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Atomic Structure

Draw your understanding of the structure of an atom here:

Daltons Atomic Theory


Elements are made of tiny particles called _____

Atoms of a given element are __________ ***


Atoms of a given element are different form those of any other element Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form ___________ Atoms are __________ and _____________ ***

Thomson Model
(____________ Model)

Cathode Ray Tube Rays were deflected by both electrical and magnetic fields Concluded that cathode rays were made of very small ___________ charged particles

Discovery of the ___________ (first subatomic particle identified ***)

Thomson Model

Millikans __________ Experiment


Charge of an electron

1.602 x 1019 coulombs


Now just defined as _____ Mass of an electron
the mass of a hydrogen atom

Rutherford Model
_____________ Experiment
Bombarded a piece of _________ with very small alpha particles. Vast majority passed through the gold foil with few deflections Some were deflected at large angles and some came directly back Discovered the ________ Positively charged and located center of the atom with mostly empty space around it

Rutherford Model

Rutherford - discovered the _________ Positive charge In the nucleus

Chadwick - discovered the _________ Neutral charge Accounts for the remainder of an atoms _________

Why do we need neutrons?


Go to:

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom

Bohr Model
Definite orbits for the electrons

Transitioning to a more modern model

Quantum Mechanical Model


Electron-Cloud

__________________
Each element contains a unique positive charge in their nucleus. ___________________ = number of _______ in the nucleus of an atom

All neutral atoms of a particular element have the same number of _______ and ________

BUT the number of _______ in the nucleus can


differ ***

Isotopes
Atoms with the same number of __________ but different numbers of __________

Isotopes have the same ________ behavior. The relative abundance of each isotope is usually __________. Isotopes containing more neutrons have a _________ ______.

Mass Number = the sum of the ________ and ________ in the nucleus ( ALWAYS a whole # )

Isotopes Example

Keeping track of all the particles:


# of protons, # of neutrons, # of electrons Atomic number = protons atomic number is the identity of element Mass number = protons + neutrons Charge = proton electrons + compare the amounts of p and e

Element symbols

X Z

C
Neutral Element Charged Ion

Example: Element symbols


Element Symbol Charge

Mass number

16

O 8

-2

Atomic number

Practice
Example: Fill in the missing values

Symbol

Name Magnesium-25

Atomic #

Mass #

Charge Proton Neutron Electron +2

82

126

82

Mass of Atoms
Mass can be measured in Grams Atomic mass units (amu) The mass of one proton and one neutron are VERY close to 1 amu

Atomic Mass
_______________________________________ ________ ( ALWAYS a decimal # )

Average AtomicMass ( isotope mass percent abundance)

Other examples of Isotopes

Example Calculation

Example Calculation
What element is this?
Isotope Mass (amu) 83.913 85.909 86.909 87.906 Percent Abundance (%) 0.56 9.86 7.00 82.58