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Design of Foundation for Stack

LOAD DATA
Minimum Dead Load
Maximum Dead Load
Opp Pressure Overturning Moment
Seismic Shear
Seismic overturning moment
Wind Shear
Wind overturning moment

1750
3000
540
333
8750
1006
36218

KN
KN
KN-m
KN
KN-m
KN
KN-m

150mm Thk Slab

RL=

26.3

FGL= 26.0
NGL= 25.2

Di=

5850

3500

900 mm Thk Ring Wall

Sand Fill

5000

Do=

7650

RL= 21.3

1500

Bottom of
Foundation

800
D= 14000

Dimensions
Diameter of Base Raft D=
14
Outer Diameter of Ring wall, Do =
7.65
Inner diameter of Ring Wall, Di=
5.85
Thickness of Ring Wall, Tw=
0.9
Thickness of Base Slab, Ts=
1.5
Thickness of Base Slab at outer edge, =
Height of Ring Wall, Hr =
3.5
Total Depth, H =
5
Height of sand fill, Hsf =
3.2
Thk of Grad slab, =
0.15
Cantilever length of base raft=
3.175
Load Calculation
Unit wt of soil =
Unit wt of concrete =
Self wt of base raft =
Self wt of wall =
Wt of sand fill =
Wt of earth fill =

18
25
4735.53
1669.95
1548.19
6219.34

0.8 m
m
m
m
m

KN/m3
KN/m3
KN
KN
KN
KN

Self wt of grade slab =


100.79 KN
Total wt of foundation including overburden =
BM at base raft (due to WL and opp Pr)=
Pmin =
1750 KN
Ptotal =
16023.80 KN
Eccentricity, e=M/P =
2.61 m
e/R =
0.373 m
Pmax =
3000.00 KN
Ptotal =
17273.80 KN
Eccentricity, e=M/P =
e/R =
0.346 m

m
m
m
m
m

14273.80 KN
41788 KN-m

2.42 m

Soil Pressure Calculation


[Ref: Graph at Page 145; Pinford-G.M.; reinforced Concrete chimneys & towers]
a
0

r
7

p max

e/r
0.373

K
0.41

F
K r 2 1 a 2

n
1.54

nr
10.78

p max

F
K r 2 1 a 2

2
273.689 KN/m

2
Net safe Bearing capacity =
300 KN/m
[Ref: DBR]
Gross safe bearing capacity at bottom of Base raft =Net safe bearing capacity + overburden pressure
2
=
384.6 KN/m
As pmax =273.69 < Gross safe B.C. =384.6 Hence O.K.

Z
Compression
Zone

Tension Zone

3.78

10.78

3.22

pmax =

273.689

The Base Raft with Pressure Diagram

Sectional properties of the base raft


Cross-sectional area, A =
153.94 m2
4
Moment of inertia about any Diameter, I =
1885.741 m
3
Section modulus, Z = I/r
269.392 m

2
112.21 KN/m

Pressure due to vertical load(pmax) = P/A =


Pressure due to Moment =M/Z =

2
155.1199 KN/m

OVERTURNING CHECK
Critical overturning condition occurs due to wind load
Min Dead Load =
1750 KN
Total wt of foundation including overburden =
14273.80
Total wt of foundation and Min Dead Load =
16023.80 KN
Opp Pressure Overturning Moment =
Wind Shear =
Moment due to wind shear =
Wind overturning moment =
Total over turning moment =
Restoring Moment =
112166.6 KN-m
Factor of safety against overturning =

540
1006
5030
36218
41248

2.719

KN-m
KN
KN-m
KN-m
KN-m

Safe against overturning

Design of Raft
Net Pressure for bending
2
Due to self weight of stack =
19.49 KN/m
2
Additional pressure due to ring wall =
10.84821 KN/m
2
Net UDL =
30.34 KN/m
Pressure due to wind load + operating pressure moment =

2
155.12 KN/m & - 155.12

Calculation of Bending Moment and Shear Force


[ Ref: Table-6.11 & 6.12 of Tall Chimney Design and Construction by S.N. Manohar, Tata McGraw Hill]

KN/m2

a=
ba =
b=
q=
p=

7
3.375
0.48
155.12
30.34

Clear cover =
Bar Dia =
Effective depth, d =

m
m

f=r/a

ba

KN/m2
KN/m2
75
25
1.4

mm
mm
m
1

Mr= Radial Moment KN-m


Mt= Circumferential Moment KN-m
Qre= Radial Shear for f > b (KN)

Qte= Circumferential Shear for f > b (KN)

-q

+q

Table-6.11 & 6.12


Due to
UDL

Due to
Moment

Point-1

0.48

30.34

0.48

155.12

Total
Moment

Shear force due to Moment

Y2

Y2
qa
2 Y4
2
72 f 8 2 . cosq
192
Y6
f Y8
3

5.46 0.81b 2

Y6 5.46 0.81b 2
q= 0
Degree
Y2=
0.574
Y4=
0
Y6=
1.028
Y8=
12
Qre= -163.67335 KN/m

Qte

Y2
qa
2 Y4
2
24 f 8 2 . sin q
192
Y6
f Y8

q = 90
Qte=

Degree
71.396

DESIGN BM & SF
BM(KN-m)

Mr (KNMr (coefficient) m)=Coeff. X


p X a^2/100

0
0

Critical Section for shear check=d/2 distance from wall face


f=r/a =
0.5830
Shear force due to UDL
Qre =pa(1-f2)/2f =
120.207 KN/m
Qt=
0

Qre

Point-2

Mr (KNMr (coefficient) m)=Coeff. X


p X a^2/100

Centre

At Ring
wall

At Edge

Point-3

Mt
(coefficient)

Mt (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

Mr
(coefficient)

Mr (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

Mt
(coefficient)

Mt (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

-5.7166

-84.9768

3.375

-14.17

-210.636

-11.72

-174.217

Mt
(coefficient)

Mt (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

Mr
(coefficient)

Mr (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

Mt
(coefficient)

Mt (KNm)=Coeff. X
p X a^2/100

-1.69

-128.455

3.375

-12.864

-977.777

-5.777

-439.103

-213.432

4.081 m from center

-1188.41

-613.32

Mr
Mr (KN-m)=Coeff.
Mt
Mt (KN-m)=Coeff.
(coefficient)
X p X a^2/100
(coefficient)
X p X a^2/100

-9.62 -143.0005457

0 -143.0005457

Mr
Mr (KN-m)=Coeff.
Mt
Mt (KN-m)=Coeff.
(coefficient)
X p X a^2/100
(coefficient)
X p X a^2/100

0
-143.0005457

0
-143.0005457

Mr=

-143.00055 -1188.413

Mt=

-143.00055 -613.3195 -213.4316

- ve moment implies bottom Tension

SF at Critical Section (KN)


Qre=

-43.467

Qte=

71.396

FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN FOR RADIAL MOMENT


At Ring wall
Width of the section, B=
1000 mm
Depth of the Section, D=
1500 mm
Grade of Concrete, M
25
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, fy =
415
N/mm2
Clear Cover Top=
50
mm
Clear Cover Bot=
50
Bar dia at Top (Radial)=
20
mm
Bar Dia at Bot (Radial)=
25
mm
Bar dia at Top (Circum)=
20
mm
Bar Dia at Bot (Circum)=
25
mm
Effective depth, d =
1437.5 mm
2
2
2
N/mm =
Mu,lim/bd =
3.45
3450 KN/m
[ Ref: Table-D, S.P-16]
Mu,lim =
7762.5
KN-m
Hence singly reinforced section will suffice
Mu/bd2
0.575
[ For Radial moment, Mu =-1188.41 KN-m ]
Pt =
0.171
% =
2458.125 mm2
[Ref: Table-3, SP-16]
Minimum Reinforcement as per IS-456, Clause 25 =
1800.00 mm2
Maximum reinforcement =0.04*bD =
60000 mm2
O.K.
Percentage of steel, Pt=100As/bd

Ri

As =
24.581 cm
Bottom reinforcement
Area of one 25 mm Bar =4.91 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
5
Nos
Reqd. Spacing =
200
Provide Spacing =
125
O.K.
Top reinforcement

Ro
At ring Wall outer dia

7650 mm

Area of one 20 mm Bar =3.14 cm2


No of bars reqd. =
5.73
Spacing Reqd. =
174.5
Provide Spacing =
150
At Center (Both Direction)
Effective depth, d =
1387.5 mm
2
N/mm2 =
Mu,lim/bd2 =
3.45
3450 KN/m
[ Ref: Table-D, S.P-16]
Mu,lim =
6641.79 KN-m
Hence singly reinforced section will suffice
Mu/bd2
0.074
[ For Centre moment, Mu = -143 KN-m ]
Pt =
0.084
% =
1165.5 mm2
[Ref: Table-3, SP-16]
Minimum Reinforcement as per IS-456, Clause 25 =
1800.00 mm2
Maximum reinforcement =0.04*bD =
60000 mm2
Adopt minimum reinforcement
Percentage of steel, Pt=100As/bd
As =
18.000
Bottom Reinforcement
Area of one 25 mm Bar =4.91 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
3.67
Bot Reinforcement Minimum =
Spacing =
273
Provide Spacing =
250
Top Reinforcement
Area of one 20 mm Bar =3.14 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
5.73
Top Reinforcement Minimum =
Spacing =
175
Provide Spacing =
150

cm2

Nos
4

Nos

Nos

O.K.

Nos

O.K.

FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN FOR CIRCUMFERENTIAL MOMENT


At Ring wall
Width of the section, B=
1000 mm

Radius at edge of ring wall=Ri=


3825
Radius of slab =Ro=
7000
if minimum spacing (300mm) of radial bar is provided at Ro
then the spacing that will come at the edge of ring wall=300*Ri/Ro =150
Similarlarly Spacing of 125 at edge of ring wall will bring the spacing of 250
at Ro.

Depth of the Section, D=


1500 mm
Grade of Concrete, M
25
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, fy =
415
N/mm2
Clear Cover Top=
50
mm
Clear Cover Bot=
50
Bar dia at Top (Radial)=
20
mm
Bar Dia at Bot (Radial)=
25
mm
Bar dia at Top (Circum)=
20
mm
Bar Dia at Bot (Circum)=
25
mm
Effective depth, d =
1437.5 mm
2
2
2
N/mm
=
Mu,lim/bd =
3.45
3450 KN/m
[ Ref: Table-D, S.P-16]
Mu,lim =
7762.5
KN-m
Hence singly reinforced section will suffice
Mu/bd2
0.297
[ For circumferential moment, Mu =-613.32 KN-m ]
Pt =
0.084
% =
1207.5 mm2
[Ref: Table-3, SP-16]
Minimum Reinforcement as per IS-456, Clause 25 =
1800.00 mm2
Maximum reinforcement =0.04*bD =
60000 mm2
Adopt minimum reinforcement
Percentage of steel, Pt=100As/bd
As =
18.000
Bottom reinforcement
Area of one 25 mm Bar =4.91 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
4
Bot Reinforcement Minimum =
Spacing =
273
Provide Spacing =
250
Top reinforcement
Area of one 20 mm Bar =3.14 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
6
Top Reinforcement Minimum =
Spacing =
175
Provide Spacing =
150
Shear Design

cm2

Nos
4

Nos

Nos

O.K.

Nos

O.K.

Critical Section for shear check=d/2 distance from wall face


Depth of the section at a distance 4.08125 m from ring wall =
Design Shear Force, V =
-43.467 KN
Nominal shear stress, tv = V/bd =
0.03011
Allowable shear stress, tc =
0.2677
Maximum Shear stress, tc,max =
3.1
As nominal shear stress does not exceed Max shear stress, hence O.K.
No shear reinforcement reqd.

4.081 m from center


1.444 m

DESIGN OF RING WALL


[ Ref: Table-7.10 of Tall Chimney Design and Construction by S.N. Manohar, Tata McGraw Hill]

Maximum Dead Load (P)=


Critical Bending Load is Wind Load

3000 KN

Wind Overturning moment=


Opp Pressure Overturning Moment =
Total Moment(M) =

36218 KN-m
540 KN-m
36758 KN-m

Wind Shear =

1006 KN

The Ring wall is modelled in staad and the above loads are applied.
The element stress are attached with this report along with staad File : StackRingWall.std
Staad
Result
Maximum
Minimum

SQX
KN/m2
99.151
-99.152

SQY
kN/m2
53.483
-56.812

Outer Circumferential Clear cover =


Inner Circumferential Clear cover =
Outer Circumferential Bar Dia =
Inner Circumferential Bar Dia =
Outer Vertical Bar Dia=
Inner Vertical Bar dia =

MX
kNm/m
14.026
-44.902

50
50
16
16
20
20

MY
kNm/m
41.16
-46.655

mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

MXY
kNm/m
24.16
-24.16

SX
kN/m2
344.465
-1131.82

SY
kN/m2
691.841
-1157.52

SXY
kN/m2
150.95
-150.95

Vertical Bending
Mx=Mx+Mxy
Moment =
69.062 KN-m/m
Shear =
56.812 KN-m/m
Width of the section, B=
1000 mm
Depth of the Section, D=
900 mm
Grade of Concrete, M
25
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, fy =
415
Effective depth, d =
824 mm
2
2
2
N/mm =
Mu,lim/bd =
3.45
3450 KN/m
Mu,lim =
2342.4672 KN-m
Hence singly reinforced section will suffice
Mu/bd2
0.085
Pt =
0.084
% =
1384.32 mm2
Minimum Reinforcement as per IS-456:2000, Clause 32.5 =
Maximum reinforcement =0.04*bD =
36000
O.K.
Percentage of steel, Pt=100As/bd

N/mm2
[ Ref: Table-D, S.P-16]

[Ref: Table-3, SP-16]


675.00 mm2
mm2

As =
13.843 cm
Area of one 20 mm Bar =3.14 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
4
Nos
Provide
4
Nos
Spacing =
227
Provide Spacing =
150
O.K.
Shear Design
Design Shear Force, V =
56.812 KN
Nominal shear stress, tv = V/bd =
0.06895
Allowable shear stress, tc =
0.2208
Maximum Shear stress, tc,max =
3.1
As nominal shear stress does not exceed Max shear stress, hence O.K.
No shear reinforcement reqd.

Circumferential Bending
My=My+Mxy
Moment =
70.815 KN-m/m
Shear =
99.152 KN-m/m
Width of the section, B=
1000 mm
Depth of the Section, D=
900 mm
Grade of Concrete, M
25
Characteristic strength of reinforcement, fy =
415
Effective depth, d =
842 mm
2
N/mm2 =
Mu,lim/bd2 =
2.07
2070 KN/m
Mu,lim =
1467.56 KN-m
Hence singly reinforced section will suffice
Mu/bd2
0.100
Pt =
0.084
% =
707.28 mm2
Minimum Reinforcement as per IS-456:2000, Clause 32.5 =
Maximum reinforcement =0.04*bD =
36000
O.K.
Percentage of steel, Pt=100As/bd

N/mm2
[ Ref: Table-D, S.P-16]

[Ref: Table-3, SP-16]


540.00 mm2
mm2

As =
7.073 cm
Area of one 16 mm Bar =2.01 cm2
No. of bars reqd. =
4
Nos
Provide
4
Nos
Spacing =
284
Provide Spacing =
250
O.K.
Shear Design
Design Shear Force, V =
99.152 KN
Nominal shear stress, tv = V/bd =
0.11776
Allowable shear stress, tc =
0.1970
Maximum Shear stress, tc,max =
3.1
As nominal shear stress does not exceed Max shear stress, hence O.K.
No shear reinforcement reqd.

Note
Beyond Ring Wall, Towards the centre ( From radius 1500 to 2825mm) Both radial & circumferential
reinforcement is provided for lapping with the central mesh.
Top reinforcement (Radius=1500 to 2825mm)
Radial = 20 dia @ 300 c/c at ring wall outer dia=7650mm
Circumferential direction =20 dia @ 300 c/c
Bottom reinforcement (Radius=1500 to 2825mm)
Radial = 25 dia @ 250 c/c at ring wall outer dia=7650mm

Circumferential direction =25 dia @ 300 c/c

Result of the Ring Wall analysis in Staad Pro-2004

Plate
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
201
202
203
204

Load
Comb

SQX
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

KN/m2
45.561
-3.143
-4.958
-7.188
-7.188
-4.958
-3.143
-1.848
-0.559
0.559
1.848
3.143
4.958
7.188
7.188
4.958
3.143
1.848
0.559
-0.559
4.58
-1.336
-2.906
-9.826
-9.826
-2.906
-1.336
-2.245
-1.178
1.178
2.245
1.336
2.906
9.826
9.826
2.906
1.336
2.245
1.178
-1.178
-2.53
-11.601
-4.586
-9.56

SQY
kN/m2
1.848
34.258
18.08
8.081
4.556
-5.443
-21.62
-32.923
-36.95
-36.95
-32.923
-21.62
-5.443
4.556
8.081
18.08
34.258
45.561
49.588
49.588
2.245
6.667
1.467
-2.605
0.112
-3.959
-9.159
-7.072
-4.292
-4.292
-7.073
-9.159
-3.96
0.113
-2.605
1.467
6.667
4.58
1.8
1.8
11.415
6.834
9.173
1.266

MX
kNm/m
-44.902
-5.233
-3.788
-1.842
0.908
2.854
4.299
6.15
7.512
7.512
6.15
4.299
2.854
0.908
-1.842
-3.788
-5.233
-7.084
-8.446
-8.446
-26.227
0.988
1.606
0.208
-0.288
-1.686
-1.068
3.082
6.502
6.502
3.082
-1.068
-1.686
-0.288
0.208
1.606
0.988
-3.162
-6.582
-6.582
-30.975
5.28
11.343
6.195

MY
kNm/m
-7.084
-39.389
-28.402
-12.092
6.598
22.908
33.895
39.407
41.16
41.16
39.407
33.895
22.908
6.598
-12.092
-28.402
-39.389
-44.902
-46.655
-46.655
-3.162
-26.239
-22.056
-9.311
8.841
21.585
25.768
25.757
24.994
24.994
25.757
25.768
21.585
8.841
-9.311
-22.056
-26.239
-26.227
-25.464
-25.464
-4.015
-29.659
-26.421
-13.035

MXY
kNm/m
0.375
-2.104
-3.758
-4.257
-4.257
-3.758
-2.104
-0.375
0.114
-0.114
0.375
2.104
3.758
4.257
4.257
3.758
2.104
0.375
-0.114
0.114
-0.125
-3.256
-8.357
-11.482
-11.482
-8.357
-3.256
0.125
0.452
-0.452
-0.125
3.256
8.357
11.482
11.482
8.357
3.256
-0.125
-0.452
0.452
-0.361
-3.764
-13.236
-24.16

SX
kN/m2
-1131.82
-138.526
-87.226
-48.278
-20.401
18.547
69.847
110.779
129.527
129.527
110.779
69.847
18.547
-20.401
-48.278
-87.226
-138.526
-179.458
-198.206
-198.206
-1068.31
-52.504
-4.244
1.962
-34.912
-28.705
19.555
54.04
67.796
67.796
54.04
19.555
-28.705
-34.912
1.962
-4.245
-52.504
-86.989
-100.746
-100.746
-985.77
27.418
33.628
27.608

SY
kN/m2
-179.458
-1042.23
-828.391
-457.56
-8.117
362.714
576.556
666.141
691.84
691.841
666.141
576.556
362.715
-8.117
-457.56
-828.391
-1042.23
-1131.82
-1157.52
-1157.52
-86.989
-1017.93
-847.424
-463.63
47.953
431.748
602.256
652.634
660.716
660.716
652.634
602.256
431.748
47.953
-463.63
-847.424
-1017.93
-1068.31
-1076.39
-1076.39
59.387
-976.037
-902.575
-510.824

SXY
kN/m2
-67.608
78.92
54.607
22.624
22.624
54.607
78.92
67.608
26.026
-26.026
-67.608
-78.92
-54.607
-22.624
-22.624
-54.607
-78.92
-67.608
-26.026
26.026
-97.497
128.723
94.288
25.388
25.388
94.288
128.723
97.497
34.89
-34.89
-97.497
-128.723
-94.288
-25.388
-25.388
-94.288
-128.723
-97.497
-34.89
34.89
-98.919
150.95
130.974
-19.789

205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Maximum
Minimum

-9.56
-4.586
-11.601
-11.415
-4.53
4.53
11.415
11.601
4.586
9.56
9.56
4.586
11.601
11.415
4.53
-4.53
30.589
-4.88
28.478
99.151
99.151
28.478
-4.88
-12.261
-5.631
5.631
12.261
4.88
-28.477
-99.152
-99.152
-28.477
4.88
12.261
5.63
-5.63
99.151
-99.152

-8.44
-16.346
-14.008
-4.643
0.706
0.706
-4.643
-14.008
-16.347
-8.439
1.265
9.174
6.834
-2.53
-7.88
-7.88
12.261
34.074
53.481
33.95
-37.279
-56.81
-37.404
-33.918
-34.023
-34.023
-33.918
-37.403
-56.812
-37.277
33.948
53.483
34.073
30.589
30.694
30.694
53.483
-56.812

-6.949
-12.097
-6.035
3.261
9.759
9.759
3.261
-6.035
-12.098
-6.949
6.194
11.343
5.28
-4.015
-10.513
-10.513
-29.159
6.851
14.026
7.122
-8.43
-15.334
-8.16
3.715
11.45
11.45
3.715
-8.16
-15.334
-8.431
7.122
14.025
6.851
-5.024
-12.758
-12.758
14.026
-44.902

8.597
21.983
25.222
26.537
27.449
27.449
26.537
25.222
21.983
8.597
-13.035
-26.421
-29.659
-30.975
-31.886
-31.886
-5.024
-26.576
-17.25
-6.779
-0.92
9.551
18.877
21.46
22.406
22.406
21.46
18.877
9.55
-0.918
-6.781
-17.249
-26.576
-29.159
-30.105
-30.105
41.16
-46.655

-24.16
-13.236
-3.764
0.361
0.577
-0.577
-0.361
3.764
13.236
24.16
24.16
13.236
3.764
-0.361
-0.577
0.577
0.078
-3.226
-10.078
-21.812
-21.812
-10.078
-3.226
-0.078
0.241
-0.241
0.077
3.226
10.078
21.813
21.813
10.078
3.226
0.078
-0.241
0.241
24.16
-24.16

-24.936
-30.956
-24.745
-56.715
-82.046
-82.046
-56.715
-24.746
-30.956
-24.936
27.608
33.627
27.418
59.387
84.719
84.719
-935.448
110.973
-110.276
-105.444
145.79
150.623
-70.628
-228.613
-304.12
-304.12
-228.613
-70.628
150.622
145.789
-105.444
-110.275
110.972
268.961
344.465
344.465
344.465
-1131.82

145.147
536.899
610.36
620.094
619.214
619.214
620.094
610.36
536.898
145.147
-510.824
-902.574
-976.037
-985.77
-984.891
-984.891
268.961
-949.867
-922.895
-526.084
197.906
594.722
621.687
607.276
599.401
599.4
607.276
621.687
594.721
197.904
-526.082
-922.894
-949.869
-935.448
-927.579
-927.579
691.841
-1157.52

-19.789
130.975
150.95
98.919
33.369
-33.369
-98.919
-150.95
-130.975
19.789
19.788
-130.974
-150.95
-98.919
-33.369
33.369
-56.773
103.622
149.607
-88.134
-88.134
149.607
103.622
56.773
17.689
-17.689
-56.773
-103.622
-149.607
88.134
88.134
-149.607
-103.622
-56.773
-17.689
17.689
150.95
-150.95