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Chapter 2 Related Literature

Introduction to Robotics

Before we discuss about industrial robots lets define the word Robot. A robot is a mechanical device that acts in seemingly human way. It is also a mechanism guided by automatic control, and also an electronic device that may perform programmed task. A robot is also a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move parts, materials, tool or special devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of different task. The word robot was first used by a Czechoslovakian dramatist, Karel Capek, in his 1921 play Rossums Universal Robots. Capeks robots were designed to be perfect and tireless workers who performed manual labor for human beings. Isaac Asinov envisioned the robot as a helper of humankind. Toward this end, Asinov set forth three basic laws for robots. These laws would better be defined as rules of robotics much like the Golden Rule for people. 1. A robot must not harm a human being, nor through inaction allow one to come to harm. 2. A robot must always obey human beings, unless that is in conflict with the first law. 3. A robot must protect itself from harm, unless that is conflict with the first two laws. Gerald Norman, an Oregan institute of Technology professor of manufacturing engineering technology, has suggested that a law formulated by Skoles be adopted as the fourth law or rule of robotics: 4. A robot may take a human beings job. But it may not leave that person jobless!

Attempts are being made to adhere to these laws of robotics, but there is no automatic way to implement them. For instance, the military robot, by its very nature, is likely to be designed with the intention of breaking these laws. Many people think of as a single area of technology, but in fact robotics encompasses such diverse areas of technology as mechanical, electrical, electronic systems, computer hardware and computer software Even though the word is relatively new, work in robotics research has been going on for hundred years. Robots have seven distinct types: military robots, show or promotional robots, educational robots, medical robots, domestic or personal robots, hobbyist robots and the topic of the study, the industrial robots. Now lets define industrial robot. Industrial robot is a tool that is used in the manufacturing environment to increase productivity. It can be used to do routine and tedious assembly line jobs, or it can perform jobs that might be hazardous to the human worker. It is designed to be a perfect and tireless worker. It is intended to serve as a general purpose unskilled or semi-skilled laborer. Typical it does not resemble a human worker physically, and it may not to do the job the same way a human worker would. For one thing, most industrial robots are stationary, while most hobbyist robots move about. The industrial robot generally has a single manipulator somewhat similar to a human arm and hand. In most applications, robots do not work as fast as humans, but they are more reliable than human in some applications. They are neither as fast nor as efficient as special-purpose automated machine tools. However, industrial robots are easily retrained or reprogrammed to perform an array of different tasks, whereas an automated special-purpose machine tool can work on only a very limited class of tasks. The industrial robot is intended to take over work currently done by humans in areas that are dull, dirty, dangerous or difficult.

The first rule to consider is known as the Four Ds of Robotics. Is the task Dirty, Dull, Dangerous or Difficult? If so, a human will probably not be able to do the job efficiently for hours on end. Therefore, the job may be appropriate for automation or robotic labor. The second rule recalls the fourth law of robotics: A robot may not leave a human jobless. Robotics and automation must serve to make our lives more enjoyable, not to eliminate jobs for people.

A third rule involves asking whether you can find people who are willing to do the job. If not, the job is a candidate for automation or robotics. Indeed, this should be a primary reason for the growth of automation and robotics. A fourth rule of thumb is that the use of robots or automation must make short-term and long-term economic sense. As a general starting point, consider the following. A task that has to be done only once or a few times and is not dangerous probably is best done by a human. After all, the human is the most flexible of all machines. A task that has to be done a few hundred to a few hundred thousand times, however, is probably best done by a flexible automated machine such as an industrial robot. And a task that has to be done by a flexible automated machine such as an industrial robot. And a task has to be done 1 million times or more is probably best handled by building a special-purpose hard automated machine to do it. The first machine tools to resemble the modern industrial robot were probably the automatic spray-painting machines designed in the late 1930s by Pollard and Roseland. The first industrial robots showed up in American manufacturing plants in the late 1950s. In 1970 only about 200 industrial robots existed in the United States. By 1995 the number had grown to 66,000 and by 2000 the number of industrial robots is expected to reach 105,000. An Industrial robot is made up of three basic: The manipulator, the controller, and the power source. The manipulator comes in a variety of shapes and sizes; it does the physical work of the system. The controller controls the manipulator, its position, and its movements. The robotic systems controller also has the ability to interface with peripheral devices in the robots environment, such as sensors, vision systems, or master computers. The power source

provides power to the manipulator and to the controller. Many people misunderstand what an industrial robot is. They confuse the terms remote-controlled, automation, and numericalcontrolled with the term industrial robot. This is due in part to false impressions created by science fiction and in part to the way robots actually developed. End effectors are found on complex units as well. End effectors are components that are attached to the end of the robots manipulator arm. The end effector is used to pick and place parts, arc-weld, spot-weld, or spray paint. These devices allow the robot to interface with the manufacturing environment. The robots degrees of freedom describe the number of axis movements. Depending on the technological level of the robot, the number of axes can range from 2 to 16. Robot motion includes base travel and axis control; robots may be non-servo-controlled or servo-controlled. The latter units are more flexible, have more axes, and provide continuous-path or point to point control. The robotics industry has developed three basic classifications of robots: low technology robots, medium technology robots, and high technology robots. Each class of robots has the ability to perform certain jobs in the workplace. Also, each class is defined by specific characteristics of axes, payload, cycle time, accuracy, actuation and controllers. Features of the Manipulator Now there are four different arm geometries. These geometries allow different axis movements. The four basic geometries are the Cartesian coordinate system, the cylindrical coordinate system, the polar or spherical coordinate system and the articulate coordinate system. The Cartesian coordinate system uses the X, Y and Z method or the three joint movements. X represent the left and right movement of the body of a robot, while the Y represent the up and down arm of the robot and the Z represent the In and Out arm of the robot. Next is the cylindrical coordinate system uses the Theta, Z and R movement. The cylindrical method is designed to develop a work enveloped shaped like a cylinder. The manipulator can move in rotation around the base, which is a movement in the Theta axis. It

can move up and down motion, which is the movement of the Z axis. And it can reach in and out, which is called a movement in the R axis. Polar coordinate system manipulator also has a Theta rotation and an R axis movement. But this manipulator has the ability to swing the R axis in a top to bottom radius, which is a movement in the Beta axis. So the work of the polar coordinate robot is spherical. Articulate coordinate rot provides additional bending movements for the axes so that the manipulator can better reach various locations within the work envelope. For the articulate robot, the Theta axis provides rotations or bending round the waist. The W axis provides rotation around the shoulder. And the U axis allows bending around the forearm. The work envelope of the articulate robot is shape like a teardrop. Additional axis motion can be obtained by the addition of a wrist to the end of the robots arm. Wrist can provide up to three additional movements for the robots manipulator. These movements are the pitch, the yaw and the roll of the wrist. Three types of drives are currently available for the robot manipulator: pneumatic drives, hydraulic drives and the electric drives. The type of drive system used for the robot manipulator depends on the speed and the lifting power required by the task. The work envelope of any robotic system is important in describing the complete operation of the robot. Work envelopes differ according to the manipulators movements. The work envelope of the cylindrical coordinate robot has a cylindrical shape. The work envelope of the polar coordinate robot is spherical. And the work envelope of the articulate coordinate robot is tear-shaped. The mounting of the manipulator depends on the task required of the robotic system. The robot can be mounted in an upright position; it can be mounted from a gantry or it can be mounted at an angle. These different mounting positions relate to the task the robot must perform.

Internal Components of Controllers

Basic Robotic Programming Robotics programs fall into two categories: the control program and the users program. The control program is the executive program developed by the manufacturer for the general operation of the robot. The users program is the one that the user writes, and it contains positional data, axis velocity data, geometric axis moves, and the services request once the manipulator is at the programmed location. Many manufacturers have developed their own programing language. Each of these high-level languages allows axis movement within the limits of the program and the limits of the controller. Some of these high-level languages are similar to PASCAL. The program for the robot can be written off-line, that is, at a computer terminal away for the shop floor. The program can be then be downloaded to the controller through the data bus. Developing a robotics users program consists of four steps: defining the type of robot, defining the robots task, identifying the sequence of events, and identifying the conditions of the program. By considering these four steps, the programmer ensures that the program contains the information necessary for the total robotic operation. A flowchart helps the programmer develop the program. The flowchart lists the various steps that take place in the program. The steps of the flowchart describe all the various moves that the robot must make in order to complete the task. These steps also show the assignments of all the input and output commands the controller needs in order to manage the work cell. In the construction of a flowchart, several basic flowchart symbols are used. For example, the terminal symbol is an oval that identifies the starting point of the stopping point of the program. The parallelogram is the symbol used to identify input or output signals from the program. These input or output signals, for example, might be used to move a conveyor line. The decision block is a diamond-shaped symbol. It is used in the flowchart to identify whether a condition has been met in the program. Lines with arrowheads are flow symbols,

and they show the direction of the flow of the program. Arrows that point into or out of a circle show node connection points. These arrows are used when branching statements are employed in the program and the program must return to a specific location. Many times, one part of a flowchart must be connected to another part on a different page. This connection is shown by a circle with a letter or number placed inside the circle. The symbol that is shaped like a home plate in baseball is called the off-page connection. If the flowchart is lengthy and requires several pages, the off-page connection symbols employed. The annotation symbol is used to remind the programmer what is meant by the shorthand that might be placed in the process blocks or the decision blocks. Part of the controllers memory contains registers. The programmer can use the registers to store the data during program operation. The registers can be used to keep a parts count during an operation of the manipulator. The register is controlled through the program. Many different functions can be employed in the flowchart operation. Some of these functions are the skip function, the timer function, the DO WHILE function and the IF-THENELSE function. Each of these functions help the programmer to develop routines that allow the robot to perform the many simple and complex task required by the job. In many large programs, the programmer may need to developed subprograms that operate from a main program. For example, the main program may develop the basic motions that move the manipulator into a perch position. Then, on the basis of an input signal from an external component, the program branches to subprogram. The subprogram generally contains all the moves that the robot must make in order to perform its task.