarpus.

Jaborandt.

The

leaves of Pilocarpus pinnatifollus {Rutaceoz).

Brazil.
slightly aromatic

About 4 inches long, oblong, obtuse, thick, grayish-green, smoothish; when rubbed; bitter, somewhat pungent. Contains the alkaloids pilocarpine and jaborattdine.
Powerful diaphoretic.

Dose

of the Fluid Extract, 30 to 120

minims.

366
1206.

ABOUT DRUGS.

Rosmarinus.

Rosemary.
{Labiatoz).

From Rosmarinus officinalis


Cultivated in Europe.

Almost needle-shaped, about an inch long, dark green, strongly aromatic,


pungent.

Contains
Stimulant.

volatile oil.

Rarely used.

1207.

Salvia.
1

Sage.
Cultivated.
grayish-green;

From
About

Salvia officinalis (Labiatce).

to 2 inches long, oval, wrinkled, thick, soft, hairy,

aromatic, bitterish, somewhat astringent.

Contains

volatile oil

and a

little

tannin.

Stimulant, slightly astringent.

Used

in gargles.

Senna. Senna. There are two varieties: Alexandria Senna consists


1208.
(Leguminosce).

of the leaflets of Senna acutifolia

Africa. About r inch long and


smooth,
terish.
brittle,

inch broad across the

middle, pointed, thick,

grayish-green; odor peculiar, nauseous; taste

nauseous,

bit-

India Senna consists of the


India; cultivated. About 2 inches long,

leaflets of Cassia elongata.

^ inch broad, pointed, not thick, dull green (darker than the Alexandria Senna), not brittle; odor about the same as of the other variety of senna; taste mucilaginous, bitter, nauseous.

Senna should be
Contains
Cathartic.

free

from stalks and other admixtures.


and other
less

eathartin, chrysophan,

important constituents.
Fluid

Dose.
Extract,
1 1

Powder,
to 4 fluid

30 to 150 grains;

Confection, 60 to 150 grains;


1

drachms; Compound Infusion,

to 3 fluid ounces; Syrup,

to 4 fluid

drachms.

1209.

Stramonium. Stinkweed; Jimpson Weed. From Datura Stramonium (Solanacece).


About
6 inches long, 4 inches broad, one-third of their length from the

North America as well as Europe.


base, unsymmetrical in outline

and venation, wrinkled,

thin, brittle;

develop

a disagreeable narcotic odor when rubbed; taste, bitter, nauseous. Contains the alkaloids atropine and hyxcyamine.

ABOUT DRUGS.
Narcotic,
(1135)

367
those
of belladonna

anodyne, hypnotic.
(1203).

Effects similar to

and hyoscyamus
Nicotiatia

Tobacco. Tabacum {Solanacece). Cultivated in the middle Southern States of the United States, and in Cuba, etc. Up to 20 inches long, oval, lanceolate, pointed, brown, brittle, hairy;
1210.

Tabacum.

From

odor, peculiar, strong, nauseous, narcotic; taste, nauseous,

bitter, acrid.

Contains the poisonous volatile alkaloid nicotine. Used only externally, being too dangerous for internal administration.
Depressant.

1211.

Uva

Ursi.

Bearberry Leaves.

From

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi {Ericacece).

Northern Europe and America.


About four-fifths inch long, }/ z inch broad, obovate, thick, smooth, glossy, dark green above, paler beneath, odor hearbaceous; taste very astringent,

somewhat bitter. Contains tannin, and some gallic called arbutin, ericolin, and ursone.
Astringent, diuretic.

acid, besides

certain peculiar principles

CHAPTER
1212.

LXVII.

FRUITS AND SEEDS.

Anisum.

Anise.

The

fruit of Pimpinella

Anisum

Umbellifercz).

Cultivated in Germany, Italy and other countries. About % inch long, ovate, greenish-gray, fine-hairy, ridged;
able, aromatic; taste, aromatic, sweet, pungent.

odor, agree.

Contains

volatile oil.

Stimulant, carminative.

Much employed

for flavoring.

1213.

Capsicum.

Cayenne Pepper.

Red Pepper.

Afri-

can Pepper. The fruit


Africa,

of Capsicum fastigiatum (So/anacece)

South America.

368
Oblong, about
taining
flat z y

ABOUT DRUGS.
to

inch long, glossy, red

membranous

capsules, con-

yellowish seeds.

Odor, peculiar;

taste, fiery, acrid.

Contains the and acrid resin.

volatile, acrid

principle capsaicin together with volatile oil

Used
Dose.
ture,

as a stimulant, carminative; externally as a counter-irritant

and

rubefacient.

Fluid
1

Extract, 3 to 8 minims; Oleoresin, y to

minim Tinc;

to

fluid

drachm.

Externally are used the Capsicum Plaster, and also the Oleoresin.

1214.

Cardamomum.

The

fruit of Elettaria

Cardamom. Cardamomum (Zingiberacece).

Malabar, etc.
Ovoid, about
buff, leathery
\&

inch long,

to

V 3

inch in diameter, triangular; pale

Seeds dark reddish-brown, very small, hard; odor, peculiar, agreeable, aromatic; taste, aromatic, pungent.
pericarp.

Contains

volatile

oil.

An

aromatic stimulant and carminative.

Much used

for flavoring.

Carum. Caraway. The fruit of Carum Carvi {Umbellifera).


1215.

Cultivated in Europe.
Slender, oblong, about

inch long, dark brown; odor agreeable, aro-

matic; taste, sweetish, aromat