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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PUMP INDUSTRY DISCRIPTION YEAR 2000 200 BC 1580 1593 1650 1674 1790 1815

1830 1834 1840 1848 1851 1853 1857 1859 1860 1862 1866 1868 1871 1875 1877 1881 1883 1884 1888 1890 1893 1894 1896 1897 1901 1905 1906 1907 1909 1910 1911 1912 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1923 1924 1927 1928 1929 1930 1932 1933 Egyptions invent the shadoof Ctesibus invents the reciprocating pump ; Archimedean screw pump described by Archimedes Sliding vane pump invented by Ramelli Service invents the gear pump Otto van Guericke invents his piston vacuum pump Sir Samuel Morland patents the packed pluger pump Plenty Ltd established - Thomas Simpson establishes his pump business in London Hayward Tyler established Screw pump invented by Revillion Sulzer Brothers founded Henry R Worthington invents the first direct-acting stream pump Goulds Pumps foundes John Gwynne patents his centrifugal pump improvements Boremann Pumpen founded Roper Pump Company founded Jacob Edson invents the first reciprocating stream pump Allweiler founded - A.S. Cameron invents the first reciprocating stream pump Lawrence Pumps established - Philipp Hilge founded Lederle founded Sigma Lutin founded KSB established, Southern Cros established in Australia - George and James Weir set up the partnership that will become the Weir Group Hodgkin and Neuhaus, forerunner of SPP founded Ritz Pumpenfabrik established Halberg MA schienbau founded Holden & Brooke founded A W Chesterton founded Kirloskar Brothers Ltd founded Salmson starts making pumps in Paris Uraca Pumpenfabric founded Sero Pumpenfabric founded KSB opens UK subsidiary Worthington Pump Company and Thomos Simpson amalgamate to from Worthington Simpson Ltd. Flygts forerunner Stenberg founded Leistriz Company established Stuart Turner Ltd founded Mitsubishi Heavy Industries produced its first pump Fristam Pumpen and Ernst Vogel founded - Ingersoll Rand enters the pump business by acquiring the Cameron Steam Pump Works Dickow Pumpen and Hitachi founded Jeans Nielsen builds the first Viking internal gear pump, founded the Viking Pump Company Ebara Corporation founded Worthington Pump & Machinery Corporation acquire Worthington Simpson Ltd John Crane founded - Louis Berqeron invented the concrete volute pump and founded Bergeron S.A. Scanpump and CCM Sulzer founded Torishima Pump Mfg Co and Kawamoto Pump Mfg Co established Bombas Itur Werner Pumpen and SIHI established Labour founded Peerless founded Leistritz starts making screw pumps - Rheinhuette starts pump production Edur Pumpenfabrik founded Girdlestone Pumps founded Pleuger pioneers the submersible turbine pump motor - Stenberg and Flygt commence their cooperation Rene Moineau receives a dectorate for his thesis which will lead to the invention of the progressing cavity pump Ensival starts selling centrifugal pumps Sarlin Pumps founded - Bran + Luebbe founded Bush pump invented Gormann-Rupp established

1936 1937 1940 1941 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1951 1952 1953 1955 1956 1957 1959 1960 1961 1962 1965 1966 1967 1968 1970 1971 1972 1973 1976 1977 1979 1981 1982 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Robbins & Myers acquires North American license for the Moineau progressing cavity pump Mono Pump Ltd formed to manufacture and distribute Moinequ's pump design in the UK Sigmund Pump Warman International founded Grindex founded Britsh Pump Manufacturers Association founded Grundfos Pumps, Caprari and Flexibox founded Cornell Pump, Klaus Union, Totton Pumps founded HMD Seal/Less Pumps established Hyundai founded Stenberg Flygt AB design the first submersible drainage pump, Varisco commences pump production HMD supplies its first production magnet-drive pump Tsurumi and Netzsch Mohnopumpen founded Lewa and Rovatti founded Nikkiso established Wilden and DMW Corporation established Borg-Warner acquires Byron Jackson Flygt introduces the submersible sewage pump Richter Chemie-Technik founded ABS and Calped FOUNDED David Brown Pump division formed Ingersoll-Rand acquires the Aldrich Pump Company Acromet commences operations Warren Rupp founded Sulzer acquires majority interest in Weise & Monski ITT acquires Jabsco Scienco founded Johnson Pump International founded Weir acquires Harland Engineering and ITT Corporation acquires Flygt Weir buys Drysdate ; Ingersoll-Rand buys Sigmund Pump Ltd (GB) in Gateshead, UK Sihi takes over Halberg Turbonsan founded Seepex Seeberger founded Crest Pumps Ltd founded Worthington acquires Sier-Bath Pump Division from Gilbarco Ingersoll-Rand buys Western Land Roller Irrigation Pumps ; Sterling Fluid System (TBG) buys Peerless Pump SPPacquires Godiva Fire pumps Red Jacket and Hydromatic merge to form Marley Pump. Sterling Fluid Systems takes a half share in SIHI Pump Pompes Pumpen is relaunched as World Pumps Magazine Biwater acquires W Allwin Pump Sihi buys the canned motor programme of Bran & Lubbe Dresser Industries acquires Worthington Simpson Ltd. KSB acquires Pompes Guinard Pentair acquires FE Myers Goulds Pumps acquires Lowara Weir buys Mather and Platt MAchinery Sihi France buys Schabaver Idex Corporation founded Braithwaite acquires SPP and sells off Godiva Fire Pumps Scanpump acquires ABS TBG acquires SPP Ltd part of Sterling Fluid Systems Dresser Industries acquires Mono Pumps Ltd Ingersoll=Rand acquires Scienco Ltd, Watson-Marlow bought by Spirax-Sarco Index acquires Corken;Baker Hughes acquires Geho Ingersoll-Rand and Dresser Industries merge their pump business to form Ingersoll Dresser Pumps Warman acquires Girdlestone Pumps ; Idex acquires Pulsafeeder and Johnson Pump (UK) Ltd ; Weir buys Floway ; BW/IP buys ACEC United Dominion acquires Marley Pump ; Vogel acquires Ochsner, Sterling Fluid Systems acquires Labour Weir acquires Enviro Tech Pumpsystem, Warman acquires Barrett Haentjens ; Idex acquires HAle Products ; Goulds acquires Vogel ; ITT buys Richter Chemie-Technik ; Sundstrand acquires HMD Seal/less Pumps BW/IP acquires the Wilson-Snyder centrifugal pump business from National Oilwell Durametallic acquires Pacseal and then is bought by Duriron Hayward Tyler sold by Sterling Fluid System, which buys the remaining half share in SIHI Grundfos acquires Interdab Pump Industry Analyst launched BW/IP acquires Stork Pump's engineered pumps business ; Johnson Pumps Durco and BW/IP merge to form Flowserve ITT Industries acquires Goulds ; Index acquires Blagdon Pumps ; Textron acquires Magg Pump System ; Spirax-Sarco acquires Bredel Pentair acquires General Signal's Pump Group ; Constellation Capital acquires Imo; Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon buys Wallwin Pumps from Biwater ; Textron buys David Brown Union Pumps ; Constellation Capital buys Allweiler, Glynwed acquires Friatec ; Sundstrand acquires Ansimag and Masco Weir buys Schabaver.

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997



Pump Selection

Do not oversize pumps. This leads to uneconomical operation and generally narrows the safe operation range of capacities. Do not try to select pumps with excessively low required NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head). Do not falsify real available NPSH, trying to keep a margin up your sleeve. This leads to selection of pumps with excessively high Suction Specific Speeds and high minimum flows. Do evaluate economical advantages of variable speed operation. It is more efficient and results in longer pump life. Don't overestimate value of pump efficiency if it's obtained at cost of reliability. Do not use a mechanical seal when packing is more than adequate for the intended service.



Do provide sufficient submergence over intake piping to prevent vortex formation. Do not use suction elbows in a plane parallel to the shaft; place them in the plane perpendicular to the shaft. Do not use the pump casing as an anchor for the piping. If you use expansion joints, supports and anchor them independently of the pump. Do provide adequate flow, pressure and temperature instrumentation for each pump. Pump and driver alignment must be rechecked under normal operating conditions.

Do not operate pumps below the recommended minimum flow. Do not operate pumps with suction valve closed. Do not run two pumps in parallel when a single pump can carry the reduced system load. Do not stop a pump while it is activating. Reestablish normal operation first and then stop the pump if you have to. A pump handle liquids. Keep air out. Do not run a pump if excessive noise or vibration occurs. Do run spare pumps occasionally to check their availability.


Run a performance test at reasonable intervals of time, to follow effect of increased internal clearances. Do not open pumps for inspection unless factual or circumstantial evidence warrants it. Do not over lubricate grease lubricated bearings. Do not overcool outer races of ball bearings. Inner races continue to expand and balls are squeezed out of shape. Packing stuffing boxes is an art. Do not assign this to inexperienced personnel. Do not tighten stuffing box glands excessively. Let enough leakage flow to cool and lubricate packing. Do monitor the pressure drop across suction strainers. An excessive pressure drop indicates clogging and may reduce available NPSH to a dangerous degree. Do keep an adequate stock of spare parts. Except in an emergency, use original equipment manufacturer's replacement spares. Consider upgrading material for parts that wear or corrode too rapidly. This lengthens interval between overhauls. Do examine and recondition, if necessary, all metal-to-metal fits. Do examine parts parts for corrosion, erosion or other damage. Do check concentricity of all parts of the rotor before reassembly. Do use new gaskets for complete overhaul. PUMPING TERMINOLOGY

ACCELERATOR - A pump inserted in a closed system to increase the rate of flow.

AFFINITY LAWS - The laws governing the performance of rotodynamic pumps of the same design but of different sizes. They enable the performance of full-size pumps to be accurately forecast from tests on models. They are q/nd3 Q/ND3 and h/n2d2 H/N2D2 where h and H are the heads n and N the speeds q and Q the quantities and d and D the rotator diameters of the two pumps in the same system of units. AIR CHAMBERS OR VESSEL - A vertical chamber with the upper end closed and lower end connected to the discharge branch of a pump. Whilst it contains air it tends to dump out pressure surges and pump pulsations. ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW - An inclined helical screw rotating in a trough or the raising liquid from one level to another. One of the oldest types of pump and still used for land drainage.

BALANCE DISC - A disc fitted to one end of the shaft of a single or multi-stage centrifugal pump which is acted on by pressure to counteract the axial forces in the impellers. BALANCE PIPE - The pipe taking the liquid leaking past the balance disc to the pump inlet. BALANCE SUCTION - An arrangement whereby the axial forces on the impeller of a centrifugal pump are balance by making it symmetrical and having two suction branches. BARREL - The cylindrical tube which envelops the ram of a plunger pump. BERNOULLI'S EQUATION - States thatV2/2g = P/p = Z = constant where V = liquid velocity p = density P = Pressure Z = height above datum BELL MOUTH - An enlarged end to a suction pipe which ensure that the entering liquid accelerates gradually to the pipe velocity, so reducing friction losses. BUCKET - The pumping element or piston packing of some types of plunger pumps, especially those intended for large volumes at low heads.

CAVITATION - The information of bubbles of air, steam or vapor due to the pressure falling too low. espectially at the inlet of the pump. The pressure at which cavitation occurs depends on the liquid and its temperature. If not checked it can cause severe shock and erosion or even break down. It can be prevented or cured reducing the suction lift. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES - Performance curves of rotodynamic pumps on which effective head, discharge and efficiency are plotted for a number of speeds. They are issued by pump makers and are useful when choosing a pump for a particular application. CLOSED VALUE OR SHUT-OFF PRESSURE - The pressure or head produced by a centrifugal pump at zero delivery when the power consumption is at a minimum. This does not apply to positive displacement or screw propeller pumps. COUPLING,HYDRAULIC OR FLUID - A coupling for interposing between a prime mover and pump, consisting of an impeller driven by a primemover and a rotating casting party filled with oil, which drives the pump. A fluid coupling allow an electric motor to be started up under no load, damps out speed fluctuatuations and if of the scoop type, enables the pump speed to be varied to meet the requirements.

DESIGN POINT - The condition for which a pump is expressly designed and usually those at which it will be most efficient. DISPLACEMENT - The quantity of liquid pumped for each revolution of a positive displacement pump. DOUBLE ACTING - A reciprocatin pump with which delivers liquid on both directions of its stroke.

DUPLEX - A reciprocating pump with two pistons and cylinders in line on the same axis.

EFFICIENCY - The ratio of the effective work done by a pump to the power supplied to it. It does not include losses in the lines. For large pumps the efficiency may reach 88% falling for smaller sizes and viscous liquids. EFFICIENCY, VOLUMETRIC - The ratio of the quantity actually delivered to theoretical displacement of a pump. A volumetric efficiency of 95% is common in a positive displacement pump, losses being due to imperfect suction, leakage and to the compressibility of the liquid. EJECTOR - A device in which steam or water is forced through a jet and in so doing caused a suction which draws in liquid, mixes with it and then forces it forward. Although less efficient than conventional pumps, the absence of moving parts makes ejectors attractive for some applications. EROSION - The warring away of parts by liquids, especially when carrying grit, etc.., flowing over them, or by cavitations. Erosion of impeller blades is often the limiting factor in the design of very high speed pumps.

FILTER - A device for removing solids from liquids. There are several type in general use including wire mesh, formed wire, felt, formed specially treated paper, sintered metal. The filter element is usually fitted in a container with inlet and outlet ports and with provision by-passing filter when blocked. Paper elements are often of the throw-away type. FLOW, LAMINAR OR STREAMLINE - The flow of fluid below certain velocity, known as the critical, is said to be laminar because the original stratification of the fluid is not disturbed. FLOW, TURBULENT - Flow becomes turbulent above a certain velocity which is usually less than that prevailing in hydraulic pipes. There is some increase in fluid friction when flow changes from laminar to turbulent.

GASKET - Usually understood to mean a sheet of material, often with several holes, which is placed between two relatively fixed metal joint faces to prevent leakage. GLAND - A device for sealing a cylindrical part where it passes through the wall of a pressure vessel. Glands can be arranged to seal a fixed part or a moving part such as piston or rotating shaft. Typical examples of the letter are stuffing boxes & face seals.

HEAD - The vertical distance between a pump and its suction or discharge points; the pressure equivalent to the height of a column of liquid. HEAD, DELIVERY - The pressure at the pump outlet measured in feet of water. HEAD, SUCTION - The head at the pump inlet measured in feet of water. If the suction pipe is below the pump the head may be negative. HEAD, MANOMETRIC - A head as indicated by a pressure gauge, usually expressed in terms of the height of a liquid column, e.g. feet of water.

IMPELLER - A steam operated jet instrument which uses the latent heat oft the steam to produce kinetic energy. The steam jet produces a vacuum which draws in water with which it mixes and the energy in the steam is then able to produce a pressure higher than the original steam pressure. It is chiefly used for filling low pressure boilers, using steam from the boiler itself.

LEAK-OFF - When a high pressure turbine pump operates under closed valve conditions, the heat produced by churning is considerable. A leak off value is opened thermostatically under these conditions to ensure sufficient circulation through the pump. LIQUID - Anything which can be pumped.

LIQUID-VOLATILE - A liquid which vaporized at a relatively low temperature and which may, therefore, cause trouble through cavitations unless care is taken.

PACKING - Any soft material used for preventing leakage between the metal parts of a pump. PACKING LESS - A term usually applied to electrically driven pumps where the pump and motor rotor are in one casing. PRESSURE - The force exerted by a fluid when compressed or by a columns of liquid. It is measured as weight per unit area, e.g. pounds per sq. in (psi) or by feet of columns of liquid it will support e.g. feet of water equals 0.433 psi. PRESSURE, ABSOLUTE - Pressure measured from an absolute vacuumed as datum, Atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi absolute when the barometer is 30 in. mercury. Phenomena such as cavitation and vapor pressure depend on the absolute pressure of the liquid. PRESSURE, GUAGE - The pressure as shown by an ordinary pressure gauge which uses the prevailing atmospheric pressure as a datum. PRESSURE,VAPOUR - The pressure exerted by a liquid in a partially filled closed vessel which contains nothing but the liquid and its vapour. Vapour pressure varies with temperature and for water is :-

0.25 psi absolute at 60 F 0.97 psi absolute at 100 F 3.7 psi absolute at 150 F

PRIMING - Filling a pump with liquid when it unable to produce a sufficient vacuum to draw in liquid when dry. PRIMING METHODS - These include the water ring pump and the ejector either of which produce a sufficient vacuum to draw up water from depths up to 25 ft. If a foot value is fitted to the suction pipe, priming can be carried out by admitting water through the delivery pipe or a special connection on the pump casing. PROPELLer - A screw - impeller which moves the liquid axially. PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) - A plastic which has remarkable qualities of chemical resistance and freedom from friction. It is used for impregnating asbestos gland pickings materials where its properties have proved very beneficial. Also known by its trade names of Flu on & Teflon. PTECE (Polytrifluorochloroethylene) - A plastic similar to PTFE with superior mechanical but inferior chemical qualities. PUMP AIR OPERATED - A liquid pump in which the motive power is provide by compressed air. It is usually in the form of two cylinders in line, one for air and one for liquid, together with value gear to give a reciprocating motion. PUMP AXIAL FLOW - The pumping element is of screw propeller type and is usually housed in a cylindrical casing. PUMP, BILGE - A pump specially constructed for dealing with the dirty sea water in ship' holds etc. PUMP, BOILER FEED - Any pump intended for supplying a boiler with water, usually hot and including duplex, ram and multi-stage centrifugal types. PUMP BOOSTER - A pump inserted in a pipe-line to increase the velocity of liquid flowing through it. Usually of the centrifugal or axial type. PUMP BORE HOLE - Usually refers to a vertical pump immersed below the bore hole low water level. The pump is either driven from the surface by long shaft running inside the rising main or is made in a unit a submersible electric motor. PUMP, CENTRIFUGAL - Kinetic energy is imparted to the liquid by a rotating impeller and this is transformed to pressure in a specially shaped casing or volute, which gradually increases in area and reduces the velocity. PUMP, CHAIN - Covers several different types of apparatus where an endless chain runs over pulleys and carries cups or is fitted with discs which run inside a vertical tube. PUMP, DIAPHRAGM - A flexing diaphragm operated either mechanically or fluctuating air or liquid pressure. The diaphragm serves instead of a piston but as there are no sliding parts, it is very suitable for contaminated liquids, chemicals, etc. PUMP, GEAR - This pump has two or more meshing gears, one of them being driven and others idlers. Liquid is entrained in the tooth spaces and carried round in them from the inlet to outlet port.

PUMP, GLANDLESS - Usually an electric driven pump where the motor is immersed in the liquid being pumped and the stator winding is arranged round the outside of the pressure-tight casing. PUMP, GRAVEL - A modification of a centrifugal pump, designed to pass water-borne gravel and similar abrasive substances. PUMP, LIQUID METAL - An axial flow pump where the liquid metal is rotary motion by induced current from an enveloping stator winding on the squirrel cage motor principle and is propelled forward by guide vanes. The metals usually pumped are mercury and sodium/potassium mixture. PUMP, METERING - The liquid is delivered in an accurately measured amount, usually adjustable. PUMP, MIXED FLOW - A pump where the characteristics and centrifugal pump are combined. The impeller is shaped so that the first part of the flow is axial and the remainder radial or at an angle. For a given size a mixed flow pump can be run faster that a centrifugal pump. PUMP, MUD - A special multi-throw ram pump for the mud used when drilling oil wells. PUMP, MULTI-STAGE - A centrifugal pump where a number of impellers are mounted on one shift, passages taking the liquid from periphery of one stage to the inlet eye of the next. By this means very high pressure can be attained. PUMP, POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT - A ram, piston diaphragm, gear or similar pump, where the liquid is trapped by the pump parts so that the rate of discharge varies only with the speed and is almost unaffected by pressure. PUMP, POWDER - One capable of propelling air-borne powder. PUMP, PROPELLER - Another name for an axial flow pump. PUMP, RAM - Any pump which uses a reciprocating piston or ram, but usually taken to mean a slow speed high pressure pump of this type. PUMP, ROTODYNAMIC - The opposite of a positive displacement pump; The liquid is acted on by rotation blades and the rate of discharge is dependent to a large extend on the pressure. PUMP, SCREW - The pumping element is a comparatively long screw which meshes with two or three similar screws, but of opposite hand, to provide the liquid moves axially. Liquids with high viscosity such as fuel oil can be pumped. PUMP, SEMI-ROTARY - A hand operated pump with a vane which moves backward and forwards in a shaped casing. PUMP, STEAM - Usually refers to a duplex pump with liquid and steam cylinders in line and with a common piston rod. PUMP, SUBMERSIBLE - An electrically driven pump capable of running when fully submerged in water. This type normally made for installing at bottom of boreholes. PUMP, TURBINE - A centrifugal pump where vanes take the place of the volute. In practice, vanes are only used in multi-stage pumps. PUMP, UNSHAKEABLE - One from of sewage pump. PUMP, VERTICAL - A rotodynamic pump where the main shaft is vertical, or a ram pump with vertical cylinders. PUMP, WATER RING - A rotor fitted with radial vanes revolves in an eccentric casing which is partly filled with water. When the pump is in operation the water forms an annular ring which is capable of an appreciable centrifugal pump shafts for priming the main pump.

RAM - The reciprocating element of a single acting pump which operates through a pressure-tight gland and there is a clearance between ram and cylinder. RAM, HYDRAULIC - A device for lifting water from a river or other continuous supply where the kinetic energy is used to pressurize a proportion of the water flowing through it. REYNOLDS NUMBERS - A dimensionless number used in consideration of fluid flow and given by the formula Velocity x pipe diameter Reynolds number = ------------------------Kinematics viscosity Where the Reynolds number is below 2000 laminar flow is certain to exist; at higher values it may be either laminar or turbulent but the higher the number the less likely it is to be laminar.

SEAL - Any device for preventing the passage of pressure between two parts, whether fixed or moving. SEAL, FACE - A shift seal which has two faces, one fixed and other stationary, held in contact by a spring and by the pressure. Any wear is taken up automatically This type of seal is preferred where no leakage can be tolerated and where a seal that requires no adjustment is necessary. SHADUF - A contrivance for raising water by a bucket on a counterpoised pivoted rod. SIPHON - A pipe or passage in the form of an inverted "U". SIPHON, DISCHARGE - A siphon fitted to the delivery end of a low lift pump and terminating below the water level of the outflow channel to prevent back flow when the pump is stopped without the use of value or loss of efficiency. It effectively prevents back flow when the pump is stopped without the use of values-a vacuum breaker admitting air to empty the siphon. SPECIFIC SPEED - All geometrically similar rotodynamic pumps have the same specific speed which is given in British units byNs = NQ/H Ns = specific speed. N = RPM. Q = Output in gallons per minute at maximum efficiency. H = total gauge head in feet at maximum efficiency. If the speed of a pump is fixed by the prime mover and the other factors are also known, then the most suitable type of pump can be determined by calculating the specific speed. STUFFING BOX - A gland on a pump shaft or ram containing a soft packing which can be compressed by a sleeve and screw. SUCTION - In pump it is usually refers to any phenomenon which tends to draw liquid into the pump. SUCTION LIFT - The height of a pump above the surface of the liquid which it is pumping (or the equivalent). The maximum suction lift is theoretically equal to the barometric pressure less the pipe friction. In practice it ranges from about 25 feet for a positive displacement or centrifugal pump to five feet or less for an axial flow pump. SURGE - If moving column of liquid has its velocity reduced, the accompanying loss of energy usually reappears as an increase of pressure which may be sufficient to cause damage to piping and pump. Surges can be caused by shutting a value, stopping a pump or by breaking of the column of liquid. SURGE CHAMBER - An open topped vertical pipe of comparatively large diameter tce-ed into the delivery line close to pump and higher than the maximum delivery head Pressure surges can to a certain extend, be dissipated in the chamber.

VACUUM - Usually understood to mean any pressure less than atmospheric and measured either in inches of mercury or feet of water. VACUUM BREAKER - A device fitted to the top of a siphon tube which automatically admits air when the main flow stops, so preventing liquid from flowing backwards. VACUUM GUAGE - A "pressure" guage of the Bourdon or diaphragm type of measuring sub-atmospheric pressures or vacua. VANE - An element of a pump intended to separate one part from another or to guide the flow of liquid. VALVE, AUTOMATIC - Usually one which is operated by a change in the velocity or the direction of flow of the liquid. VALVE, FOOT - A return value fixed to the end of pump suction pipe to prevent the pipe and pump emptying when the pump stops. VALVE, REFLUX - A non return or one-way valve. VISCOSITY - When a liquid flows, a shed force which resists the motion is developed between the particles of the liquid. The magnitude of the force depends on the characteristics of the liquid and the velocity. The absolute dynamic viscosity of the liquid is given in poises, and is defined as the tangential force on unit area of either of two parallel plans at unit velocity in its own plane relative to the other. If the force is one dyne when the area is 1 sq. cm. per sec.., the viscosity is one poise. For practical purposes it is usual to consider the kinematics viscosity where-

Absolute kinetic viscosity absolute dynamic viscosity = ----------------------------------Density This is usually measured in centistokes. Practical viscosity measurement are made by measuring the-time taken for the liquid to flow through an orifice under specific conditions. These are given as Redwood (English) and Saybolt (American) seconds and are the viscosity figures usually quoted in practice when specific an oil. As viscosity varies appreciably with temperature, the temperature must always be stated. VOLUTE - The portion of the casing of centrifugal or similar rotodynamic pump which joins the impeller chamber to the delivery pipe. It gradually increases in area and so reduces the liquid velocity to that in the delivery pipe, the effect being to convert most of the kinetic energy imparted by the impeller to pressure. LIST OF INDIAN STANDARDS ON PUMPS IS No. IS:1520-1980 IS:1520-1977 IS:6595-1993 IS:8034-1989 IS:8418-1977 IS:8472-1977 IS:9079-1989 IS:9137-1978 IS:9301-1984 IS:9542-1980 IS:9694-1980 (Pt I, II, III & IV) IS:9694-1980 IS:9694-1980 IS:9694-1980 IS:10572-1983 IS:10804-1986 IS:10805-1986 IS:10981-1983 IS:11004-1985 (Pt I & II) IS:11004-1985 IS:11346-1985 IS:11501-1986 IS:12225-1987 Description Horizontal pumps for clear, cold, fresh, water. Technical requirements for rotodynamic special purpose pumps. Horizontal centrifugal pumps for clear, cold, fresh water for agricultural purposes. Submersible pump sets for clear, cold, fresh water. Horizontal centrifugal self priming pumps. Regenerative self priming pumps for clear, cold, fresh water. Mono set pumps for clear, cold, fresh water for agricultural purposes. Code for acceptance tests for centrifugal mixed flow and axial pumps. Deep well hand pumps. Horizontal centrifugal mono set pumps for clear, cold, fresh water. Code of practice for the selection, installation, operation and maintenance of horizontal centrifugal pumps for agricultural applications:Part I selection Part II Installation. Part III Installation. Part IV Maintenance. Methods of sampling pumps. Recommended pumping system for agricultural purposes. Foot-valve, reflux valve or non-return valve and bore valve to be used in suction lines of agricultural pumps. Code of acceptance test for centrifugal mixed flow and axial pumps. Code of practice for installation and maintenance of deep well hand pumps : Part I-Installation. Part II-Maintenance. Testing set up for agricultural pumps. Engine mono set pumps for clear, cold, fresh, water for agricultural pumps. Jet centrifugal pump combination.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE CHART Disclaimer *The below information is compiled from numerous sources and believed to be reliable to this date. Consideration Must be given to pump selection when the chemical is abrasive or viscous. Pressure should also be considered. Please consult the manufacturer/supplier for final selection, PUMPS INDIA does not take responsibility of any kind. PUMP MATERIAL FOR THE VARIOUS 1 CHEMICALS* CHEMICALS Acetaldehyde Acid accetic Acid Benzoic Acid Citric Acid Fatty Acid Hydrochloric Acid Hydrofluric Acid Mine water Acid Mixed Acid Nitric Acid Oxilic Acid Phasphoric Acid Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric(oleum) Acid Sulphurous Alcohols Aluminum choloride Aluminum sulphate Ammonia anhyodrous Ammonia Carbonate Ammonia Chloride Ammonia phoshate Ammonia sulphate Asphalts Beer Benzene Benzol Brine acidic Brine alkaline Brine chilling Brine Sea Water Butane Calcium Chloride Calcium hypochlorite Cane Juice Carbon bisulphide Carbon tetrachloride Cellulose acetate Chlorobenzene CONDITIONS Cold Dil & Cold Anhydrous with hydrocarbon Sulphuric nitrate dil Cold Up 10% Sol. Up 75% Sol. Fuming Pure Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. Aq.Sol. 2 3 ALL IRON * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 4 ALL BRONZE * * * * * * * * * * * * 5 304 SS * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 6 316 SS * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 7 NICKEL CI * * * * * * * * * * 8 9 10

EPOXY * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

HAST. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

PP * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -

PVDF * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

TT * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

TT - Titanium PP - Polypropylene PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride


Effect of Small Change of Pump Speed 1. The capacity varies directly as the speed. 2. The head varies as the square of the speed. 3. The break horsepower varies as cube of the speed. Effect of Small Change of Impeller Diameter 1. The capacity varies directly as the diameter. 2. The head varies as the square of the diameter. 3. The break hoarse power varies as the cube of the diameter. Effect of Specific Gravity Break hoarse power varies directly with specific gravity. If the liquid has a specific gravity other than water (1.0) multiply the break HP for water by the specific gravity of liquid to be handled. A centrifugal pump will always develop the same head in feet no matter what the specific gravity of the liquid pumped. However, the pressure (In pounds per square inch) will be increased or decreased in direct proportion to the specific gravity. Effect of Viscosity Viscous liquid tend to reduce capacity pump capacity, head and efficiency and to increase pump break hourse power and increase pipe line friction. Consult manufacturers for recommendation when pumping viscous liquids. Effect of Altitude Suction lift data are based on values at sea level. Therefore, above sea level the total suction lift must be reduced. Effect of Hot Liquids Hot liquid vaporize at higher absolute pressures than cold liquids, therefore the suction lift must be reduced when handling hot liquids with a high vapor pressure or a high temperatures the liquid must flow to the pump suction under pressure. Selection of pumping Unit In order to select appropriate pump the following data is essential. 1. Capacity required in term of L.P.H. or G.P.H. 2. Discharge head, i.e. highest level up to which water is to be supplied + friction loss, if any. 3. Suction lift, i.e. lowest water level from which water is to be drawn. If the source of supply is a well, following information should be available: 4. 5. 6. Diameter in case of tube well) Standing water level. Lowest water level while pumping and in summer. It is also desirable to ascertain the yield of the well to ensure that pump capacity matches with the yield.

Some useful data on selection of Pump :1. In cites, every individual person consumes app. 150 to 200 lit per-day. In village, it may be assumed to be 40 to 60 lit per persons per day. Other data of consumption of water. Animal Horse Milk Cow Sheep Poultry (Per 100) 2. 3. Consumption 50 liters per day 140 liters per day 10 liters per day 20 liters per day

Height of an average story can be assumed to be 10' to 12'. To find the capacity (in gallons) of an overhead tank. Multiply the length by the width by depth in feet. This will give the volume in cubic feet. Multiply this volume by 7.5 to get capacity in U.S. gallons.

Formulas and Conversions Factors Pipe velocity (ft. per second)= 40 x G.P.M. ________________ (pipe diameter)2 = 321 x G.P.M. _______________ pipe area

(Pipe velocity ft. per second)2 Velocity head (feet) = ________________________________ 64.4 G.P.M. x head in ft. x specific gravity

Water horsepower = _____________________________________ 3960 G.P.M. x head in ft. x specific gravity Break horsepower (Pump) = ___________________________________ 3960 x pump efficiency Efficiency (pump) = G.P.M. x head in ft. x specific gravity W.H.P. _____________________________________ = ___________ 3960 x B.H.P. B.H.P.