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INPLANT TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

Conducted at

TATA POWER COMPANY LIMITED


Submitted by

Kushal Gangar Viral Kachhadia Monis Ansari Ravindra Jaiswal

5TH Semester ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Sardar Patel College of Engineering

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Merely just by writing thank you, I cannot express my hearty gratitude towards the people who made my one month of Inplant Training a real non-forgettable experience. All these days will become cheerful memories for me. Still I undertake the opportunity to present this report of a fruitful training. The industrial exposure that I experienced in TATA POWER COMPANY LTD. added not only to my theoretical knowledge but also my visualization. Its my pleasure to express my gratitude towards companys management, who allowed me to work in this department. I will be always thankful for the presence, effective, expert & experienced guidance of Mr. Sandeep Tole, Mr. Ganesan , Mr. D. V. Kulkarni &Mr Kadam with their always helpful attitude, they always added to my thoughts, provided some timely suggestions, cleared my doubts to perfection & under whom I made all eight hours of my job count for something really interesting.

ABSTRACT
The period of one month, as an In-plant Training in TATA POWER COMPANY LTD. provided many new dimensions to my knowledge. It exposed me to the actual working environment of a firm of a very high reputation. I got a feel of actual Industry Management, which involved a lot of practical difficulties and skills. It also gave me a very good opportunity to put my theoretical knowledge to actual practice. During this period I understood the scope of function, job responsibilities of various engineering department. I also came to know that how the different departments function in tandem for improving the process of particular product. I came in contact with some techniques, which were completely unknown to me, and the most important thing to learn was co-operation and co-ordinate effort of various persons at different levels in different departments to achieve the set goals. I sincerely hope that all my efforts put forward in recording this project report is helpful to all my fellow students and future students to guide them in the field of process improvement using automation.

INDEX
SR.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TOPICS HISTORY RANKINE CYCLE BASIC THERMAL CYCLE WATER & STEAM CYCLE AIR & FLUE GAS CYCLE FUELS &STEAM TURBINE ESP TURBO GENERATOR TRANSFORMER YARD SWITCHYARD SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS CONCLUSION PAGE NUMBER 5 10 13 16 27 32 37 40 43 55 65 73

HISTORY OF TATA POWER

JAMSETJI TATA

Established by Jamshetji Tata in the second half of the 19th century, the Tata Group has grown into one of Indias biggest and most respected business organizations thanks to his entrepreneurial vision, his commitments to ideals that put people in profit. JamsetjiNusserwanji Tata started a private trading firm, laying the foundation of the Tata Group in 1868. The Tata Group comprises 93 operating companies in seven business sectors: information systems and communications; engineering; materials; services; energy; consumer products; and chemicals. The TATA Power Company Ltd. was established in 1910 and its power station at Khopoli was commissioned in 1915.With this, TATA electric system came into existence due to vision and foresight of Sir Jamsetji TATA. The second major step was the formation of the Andhra Valley Power Supply Company Ltd. in 1916 to meet the increased demand of electricity during First World War. The companys power station was commissioned in 1922 at Bhivpuri. Subsequently, the TATA Power Company was registered in 1919 and its power station was commissioned at Bhira in 1927 .All the three power stations of these companies were interlinked with network and a unified power system was brought into operation. The total installed capacity was adequate to meet the demand of electricity in the Bombay-Pune region.

For transmission of power generated at these three stations, 110 KV network was established. The transmission of power at 110 KV was anconsidered to be an engineering feat. Also distribution network of 6.6 KV & 22 KV was established to distribute power to textile mills, industrial and domestic consumers. In 1929, central railways established their power station at Chola, to supply traction loads. The station was interconnected with TATA system through 110 KV lines at Kalyan receiving station in 1940. The interconnection proved beneficial to both railways and TATA during Second World War. TPCL have been pioneers in load dispatch techniques in India. The first load dispatch centre (LDC) was established in 1950 at Khopoli power station. With this, a centralized power system control centre was brought into operation for TATA -railway system.

COMPANY PROFILE
As early as 1950, it had become clear that hydro stations alone would not be able to meet future demand of electricity in Bombay-Pune region. After making careful assessment of the future trend of demand, Tata's brought to the notice of the government in 1950-51 the urgency of installing a new thermal station close to load center. Trombay was found to be the appropriate location as around the same two refineries, (Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum) were established in the same area and fuel oil was available for thermal station through direct pipelines. However, as demand continued to rise rapidly, the installed capacity of Trombay station was enhanced to 337.5 Mw installing fourth thermal unit of 150 Mw in August 1965, which was the single largest thermal unit in country at that time. Meanwhile the Koyna hydro station of the Maharashtra government was brought into commission in 1962 and interconnected with the TATA electric power system. The first 500 MW unit of the country was commissioned at Trombay (unit#5) on 25th January 1984 and has registered 535 MW hourly peak generation and produced maximum daily energy of 12.40 MUs. Trombay was the first thermal

station to start utilizing natural gas as a fuel from Bombay-High offshore in July 1978 which otherwise was being flared off. The second 500 MW unit (unit#6) at Trombay was synchronized on 23rd march 1990 followed by the commissioning of 180 MW combined cycle power plant (CCPP) in 1994. At Bhira hydro station, 150 MW pumped storage units were commissioned in December 1996. Recognized as India's largest integrated power Company with a reputation for reliability, built up over nearly ten decades, Tata Power forges ahead into yet. The total Generating Capacity of THE TATA POWER CO. LTD is as follows

LOCATION
KHOPOLI BHIVPURI

CAPACITY
72 MW 72 MW

BHIRA

300 MW

TROMBAY

1350 MW

JOJOBERA

62 MW

TOTAL

1859 MW

A summary of various UNITS at TROMBAY Plant.

Commissioned in

HR (kcal/kWhr) 2600

Units Unit 4

Capacity (MW) Efficiency (%) 150

Generator contribution (%) 7

1965

33.06

1984

2465

Unit 5

500

34.89

42

1990

2347

Unit 6 Unit 7 CCPP Unit 8

500

36.64

36

1993 2008

1975 2215

180 250 1580

43.54 35.44 36.46

15 20

Strategic Location: The site of the Trombay Thermal Power Station was chosen keeping the following points in mind: Closer to the fuel source: The Trombay Station was set up to utilize the residual oil from the neighbouring oil refineries (HPCL and BPCL) Proximity to sea water (for cooling purposes) At the heart of the load centre

Salient features: First 150 MW unit in India (1965). First 500 MW unit in India (1984). Multi-fuel firing capability namely coal, oil and gas for generation.

First to Commission Gas Insulated Switchgear 220 KV and 110 KV Computerized Grid Control and Energy Management Systems 220 kV Transmission Lines in Four-Circuit Towers Flue Gas De-sulphurization Plant using sea water First 275 meter tall chimney for Unit No.6. 500 MW power plant. First Operational Pumped Storage Unit of 150 MW capacity at Bhira First to install Fly Ash Aggregate to utilize waste product (fly ash). First to introduce SCADA & Fiber Optic ground Wire Communication. Tata Powers LDC is the first LDC in India to get ISO Certification. First to introduce the ultra-super critical boiler in India (Mundra, Gujarat)

RANKINE CYCLE
THERMAL POWERPLANT WORKS ON A RANKINE CYCLE:

PROCESSES OF RANKINE CYCLE:

The Rankine cycle most closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines most commonly found in power generation plants generate power. The two most common heating processes used in these power plants are nuclear fission and the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas, and oil. The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle because, when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. The main difference is that heat addition (in the boiler) and rejection (in the condenser) are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle.

PROCESS 1-2: pumping of feed water to the boiler from pressure, P1 to pressure PB. The compression process is reversible adiabatic.

PROCESS 2-3: conversion of feed water in to the steam at constant pressure equal to the boiler pressure PB. The heat supplied by external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour.

PROCESS 3-4: reversible adiabatic expansion of steam in the turbine from boiler pressure P1 to back pressure Pb. This decrease the temperature and pressure of the vapour and some condensation may occur.

PROCESS 4-1: the wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is cooled at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. The pressure and temperature of the condenser is fixed by the

temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid is undergoing a phase change. In an ideal rankine cycle the pump and turbine work would be isentropic i.e. the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output.

BASIC THERMAL CYCLE

A basic thermal cycle is that cycle which deals with the aspect that how the thermal energy is been converted into electrical energy. These consist of a steam generator better known as the BOILER. In this boiler the fuel is heated up to a very high temperature in the presence of oxygen. This heat is then released in the form of flue gases. The water wall tubes inside the boiler heats the water to convert it into steam under high and constant pressure. This high pressure steam then rotates the turbine. The turbine acts as a prime mover for the alternator and hence, the electricity is produced. This steam after reacting with turbine is condensed in the condenser using sea water. Then the water is again fed to the boiler for the energy conversion

Detailed description of thermal cycle


Coal from coal jetty is fed into coal mills. Unit 5 has 8 coal mills and 4 feeders. Unit 8 has 5 coal mills and 5 feeders. Coal from bunkers passes through feeder to the coal mill. The mill has roller and bowl arrangement. The bowl is rotated by a motor whose speed is reduced using a reduction gear. The coal is crushed and pulverized into small particles of diameter 75 microns. Four Primary air (PA) fans are used to propel the coal into furnace. PA is consists of hot and cold air. The hot air takes suction from atmosphere then goes through RAPH and gets heated and the cold air takes suction from the atmosphere. The PA air blows away the coal dust into the furnace through the coal guns. Unit 5 has 4 elevations with 4 guns around the circumference of the furnace. The coal guns are placed to fire in a tangential fashion. The coal guns are placed in between an oil/gas gun and an air gun. The air gun is connected to the Forced draft (FD) fan. The FD fan takes suction from the atmosphere and passes through Regenerative air pre-heater (RAPH) where it is pre-heated. RAPH takes extraction from the flue gases released to heat the secondary air for combustion. Water from the boiler drum flows through downcomers to Condensed extraction pump (CEP). Here it is separated into fins and pumped up by the CEPs and it flows along the boiler periphery. The water gets heated up and is fed to the drum which maintains the steam above the hydrastep. There are 6 safety valves to release excessive pressure. Also the soot accumulated on the walls of the boiler are removed by soot blowers. Soot blowers consist of sistine pumps which remove soot

by spraying steam. 100 long retractable super blowers use a steam tapping, spread around the boiler surface and blow down the soot thus cleaning the furnace and preventing pitting. Steam flows through cheddars at the penthouse of the boiler. The steam is at 420 degrees. The steam then passes through the super heater(SH) 1, plutten SH and the final SH. The temperature rises to 540 degrees. These super heaters are huge coils suspended from the top in the furnace. The superheated steam is passed into the high pressure (HP) turbine. The steam passes through the 16 stage HP and loses temperature and pressure. Hence, it is passed through a re-heater in the furnace to make it conducive to pass through Intermediate pressure (IP) turbine. The steam then directly passes to the low pressure (LP) turbine. The turbines, generator and exciter are connected on the same shaft. The turbine rotates and thus the generator and produces power. The steam passes then through the condensor and the feed cycle continues.

WATER AND STEAM CYCLE


D M WATER STORAGE TANK CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK

CONDENSER HOT WELL

CONDENSATE EXRACTION PUMP

LOW PRESSURE HEATER 1

HIGH PRESSURE HEATER 5

BOILER FEED PUMP

DEAERATOR

LOW PRESSURE HEATER 3

LOW PRESSURE HEATER 2

HIGH PRESSURE HEATER 6

ECONOMISER

BOILER DRUM

RING HEADERS

DOWN COMERS

RE HEATERS

HP TURBINE

SUPER HEATERS

RISER TUBES

BOTTOM RING HEADERS

IP TURBINE

LP TURBINE

GENERATOR

CONDENSER

In the thermal power plant, feed cycle has importance, because of its characters of raising the efficiency of steam cycle and in other words increasing the efficiency of the power plant. Water and steam cycle explain us about how the water is converted into high pressure steam. In this cycle many different types equipments are used, all having different mode of operation.

DM WATER STORAGE TANK: The water used in the boiler and other equipments except condenser is De-mineralized water. So the water coming from BMC is processed and is de-mineralized and stored in the DM water storage tank.

CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK: From DM water storage tank the water is pumped to Condensate storage tank. When the condenser hotwell level reaches the high point, a dump valve opens to drain excess condensate from the hotwell to a condensate storage tank. When loss of condensate from the turbine cycle is reflected in a low level in the hotwell, a make-up valve opens in the storage tank to supply make-up water to the condenser hotwell.

Hence condensate storage tank has a vital part in maintaining the condensate level in the hot well. Low level will lead to starvation which will further lead the pump to lose its suction.

CONDENSOR HOTWELL: Hotwell is the bottom most chamber of a condenser. It acts as a reservoir of the condensate. The hot well level is maintained, because if it is low pump will lose its suction and if it is high the water will enter the condenser. The temperature of water is around 45 degree Celsius.

CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP (CEP) : Condensate extraction pump better known as CEP are used to extract the condensate water and pump it to low pressure water heater. These are vertical type pump. For having

appropriate NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) a underground chamber known as canister is created. Now as we know that there is a negative pressure in the condenser. A taping is taken from the condenser to facilitate the suction for CEP.

LOW PRESSURE HEATERS: The LP heaters are provided to preheat the feed water to the boiler, with steam fed from LP turbine. They are shell and tube type heat exchanger with steam in shell and condensate in tube. LP heater 1 is located at the neck of the condenser. A taping is taken from the LP turbine.

There are three LP heaters

LP heater serves two purposes: 1. Boiler receives water at higher temperature. Thus, for a given output fuel consumption is reduced. 2. It improves cycle efficiency

DEARATOR: A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating

boilers. In particular, dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwaters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust). Dissolved carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. Most deaerators are designed to remove oxygen down to levels of 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm/L) or less as well as essentially eliminating carbon dioxide.

The deaerators in the steam generating systems of most thermal power plants use low pressure steam obtained from an extraction point in their steam turbine system. However, the steam generators in many large industrial facilities such as petroleum refineries may use whatever low-pressure steam is available.

FEED WATER STORAGE TANK

The deaerated hot feed water gets collected in this storage tank. The size of the storage tank is influenced by the amount of condensate required to be stored. 6-10 minutes storage is usually provided so as to keep the size of the storage tank within reasonable limits BOILER FEED PUMP: It takes suction from storage tank through booster pumps (thus increasing the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the boiler feed pumps). The discharge of the boiler feed pumps at 210 bars is through the high pressure heaters and is finally fed to the economizer inlet header. There are two steam turbine driven boiler feed pump and one motor boiler feed pump, each of 50% capacity. Normally the two STBFP carry full load and MBFP serves as auto standby and is used at start up.

The STBFPs are attached to a small steam turbine each which is driven by the steam extracted from the turbine. The MBFP is driven by high capacity 6.6 KV motor and consumes 9 MW power. Unit#5 and 6 both use steam driven boiler feed pump. Whereas in unit #8 motor driven boiler feed pump is used. BOOSTER PUMP : These are heavy-duty single centrifugal pump having an axial end suction radial top discharge. The booster pump gives the necessary NPSH for the satisfactory operation of the high-speed boiler feed pump.

HIGH PRESSURE HEATERS: These heaters are same as LP heaters except the temperature and the pressure vary. The taping is taken from the HP turbine.

A feedwater heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. In a steam power plant (usually modeled as a modified Rankine cycle), feedwater heaters allow the feedwater to be brought up to the saturation temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibilities associated with heat transfer to the working fluid (water).

ECONOMISER: The function of economiser is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduce in the steam drum, by recovering some of the heat of the flue gases leaving the boiler.

It consists of a no. of parallel tubes circuits arrange in a horizontal manner in such a manner that each row is staggered in relation to the row above and below. All tube circuit originated from the inlet header and terminated in the outlet header. The economiser tubes are provided with the fins to increase the amount of effective heating surface. The economiser flow is upward through economiser that is counter flow to the hot flue gases. Most efficient heat transfer is hereby accomplished, while the possibility of steam generation within the economiser is eliminated by the upward water flow. From the outlet header, the feed water is led to the steam drum through the economizer outlet links. The economizer recirculation line, which content economizer inlet header with the rear water wall inlet, provides a means of ensuring water flow through the economiser, during start up to avoiding steaming.

BOILER DRUM:

A steam drum is a standard feature of a water-tube boiler. It is a reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes. The drum stores the steam generated in the water tubes and acts as a phaseseparator for the steam/water mixture. It is made up of high carbon steel. The drum itself a large cylindrical vessel that functions as the storage and feeding point for water and the collection point for water and steam mixture. This is the largest and most important pressure part in the boiler and weighs in the range 250 Tons for 600 MW power plants. The purpose of the drum level controller is to bring the drum up to level specified by Boiler manufacturer and maintain the level at constant steam load. A dramatic decrease in this level may uncover boiler tubes, allowing them to become overheated and damaged. An increase in this level may interfere with the process of separating moisture from steam within the drum, thus reducing boiler efficiency and carrying moisture into the process or turbine. Hence drum level is continuously monitored and maintained

SUPERHEATER

The steam thus separated in the boiler drum is superheated in a number of stages. In this stage, the steam becomes practically moisture free. Removal of moisture is very important as the water particles may erode the first stage blades of turbine. This steam is led to HP turbine through main steam line.

REHEATER
In order to reduce excessive moisture in the last stages of low pressure section of the turbine, after expanding in the HP turbine, the steam is returned to the boiler through the cold reheat line to the reheater. From there the steam is directed back to IP and LP turbines. After travelling this path the steam finally is expanded in the turbine and is then passed to the condenser.

CONDENSOR

CW flow Inlet Temperature Outlet Temperature Head load Backpressure Type Number of tubes Tube material Tube plates Support plates Cleaning system

60,000 m3 / hr 33 C 43.7 C 644.64 mKcal / hr 0.12 bar Single pass, 2 section 27,242 Code- welded titanium Aluminum bronze alloy 88 Backwash

Condenser serves the two purposes: 1. Preventing back pressure on turbine blades 2. Recovering quality feed water.

Condenser is a shell and tube type heat exchanger, where the exhaust steam from the turbine is condensed by cooling water. The drastic reduction in volume due to condensation of steam creates a vacuum. Along with steam,

some quantity of non-condensable gases is also present. Vacuum pumps are provided to continuously evacuate these gases and thus maintain vacuum. The main condenser is of single pass, single shell divided water box type. The divided water box facilitates operation of the unit at 50% load with only half of the condenser in service. Seawater pumped by cooling water pumps (CWP) from jetty is used to condense the steam

AIR AND FLUE GAS SYSTEM

PRIMARY AIR FAN (PA FAN) : These fans are used for supplying hot air for heating and carrying powdered coal from coal mill to boiler furnace. This air is known as primary air. These fans are manufactured by KKR a west German manufacturing company, and fan casings and guide vanes assemblies are supplied by BHEL.

These are reaction axial type fans with variable blade pitch control, which is explained in length in FD fan chapter. The capacity of each fan is 153 m/sec and is driven by a 6.6 kv, 2750kw constant speed induction motor. Fan is driven from suction side and air flow is changed by a hydraulic system which varies the blade pitch by varying the air flow. The constructional features pitch control system and oil supply unit are identical to those of FD fan.

FORCED DRAFT FAN (FD FAN): The basic function of a forced draft fan is to supply the secondary air to the boiler. Suction bend acts a nozzle at the impeller and to direct the air flow axially. When the fan is in service, the fresh air at ambient temperature is sucked at the suction end and delivered at higher pressure to wind box via. STEAM COIL AIR PRE-HEATER where air temperature is increased due to heating it by steam passing through heater coils, installed in air path. Further the temperature of air is increased while passing through air pre-heater where flue gas imparts its heat to air, coming from steam coil air pre-heater and then windbox. INDUCED DRAFT FAN (ID FAN): The main purpose of providing ID fan is to discharge the flue gases to the atmosphere, while maintaining the balanced draft condition in the SG furnace. For this purpose the flue gases coming from boiler via air pre-heater are made to pass through the electrostatic precipitator to absorb the ash particles and pass clean flue gases to atmosphere. ID fans take suction from the ESP outlet and pass it into the stack to pass it on to the atmosphere at higher elevation so that air pollution is minimum.

Provision has been made for increasing the stack height by another 15 meters, if required in future date.

GAS REHEAT FAN (GR) : these fans are used for controlling the main and particularly reheat steam temperatures only during oil/gas fuel firing, in association with other methods i.e. burner tilt, desuperheaters spray etc. it takes flue gas suction from economiser outlet and delivers it at the bottom of the boiler furnace thus increasing the gas mass flow.

STEAM COIL AIR PRE -HEATER (SCAPH):

Basically steam coil air pre-heater is a heat exchanger. it is situated before RAPH. As we know that secondary air is pre-heated by RAPH before it is sent to the boiler. RAPH pre heats the secondary air by recovering the heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. Now during initial start-up the flue gases are not available. So in this case secondary air is heated by the SCAPH. It uses the auxiliary steam from the either units from auxiliary steam line.

RE-GENERATIVE AIR PRE-HEATER (RAPH) :

It is the last stage to extract the remaining heat from flue gases so that it does not get wasted into atmosphere. It thus improves the cycle efficiency. The RAPH (Regenerative air pre-heater) is a big disc rotating at 1 rpm by a motor at the bottom. It has 24 sections divided into 3 parts each for primary air, secondary air and flue gases. The flue gases enter from the top and air from bottom. In case RAPH motor trips, there is a standby air motor which can rotate disc at 0.7 rpm.

FUELS

The three major fuels fired in the boiler are1. Coal 2. Fuel Oil 3. Natural Gas

COAL YARD :

In India, most of the generating plants employ coal as fuel since it is available in plenty to generate electricity. In Trombey, unit#5 employs coal, oil and gas as a fuel but mainly runs on coal. Hence, coal is an important ingredient of unit#5.The coal is transported to the power station by road or rail and is stored. The coal used in unit#5 is 'ENVIRO' coal, which has a very low content of sulphur. The cost of this coal is Rs. 2500 per ton.

This coal is imported from Indonesia and China. The cost of the Indian coal is very less as compared to ENVIRO coal i.e. Rs. 1500 per ton. But the sulphur and ash content of this coal is 12 % and 44 % respectively. Whereas the enviro coal contains only 0.25 % sulphur and 2.5 % ash. There are government limitations of releasing sulphur in atmosphere i.e. 24 metric tones per day. The quantity of coal used for combustion is 5800 tons/day. If this much Indian coal is being used per day then the limit of 24-tons/day release of sulphur is achieved faster. This is the reason to use enviro coal. In Unit 5 and Unit 8, Indonesian Coal is used for burning. Compared to Indian coal, Indonesian coal has higher sulphur content, but it also has higher carbon content and produces less ash. Indonesian coal is purchased at the rate of about Rs 2400 per ton, and the coal consumption rate is almost 5800tonnes per day. The imported coal is dumped at the Haaji Bunder port, from where it is transported to the plant coal yard on road. At the coal yard, coal is stored in 2 stock piles each with a capacity of 1.75 Lakh tonnes. From the coal yard, the coal is transported to the coal bunker at the boiler. For transporting, the coal is pushed into a pit which is situated underground. This coal passes through the crusher house where unusually large coal chunks are crushed into smaller sizes. The coal is then transported on conveyor belts. Each conveyor belt section is run by two driver pulleys, and the conveyor belt stages are operated by junction towers (JT). JT 3 and JT4 manage the flow direction of the coal and operate the conveyor belts. There are two sets of coal bunkers available. These two sets of bunkers are supplied coal by JT5 and JT6. JT5 supplies coal to bunkers A, B, C and D. They are denoted by Allahabad, Bangalore, Calcutta and Delhi. JT6 supplies to coal bunkers E, F, G and H, denoted as England, France, Germany and Holland. From the coal bunker, the coal is fed to the coal mills at a uniform rate determined by boiler demand. The current system of transporting coal from the port to the coal yard through road transport will soon be phased out and be replaced by a new system to be commissioned shortly.

In this system, coal from the ship will be transferred to barges and will then be brought into the jetty situated adjacent to the Tata power plant. It will then be removed from the barges and stored at the coal yard. In this way, the road transportation costs will be saved. Coal storage can be a cumbersome process. This is because, coal being a highly combustible fuel, starts burning when in contact with atmospheric air. These losses, although cannot be eliminated, can me minimized, by covering the burning layer of coal with another layer of coal thereby cutting out its air supply.

COAL HANDLING SYSTEM

The coal is brought to the power station by railway wagons and is unloaded in the tipplers. COAL JETTY

As mentioned before coal is been imported from Indonesia, so this transportation is done by ships. So this coal is unloaded in Trombay itself as it is very near to the sea. A part of this coal is loaded at Shivdi, from there the coal is been transported by rail. A screw type unloader as shown in the fig. unloads the coal from the barges. As shown in fig. 1550 tons of coal is been loaded per hour. A stepdown transformer is of rating 6.6kv/440V is used. A motor of 165 kw 440V is used for the operation of scre type unloader.

OILOil used is LSHS (Low sulphur heavy stock). LSHS requirements are partly met by supplies from HPCL and BPCL refineries and remaining by imports LSHS is second last byproduct obtained by cracking of petroleum in refineries. Fuel oil pipelines are laid from the refineries up to our fuel oil tanks, where LSHS is received whenever oil is pumped by the refineries. It is stored in tanks where it is continuously heated to maintain its temperature around 50- 60oC to prevent its solidification. It is then directly pumped from tanks to the boiler as per requirement. GASONGC supplies Natural gas from Uran through Trombay terminal by a pipeline. It is directly fed to the boiler. The natural gas is used directly.

STEAM TURBINE
PrincipleSteam turbine is a prime mover which converts the heat energy of steam [at high pressure and temperature] into mechanical work. It acts as a prime mover for the generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

In Unit 5, HP turbine has 20 stages, IP has 14 stages and LP has 6 stages. The three turbines are rated to run at 3000 rpm to give rated output at generator terminals. The turbines have been provided with HP and LP bypass for quick starting of unit.

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

In the thermal power plant ESP is used to collect the ash particles, which are coming through furnace with the flue gases. This ash is known as fly ash. ESP operation consists of three fundamental steps. Charging of particulate (ash particles) Collection of particulate Removal of the collected material.

CHARGING OF ASH PARTICLES :There are two electrodes namely discharge electrode and collecting electrode. Negative supply from Tr. set (rectiformer) is given to the discharge electrode, and then the positive end is grounded. Because of the negative supply, discharge electrodes are negatively charged and it emits the electrons. These are attracted towards the positively charged collecting electrodes. On its way electrons ionized the ash particles (solid) and they are also stuck on the positively charged collecting electrodes. For charging the solid ash particles DC supply is taken from Tr. Set, which is having 415 V AC input and steps it up to 55,658V (55KV) and then this HV output is rectified by bridge rectifier and the peak voltage of 78KV is provided between the two electrodes.

COLLECTION OF ASH PARTICLES:For the collection of ash particles, there are total 64 hoppers provided. For collection of the ash particles from the collecting electrodes rapping motors are provided, for one rapping motor there are no. of tumbling hammers provided, these tumbling hammers give their impact on the anus, situated below each collecting electrode, and all the solid ash particles falls down from the ESP and are collected in the hoppers and from there it is disposed

REMOVAL OF ASH PARTICLES:The ash particles are taken out from the bottom of hoppers. There are pipes under each line of hoppers; these pipelines having vacuum so they can easily suck the ash particles from the hoppers. It is important that nothing remain in the surface of hoppers so vibrator arrangement is provided to each hopper. In that one motor operated mechanism is vibrated and all the ash particles, which stuck to the inner surface of hoppers, fall down, so no clinkers form in the hoppers. This ash is having good construction properties so it is used in making bricks.

TURBO GENERATOR

General: The two pole generator uses direct water cooling for the stator winding, phase connectors and direct hydrogen cooling for rotor winding. The losses in remaining generator components, such as iron losses, windage losses and stray losses, are also dissipated through hydrogen.

The generator frame is pressure-resistant and gastight and equipped with one stator end shield on each side. The hydrogen coolers are arranged vertically inside the turbine end stator end shield.

STATOR OF UNIT#5 GENERATOR The generator consists of the following components: Stator: The stator bars consist of hollow and solid strands. At the bar ends, all the solid strands are jointly brazed into a connecting sleeve and the hollow strands into a water box from which cooling primary water enters and leaves Teflon insulating hoses connected to annular manifolds. stator winding connections are brought out to six bushings in a compartment below the generator at exciter end. Current transformers for metering and relay purpose are mounted on the bushings. Rotor It consist of rotor shaft, windings, retaining rings and excitation fields

Rotor shaft :The rotor shaft is a single piece solid forging with slots for insertion of field windings. The longitudinal slots are distributed over the circumference so that two solid poles are formed Rotor winding :It consist of several coils inserted into the slots and series connected. It has hollow conductors with two lateral cooling ducts Retaining rings: The centrifugal forces of the rotor end windings are contained by single piece rotor retaining ring shrunk onto the rotor body in an overhung position Field connections: The field current is supplied to the rotor winding through conductors located in the hollow bores of the exciter and rotor shafts. Field current leads are connected at exciter coupling with special plug in contacts.

ROTOR OF UNIT#5 GENERATOR

POWER TRANSFORMER
INTRODUCTION

Transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. it can raise or lower the voltage in the circuit but with corresponding increase or decrease in the current. It works on the principle of

mutual induction. The main extensive use of a.c. power is on TRANSFORMER

Account of transformers. This is because, it facilitates the generation of power at the most economical generator voltage, power to be transmitted at most economical transmission voltage and utilized at the most suitable voltage required for different applications.

The voltage at which power is generated at Trombay unit 5 is 21 kV. This voltage is stepped up using power transformers to 220 KV. From the 220 KV switchyard the power is transmitted to various substations. These units are also connected with station switchyard of 110 KV by means of two interconnecting auto transformers which step down the voltage to 110 KV. The unit supply requirement is met by means of two step-down transformers called unit auxiliary transformers. They are connected to the generator transformer primary and step down from 21 kV to 6.6 KV. The secondary of these transformers is connected to two unit auxiliary buses. The station transformer is used for the important auxiliaries of the unit and its supply is taken from the switchyard itself. It steps down 220 KV to 6.6 KV. The secondary of the transformer is connected to the three station buses. There are various transformers which step down 6.6 KV to 415 V, to supply the requirement of the various areas of the plant like unit service, station service, dm plant, CW pump, chlorination, compressor, coal handling, coal handling, ash handling, ESP and ventilation transformer.

CONSTRUCTION The transformer mainly consists of the tank, winding and the core. The other devices comprise of tap changer, HV and LV bushing, current transformer, conservator, magnetic oil flow indicator, buchholz relay, pressure relief valve, winding temperature indicator, oil temperature indicator, etc.

TANK The tank and cover are of double welded construction and are reinforced by stiffener of structural steel. It consists of winding and core. It filled with transformer oil for cooling and insulation of the core.

WINDING The windings are arranged to ensure free circulation of oil and to reduce hot spots in the winding. The primary & the secondary winding of a power transformer are generally not placed on separate legs of the core, but placed on the same leg or both windings are placed on both the legs. Placing the two windings together enables more of the magnetic field of the primary to induce current in the secondary.

CORE The transformer core is a closed magnetic circuit through the mutual flux. The core material and construction is such that both magnetizing current and the core losses are minimum. The cores of transformers are laminated in order to reduce the eddy current losses. The core is usually built up with high grade non aging cold rolled grain oriented silicon steel laminations having high permeability and low hysteresis loss.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER They are mounted inside the HV bushing and are used for protection and winding temperature indicators.

CONSERVATOR The temperature of transformer oil increases or decreases, hence there is corresponding rise or fall in the oil volume. For taking this into account, conservator is connected to transformer tank. This transformer is provided with constant oil preservation system type conservator. It consists of a flexible air cell made from nylon fabric & installed & inflated in conservator tank. It serves to two functions; first, it separates the transformer insulating oil from the atmosphere thus preventing gas or moisture contamination of the oil. Second, it maintains a constant atmospheric pressure on the transformer oil. The air line from flexible cell is connected to silica gel breather

Under normal operation, the air cell is completely surrounded by oil & floats as high as it can in the conservator. As the transformer oil temperature/volume changes, the air cell inflates or deflates by equivalent

volume. The float of magnetic oil level gauge makes contacts with the under side of the air cell & follows the motion up & down thereby giving an indication of oil level in conservator. In case air cell gets damaged, it will sink & activate the low level alarm. The system will then function as normal conservator & it will not affect the normal operation of the transformer.

MAGNETIC OIL FLOW INDICTOR It consists of a vane rotated by oil flow in the pipe. The vane turns a magnet fixed to the same shaft. This magnet is set opposite to and separated by a diaphragm from the outer magnet to which the pointer is fixed. The pointer moves as a result of the vane motion and shows the indication of the oil flow on the dial. A micro-switch is also built into the oil flow indicator to give an alarm when oil flow stops.

BUCHHOLZ RELAY Buchholz relay gives protection to oil filled transformers against low oil level & internal faults. The relay is fitted in the on line from transformer to conservator. It consists of two aluminium buckets. Each bucket assembly carries a mercury switch.

It provides protection against falling oil level in the transformer giving first the alarm & then tripping the transformer breaker before it reaches the dangerous condition. It protects the transformer against incipient faults such as short circuited core laminations, broken down core bolt laminations, local overheating of winding. It also protects the transformer against major faults

such as short circuit between phases & between turns, earth faults, puncture of bushing insulation inside the transformer.

PRESSURE RELEASE VALVE It is designed to relieve the excessive pressures, which may be built up by a fault or an arcing inside the transformer tank. It is mounted on the transformer tank top.

WINDING AND OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS

The Oil Temperature Indicator is provided in the marshalling box, which indicates the oil temperature in the main tank. Normally the temperature should be in the range of 400 C to 500 C. The winding temperature indicator is also provided in the marshalling box, which indicates the winding temperature in the main tank. Normally the temperature should be in the range of 500 C to 600 C.

RADIATOR Radiator consists of several hollow plates that are connected to pipes at the top as well as at the bottom & these pipes are further connected to main tank. The oil flows to the radiator plates after expanding in the main tank, through upper pipe & flows down towards the lower pipe.

Fans are provided behind the plates of radiator for cooling the oil which in the plates. The fans start automatically if the oil temperature rises to 70 0 c approximately. If fans dont start automatically there is a manual control provided in the marshalling box for starting the fans. Pumps are provided in the lower pipe, which is in between the radiator & main tank to insert the oil in the main tank.

COOLING OF TRANSFORMER: The transformer is a static device which coverts energy at one voltage level to another. During this process of energy transfer, losses occur in the winding and core. These losses appear as heat. The heat developed in the transformers is dissipated to the surroundings. The coolants used in transformers are air and oil. The air cooled transformers are called dry type transformers and are of two types i.e. air natural and air blast. The oil cooled transformers are called oil immersed transformers. The types of cooling of oil immersed transformers are ON, ONAF, OFAN, OFAF, OFWF, etc. The oil first absorbs the heat from the transformer core and winding and releases it to the external medium.

TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS

1) Generator Transformer (GT) 2) Unit Auxiliary transformer (UAT) 3) Distribution transformer (DT) 4) Interconnecting transformer (ICT) 5) Station Transformer. (ST) 6) Station / Unit Service transformer (SST/UST)

GENERATING TRANSFORMER

Generator transformer is used for stepping up generator voltage from 21 KV to 220 KV required for transmission of power to Trombay switchyard 'b'. Three single-phase transformer units each of 200 MV A capacity are chosen on the basis of techno economic and transport feasibility considerations. The single phase GTs is connected in 'delta' on low voltage side & 'star on high voltage side with the neutral solidly grounded. Primary winding of the transformer is fed from the generator via 21 KV bus duct and secondary winding is connected by overhead to 220 KV switchyard main bus 1 & 2 through respective generator breakers. One spare single phase unit of GT is normally charged from 220 KV transfer bus. Each phase unit of the transformer is cooled by oil forced air forced (OFAF) system consisting of oil pumps and fans. Tank mounted cooling is adopted from the point of view of economy, maintenance and lesser unit outage duration for replacing faulty unit whenever required.

MVA Volts at no load Current

200 HV : 230000/3 LV : 21000 HV : 1506 LV : 16500/3

Cooling Frequency

OFAF 50 Hz

Connection Phase

Y/D Single

UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER

Two unit auxiliary transformers each of 25 MV A capacity are provided to supply unit auxiliary load. Provision of two UA Ts 50% capacity (instead of one of 100% capacity) has restricted 6.6 K v system fault level to within 500 Mv A .it has permitted the use of a significantly lower size station transformer to meet unit auxiliary load requirement in case one of the UAT is remaining out. These transformers step down voltage from 21 KV to 6.6 KV and feed 6.6 KV unit buses A & B. Primary side of the transformer is tapped from 21 KV

generator bus duct and secondary side is connected to unit buses via 6.6 KV bus duct. Each UAT feeds the respective unit bus via a 6.6 KV vacuum breaker.
MVA Voltage 25 HV : 21000 LV : 6600 Current HV : 687.3 LV : 2091.9 Phase Frequency Cooling Three 50 Hz ONAN/OFAF

STATION TRANSFORMER

Station transformer steps down voltage from 220 KV to meet power supply requirement of auxiliaries during start up & partial load of auxiliaries in normaloperation. The capacity of all three transformers is of 40 MV A. This transformer is consisting of three single phase units with two secondary windings. One of the secondary winding supplies 6.6 KV station switchgear 5A, 5B & the other supplies exclusively 9 MW motor driven boiler feed pump through switchgear 5C. HV side of the transformer is connected by overhead conductors to 220 KV main bus I through SF6 breakers & LV side is connected by 7.2 KV segregated bus duct to the switchgear 5A& 5B. The primary & secondary windings of the transformer are connected in star delta system, earthing is achieved by an earthing transformer with loading resistor across its open delta on the secondary. In unit 5, ST consist of 03 single phase units which step down 220 Kv to 6.6 Kv. Unit 6 ST consist of a single 3 phase unit which step down 220 Kv to 6.6 Kv.

KVA

HV : 40000/3 LV1: 31500/3 LV2: 22500/3

Volts at no load

HV : 220000/3 LV1: 6900 LV2: 6900

Current

HV : 105 LV1: 2636/3 LV2: 1883/3

Phases Cooling Frequency Connection

Single ONAN 50 Hz Y/ D/ D

INTERCONNECTING TRANSFORMER Prior to the commissioning of the unit 5, Trombay station A had three interconnecting transformers [220 KV /110 KV] for transfer of power between MSEB Switchyard [220 KV] and station A Switchyard [110 KV]. Additional transformation capacity was required with the addition of unit 5 for transfer of this power to Switchyard at station A. Hence 2 no. ICT [ICT4, 5] of 125 MVA capacities were added. Later high capacity transformers 200 MVA each replaced these. ICT 4 and 5 are connected to 220 KV main buses 1 and 2 respectively and on 110 KV side. 220 KV SF6 breakers operable from Switchyard panel in unit 5 control rooms where metering is provided control each ICT. Similarly its 110 KV SF6 breaker was controlled from unit 1 and 2 control room.

MVA Voltage

200 HV : 220

LV : 110 Current HV : 524.9 LV : 1049.7 Phase Cooling Three ONAN/ONAF/ODAF

DISTRIBUTUON TRANSFORMER Distribution transformers are there only in station A. There are four distribution transformer i.e. DT-3, DT-4, DT-5 & DT-6. They have a neutral grounding reactor (NGR). DT-3 & DT-4 are both three winding transformer. DT5 & DT-6 are 2 winding transformers. DT-5 & DT-6 step down the voltage from 110kv to 22 kv and supply it to the 22 kv switchyard. DT-5 supplies the power to south bus where as DT- 6 supplies to the north bus. .

SWITCHYARD

What is a Switchyard With ever growing demand for electrical power, a high voltage transmission is require to reduce transmission losses and to save power. Hence for transmitting and evacuating the power generated by various units in Trombay switchyard is constructed. It is also used to switching purpose

LEGENDS:

220 KV SWITCHYARD

Importance of 220KV switchyard Evacuates 1200MW power generated by Units- 5, 6 & 7 Has tie lines interconnecting MSEB system with TATA system Feeders connecting receiving stations like Dharavi, Parel, Carnac etc.
Is interconnected to 110KV switchyard at Station A through two ICTs.

SALIENT FEATURES OF 220 KV SWITCHYARD

The 220 kv switchyard at station B is provided with two main buses designated as 220 KV main bus 1 and 220 KV main bus 2 and one transfer bus. There are eight 220 KV SF6 circuit breakers in the switchyard. Generator transformer 5 (GT-5) has two 220 KV circuit breakers. One connected to 220kv main bus 1 and other to 220kv main bus 2. The 220kv switchyard at station B is connected to existing 110kv switchyard at station A through two interconnecting transformers ICT 4 and ICT 5 manufactured by M/s Crompton. They are rated at 125 MVA each. ICT 4 is connected to 220kv main bus 1 and ICT 5 is connected to 220kv main bus 2. Insulation used in 220kv switchyard is 1050 KV BIL. Since 220kv switchyard at station B is near to the sea, based on the operating experience and pollution levels, the creepage distance of 33mm/kv is used for switchyard equipment. Facility for hot line washing of the insulators is provided. 220kv interconnection is provided between the 220kv MSEB R/S and station B by two tie lines. 220kv MSEB tie-1 is connected to 220kv main bus 1 and 220kv MSEB tie-2 is connected to 220kv main bus 2. The connection to the MSEB R/S will be located on south side of Koyna receiving station. The double bus system described above will provide flexibility permitting maintenance outage of buses/breakers without affecting the continuity of the service. Further, even in case of bus fault on one of the buses, unit-5 will continue to be in service.

The station transformer 5 (ST-5) which is used to supply auxiliary power to the station during periods when the generator is out of service is rated at 40 MVA and consists of three single phase units. It is connected to 220kv main bus 1. In 220kv switchyard layout one transfer breaker has been provided. It is possible to transfer any one of the outgoing lines or transformers (except generator transformer) on to this 220kv transfer breaker. Further, the 220kv transfer breaker can be connected to either of the 220kv main bus. One spare single phase GT and one spare single phase ST are provided which can be kept charged from 220kv transfer bus through GODs. All 220kv breakers are SF6 circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin and Gerin and have a current carrying capacity of 3000 A. On either side of each circuit breaker, GODs with a current carrying capacity of 2000 A are provided. ICT4, ICT5, ST5, 220kv tie line 1 and tie line 2 breakers in addition have one transfer bus side GOD to facilitate transfer to transfer breaker. The GODs on transfer bus side also have a current capacity of 2000 A. Voltage transformers are provided on both 220kv main bus 1 and 220kv main bus 2 to supply potential signals required for metering on switchyard panel and UCB. Voltage transformers are also provide on outgoing tie lines, ICTs and station transformer supply leads to provide potential signal for metering on switchyard panel. 198 kv LAS type ZSE-B2 manufactured by Meidensha electric Co are provided in 22okv switchyard on HV side of GT-5, both ends of 220kv tie lines, HV side of ST-5 and HV side of ICT4 and ICT5. 194 kv sorester type ZSE-B2 consists of two stages. The bottom stage consists of thirty one 3 kv elements clamped between top and bottom clamping plates. The top stage consists of 35 nos. 3 kv element. These 35 elements are divided in three groups of 10, 10 and 15 elements in series. For uniform distribution of voltage between individual elements , 10kv class ceramic condensers are used inside the shell across sorester elements. Surge counter and surge recorder are provided to recored surges.

Importance of 220KV switchyard Evacuates 1200MW power generated by Units- 5, 6 & 7 Has tie lines interconnecting MSEB system with TATA system Feeders connecting receiving stations like Dharavi, Parel, Carnac etc.
Is interconnected to 110KV switchyard at Station A through two ICTs.

SALIENT FEATURES OF 220 KV SWITCHYARD

The 220 kv switchyard at station B is provided with two main buses designated as 220 KV main bus 1 and 220 KV main bus 2 and one transfer bus. There are eight 220 KV SF6 circuit breakers in the switchyard. Generator transformer 5 (GT-5) has two 220 KV circuit breakers. One connected to 220kv main bus 1 and other to 220kv main bus 2. The 220kv switchyard at station B is connected to existing 110kv switchyard at station A through two interconnecting transformers ICT 4 and ICT 5 manufactured by M/s Crompton. They are rated at 125 MVA each. ICT 4 is connected to 220kv main bus 1 and ICT 5 is connected to 220kv main bus 2. Insulation used in 220kv switchyard is 1050 KV BIL. Since 220kv switchyard at station B is near to the sea, based on the operating experience and pollution levels, the creepage distance of 33mm/kv is used for switchyard equipment. Facility for hot line washing of the insulators is provided. 220kv interconnection is provided between the 220kv MSEB R/S and station B by two tie lines. 220kv MSEB tie-1 is connected to 220kv main bus 1 and 220kv MSEB tie-2 is connected to 220kv main bus 2. The connection to the MSEB R/S will be located on south side of Koyna receiving station. The double bus system described above will provide flexibility permitting maintenance outage of buses/breakers without affecting the continuity of the service. Further, even in case of bus fault on one of the buses, unit-5 will continue to be in service.

The station transformer 5 (ST-5) which is used to supply auxiliary power to the station during periods when the generator is out of service is rated at 40 MVA and consists of three single phase units. It is connected to 220kv main bus 1. In 220kv switchyard layout one transfer breaker has been provided. It is possible to transfer any one of the outgoing lines or transformers (except generator transformer) on to this 220kv transfer breaker. Further, the 220kv transfer breaker can be connected to either of the 220kv main bus. One spare single phase GT and one spare single phase ST are provided which can be kept charged from 220kv transfer bus through GODs. All 220kv breakers are SF6 circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin and Gerin and have a current carrying capacity of 3000 A. On either side of each circuit breaker, GODs with a current carrying capacity of 2000 A are provided. ICT4, ICT5, ST5, 220kv tie line 1 and tie line 2 breakers in addition have one transfer bus side GOD to facilitate transfer to transfer breaker. The GODs on transfer bus side also have a current capacity of 2000 A. Voltage transformers are provided on both 220kv main bus 1 and 220kv main bus 2 to supply potential signals required for metering on switchyard panel and UCB. Voltage transformers are also provide on outgoing tie lines, ICTs and station transformer supply leads to provide potential signal for metering on switchyard panel. 198 kv LAS type ZSE-B2 manufactured by Meidensha electric Co are provided in 22okv switchyard on HV side of GT-5, both ends of 220kv tie lines, HV side of ST-5 and HV side of ICT4 and ICT5. 194 kv sorester type ZSE-B2 consists of two stages. The bottom stage consists of thirty one 3 kv elements clamped between top and bottom clamping plates. The top stage consists of 35 nos. 3 kv element. These 35 elements are divided in three groups of 10, 10 and 15 elements in series. For uniform distribution of voltage between individual elements , 10kv class ceramic condensers are used inside the shell across sorester elements. Surge counter and surge recorder are provided to recored surges.

110KV SWITCHYARD

1) 110 kV main bus is divided into 10 sections and 110 kV ring bus is divided into 3 sections. 2) Normally both main bus and ring bus remain connected and continuous, but any section can be isolated by switching off connected lines of main transformer , distribution transformer etc. and finally by operating the GODs of the section to be isolated, for maintenance work or any rectification jobs. 3) There are four bus section breakers O, ZZ, ST and EE. Bus section breaker O is located at bus section IV and breaker ZZ is located at bus section VII. 4) Bus section breaker ST connects main and ring bus at south end and EE connects them at north end. For any section bus fault, the two end bus section breakers and also the connected lines and transformer breakers will rip out and thus isolate the faulty section, thus causing minimum disturbance to the system. 5) Transfer bus which is located at the west side of the main bus can be used for transferring any one 110 kV line at a time in case its own breaker needs isolation for maintenance work. The line thus transferred is then controlled by bus transfer breaker no. 2 which is connected at ring bus. 6) The transfer bus can also be used as a second parallel path by closing transfer breaker and transfer bus side GOD of Tr. Dharavi line no.1 , in case any one of the four bus section breaker is taken out for maintenance work. There are four PTs used for instrumentation and relaying for the protection of110kV lines. 7) The bus scheme of 110 kv switchyard consists of main bus, ring bus and transfer bus.

SWITCHYARD EQUIPMENTS
EQUIPMENTS USED IN SWITCHYARD
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Circuit Breakers. Current Transformers Potential Transformer (capacitive voltage transformer) Group Operated device (GOD) Lightning Arresters Bus-Bars

CIRCUIT BREAKERS 1) During the operation of power system, it is often desirable & necessary to switch on or off the various circuits (e.g. transmission lines, distributors, generating plants etc), So for these purposes circuit breakers are provided in a power systems. 2) A circuit breaker can make or break a circuit either manually or automatically under all conditions viz. no-load, full-load & short circuit conditions. This characteristic of the circuit breaker has made it very useful equipment for switching & protection of various parts of power system. Hence circuit breaker is a device, which makes or breaks the circuit under normal & abnormal condition. 3) Circuit breakers are classified on the basis of arc extinct medium. When the breaker is open or close, the arc is struck between fixed & movable contact. It is necessary to extinct the arc. So according to arc extinct medium the circuit breakers are classified as: Oil Circuit Breaker Air-Blast Circuit Breaker SF6 Circuit Breaker Vacuum Circuit Breaker

Sf6 Circuit Breaker Properties

1) In SF6 circuit breaker Sulphur Hexafluoride gas is used for insulation & arc interruption. 2) SF6 gas is used for voltage ranging from 3.3KV to 750KV. 3) The SF6 is an electronegative gas & has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. 4) The contacts of the breaker are opened in a high-pressure flow of SF6 & an arc is struck between them. 5) The conducting free electrons in the arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form the relatively immobile negative ions. 6) This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc. 7) The SF6 circuit breaker has been found to be very effective for high power & high voltage service. 8) SF6 gas is incombustible, non toxic, odorless and colorlessness and is chemically extremely stable and inert. 9) It is five times heavier than air and 2 .5 to 3 times higher Electric strength than air at the same pressure, giving it excellent insulating properties. It is also a excellent arc extinguishing medium.

10) Its high thermal conductivity promotes the cooling of the arc around the current zero and thus facilitate quenching of the arc . 11) Its high Electro-negativity (ability to capture free electrons & form negative ions ) promotes rapid recovery of the dielectric strength of the arc channel immediately after extinction of the arc. 12) Puffer principle is used for arc extinction. It relies upon compression of the SF6 gas during contact opening, caused by the

Advantages of SF6 breaker The breaker can be filled with SF6 without removing it from service. Maintenance cost is low No fire hazard and can be used in polluted atmosphere as contacts are sealed.

SPECIFICATIONS :

Circuit breaker Ratings Make : Merlin n Gerin 3 pole Rated voltage : 123 Kv Insulation level : 460 kV,50 Hz Breaking capacity :Syn : 40 kA Asyn : 47.5 Ka Normal current : 2000 Amps Frequency : 50 Hz Making capacity : 40 kA 102 kA (peak) Short time current : 40 kA 102 (peak)

245 KV Isolators (GOD- Group Operated Disconnector)

Isolators are primarily meant for isolation of some equipment. They are not normally designed to make or break load currents but can be used to break charging currents of small lengths of overhead lines or small transformers. GODs are provided to facilitate isolation of breakers supplying power to various feeders. In 220KV Switchyard, they are designed as 29A, 29B, 29C & 29E. 29 A is the main bus side GOD, 29 B is the Equipment side GOD, 29 C is the Transfer bus side GOD and 29 E is the Earth GOD. 29A & B GODs isolates breaker from main bus & connected equipment respectively. 29 C GOD provides a path for transferring power from transfer bus to equipment. 29 E GOD connects equipment to earth for maintenance. 110 KV GODs (29A1) are also provided for isolating the 110KV line of ICT 4& 5.

All GODs (except 110 KV) are motor operated locally or from switchyard panel from control room. GOD operation is interlocked to ensure safety. Electrical and mechanical interlock are provided for main and earthing GOD. No isolator can make or break current. Live circuit operation is therefore prohibited.

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS

All the electrical system & equipment are subjected to electrical stresses causes by over voltage many times. Such overvoltages are cause by atmospheric disturbance, switching phenomenon and system disturbance. Voltage rise in a power system may due to internal & external causes.

Internal causes of over-voltage are:


Sudden interruption of a loaded line specially under short circuit condition Switching in of an unloaded transmission line Interruption of inductive or capacitive currents.

External causes could be lighting discharge. The earth is a negatively charge body. High frequency & high discharge currents flow through the path of least resistance. Transmission line provides the path of low resistance than air, which requires the potential gradient depending upon the humidity. Lightning discharge currents varied from 1 KA to 150 KA. The arrester uses Zinc oxide blocks as the only active arrester element. No gaps are necessary resulting in a simple and reliable design. A ZnO block is a dense ceramic body. The ZnO block has extremely non linear current voltage characteristics [Low resistance to over voltages thus limiting voltage across the arrester terminals & high resistance at normal power frequency voltage] and excellent energy absorption capabilities. Lightning discharge provides the primary protection against over voltage cause by external sources (e.g. lightening) and by system disturbance

INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS:
Current transformers Capacitive voltage transformers.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

CT Ratings Highest system voltage : 145 kV Rated insulation level : 245/460/1350 kV Frequency : 50 Hz Total creepage min. nominal : 7595mm Class of insulation : A class Rated primary current : 2000 A Rated continues thermal current : rated primary * 1.2 Short time current thermal current (kA rms/sec.) : 40/1 Dynamic current : 100 kA (peak) Current transformers are provided for metering and protection of the equipment in switchyard. 2) They are mounted externally or in the transformer bushing. 3) Primary winding of the CT is connected in series with the main circuit in the current path & secondary is connected in the metering / protection circuit. 4) CTs provided in the switchyard are outdoor type, oil filled, hermetically sealed, and porcelain type suitable for earthed system. 5) Each CT has five cores having rated secondary current of 1 amp. 6) As the resistivity is less the current will be more. 7) To lower the resistivity the cross sectional area of the conductor is increased. 8) The current transformation ratio that is primary to secondary is 1000: 1. 9) If the current in the primary increases than 1000A then the current in the secondary also increases more than 1A. If the current in the metering device exceeds 1A then it is sensed by the relays.

CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER


Capacitance Voltage Transformers are provided on both main bus 1 & 2 and on outgoing tie lines, ICT 4 and 5 & Station Transformer supply leads to provide potential signal for metering and protection. Capacitor voltage type transformers are provided for these applications. The performance of CVT is inferior to that of electromagnetic voltage transformer. Its performance is affected by the supply frequency, switching transients, magnitude of connected burden, etc. but it is more economical than the electromagnetic voltage transformer when the nominal system voltage increases above 66 KV.CVT consists of two main elements i.e. a capacitor divider and a transformer unit. The capacitor stack consists of two capacitor units; one is the main capacitor (C1) and the other is a shunt capacitor (C2). The intermediate voltage transformer [IVT] is connected across the shunt capacitor & is designed/adjusted to obtain accurate voltage transformation of primary voltage [240/3 kV] to the secondary voltage [120/3 V]. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2, and hence the secondary terminals. Capacitor elements & transformer unit are completely sealed in enclosures so as not to cause deterioration of insulation strength by oxidation and moisture. Main & shunt capacitors are contained in the porcelain shells. The porcelain shell is made of high quality porcelain which is a homogenous product impervious to humidity. It requires no maintainance

CONCLUSION
It has been an excellent opportunity and a pleasant experience to work in a one of the well established and best professional company like TATA POWER COMPANY Ltd. At the end of my six-months training tenure, which I refer to as most exciting, enriching and challenging experience over in my engineering curriculum, I wish to optimize the benefits occurred over a period of six month. This training has certainly helped me in bridging the gap between theory & practical. I got a feel of actual Industry Management, which involved a lot of practical difficulties and skill. It also gave me a very good opportunity to put my theoretical knowledge to actual practice. It enables me to understand the scope of work & job responsibilities. I came in contact with some latest fields of technology, which were unknown to me. My training has not only improved my communication, but also given me some knowledge about the scope, working and job responsibility of various department & organization. It enables me to understand day to day problems faced in the industry & to solve them on my own. It gave me good experienced of working on shop floor & to learn the psychology of workers & their attitudes. Thus, I can confidently conclude that this training was the most beneficial & enlightening experience, which is going to help me, when I will be exposed to the real life experiences

REFERENCES

http://www.Wikipidea.com http://www.tatapower.com TATA POWER LESSON MANUALS SWITCHGEAR MANUALS OPERATION MANUALS RECORDS AND LOGSHEETS