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@

35 P593 2001
retarding
potentialc"d

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I

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electron

+--+
grid

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t-rG Lr

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is
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PHYSICS 73.!

IABORATORY
MAI\TI.]AL
by'

Nathaniel P. Hermosa II Maricor N. Soriano


Johannes Abate lMichelle F. Bailon Nelson Carcy Eric Galapon Giovanni Tzpang Alexander Mendenilla

t o
{
-l 6

z s

t Corer Detign fut: Michelh F. Bailon

A/rP-g 0 6
CIC

,(

t?a

3E

fsql
$01

t );a

f--bl'"ibduff

yv.onu,.lt--

1 'Pl.6,-,c-r

X;e, *"fl te-t

Fist Edition,

Jurre 2000

Second Edition, June 2001

Edited by: Michelle Bailon Nathaniel Hermosa Paul Eric Parafial

Policies and guidelines

EXPERIMENTS

1. linear expansion

2, newton's law of cooling 9 3. specific heat capacity of some metals 25

4. heat of fusion of ice 3l 5.photoelectric effect 45 6. calibration of the spectrometer 55 7. spectrum of hydrogen and other elemental

vapors 65 8, visual absorption spectroscopy 79

r.

GRADING SYSTEM Srudents will be graded as follows:


l-aboratory Reports Formal Reports @,xpts 3,7) Data Sheets (Expts 1.,2,4,5,6,8) Recitation, Quizzes, etc Relativity/Modern Physics Otal Reporting Demonstration Experiments \\'ritten Exam
600h

20% 40% 10%


1.0%

5%

15%

Total
GRADE EQUIVALENT
92.S

700oh

x < 100

--)

1.0 1.25 1.50 1.75

88<x<92 84<x<88 80<x<84 72<x<76

-+ -+
_>

-6<x<80

68<x<72 64<x<68 60<x<64 50<x<60


50 <x<0

-+ -+

2.50 2.75 3.0 4.0 5.0

-)
-+ -+

-+ -+

2.0 2.25

B. REQUIREMENTS
r\IFORMAL REPORTS. Reports will consist FORMAL REPORTS
Abstract Introduction Methodology Results and Discussion Processed Data Analysis Answers to Questions Conclusion
References
100 1,00h

Students are required to submit at least two (2) FORMAL REPORTS and six (6) and will be graded as follows:

INFORMAL REPORTS
50h 500h

Data, Graph and Results Sample Calculations Answers to Questions

40oh

l)oh
50%
100o/o

Total

r0%
5%
700/,

Appendix Data
Sample Calculations

Total

100%

\enonal Institute of

Physrcs

. r r . . r . . . '

Formal reports are to be submitted one week after the experiment has been pedormed while informal reports are to be done during laboratory hours and therefore must be submitted after class. Reports submitted late will have deducion of 2Ao/o per day late. Formal reports will be done in pairs while informal reports are done individudly. The oral reporting shall be done by group. Quizzes are at the discretion of the laboratory instructors' { make-up experiment shall be given to those students who missed experiments but have a valid excuse.M-ake-up expedments must be done within the week scheduled for the expedment. If not possible, a common Make-up day will be arranged. Students can only make-up ior ONE experiment The thirty items, one and a half-hour written final examination will be given in multiple choice. A student who fails to submit at least five (5) experiments before &opping may be given a grade of
does not DROP the course. the FINAL examination may be given a gtade of INC, misses A student who gade of 45o/o andabove, otherwise the sdudent will be given a grade of 5.0. 5.0

if the student

if he has attained

SOME SOURCES OF DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS A. JOURNAIS 1. The Physics Teacher 2. The AmericanJournal of PhYsics 3. Levinstein, H. "The Physics of Toys", Physics Teacher 20,358(1982)

B'

?:?tfl"rs, H.F., Physics Demonsffation Experiments, 1970 (fteiger, Melboume, FL 19xx) Z. Sutton, R.M., Demonstration Experiments in Physics, (IVIcGraw-Hill, New York, 1938) 3. Caqpenter, D. RaeJr and Minnix, Ri.trra 8., The Dick and Rae Physics Demo Notebook, (Dick
and Rae,Irxington,

VA 1993)

SOME SOURCES OF ARTICLES FOR ORAL REPORTING 1. Discover 2. Physics Today 3. Nature 4. New Scientist 5. Popular Science

6. Science 7. Scientific

American

National Institute of Physics

INTRODUCTION
The change in length per unit length per degree rise in temperature is called the coefficient of linear expansion. In equation form, it is given by
The value of o for solids or liquids does not vary much with pressure, but it may vary significantly with temperature. However, the accuracy obtained by using an average value of o over a wide temperature range is sufficient for
most Pu{Poses.

L"AT

(1.1)

vhere cr is the coefficient of linear expansion, Lo and Lr are the initial and final lengths, respectively, and AT is the change in
temPerature.

Table 1.1 Coefficient of Linear

OBJECTIVE
To determine the coefficient of expansion of various metals using the micrometer screw type of linear

METHODOLOGY

A- MATERIALS
You will need the following items for this experiment. Ask assistance from your instructor.
r

.inss Expansion Apparatus


Copper or Aluminum Rods power Supply Connecting Ifires (w/ Alligator Clip$
Rags

o o o .
i*
Iiri:o:I

Stove

Institute of Physics, UP Dilimao

Physics 73.

1. linear expansion

dTrrEter

Figute

1.1

Linear Expansion Apparatus: The Micrometet Screw Type.

The appanrus shovm above is designed for measuring increases in the length of a metal rod by means of a micrometer screw. The screw A rests firrnly against one end of the rod inside the metal iacket. Once adiusted and a teading is taken of the position of the micrometer screw B

at the other end of the rod, screw A must not be moved because it is the datum fot the increase in length. An electric circuit is used to indicate the instant that the tip of screw B makes contact with the end of the rod by deflection of an ammeter.

B. PROCEDURE
t. Measure the length of the metal rod using a
meterstick.
2.

fnsert the metal rod in the iacket through the end corks and place the iacket in the
frame.

the thermometer. Then turn back screw B to about trvo fi.rll turns so that expansion is not hampered.

7. Fill the steam generator


v/ater and place

two-thirds full of

it above the electric stove'

3.

Tighten the top scre\I/s iust enough to hold the jacket in place with one opening at the bottom. Lead this tubing into a closed beaker below the aPParatus.

8. 9.

Connect the tube from the steam generator to the uPPer oPening'

boil. lBE CAREFUL NOT TO SCALD


YOUR HANDS! the micrometer screw reading every fifteen-(15s) seconds until a constant maximum teading is obtained. Remember to turn back sctew B two full turns after every reading so as to hampet the rod's expansion, If the steam is passed thtough to long, the framework expands and the maximum increase' of the rod is not
measured.

Switch on the stove and allow the water to

4.

Adjust and

screw A and check the micrometet screw B. Turn B until contact is

fix

established and the ammeter deflects.


5.

10. Take

Place the digital thermometer in the top cork and twist it down with the cork in the opening until the temPerature probe is close to the rod but not touching it.

6.

Record the initial readings of

the

micrometer screw Go, might need to review on how to read the Micrometer) and

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Phpics 73.1

[. linear expansion

Name:
Partners:

Date Performed: Date Submitted:

Instructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY
Rod #
1:

t
)

Iength:

time (min.)

b
D
I

r,v

trt
ET

er
l's

ft
he

ot

C-oefficient of Linear Expansion (Ave.):


%

Error

Ern

\aioad

Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

1. linear expansion

Rod # 2:

Length:

lenph:
temp. ('C)
temp.

Time (rrtin)

fC)

length

(*r".)

Coefficient of Linear Expansion (Ave.): o/oErtor:

Natiooal Institute of Physics, UP Dilimen

Ptysics 73.1

1. linear expansion

EXERCISES 1. Plot AL/L" vs. AT. Use the daa in your table to plot
Rod
1
i1-':

a curve

in the gridlines ptovided below.


-!+-r-j

rii
ril
'i-i

f-i--i-f

'', i 1-l'

jriJ

.1,r-i. i.

iill
i;i1i l- r--!
r.-r

lj-it-i. r-t-i -i -l

iji-i
i-i

-i-i i l. r+-!I,

.i
-f-

i--!-i-

iii
ii

l..i t

j,

l- i i-t r:-

l^r-*,:. i_r ii_

lr:l_j_l_

ii.i-j.

:r i''i'

i,i r
i.j', i.
1;

ti-il 'i-1"t:

ji ij llli ! l'-r'i
i-'f-i-l

i-l

.{.-

l'

.ili: -it:, r
+i ill-ri
i:l;i

-l -!-

iji i-i l-i j t-i i_


r

:$ 1t
.i1

-i

itil-j

t- i _i-1l , t, _r l--i -1 i-i 1"i i -i. -t-l r-i

iii ii
-1I

-i.r-l--i i !, ,-L

ijji

iIi
ri#

itii

-i-1"i

i,t.i-

.ii'
-_L-i I _i-

'fi
_

-j-iL.i

fi+i

,l-jJ"i-t-1--

i''i-r-li i.l T

-f i'+

i--i

iiri i-l
tr--f

+ "t-

-t-

t_

itr
--_l

i:1t:
r .i i-i

i-l r

'f

-,-

-1--i--,-,i--

Li i-j:

LL/Lo

-i- --l-T

.-i-t

, i-'
r_i

t-t:-

-f,iij 'ii il ii

lrlj
i-f-j'
,-

ti !i
-i-.i-i. l-r- i. i.
l
1- "i

i;i i-l
-i-.r-

.t i-

lr:

i'lt i,
.t
i

'1-l-i"

lr,

-+
-!-

-i"i-r-ji I i1' -r l-i ! t-i+,i -r-r- i -i-

-l

-l-.- | ".j "

j'it
ji
.l !-!

ll; -fi
-i'i:1 j--l
i-

ii ',i,i i i; j.r,-i i':li


i: "j.i..i-r ,,
t,

-1-

.i;.r:

:i:i

ii ii ji i
ih

ii
+l
;"i'
1.1-,:

-i I r-i-l'r i-r'

f-i
tj-

+-i:[]:
.: ir,i
i

l-:i

iil
i
t li

ii

rir
'i :l ti
j,

i-iil I i 1-r i,

il;
ii 1!

r-i-

l-t.i

i;

r+

i
,

-i'i"
j-.r,-.

l'l-i1,'i r' 1:
t

j,,r,,

jil
7t
f-l
-1

tii

i t- r-'i'i
i-i-

-'

ii
',

:i:i
j.+

l-r.i,,: i

| |i

",, -'!lii-ii;

a-i i

i'

.l-

i;j

i.i

l-i
-1--r.

l:i
t-

-f ll'1
,i_1.

iiiI

.'r

i-r
',

:i1-

-li

:ij
-+

i; iil i:'lj
1,,

i-fi_I i-i' ti it,'i i:1, i-1-tj

"1...1-

-f-j'

li

lI;

iit'j
l.iI-

r-i-t
i-i

il
-1"-l-

:i.j.l.i

i+ r-i i f-i-

lilr

li',!

!-:

ii

+ iJ:i
-l ",i.ji.

ii. ti ri :ir: rr -i ir.-i i-l+i ii -j'1" !i i i i.:' i iil


r ii-i -n-;-i i '' i1 fi-r,

iii
'ii,it',
",.,. + -j"'r-1

ii lii
i'l'
i

-f i- -i-1 f+ 1r-i -i-i i--+---i -t-l' ,

r;if liil
ii:li

i i'

il
t:i

ii

i1il ij.ti
il'
a-

i
i-,1:

ii
i1

ii., .ii

i;i

:ijjj irlj.
-1i',ti.'

'r-i.: i, -i + f-i 1 i-: :f_i

|:; ii
iji i

-i

iil
.i--r-i- i-

ii
-i -f

,ti1 irri,

-l

:::

--i

ii i-i-i'l' ;:i ifij:

il:

i.+ l:i i-i 'ir -i-! Lil.: !l il -;-i i 1:i1

| ', I'r

t\r

-i

ir

ii

,lii
.j-i
.L
-j
-.;--i-

lr-ii il I i. iiri i;ij jl:+il l; -i-j-i t:lii i-i_'-1_ 1r t..i i-i' 1-i
i tli

:i;i riri
iiii

i-

il

-t-

i'i

ii

l-

1,, I1l

i-.1

AT cc)
Rod 2
-j.-i,

.',.i.i+

li

-i.i.

i-i

ir
r..l
_

j-i;i
f.i..i
r

-t.

l-r--

li
+-i
_f'

:i1
.i 1j.j
',-i ir : _i_r
i'

i
t

i1
:i-ri
i.."_

i-

ii
:ij
-i:

r.i

lrli "iiij :ili;


I

i-r--f-l

.ij

ti -r_r'

iii ti)
,,1 .

r-ll

i,
il
-1

ii ;ii, iif
'i--f-r

;i-i '!-1, 'j',i l; lli.i I


i-i'-l-'r
;.

fl r-l.l I
.l-j.i.i
.-l

i;.r

-l

i",

t'i

-:-i

.j--i.1.;
.r.-i-r.

l+,1

f
'1"

-i-

:i
-i

ii i..
',i

.li.il ilta
_1

AL/L,

ii| ii I jj
+

ir

--a

..t-

i.l 1a

ii
t

ii

t
f1

i:
-t

;i l'1
.r_-i.

:,1

rif i-:i: i I i
l

i!i
ali i..t

i_i:

jirr
ii
ia |i

i- r-, -i

il.j-

"i:i..i.j.

ti- r,i
l"jl
l'-i'

,)

,1i: ilti :1i1 l :r-i

i..i.j.i

il ii..i
;.1 l..i.j

j..i.

:.1 i

i i.

l-,r-i-

i:

i;1 iii

1i-i

it.

liL

.1-

iii i j.'i.;'i
i

':-i-i

i
I

ti

.jti
"i-i

i-j

i-i
lri"

;fl lr
i

j_i
i-'f

i"i

r'i' i rtt_
j--:-

'-i.l'

ii'

ii
ii

i:t i1
i-.i"

i.-i

iij
iij
lt
i

;r-

jr ,1i i:.i ii lii


ir
1-

a:: -i. i -i , ''i '


i

i.,i -i--i

i,.
1..

l.

1;
t;.

tl

-i-j

r-l
i--i

11

-l

:i.r 'lri
-i

i L: +.j -i

tti

l tl

itj

i..r,.j.

1l ii
-,

'j

1) "i-i

1i

:ij
-_r
1

'il..:
:i\

i_-::.
,i.. j.

-i
{"

,t ;,

i-t

_9

i-'
t_

i-r

,i

T'

-; )t
t.

t,
,

.i,t

j.iii
''i';'

i
'i

i.,.

^;
.i. i,;

.,.,
i

1,

j.i.
i':
-i-l.i-j--

;-1.-i

'.'i-i

-i_1'_iI

l'iir t::,

i-i-j

i-:l
-l

t:i

AT (c)
Enl
Irutitute of Physics, UP Dilimaa

2.

Compute for the coefficient of linear expansion of each rod using the different regions seen in the earlier graph as well as the whole graPh.

3.

Compare the values obained in (2) with the theoretical value. What is the Toerror for each rod?

QUESTIONS

1.

Explain the result of the LL/L"vs. AT plot.

\[hy

are there different regions?

2.

Explain the results obtained in Exetcise 2. In which part of th. grPh is the
theoretical value? Why?

o nearest to the

Nationd Iostitute of Physics, UP Diliman

tt6ks

73.1

L linear expansion

3.

How will the value of c be affected if it was measured in a different temperature range (..g. much higher or much lower temperarure range)?

In this experiment we used the length of the rod at room temperature (as opposed to its length at OoC) as our initial temperature. Did this inuoduce significant errors in the computed values
of the coefficient of linear expansion for each rod?

ilb

kstinrte of Physics, UP Diliman

5. Cite the possible sources of error in the experiment.


to minimize the errors in the experiment?

What improvements must be

SAMPLE CALCUI-ATIONS

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamics relates energy transfers between a system and its uurroundings to changes in the state of the system. There are two types of energy transfers, heat and work. An energy transfer occurdng by virtue of a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings is called heat. If the energy transfer is not connected with temperature difference, it is called work. Since heat transfer, Q, and work, $7, can proceed on either of two dirsstisn5, into or out of the system, a sign
convention is adopted. Q is positive for heat taken in \U7 is positive for work done by the system

dQ,rhe net heat input, can

also be expressed as

dQ=dQ,*-dQ,

Q.s)

in terms of the input heat, dQ,* , and the heat which leaked out from the system, dQ.. dQ,* is given by
dQn't = Pdt Q.6)

where

P, is the net power and d/, is the

amount of time used to heat the system.

Using the sign convention, the principle of conservation of energy as it applies to


drermodynamics is given by

It is also known that the heat leakage current dQr l dt is proportional to the temperature difference a, and the proportionality constant, ft, is the effective heat ffansfer coefficient.
Thus we have,

dQ

=du

dQ, =
Q.1) have

ha(t)dt

Q.7)

+dw

dU

Combining equations Q.4), Q.6) and (2.7), we


Pdt given by

is the change in intemal energy of the

system between two equilibrium states which is

hadt =

Cda

(2.8)

dU = CdT

(2.2)

The solution to this differential equation is


d(t) =

where C is the heat capacity of the system aoid dT is the change in temperature. dW , on the other hand, is the work done in
dre system.

Ib-exp(- ?)]*oo'*p(-

+)

e.s)

Assuming that the work done in the system

is negligible compared to the intemal energy aod to the net heat, the energy equation
becomes

where x

=+ h

and

ao

-f -To.

Thederivation

is left as a problem.

dQ=dU =CdT

When P = 0, or during the cooling process,


Q.3)

This can also be written in terms of the excess temperature a(t) as

d,(t)=oo"*P(-

fl

Q.1(

This is a solution to the Newtonts Law Cooling equation,

dQ= Cda(t)

Q.4)

where a(t) =T(I)-TA


embient temperature.
Nrtional Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

and

TA is

the

_da _a

dtr

Q.

OBJECTI\rES
To veri$, Newton's Law of Cooling.

To gain knowledge on the heat leakage in

a calorimeter.

To obtain the heat capacity of the heater, stirrer and the probe.

METHODOLOGY
A. MATERIALS You need the following items for this experiment. Ask assistance from your instructor.
Calorimeter Set-up Power Supply

o
o

Digital Thermometer
Watet

Alligator Clips

REMINDERS

o Do not turn on the heater if it is not fully


immersed in water.

jacket is almost filled with water. The covet

should be in place throughout the


experiment

o o

The stirrer should be turned on during the exercise i.e., before the T, and until the last
temperature reading.

The water-jacketed enclosure is meant to make the ambient temperature of the copper cup and its contents substantially
constant during the exercise. Make sure the

Figue

2.1 The Calorimeter Set-up

fot the Measurement of the Heat

l*alcage Current.
Nationd Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

flqssb

73.1

2. newton's law

olcooling

B. PROCEDURE

In the set-up shown in figorc 2.1., the following quantities are either given or readily
measured.

r\
C.u

= =

mass

of water, 80 g

= heat capacity ofcopper


resistance of heater

cup

R
TA

- ambient temperature or temperature of the enclosure


Consider as a system the copper cup and its

re

ontents. The system is in an initial state at Eslperature T, near the ambient temperature, T{. Electrical energy is then added to the s_Tstem at a constant rate for 600 seconds, which cluses the temperatute of the system to rise to $ome temperature Tr, corresponding to \rhat
shall consider a final stage.

1.

Assemble the calorimeter as shown in Fig.2.1. Take the ambient temperature.

2. 3.

Now consider as the system the copper cup (inner calorimeter) and all its contents. The copper cup and all its content are assumed to be in thermal
equilibrium with each other.

4. Record the temperature inside the copper cup. This is the inirial
temperature T,.

5. Turn the heater on for 10 minutes. Take the temperarure, T(t), of the
system every 30 seconds during the time interval the heater is turned on and until

the maximum

tempefature,

T-"* is

reached.

6. Upon reaching T-"*, take the temperature readings at 3O-second


intervals for tuzenty minutes.

!"icrrul

Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

2. newton's law

of

National Iostitute of Physics

Physics 73.1

2. newtont law of cooling

Name:
Partners:

Date Performed:

Date Submitted:

Instructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY
Mass of Copper Cup

Mass of Water:

Resistance of the Fleater Used:

Voltage Supplied to Ffeater:

Ambient Temperature, Tr;

Initial Temperature, Tr:

HEATING

0 30 60 90 L20
150 180

360

390
420 450 480
510

540 570 500 630 660 690

2t0
240
270 300 330

TH:

!&irrllnstitute

of Physics, UP Diliman

2. newtoa's

hw of

COOLING

f,mar

t*+630
t--+660

t.a'*30

t."r*60 t-o*90

t*+690
1*+720

t-o*

120
150 180

t*+750 t*+780
r*+810
t-*+840

r*+ r*+
{
,t 4i

t*+210
t^o*240

t*+870
t-o*900

t,

t*+270 t*+300
t."**
330

h*+930

t*+960
r*+990
t-o+
1020 1050 1080 1110 1140 1170 1200

t-o*360

t*+390 t*+420 t*+450


t*+480
tu*+510

r*+
t-*+

t*+ t*+ t*+ t*+

t.o+

540

r*+570
t-"**600

Nationd Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Ptrysics 73.1

2, newton's law

of coolhg

EIGRCISES

1.

Plot the temperature vs. time curve for heating and cooling.

U
(u

rr

(c

o &

Eul

Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

2 newton's law of cooling

2.

Make a graphical representation of the cooling databy plotting Ln crvs t. Should the resulting Saph be linear? Use the formula for Newton's Law of Cooling to Prove this.

time (seconds)

3.

Determine the numerical value of the constants o. and

t.

t6

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics

73.1

2. newton's law

of cooling

4.

Plot the heat leakage current

as a

function of the excess temperature

o I

tr
il

t \

d E

Excess Tempetature
cr

cc)

Compute for the heat tranqfer coefficient.

Natinal Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Phvsics 73.1

2 newton's law o[cooling

6.

tWhat is the combined heat capacity of the heater, probe and stirrer? Show complete solution.

Nationa.l Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Plrynics73.1

-2,newton'slavofcooling

QTIESTIONS

1.

Get the net heat leak, Q1 fot heating and cooling, separately. You can either use equarion (2.8) or Q.e).

Institute of Physics, UP Dilirnan

Phvsics J

73.1

2 newton's

law of cooling

2.

Provided that no phase changes occur, why should the amount of hea't leakage during heating be less than that during cooling?

What is the dominant heat transfer mechanism responsible for the measured heat leakage crureflt? Explain.

Why is

desirable temperature is taken?

it

to have the water a few

degrees above the

when the initial

Natiorul Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Nl/"

tr61

t{ec

es

Edlnstitute

of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics

73.1

=1!!'rto!!,]aw illgoling.

6.

Show that as t approaches infinity, the heat leakage cuffent approaches the input power, P. What does this i-ply?

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

2. newton's law

of cooling

7.

Show that equation Q9) is a solution to Newton's Law

of

Cooling Equation.

8.

Give appiications of Newton's Law of Cooling.

[5n]

Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

2, newton's law

of

National Institute of Physics, UP Diiiman

tE

INTRODUCTION

from the rheoretical background presented in the 2"d expedment. After knowinq the specific heat capacity of parts of the calorimeter and thus,
experiment follows

This

calibrating it, we are nov/ ready to use the calodmeter to determine specific heats of some
metals.

OBJECTIVES
To obtain and compare specific heat capacities of metals. To apply knowledge gained from heat leakage cuffent from the previous experiment.

}fETHODOLOGY A. MATERIALS
You need the following items for this experiment. Ask assistance from your instructot.
Caiorimeter Set-up Power Supply

Alligaot Clips
Digital'Ihetmometer

o o o o

lVater

Aluminum Cylinders
Lead pellets

Iron

REMINDERS

Observe precaution of the resistor, water-jacketed container, and stirret as in the previous experiment. In addition, make sure that the stirrer does not touch any of the solid objects around it.

The aluminum cylinders should be fully immersed in water, but use the least amouflt of water as possible

Iitrm

liroonal Insdtute of Physics, UP Dilirnan

25

Physics

73.1

3. specific heat capacities

stYrofoam

aluminum

cylinders

Figute 3.1. Set-up fot Measutement of the Specific Heat Capacity.

PROCEDURE

1.

Assemble the calorimeter as shown in Fig. 3.1. The only diffetence between this set-up and that in the former experiment is that you will adding metals into your copper cup..

interval that the heatet is tumed on until the maxirnum temPefature, T*, is
reached.

Upon reaching T-o, take


ter,nperature reading

the

2. Take the ambient temperature. Make


sure that the initial temperature, \, should be equal to or a few degrees
above the ambient temperature, T,.

agir at thirty (30) second intervals for ten (10) minutes.

Repeat steps 1 to 4 for the succeeding metals given to you by your instructors.

3. Turn the heater on for five (5) minutes.


Take the temperature, T, of the system every thirty (30) seconils during the time

26

National Institute of Physics, UP Dilirnan

Physics 73.1

3. specific heat capacities

Name: Partners:

Date Performed: Date Submitted:

lnstructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY
Mass of

Aluminum Cylinders
Mass of
'W'ater:

Mass of Copper Cup Resistance of the Fleater Used:

Voltage Supplied to Fleater:

lmbient Temperature, Ta:

Initial Temperature, Tr:

HEATING

ntil

0 30 50 90 120
150 180

ris
the
(30)
:

ni"g
trs.

210 240
270

HEATER OFF

300 330 360

390
Hirrun }uciooal Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Specific Heat Capacities

COOLING

t-o*330

Temperature Profile

U
{, k
+J

(l k

ru
E!

a
(u

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

M,qs of Lead pellets:

Mass of

'Water:

}[-.s of Copper Cup:


Bc<ist2nss of the Heater Used: A.oebient Temperature, Ta:

Voltage Supplied to Hearer:

Initial Temperature, Tr:

T{EATING
0 30

60 90

t20
150 180

210 240
270 300 330 360

HEATER OFF

390

!{riroal

Institute of Physics, UP Diliinan

il:1li:i:iii:l1,ffiffi
tm
t-o+330

t-o*30

t*+360
t-*+390 t^*+420

t*+60
t-of
r--+
t-o+
90
120 150 180

t*+450
t-o*480

t*+

t*+ 510
r*+
540 570

t*+210 t*+240 t*+270 t*+300


Temperature Profile

t*+

t*+600 t*+630

U
ru

(!i

k q)

E ru F{

time (minutes)
Naiiond Institute of Physics, UP Dilimall

Phvsics

73.1

qnpeifie haat

ro.o"iti""

Mass of

Iron
Mass of 'lUfater:

Mass of Copper Cup Resistance of the Heater Used:

Voltage Supplied to Fleater:

Ambient Temperature, Te:

Initial Temperature, Tr:

HEATING
0

30
60

90

t20
150 180

2t0
240 270

HEATER OFF
300

330 360 390

Nrbnal

Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

31

COOLING

r*+210

Temperature Profile

U
tu

li

c!

ti q)
F{

a
(l)

time (minutes)
National lnstitute of Physics, UP Diliman

EXERCISES

1.

Compute

t for the different

metals.

2.

Compute the heat transfer coefficient for the different metals.

Dhixral Institute of Physics, UP Dilirnan

3.

Determine the specific heat capacities of the metals. Also, calculate the molar heat capacities.

4.

Compute the 7o eror.

'National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

hfics

73.1

3. specific heat capacities

QUESTIONS

l.

Cite possible sources of error in the experiment.

Compate your obtained value of molar specific heat capacities with other substances. Explain your observations.

Institr:te of Physics, UP Diliman

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

National Institute of Physics, UP DiEman

E*

L\TTRODUCTION

For every crystalline substance at a given f,ressure there exists a definite tempefature called melting point) at which the substance ;hanges from sold to liquid when a definite i:rrount of energy per unit mass (cailed heat of ::sion) is taken in.
Consider as system rr\ grams of ice at its =elting point. If heat, Q, is taken in until all the :ce has changed to water (at melting point Tx) xrd subsequendy raised to a temperature Tr, the :hange in internal eflergy of the system is

where L is the heat of fusion of ice. We have assumed that the work done by the system is approximately equal to zero.

For the system pertaining to the given problem, the icefwater, which is within the
system, absorbs heat mainly from the heater. Its

in internal energy is given by equation (4.1). The energy balance equation for this system is obtained by applying the First Law of Thermodynamics and noting that the internal energy change of the icefwater system, the
change

AU = L8 = mL, *

-{:r.,

(4.1)

student should work out the

dstail5.

OBJECTIYE
To measure the heat of fusion of ice.

![ETHODOLOGY

.L EQUIPMENT
You need the following items for this experiment. Ask assisrance from your instructor.

Calorimeter Set-up
Power Supply

Digital Thetmometer
Crushed Ice

Alligator Clips

REMINDERS

r r

Observe precautions

and the water-iacketed enclosure as in previous exercises.


heater, stirrer
attached

in

setting

up the

removing melted ice at the beginning of the


exercise.

. Keep the cover in place during d,ata


gathering part of exercise.

Use a syringe with a piece of plastic tubing

to it as a

suction pump for

hm

x;iirosflal Institute of Physics, UP Dilirnan

Physics 73.1

4. heat

of

firirn

Styrofoam

Figure 4.1. Set-up for Measurement of the Heat of Fusion of Ice.

B. PROCEDURE

1.

Set-up the calorimeter as shown above. The stirret, thermometer probe, and heater must be completely immetsed in
ice.

temperature reading every thirty (30) seconds setting the time as equal to zero when the heatet is tumed on.

2. 3.

5.

Tum the heater off when it temperature


is already a five degtees above ambient

Monitor the tempetature until it reaches


a constant temperature (monitoring time is approximately 1 minute).

6. 7.

Continue monitoring the temperature until the maximum temperature is


reached.

Pump out the melted ice. Add more ice if the heatet has ,k."dy been

uncoveted. Make sure that thete is minimal water in the cup before tuming
on the heater.

Upon reachingT*, take the


tempemture teading again at thirty (30)
second intervals for ten (10) minutes

4. If step 2 md 3 are properly performed,


tum the heater ON and take
the

NOTE: MAKE SURE TI{AT STIRRER IS ON THROUGHT

THE THE DURATION OF THE EXPERIMENT.

38

Netional Institute of Physics, UP Dilrnan

EII

Physics 73.1

4. heat of fusion

Name:
Partners:

Date Performed: Date Submimed:

Instructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY
Mass of Copper Cup: Mass of r$(/ater'!flithdrawn: Mass of Ice: Mass of \7ater Left:

Resistance of the Fleater Used:

Voltage Supplied to Fleater:

Ambient Temperature, Ta:


(30)

Initial Temperature, Tr:


Tmax:

teto
GJTC

Maximum Temperature,

HEATING

IrL
arxe

:is

\aional

lnstitute of Physics, UP- Diliman

Physics 73.1

4. heat of

firion

COOLING

tri*

t*+330
t-**360
t-,*+390

t*+30

t**60
t-o*90

t*+420
t-o+450

t-**

120 150 180

t*+
t..*+

r*+480

t*+

510

t*+210 t*+240 t*+270 t*+300


E)(ERCISES

t*+540

t*+570
t-o*600

1.

Compute heat leakage using Newton's Law of Cooling.

National lnstitute of Physics, UP Diliman

'1dhr',f

k -]fu
,

haidr.rn p'ir^t
tl'il

l\:"'P

YYu"

"^f"? <\sk*^k'c

ho

VrLoyr-l,

/ rw n!' +n^"{',t

7ffbr

I
s'4

tet ' t(v

ry:#

W v

4, heat of fusion

Yw"

Determine the value of the heat


Ieakage.)

of fusion of ice and estimate its error. @on't

neglect heat

kiraal

Institute of Physics, UP- Diliman

QUESTION

1.

Make a temperature profile of the system. (Iempetature versus time for heating and cooling)

U o
(u

ti

d
ru

&

time (minutes)

2.

Can you get an estimate of the heat

of fusion of ice from the plot of temperature vs. time?

National Instinrte of Physics, UP Diliman

SAMPLE CALCULATTONS

l{56mal

ihstiture.'ciFPtryiti*;,t-tf-rOinmaii

43

National Instiarte of Physics, UP Dilirnao

INTRODUCTION
By the late 1800s many physicists thought *rey had explained all the main principles of the :niverse and discovered all the natural laws. But :.s scientists continued working, inconsistencies --hat couldn't easily be explained began showing .rp in some areas of study. higher frequency light would produce higher energy electrons, independent of intensity, while increased intensity would only increase the number of electrons emitted (or photoelecuic
current). In the early 1900s several investigators found the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons was dependent on the wavelength or frequency, and independent of intensity, while the magnitude of the photoelectric current, or number of electrons was dependent on the intensity as predicted by the quantum model. Einstein applied Planck's theory and explained the photoelectric effect in terms of the quantum model using his famous equation for which he received the Nobel Pize in 7921.:

In 1901, Planck published his law of :adiation. In it he stated that an oscillator, or any similar physical system, has a discrete set of
:ossible energy values

or

levels;

energies

between these values never occuf.

Planck went on to state that the emission :.nd absoqption of radiation is associated with jumps between two energy levels. =ansitions or The energy losr or gained by the oscillator is emitted or absorbed as a quantum of radiant energy, the magnitude of which is exptessed by
:tre equation
:

E = hu

KE^u* +Wo

(5.2)

where KE* is the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons, and IV, is the
energy needed to remove them from the surface of the material (the work function). E is the energy supplied by the quantum of light known
as

E =hu
where

(s.1)

-:he frequency

equals

of

to the radiant energy, V is radiation, and b is a

rundamental constant of nature. The constant h became known as Planck's constant.

photon.

Planck's constant v/as found

to

have

significance beyond relating the frequency and energy of light, and became a cornerstone of the quantum mechanical view of the subatomic q-orld. In 1918, Planck was awarded a Nobel Prize for introducing the quanrum theory of
-ight.

In photoelectric emission, Iight strikes a raterial, causing electrons to be emitted. The classical wave model predicted that as the ntensity incident light was increased, the irnplitude and thus the energy of the wave q'ould increase. This would then cause more energetic photoelectrons to be emitted. The
:lev/ quantum model, however, predicted that
E

A light photon with energy iv is incident upon an electron in the cathode of a vacuum tube . The electron uses a minimum IY" of its energy to escape the cathode leaving with a maximum energy of KE,*in the form of kinetic energy. Normally the emitted electrons reach the anode of the tube, and can be measured as photoelectric current. However, by applying a reverse potential V bettyeen the anode and the cathode, the photoelectric current can be stopped. KE,"*can be determined by minimum
fevefse potential needed to stop the photoelectrons and reduce the photoelectric
cuffent

to zeto. Relating kinetic energy to


(s.3)

stopping potential gives the equhtion:

KE^* =I/s

\:rional

Insurure of Physics, UP Diliman

45

DL.,^:^- 7? 1

5. ohotoelectric

efttt

Therefore using Einstein's equation,

hu =Vb+Wo

(5,4)

\
,

.J d

'tr
rlJ I

When solved for V, the equation becomes:

=(L\,-f%) \e) \e
)

"tl

A
(s s)
oo

Or U a

If we plot V vs. V for differeot ftequencies of light, we will get a graph similar to Figure 1'
The ZintercePt is equal to

-w :e- and the slope


Figure 5.1. Plot of the Stopping Potential vs'

' . h r. : .---r r^-^*' is 1. Coupling our expedmental detetmination

e-

of the ,^io

L with the accepted value of 1'602


e

10-" coulombs, we can determine Planck's constant, ,.

oBJECTTVE To obsewe the particle ProPerty of light' To determine the work function of a matenzl To detetmine Planck's constant.

METHODOLOG\

A. MATERIALS You need the following items for this experiment. Ask assistance from your
instructor.

o o o

Photoelectric set-up
Green and Yellow Filters

o
o

Digitd Multi-meter
Alligator CliPs

Variable Transmission Gtating

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

tF
F.

Physics 73.1

5. photoelectric effect

PROCEDURE Part A

Part B
You can easily see five colors in the mercury light spectrum. Adjust the h/e apparatus so that only one of the yellow colored bands falls upon the opening of the mask of the photodiode. Place the yellow colored filter over the white reflective mask on the h/e
aPPafatus.
2.

1.

Adjust the h/e apparatus so that only one of the spectral colors falls upon the opening of the'mask of the photodiode. For the green and yellow spectral lines, place the coresponding colored fi"lter over the white reflective mask on the h/e apparatus.
Place the variable transmission filter in front of the white reflective mask (and over the colored filter if one is used) so that the light passes through the section marked "1.00oh" and reaches the photodiode. Record the DVM voltage reading in the data table in part A. Press the instrument discharge button, release it, and observe approximately how much time is required to recharge the instrument to the maximum voltage.

1.

2.

Record the DVM voltage reading (stopping potential) in the data table of part B. Repeat the process for each color of the spectrum. Be sure to use the green filter when measuring the green spectrum.

3.

4.

Move to the second order and repeat the


Pfocess.

3.

Move the vadable transmission filter so that the next section is directly in front of the incoming light. Record the new DVM reading, and approximate time to recharge after the discharge button has
been pressed and released.

4.

Repeat step 3 until you have tested all five sections of the filter.
Repeat the procedure using the second color of the spectrum.

5.

\ational Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

National Institute of Physics, UP DilirrLln

E]

Physics

23.1
Date Performed: Date Submitted:

5. photoelearic effect

Name:
Partners:

Instructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY PART A


Col0r.#*..','.1...,.%fram
100

#$ffi#i..trifii!iii;

{}:il

80

40

60

20

q
100

80

40

50

20

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

5. photoelectric effect

PART B First Order Color


Yellow
Green Blue

;ffl$rffi.,ffii@fi

=,l1i!:sffi

Violet Ultraviolet
Jtr.u.ttll \-rr(lcr \/utur
.

+.ffift159,Wfl!$Hs

*s#$13,tr#ffi
;,:.1..
1:
1

lr..::1!

l:,t

./r--:;,'

:/=1,..'.,i::,i.l=

;,rw
T

-';rl.'1,

:,..1

;l+i=
l1

#.$di$lffi
Ifr,

:1i:i:7-,-i:.:flE:

Iti=:i:.;lftft1$ l:t:i$;l;1.1;:i;:;-.r,., .
.it=;::.,]:11::11'r,"r"::..r:i".1-;-.f

i'r:';.

.:t.

lt'

i'
I I

Green

t"
I I
I

Blue

t,
lrl

Violet
LJltraviolet

EXERCISES

1.

Determine the frequency of each spectral line.

50

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

2.
stopping

Plot a graph of the stopping potential vs. frequency.

potential(V)

frequency
(1/s)

Determine the slope and the y-intercept of the above graph. Inteqpret the results in terms of the

L
e

,^ro.

National Institute of physics, Up Diliman

QUESTION

1.

Describe the effect that passing different amounts of colored light through the variable transmission filter has on the stopping potential and thus the maximum eflergy of the photoelectrons, as well as the charging time after pressing the discharge button.

Describe the effect that the different colored light had on the stopping potential and thus the maximum energy of the photoelectrons.

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

3.

Explain why there is a slight &op in the measured potential

as

the light intensity is &creased.

Defend whether this experiment supports a wave or quanrum model of light based on your lab
resulrc.

APPENDIX
Table 1. The wavelengths of the Mercury Spectra

National Institute of Physics, Up Diliman

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

!fr

INTRODUCTION

The spectrometer is a device used to produce and quanti4/ spectra. As depicted in figure 6.1, the spectrometer has three critical parts: (1) a collimator; Q) a platform with either a gating or prism holder; and (3) a telescope. The grating is placed ofl top of the platform and is secured when the spectrometer is calibrated.
measurement forms

procedute itself. Though personal biases dominate angle readings, it is important to know
how these readings are made. The circular main scale on the spectrometer platform is graduated from 0 to 360o rvherein each division is equal to 1/z degree. Adjacent is a vernier scale that has 30 \Mhen divisions. the zero of either the vernier scales match with a division with a division on the main scale, the 30'h division on that vernier coincides with another main scale. There are 20 divisions between the 0 and the 30s division in vernier scale indicating that each division corresponds to Q9 /30) of a main scale division. The angular reading can therefore be made to a precision of one minute.

In using these devices, the angtiar a critical part of the

in order to change the amount of light that enters the spectrometer. This beam then passes through the collimator, which produces parallel beam of iight rays. These light rays pass through the grating commonly described in terms of the grating constant. Light coming ftom the grating is viewed with the telescope either along the line of the
can be varied

collimator or at some angle. If the apertures are parallel to the slit, diffracted lines may be viewed on either side of the normal image. The spectra lying nearest the direct image on either side are called the first (1st) order while those called second successively more distant ^re on. order, third order, and so
Calibration of the spectrometer involves not only the calibration of the spectrometer itself, but also the determination of the diffraction grating constant D. The diffraction grating is a simple but useful

Light from a light source enters the spectrometer through a narrow entfance slit. In most spectrometer models, the width of this slit
A. Actual set-up

tool introduced by J. Fraunhoffer (1787-1828) which is commonly utilized to study the stfl.rcture and intensiry of spectral lines and measure the wavelengths of these lines. A typical grating consists of a grid of fine parallel lines with uniform spacing on a polished

reflecting or
B. Top view

transmitting
.IE.ESCFE

surface.

,JCLE

,i+(

Fig. 6.1 Schematic diagram of a spectrometet.


F
National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman
55

physic

73.1

0.

.aiuo,io"

"r

*"

tp""tt

Fig. 6.2. The ttansmission gtating with incident light a and b and an adiacent gtating distance of d.

Glass plates are commonly used for diffraction gratings while gratings ruled on metals are called reflection gratings because the interference

path difference = d sin9

(6.1)

where

d is the distance between 'mL,

the slits.
(6.2)

effects are viewed in reflected rather than in transmitted light [1].

For constructive interference, we have dsin0

These grating lines, usually numbering


between 60 to 600 lines per millimeter, are ruled

with a fine diamond point. The unruled portion of the surface, either by reflection or transmission, set up the diffraction and interference effects that form the spectrum of light from a source. Figure 6.2 shows a cross section of a common type of grating ruled on
glass.

where rn is an integer (0, t1 , t2, ...), and is known as the order of the maximum. For m = 0, 0 = 0 , hence the maximum is located suaight across the screen. This is known as the principal maximum. There ate still several bright lines located on each side of the principal

Now, consider a set of parallel rays from a monochromatic light source arriving at the slits at right angles, as shown in frg. 6.2. The rays leaving the slits are diffracted. These diffracted rays interfere with one another until th.y produce a fnal pattern. The difftacted ray makes an angle 0 from the incident ray. Between any two diffracted rays, the interference is constructive (a maximum, observed as a bright line) whenever their path difference is a multiple of z wavelength. Since the path traveled by each diffracted ray is equal beyond the segment OP, the path difference would only be due to the distance from the slit to the segment dP along each ray. For example, the path difference between a' and b', zs shown in figure 6.3, is
given by

Figute 6.3. Enlatgement of a potion infig.6.2

maximum. Adjacent to the principal maximum is the first order naxinam (m=+1), followed by
the second order maximum (m (see figure 6.4).

=fl),

and so on

the light source is not monochromatic, of color bands will be observed. Each set of color bands is known as the spectrum of the light source. Figute 6.5 shows a
several sets
National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

If

Physic 73.1

6. caLibration of t}te spectrometer

typical Iine spectra


wavelengths.

of

mercury

at

visible

Some color bands are discrete while others

afe continuous.

An atc soufce or a g s

produces a continuous spectrum. That is, a continuous band of colots with gradual shading from short wavelength (violet) to the long wavelength (red).

discharge emits a discrete spectrum. That is, only certain wavelengths will appear, as bright color lines are present. Meanwhile, af, incandescent solid such as a lamp filament

m=1

Figure 6.4. Illustmtion of an emission spectrum showing the fitst and second ordet difftaction pattetns at bottr sides of the direct image (principal maxima).

very faint
red

yellow doublet

bright
green

faint bluegreen

bright bluevioilet

fa in t

violet

690.54 579.06 671.64 576.96

546.07

491.60

435.83

407 .7

404.66

Figure 6.5. Visible spectral lines of metcury (Hg).

oBJECTTVES To familiarize the students with the use of grating/prism spectrometer. To calibrate the spectrometer properly and to determine experimentally the gating constant, D.

National Instirute of Physics, UP Diliman

57

PhFto 7l-1

6-

crlibrrin

d*c rycs-<cr

METHODOLOGY A. MATERIALS

o . .

Mercuy vapor light source High voltage power supply


SPectrometer

o o o

Connecting wires or alligator clips

Grating
Incandescent bulb (white light source)

[7a, hDanger! Do not touch the open I l\llp fterminals! Please connect the high -flI flvoltage supply carefully. Let your
inspect your connections L#instructor betore startlng the expenment.

Sensitive Apparatus. Handle the grating with care. Do not touch the grating surface. The Brating m^y be touched at the sides only. Touching the grating surface damages the
grooves etched on the surfage.

B. PROCEDURE

1. Calibration of the diffraction grating spectrometer. Arrange your equipment as


shown in fig. 6.1. Use the Hg vapor tube as light source. Adjust the slit of your spectrometer to its smallest width. Take any prominent line, such as the bright green line, and adjust the Brating so that the first order positions of the green line at equal angles right and left of the "straight ahead" image of the slit.

Measurement of the gratingconstantD. Using the Hg light source, locate and record the angular position of each visible bright line in the first order on each side of the direct image. Be careful in recording the angular position in the reversed direction. \7hen the
2.

plane of the grating spectrometer

is

perpendicular to the incident light, the angular displacement would be nearly equal in both directions. Draw all the observed lines. Plot the sine of the average angular position versus the standard wavelength of the discrete lines. ,t,.r.-'.N$

to

through in only o* dir"aioo. If no imarc seems t" rpp."r, try rwening the grating.
pass

REFERENCES

1.

Young, University Physia E:aended Version with Modem Physics, ge Edition

2. TryLr, Phpia for Scientists andEngineen. 3. \7hite and Manning, E:rperimental College
Physia. (e6e)

4. The Handbook of Chemistry and


Physics.

5.
Ocv:
Ocv

Resnick and Halliday, Physics, (1960).

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

ET

Name:
Partners:

Date Performed: Date Submitted:

Instructor:

Section:

t8

ic tE

DATA SUMMARY
Spectrometer calibration: In calibrating your spectrometer, remember that the gratinB is placed on rhe holder such that your reference spectral line of the Hg source has equal angles *h"n the Ller.op" i, rotated either rowards the left or right of the "straight-ahead,, image of the slit.

L d
E

CALIBRATION DATA

6c

DETERMINATION oF THE GRATING CONSTANT D


Mercury light source

r
ll
E

A. Theoretical Grating Constant


Direct Image position:

Order, m:

r
h

I E

f
I

Result: Grating Constant,


Dexperimental

National Institute of Physics, Up Diliman

59

tl
B. Theoretical Grating Constant:

D
Mercury light source

Direct Image position:

Result: Grating Constant,


D*pcrimtntet

C. Theoretical Grating Constant:

Mercury light source


Direct Image position: Order, m:

Result: Grating Constant,


Dexperimentel

60

Nationd Institute of Physics, UP Dilimaa

Phvsic 73.1

6. calibration of the specrometer

Draw the observed spectral lines:

Figute 1. Spectal lines of

using a grating with gtating spacing of

Figute 2.

SpectrallinesofMERCURYusingagratingwithgtatingspacingof-..

Figute3.SpectrallinesofMERCURYusingagratingwithgratingspacingof-.

Determination of Grating constant ,D:


+ I

Plot sin t-ir

0 vs wavelength,l,srAr,{DARD
.-i-i.
l.

'I

it:

i-'l:
,.ri
.t-:.

.1-

.1..

1ri l j..t
t-

j--

t..

il.
..i

. :r
t: t'
.+

:l -li-l i

.1

ij ,\
:

:i. i,l.

1--i

-i"i..i.
ri..iri"r:l
-j--:-.1-l

rtil ,,

l"i:i.i
.i.j.j..i i.,
:

ilit

1:1

ii'I
t.-f.

-j

i-i-.i--i

-i-=-r -i

tiii
-t' ' :]
f . i-l
_f'

.";
r-it
...i-i-i

j.i
.; 11::
.,-

;lli
rl,
i,j,i.r--:-.i
I

l-l

1-i , i'

l'i
i-l

-j-"i -'l-'

'i"-t'-l-

r i.+
'l ,1
I i__

i't

i-'i

ir
1..:
I

'.1 "ti i,:


.t

,. ,i. i- -i-.r

+ j i +; ,,l i.l
.

i.i

,:, iij'j
i--i--4..i.

i :-

1-l

i.i.r-i,

r.aii

l..r1-

r-i.i

;:,
t
+..l -i--r-

.l:l,
i_j _t__i i- i..i--l

l.
i-, i-i
i'i'l
']1,1 l

1; ,ii

-:-l
l..i-

'ri-i i 'i..r _i
i.
i_:'

I'i-

il

j i.j

t;i
.i : j
I

-i-

'I i' i-

'l':..

, :-,

,lit l
; i-.
i

j.j
l-i

lt.l
.;r :r
t-

l i ii -:,:l: -i-r--t. t-l -;


i
j: jli

.::::
l;

' i''

.... J. :.-- lti


l"r -i

.il:
+

i:
:

.,i:lJ

t:ii
i1:

:.i.

T;: l,l-:i:l
i--1.

1i
].-i-i t::

ii

l-

..t,

---"

:.: I I !

ii

la;

ia

i;;..

i:,

il :j

l**

l.-i.

i...

l''.

I.t"nd"rd

(-m)

National Insdrute of Physics, UP Diliman

phva;.71

6. calibration

ofthe spectrometer

1.

\Vhy do spectral lines appear on both directions, clochxrise (CW) and counterclochrise (CCW), from the "straight-ahead" image of the slit?

2.

Compare the expedmental value of the Grating constant uzrth the Sating spacing of the difftaction gaang used. Explain similarity/difference.

3.

Explain how the grating constant affects the observed spectral lines. Illustrate.

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

SAMP.IJ CALCUI-ATIONS

Nationd Institute of

Ptryrsics,

UPDiliirnn

Nauond 4trstit-,r*e of Fbysiss, UP Dilirryrn

INTRODUCTION
observed emission spectra to their energy levels.

This experiment aims to coffelate the of several elements

Ee

Ez

=+,

(7.2)

The hy&ogen atom is studied with the aid of the Bohr model. This semi-classical model was developed by Neils Bohr to explain the spectra emitted by hydrogen aroms. According to this model,'the electron of a hydrogen atom moves in a circular orbit under the influence of the Coulomb attraction to the positive nucleus. The total energy of the electron is given by

electromagnetic wave associated with the photon. Thus, the wavelength of the emitted radiation is

whete h is the wavelength of

the

;="(i;)
where F is the Rydberg's constant.

Q.3)

F. =-""-"n zhz

mkzeo

F Zz - --Z'"*, -

flz

n=1.,2,3....Q.1)

tt

For any transition from energy level n = ni to any lowet energy level n = fl1, the wavelength of the spectral line is

would lose energy totaling

The energies En (Z=1) are the allowed quantized energy levels for the hydrogen atom. The transitions bet'ween these eneigy levels result in the emission or absorption of photons. The_energy level diagram for hydrogenlhowing the first few transitions id depicted in figure 7.1. For illustration, let us suppose that an il.ct on drops from the second excited state (n=3) to the firct excited state (n-2), then the electron
Es

*="(;

- Ez and

is

Equation [.a) is known as the Rydberg-Ritz formula, where n, and nr are integers and R is the Rydberg constatlt. R is known to be the same for all spectral series of the same element but may vary slightly from element to element. For hydrogen, R=1.096776 x 107 m-l.
Since the allowed energies arc quanttzed, we
n
@

il

(7.4)

converted to a photon whose energy is

E., eV
0.00 -0.85

4
3

-"
Balmer series

-1.51

Paschen series
-3.40

-13.6

Lymann sedes

Figure 7.1. The allowed orbits of


Natibnal Iustitute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

7. spectrum of hydrogen and other elemetrtal

vapo$

expect that the wavelengths of the emitted photons be likewise quantized as is observed from its line spectrum.

the process compute for the Rydberg constarts


of the given elements.

In this experiment, we will get the emission spectra of several elements using grating 'We will then correlate these spectrometers.
spectral lines

obtaining and the observed line spectrum is established, we will now try to identify an quantifying
unknown gas discharge tube. Take note that the line spectra is unique for each atomic gas.

Once the technique

of

to their transition

energies, and in

OBJECTTVES: To correlate the observed emission spectra to the energy levels of hydrogen.

To experimentally determine the Rydberg constant for different elemental vapors.

To be able to determine an unknown elemental vapor from its emission spectra.

METHODOLOGY A. MATERIALS
1.

diffraction grating

2.
3.

Spectrometer

mercury discharge tube for calibration


hydrogen , and other elemental vapors high voltage power supply

4.
5.

B. PROCEDURE

1. Calibration of the diffraction grating spectrometer. Calibrate your spectrometer using the technique you learned from the
previous experiment. Use the same diffraction grating in the previous experiment so you do not have to measure its grating constant again.
Once the spectrometer is calibrated, tighten the screw that controls the grating holder

NOTE:

motion and do not move it' again. If this is moved, the spectrometer must be calibrated
again.

wavelengths (including uncertainties) present in this spectrum and compare with the theoretical values. Identify the electron transitions (energy levels involved) which give rise to the spectral lines seen, and determine the energy differences between these levels using your experimental data. Finally, compute a value of the Rydberg constant,from your data, with uncertainty, and compare with
the theoretical value.

Determine

the

with another elemental vapor. Be sure not to rnove any


3. Replace the hydrogen vapor tube

2. Replace the Hg source used in calibrating your

spectrometer

with a hydrogen discharge

tube.

Measure the angles right and

find the first

left at which you and second order hydrogen

spectnrm lines. Record your data.

component of the spectrometer. Otherwise, you have to calibrate your setup again as discussed in step 1. Then repeat step 3. Do this again for another vapor tube. Thus, every group must have at least three data samples.

66

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

4. Identification of an unknou.u toilrce. Replace the mercury (or sodium) source with the unknown source. Slowly turn the telescope clockwise (CIUQ and record the angle of the first line. Return the telescope to its "straight-ahead" position and slowly tum the telescope counterclochvise (CC!7) and record the angle of the same line. Repeat the process until the entire fitst order spectral lines are found and the corresponding locations determined. Draw the spectral lines and approxirnate the distances between lines.

Using the spectra obtained in


experiment, compare

the

the

spectrum you

obtained for your unknown sample.

Physics Extended Version with Modem Physics, gn Edition 2. TipLr, Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 3. \il7hite and Manning, Experimenal College Physics.
4.
5.

REFERENCES 1,. Young, University

The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Resnick and Halliday, Physics, (1960.

National Institute of Physics, UP Ditiman

Physics

73.1

7. spectrum of hydrogen and other elernental

vapos

WAYELENGTHS OF PRINCIPAL LINES OF EMISSION SPECTRA


Helium
l7avelength, A 7065A
6678
5876 5016 Red Red

Neon

Color

Wavelength,

A
Green
Green

Color

54514
5435

Yellow
Green Blue-green Blue Blue Blue

5852
5941 5945

Yellow Yellow Yellow


Red Red Red

4922
471,3

6046
61,20
61,43

4471
4387
41,21

Violet

6266 6294

Red Red
Red

4026

Violet

6328

Hydrogen
Wavelength,

Mercury

A
Red

Color

Wavelength, A

Color Yellow Yellow


Green
Blue-green

65634
4861

5791A
5770
5461
491,6

Blue-gteen Blue

4340
41.02

Violet Violet

3970

4358

Blue

4078 4046

Violet Violet

Nationd Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

and other elementd

Date Performed: Date Submitted:

Instructor:

Section:

DATA SUMMARY
Spectrometer calibration: In calibrating your spectrometer, remember that the graring is placed on rhe holder such that your reference spectral line of the Hg source has equal angles when the telescope is rotated either towards the left or right irf the "straight-ahead" image of the slit.

Table 7.1. Determination of the line spectra of hydrogen. Grating constant: Direct Irruge Position:

,,ctw.'1

e,,

te)

.t{.i,

Otdgi,:
,,...m., .:
'r:.1..!.:,:;:'";'.i

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

69

Physics

73.1

7. spectrum of hy&ogen and other elemeatal vapors

Draw the obserued spectral lines and the calculated wavelength:

Spectral lines

of

Ttble7.2. Determination of the line spectra of


Grating constant:
.g1:aRtrs;
1t:l$i=:ll!:13.-il!L,1f

Direct Image Position:

.':"'gf,-.'1::f

iW
iii$Li.W^iHi
:

Nationel Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

7. spectrum of hvdroeen and other elemental vaoors

Draw the observed qpectral lines and the cdculated wavelength:

Natioaal Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics

73.1
Table 7.3. Detrrnination of the line spectra

7. spectrum of hydrogen and other elemental vapors

of

Grating constant:

Direa Image Position:

Li

J
:

Draw the observed spectrd lines and the calculated wavelength:

Figure 3.

Nationd Institute of Physics, tlP Diliman

Physics 73.1

7. spectrum of hy&oeea atrd other elemmtal vaoors

Table 7.4. Determination of the line qpectra of the unknown source. Grating constant:

Draw the obseryed qpectral lines and the cdculatedwavclength:

Figure 4. Spectral lines of unknown source.

The source is

Nerional Institute of Physics,

LJP

Dilim.r

Phvsics 73.1

7, spectrum of hy&ogen and other elemental

vpc

Determination of the Rydberg constant

uo,| ^ (;

*)

Hydrogen

t/n? - t/nl
Other elements
+ i-+l -ii+1 t-i-+j- tr-1-i
j-

iiii 1Ii-l
ifi

1-l i-)

i:i.i

t-T-t'-r-

I i-t-

l-j
i:il

i+i"i
-i-i I t t,-i i i

-t--i-1

-i f-i
f

-t
t.

iii
-i-..i-r-.1-i- i-L-f

i-j

r+ .i.l
li -f
{'1-

r-'.1-'l

:i-+-t 1-+# +]-+-f -i-l-i. f-i-1 I

T]TT ++

j.i-ii

tl-'l:I
.r--i--L

+
-t^

i-

1"1-+

i-l-.i.

i.,t.

I l_

f-i

'1i

lt-

1-l

jj

.t-j.

l- r-l-j-i--Li-

i-iii
+ i-*l-L -i-"j-"i-1

ri

l-rl

-j
.l-

I +i -i-l l-iii

-i

i:

+-'

i-i-l- -r

r-

r-I

i-f

i+
i

j ti!) I I i-t' -l-il-ll Ltl

:'1.1

ii ri
J i-r-j

l-

_i

iI+1

1j i1 r-i -+. 'T^


-i -i

I
.l

f-t'-f-

-i
1-

l-r i-

i- a-t-

'{'
-t.

jt il
_t-1_l_

.i-!.i-i--i i

it -i.i i
-+"li A
-1!

+ii
-r i.+-+-i-+ l-+"

''I fT i- irl-l a -1--tsfj i!i-l

ii-i1 i-i.i i
'j-

i11 i-l i-] f-i-1 tt1' it t.l. -l i i-'r1 T i-ri--t-it-i t': i; jir-

.-r-L-!-L

-rli-f'

f[ii ir i
.

t-

i-+

iII lr)
+.: -+-1"' -1" *i*
-1

-f {"
+

:i:t :f -+.
.i-l -1
I I

.tl -i -t+-it
*i.1"l-

j-ii

t'i -r-i
i-i
+ j-r_'l -1-i-1 i.

i-it-r-i
l-

l-

l-.

I
I

il

l +
i
+-

-i

i-i-+

r.i-i
".i-i -J

++i

fti1ri

1-J-

r+ .t+ !

l-

l-1

,i1, 1-l
i--l

-F+

j:Ir-

irit-i
i-i
r.

-rt-i _1_f_t

t+1-+

i-i-i-i
,i_i,r

ii
r-i]
-f-

-r--l-j-+

l-+i-+
't-r

-t I f-f

i+;
]-ii
),-1

i--i-it

f-r-Fa' -t -i-Fl-t
-1

+-'

J.

-Lr-i1-1-1

i.i
-t-t-l i-i

f+-;r

.*
-f
-lr-j
I

i-+,-

J-

111 + r--l-++
), : l-t .ir'ti

-i-f-il jlii
+ti-+ -i
I

:1_iIi_

-i-+-i i- +-t i-

I r'r-

irlr ++r-i1-+-r

fii
1

l,l Ll.
_L

il

++i
"-i.

r r-1-irl- 1- ti t_+f

i-i i-i t-i-i-r .j- .i:i +-1 i 'l- ;!1. 1-f rIi

fj
-1-rt.
-1 11'

i-i:

ii ,;i"
r-+ -Lt-i-t..i-j-l-1, l--t -Ll-

-ti j
j
i:i:L
J,

ii

++if ii_ir
+ t-t -;-

r.i
1.

1-if
Ir-

l-

l il1 t-j-l
!-

ii
i

t-

ll

l.lri.
-t;

i+

i| fl

j l.j
f_

i-t-1

i-i tt-i -i -1-f-i-+-

I
i

l" r

:_ 1-l_

i-i-l-

.r-

i-i-i t-j-l- l- + l-1-]-tt1...1I

iii-i
i.i

-f-i-r-i.

i i++
i-+-1
+-

:i:1

r
l-

-1-i-r1- i-"J-j-j-

l-+
-i -j--i-

1-

.l-

f
+
T -l-

4-

ri

fi

'1-

l-Ll

l--i-t-r-

-i i i i -l-i-i-i iri

.i + i--'.

i-i i r_i t_i'

ii

-i-f-i

i i-ia T_r_i
1-j-1-t-

'iiit
l--r

-t

iiii

r1L+
-t-i-1

r i-i

-1.

j.i i
-j-1-i-j-i-.1

illl -t i-r-t -,-t .l-r- i

1t"i
I

l.i
I J-

-tJ

ii.f
r.i
1

."J

-l
'J 1-+ _r r_i I

ii

-i-l
.1,

f-i- f-i-

i1

-.1-

I I 1-f

-1"

i-r-i

i-:--

--t-

IIj-l i-tl- |
-i-+ l.-i

ii- -a
-i-1'1.

iii-r -ia'1 i -i 1-r-1


',

l,l:i l 1il -i: i-+ 1it


i-l-.1'-i

.J-.i-i-.i.

l-,

j j'1
r

ilii

il

-jl

r-

l-r
i

i-ii-i
lI

"j-i-J -t-

r.i.il
l-j-{-;-

1 1-1 i' l-lr l ,,i11

l-r t.

r-

l:.

.i-j..j-j-

..i- i-l-.1-

ifi_frtt'
l_

-r.i
I

,i

r-l-+l-

r-i' i i -l-l'
r t_i_t_

i i-i .ti

'1

I i f_'_

-i-i

r-

ii-i

i-l-i

il.i ir;-

lrl t/n!

..j-'i-"1-+ +.i--t--iii t.l I t- 't',i., -f+ + I, i r t'l' 'i-i -i -i:i:i -r-+r 'i-i-if.L irii L,-l-1-i r + ri-fi i-i-i i- i-\ I,i- t.l i.j, it i Itt-t l_t _f + t. i-l l_

r-lr-i

il

-i-l r
-1-

i
"jT'

iiii,
:i-i

-J-

l-i i ';'t'r j.l:* -ii,i-:i


i-i-j-i-

iii

r^i

i t'l
i.l-1_

i-i.

ii

i'i-

++-i-F

+-i- -f-F

1--i-f-i

f-i

i-l- i-

j:i-i

-L/n,z
National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

:74

Phvsics 73.1

QUESTIONS

1'

Why shoutd the granng be norrnal to the-light coming from the collimator? How does the grating equation (equation 6.2) change? Dtaw adtagrarnto supportyour calculations.

Compare the results (percenage difference)

Should these wavelengths be the same? Why? \flhy

of the first order wavelengths to the second order. no0

:'

3.

How does the Rydberg constaot


differences?

for

each gas? Can you

for

their

National Institute of Physics, Up Diliman

;
Compare your representations of the line spectra for each elemental discharge tube. Explain you obsewe.

wht

Suppose a discharge tube conains a combination identify individual elements in this case?

of

these elemental vaPors.

Is it possible to

6.

Could this technique be applied to urtkno'wn solids and liquids? Explain.

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

National Institurc bf Physics, UP Diliman

7. spectrurn

ofhydlogen and other elemental vapos

National Institute of Physics, UP Dilimao

INTRODUCTION
Absolption spectroscopy is among the oldest of the fields of scientific specialization3. Isaac Newton is the best known eaily investigator of the spectrum back in the first years of the eighteenth century. A few years later, Bouger observed the change in intensity of the beam of light as it passes through an absorbing medium of different thickness. However, it was not until the nineteenth
century that \X/.H. Wollaston and J. Fraunhofer, separately observed spectral lines containing only one color. It is also at this time that Beer published his observations on the dependence of transmitted light on the concentration of the absorbing species.
because

reflected

of scattering by dirt or cloudiness, or or tefracted by the surface at its

entrance and exit, and pardy because of the absolption of the light by the matedal. Absolption spectoscopy is concerned with determining the relationship between this

attenuation due to absolption as l-ight passes through the material and the wavelength, or frequency of the incident light.l The study of the light absorption properties matertal has three objectives2: (1) to learn which wavelengths the material absorb; (2) to know how much light is absorbed; and (3) to gain knowledge on why the Iight is absorbed by the material. In this experiment, we will be dealing with the first and third objectives only. The first objective gives us a "fingerprint" for a qualitative analysis of the material while the

of a

Bunsen and Kirchhoff developed th; first practical spectroscope (similar to the ones we are using) in the middle of the nineteenth century. They showed that this technique could be used as a means of qualitative chemical analysis. They have discovered several elements and demonstrate the presence of known elements in the sun.

seeks to understand the absorption in terms of the atoms and molecules

third objective

responsible

for absorption. Although

When a

materi^\, it loses some of its original intensity. The attenuation of the intensiry of light is pardy

ny of Jight passes a translucent

7A w.k Kll"01. Crn-,/ @ f .BJECTI'ES u'?' tt Y 4\@" It- ., c' To determine which rich wavereneths a gilr.'|, ,' material absorbs. ffi*"','* 'c+ "rgg:, /r i l
To knowwhy the ,aidmrte.ial rbsorbs the wavelengths.

quantitative analysis would not be performed in experiment, a good insight in the absolption of light by materials can be obtained with the two obiectives in mind. ,, l,l a-t , alle ea4tu'O).

this

'

t.

"fa

0C? Flrfuf

ffud 7

-'>, -.fU, il,l

METHoDoLocy
A.

,,*.rlr1r,''
'i

t"-- :l
/"

f"u*
,ud.

\ t/ prr, f ;'ol,.t You need the following items for this experiment. Ask assistance from yorir ihstructor. MATERTALS
Incandescent light source

q",rrf '
COYC. '1\ ctTla,qn/

High voltage power supply

b) |D/',ach lWlt^ Grating with a known grating coqqtant constant / U


Connecting wires (preferably ailtgator clips)

Spectrometer

Dves l_

Natronal Institute of Physics, UP Dilimm

,l

REMINDERS:

:l: Hn |6l*#ffi*, I Y lvoltage supply carefully. Let your

*i,*."m:l

Sensitive Apparahrs. Handle the grating with care. Do not touch the grating surface. The grating m^y be touched at the sides only. Touching the grating surface &mages the
grooves etched on the surface.

I t linstructor inspect your connections ;ilffitng the expenment.


B. PROCEDURE

1. Calibration of the diffraction

grating

spectrometer. Arrange your equipment as in the previous experiment. Use the mercury @d!^p"r tube as light sort""11f Calibrate yo(r spectromerer.

3. Visual Absorption Spectroscopy. Place a blank solution between the light source and the
This blank solution entrv slit of the-eollimator. ' '- . . .'

is just th(solvegftf your dye. Note

any

AF{

i:

2. Measurement of the Range of of the light source. Replace the mercury (FIg) source with the incandescent light source. Note the shortest and the longest wavelength position by noting the smallest and the largest angle where you could still see light. Angles are measured with resPect to ,t$e "sraight ahead" or inline image of the slit. This may vary with the observer so have ot'hers verify your result. Make sure that the seiond order diffraction does not overlap with the first order diffraction. If they overlap, note the angle in which they overlap. You will not be
getting reliable data from this angle onwards'

'$flavelength

the spectrum obtained in #ence ffi procedure number 2. Now, replace the blank solution with your dye solution. Can you see differences with the sPectrum of the blank solution? Obsenre and jot down the range of angles in which there is a drop of intensity of your spectrum as comPared to the spectrum of your blank solution. Do this for three dye solutions given by your instructor.
References

1. Edisbury, Practical Hints


Spectroscopy, (L966).

on

Absorption

2. Flarrison, et. a1., Practical Spectroscopy,


(1e48). 3. Bauman, Absorption Spectroscopy, (L962)-

4. \7hite and Manning, Experimental College


Physics.

5. Chamberlain, Laboratory Manual in Applied Spectroscopy, $9a3)

19,'*&
80

t,,lv

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

8, visual absorption spectroscopy

Name:
Partners:

Date Performed: Date Submitted:

.?

Instructor:

Section:

I I I

DATA SUMMARY
Table 8.1. 'S(avelenEhs Absorbed by Different Dyes

I
I

Grating constant, D

i
J

I j
I

Dye sample:

Light Source Range


Direct Image Position:

Draw the observed spectrum and indicate the calculated wavelengths.

Figure 1. Spectrum

National Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics 73.1

8. visual absorption spectroscoDy

Dye sample:

Light Source Range


Direct Image Position:

Draw the observed spectrum and indicate the cdculated wavelengths.

Figure 2. Spectrum

Dye sample:

Light Source Range


Direct Image Position:

Draw the observed spectrum and indicate the calculated wavelengths.

Figure 3.

TABII,2. COMPARISON VTITI LITERATURE VALUES.

Nationd Institute of Physics, UP Diliman

Physics73.1 QUESTIONS

Q, visual alsorPtion sPectroscqy

1.

\07hat are

the advantages in using the visual specuoscopic method over other methods to

determine the absorption wavelengths of materids? the disadvantages?

Describe the effect of the different dyes on the spectrum of the Iight incident on behave uniformly with different dyes? Why or why not?

it.

Would light

3.

the What is the origin of the dark/darker bands (compared to the blank solution spectrum) in same the spectrum of thJdyes? What do these bands correspond to? Will different dyes have region where one can locate these dark/darker bands?

National Institute of Physics, UP Dilimari

Physics 73.1

8. visual atrsomtion mectmcm,

5.

Consider a solution of chlorophyll. Draw and describe how its spectrum will look like.

National Institute of Physics, Up Diliman

Phvsics

73.1

8'

visual absorption spectroscopy

CALCULATIONS

National Institute of Physics, UP Dilimaq