Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Introduction to Ideologies

Chapter 1

Political Ideologies - Individualism


Politics has to do with how decisions are made in society. Democratic societies provide many opportunities for citizens to participate in decision making. (direct democracy, representative democracy) Democratic societies tend to place a greater emphasis on individual rights and freedoms.

Political Ideologies - Collectivism


Dictatorship focus on the leader's or government's desires for the society. The role of citizens under this kind of government is limited to obeying the leadership. The interest of the nation as a whole outweighs the rights of the individuals. Example: Soviet Russia

Economic Ideologies - Individualism


Capitalist economies allow individuals to look after and run their own economic affairs with little or no interference. Capitalism is an economic expression of individualism. Capitalism of the Industrial Revolution is also called classical liberalism.

Economic Ideologies - Collectivism


Socialism is an economic system that places the control of a society`s material wealth in the hands of the government. In this system, the government is responsible for meeting the needs of the citizens as it sees fit. The well-being of the whole society outweighs the interests of the individuals within the society.

Combining Economic and Political Ideologies


Maximum political freedom for individuals Maximum economic control by government Democratic Socialism Communism Democratic Capitalism Fascism Maximum economic control by individuals

Maximum political control by government

Democratic Capitalism
Individual members of society take part in decision making by expressing their own political desires through elections. Individuals own and control their individual wealth and financial matters. One of the closest examples is the United States.

Democratic Socialism
Individual members of society take part in decision making by expressing their own political desires through elections. The government controls most of the economic decision making for the citizens. Example: Sweden

Fascism
The government holds all the political power. Individual political views are rejected and everyone is expected to support the leader. Individuals are still allowed to own and control their individual wealth and financial matters. Example: Nazi Germany

Communism
The government holds all the political power. Individual political views are rejected and everyone is expected to support the leader. The government controls most of the economic decision making for the citizens.