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Program Galus Sains SPM

Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation


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SCIENTIFIC SKILLS : OBSERVATION
KEMAHIRAN SAINTIFIK: PEMERHATIAN

TIPS:
 Observe the given diagram.
Perhatikan rajah yang diberi
 Find the result of the experiment (Responding Variable) in the diagram
Cari keputusan eksperimen (pemboleh ubah bergerakbalas) di dalam rajah
 Make comparison if two diagrams are given
Buat perbandingan jika dua rajah diberikan.
 Only write what you observe
Hanya tulis apa yang anda lihat .

EXERCISE

1 Diagram 1.1 shows an experiment to study the pressure produced by metal blocks,
P and Q of the same mass.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh
bongkah logam P dan Q yang mempunyai jisim yang sama.

Bongkah
Bongkah
logam P
logam Q

Plastisin

Figure 1.2 shows the effect on the plasticine when metal blocks P and Q
were dropped.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan kesan ke atas plastisin apabila bongakah logam P dan
Q dijatuhkan.

Lekuk P Lekuk Q

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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Write down one observation from the result of this experiment.


Tulis satu pemerhatian daripada keputusan eksperimen ini.

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2 Diagram 2(a) and 2(b) show an experiment to compare the reactivity of metal
L and metal M with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Rajah 2(a) dan 2(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan
kereaktifan logam L dan logam M dengan asid hidroklorik cair

Buret X

Asid hidroklorik cair

5 g logam L

Asid hidroklorik cair

5 g logam M
(a) Write down one observation for the above experiment.

Write down one observation from the result of this experiment.


Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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3 Diagram 3 shows the result of an experiment to study the effect of different


concentration of an antibiotic on bacterial growth.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan keputusan bagi satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan
antibiotik yang berkepekatan berbeza ke atas pertumbuhan bakteria.

Kawasan jernih

Cakera antibiotik
berkepekatan tinggi

Diagram 3 Cakera antibiotik


Rajah 3 berkepekatan rendah

(a) Write down one observation for the above experiment.


Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.

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4 Diagram 4(a) and 4(b) show an experiment to study the effect of antibiotic
on bacterial growth
Rajah 4(a) dan 4(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan
antibiotik terhadap pertumbuhan bakteria

Antibiotic disc (cakera antibiotik)


nutrient agar
Agar-agar nutrien

Koloni bakteria

A B
2.4 cm After 5
days
Selepas 5 hari

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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Diagram 4(a) Diagram 4(b)

Base on Diagram 4(b), write down one observation.


Berdasar Rajah 4(b), tuliskan satu pemerhatian.

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5 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.1 shows an experiment to study the reactivity of
metals with dilute hydrochloric acid
Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.1menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kereaktifan
logam dengan asid hidroklorik cair

Dilute hydrochloric
cair acid
Asid hidroklorik Dilute
Asid hydrochloric
hidroklorik cair acid
Bubble Bubble
Gelembung gas Gelembung gas

Zinc plate Magnesium plate


Plat zink Plat magnesium
Dia

Diagram 5.1 Diagram 5.2


Rajah 5.1 Rajah 5.2

(a) Write one observation for the above experiment.


Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.

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…………………………………………………………………………………...

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_roslainigc
Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
_______________________________________________________________________
_

6 Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show an experiment to study the electrical
conductivity of lead (II) bromide.
Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
Kekonduksian elektrik plumbum (II) bromida.

Elektrod karbon
Elektrod karbon

Pepejal Plumbum (II) bromida

Diagram 6.1
Rajah 6.1

Elektrod karbon
Elektrod karbon
LeburanPlumbum (II) bromida

Panaskan
Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2

(a)(i) Based on Diagram 6.2, what is your observation on the needle of the
ammeter?
Berdasarkan Rajah 6.2, apakah pemerhatian ke atas jarum ammeter?

………………………………………………………………………………

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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7 Diagram 7 shows an image formed when an object is placed infront of a convex


lens.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan satu image yang terbentuk apabila satu objek diletakkan di
hadapan sebuah kanta cembung.

Convex lens
Kanta cembung

object O F Image
objek F
imej

Diagram 7
Rajah 7

(a) Write down two observations of the image formed.


Tulis dua pemerhatian bagi imej yang terbentuk.

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
_______________________________________________________________________
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8 Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2 show an experiment to study the collision
between trolleys of different masses with a plasticine block.
Rajah 8..1 dan Rajah 8..2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
Perlanggaran antara troli yang berlainan jisim dengan bongkah plastisin

Diagram 8.1
Rajah 8.1

(b)(i) What can you observe about the plasticine block after the collisin?
Apakah yang dapat anda perhatikan
Diagram 8.2pada bongkah plastisin selepas
perlanggaran? Rajah 8.2

(c) What can you observe about the plasticine block after the collision?
Apakah yang dapat anda perhatikan pada bongkah plastisin selepas
perlanggaran?

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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9 Diagrams 9.1(a) and 9.1(b) show an experiment to study the hardness of copper block and
bronze block when the weights are dropped onto a steel ball.
Rajah 9.1(a) dan 9.1(b) menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kekerasan blok
kuprum dan blok gangsa apabila pemberat dijatuhkan ke atas bola keluli.

Weight
Pemberat
( 5 kg )

Steel ball
Bola keluli

Bronze block
Blok gangsa
Copper block
Blok kuprum

DIAGRAM 9.1(a)

Diagram 9.1(a) Diagram 9.1 (b)

The effects on the copper block and bronze block are shown in Diagram 9.2(a) and
9.2(b).
Kesan pada blok kuprum dan blok gangsa ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 9.2(a) dan 9.2(b).
Dent
Lekukan

X 0.6 cm

Copper block Bronze block


Blok kuprum Blok Gangsa

DIAGRAM 9.2 (a) DIAGRAM 9.2 (b)

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_roslainigc
Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
_______________________________________________________________________
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Write down one observation on the experiment.
Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.

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10 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show an experiment to study the effect of different
thickness of convex lens P and Q on its focal length.
Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji
kesan ketebalan kanta cembung P dan Q yang berbeza ke atas jarak fokus.

Lens P

Screen

Light ray from distant object


Sinar cahaya daripada objek jauh

Focal point

Focal length

Diagram 10.1
Rajah 10.1
Lens Q

Screen

Light ray from distant object


Sinar cahaya daripada objek jauh

Focal point

Focal length

Write down one observation on the experiment.


Diagram 10.2
Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.
Rajah 10.2

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_roslainigc
Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
_______________________________________________________________________
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Write down one observation on the experiment.
Tulis satu pemerhatian bagi eksperimen di atas.

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Answers
Jawapan

1 Dent P is deeper than dent Q


Lekuk P lebih dalam daripada lekuk Q

2 Volume of gas in burette X for Figure 2(a) is less than in Figure 2(b)
Isipadu gas dalam buret X bagi rajah 2(a) adalah kurang daripada rajah
2(b)

3 Size of clear area for antibiotic disc of high concentration is bigger than
antibioitc disc of low concentration
Saiz kawasan jernih bagi cakera antibiotik berkepekatan tinggi adalah
lebih besar daripada cakera antibiotik berkepekatan rendah

4 Size/diameter bacteria colony becomes smaller


Saiz/diameter koloni bakteria menjadi kecil

5 Zinc plate release less bubble compare to magnesium plate


Plat zink membebaskan kurang gelembung gas berbanding plat magnesium

6 Shows a reading
Menunjukkan satu bacaan

7 Image is inverted and the size is smaller than object


Imej adalah terbalik dan saiz adalah lebih kecil daripada objek

8 Trolley Q formed deeper dent on the plasticine than trolley P


Troli Q membentuk lekuk yang lebih dalam ke atas plastisin berbanding
troli P

9 Dent formed on copper block is deeper than bronze block


Lekuk yang terbentuk atas blok kuprum adalah lebih dalam daripada blok
gangsa

10 Lens Q has shorter focal length than lens P


Kanta Q mempunyai jarak fokus yang lebih pendek daripada kanta P

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Program Galus Sains SPM
Basic Scientific Skills Exercise- Observation
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