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Windows Admin L1 Interview Question

1. What is the different between Workgroup and Domain? A workgroup is an interconnection of a number of systems that share resources such as files &printers without a dedicated server .Each workgroup maintains a local database for user accounts, security etc. A domain, on the otherhand is an interconnection of systems that share resources with one or more dedicated server, which can be used to control security and permissions for all users in the domain. Domain maintains a centralized database and hence a centralized management of user accounts, policies etc are established. If you have a user account on domain then you can log on to any system without user account on that particular system. 2. How will assign Local Administrator rights for domain user? To assign a domain user with local administrative right in any client of domain we should log in to the respected client system then, Start->control panel->user accounts->give username, password and name of domain->add>advanced->locations->find now->select others(in that select administrator user)->ok->next->ok. 3. How will you restrict user logon timing in domain? Start->dsa.msc->double click on users->right click on any users->properties->click on account->click on logon hours->logon denied->select time (by dragging mouse)->click on logon permission->ok. 4. What is the purpose of sysvol? The sysvol folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents such as group policy, users etc of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. The sysvol folder must be located on an NTFS volume. 5. What is OU? Explain its Uses. An object is a set of attributes that represents a network resource, say a user, a computer, a group policy, etc and object attributes are characteristics of that object stored in the directory. Organizational units act as a container for objects. Objects can be arranged according to security and administrative requirement in an organization. You can easily manage and locate objects after arranging them into organizational units. Administrator can delegate the authority to manage different organizational units and it can be nested to other organizational units. Create an OU if you want to:

Create a company's structure and organization within a domain - Without OUs, all users are maintained and displayed in a single list, the Users container, regardless of a user's department, location, or role. Delegate administrative control - Grant administrative permissions to users or groups of users at the OU level. Accommodate potential changes in a company's organizational structure - Users can easily be reorganized between OUs, while reorganizing users between domains generally requires more time and effort. Group objects with similar network resources - This way it is easy to perform any administrative tasks. For example, all user accounts for temporary employees can be grouped in an OU. Restrict visibility - Users can view only the objects for which they have access. Windows Server 2003, Web Edition :- is mainly for building and hosting Web applications, Web pages, and XML Web Services. Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition :- is aimed towards small to medium sized businesses. Flexible yet versatile, Standard Edition supports file and printer sharing, offers secure Internet connectivity, and allows centralized desktop application deployment Windows Server 2003, Enterprise Edition :- is aimed towards medium to large businesses. It is a fullfunction server operating system that supports up to eight processors and provides enterprise-class features such as eight-node clustering using Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) software and support for up to 32 GB of memory. Windows Server 2003, Datacenter Edition:- is the flagship of the Windows Server line and designed for immense infrastructures demanding high security and reliability. Windows Server 2003, Compute Cluster Edition:- is designed for working with the most difficult computing problems that would require high performance computing clusters. Windows Storage Server 2003:- is optimised to provide dedicated file and print sharing services. It is only available through OEMs when purchased pre-configured with network attached storage devices.

6. Explain different edition of windows 2003 Server?

7. What is DNS Server? Domain Name System (or Service or Server), a service that resolves domain names into IP addresses and vice versa. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember.The Internet however, is really based on ip addresses. Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address. For example, the domain name might translate to The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until the correct IP address is returned. 8. Why DNS server is required for Active Directory? The key reason for integrating DNS and AD is efficiency. This is particularly true where you have lots of replication traffic. You can't resolve host names. You can't find services, like a domain controller. 9. What is the Purpose of A and PTR Record? A (Host) record is used to resolve name to ip address while PTR (pointer) record is used to resolve ip address to name. 10. What is the purpose of DHCP Server? A DHCP server is the server that is responsible for assigning unique IP address to the computers on a network. No two computers (actually, no two network cards1 [even if two are in one computer]) can have the same IP address on a network at the same time or there will be conflicts. To that end, DHCP servers will take a request from a computer that has just been added (or is renewing) to the network and assign it a unique IP address that is available. These assignments typically only last for a limited time (an hour to a week usually) and so you are never guaranteed that the IP address for a particular computer will remain the same when using a DHCP (some DHCP servers allow you to specify that a computer gets the same address all the time however). 11. Explain about Group Scopes? A DHCP scope is a valid range of IP addresses which are available for assignments or lease to client computers on a particular subnet. In a DHCP server, you configure a scope to determine the address pool of ip which the server can provide to DHCP clients. Scopes determine which IP addresses are provided to the clients. Scopes should be defined and activated before DHCP clients use the DHCP server for its dynamic IP configuration. You can configure as many scopes on a DHCP server as is required in your network environment 12. How will you backup DNS Server? If you are using Active Directory-integrated DNS, then your DNS information is stored in Active Directory itself, and you'll need to back up the entire system state. If not, however, The Backup directory in the %SystemRoot%\System32\Dns folder contains backup information for the DNS configuration and the DNS database. 13. How will backup DHCP Server? The Backup directory in the %SystemRoot%\System32\DHCP folder contains backup information for the DHCP configuration and the DHCP database. By default, the DHCP database is backed up every 60 minutes automatically. To manually back up the DHCP database at any time, follow these steps: 1. In the DHCP console, right-click the server you want to back up, and then click Backup. 2. In the Browse For Folder dialog box, select the folder that will contain the backup DHCP database, and then click OK. 14. Explain APIPA. A Windows-based computer that is configured to use DHCP can automatically assign itself an Internet Protocol (IP) address if a DHCP server is not available or does not exist. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved for Automatic Private IP Addressing(APIPA). 15. Explain about AD Database. Windows 2003 Active Directory data store, the actual database file, is %SystemRoot%\ntds\NTDS.DIT. The ntds.dit file is the heart of Active Directory including user accounts. Active Directory's database engine is the Extensible Storage Engine ( ESE ) which is based on the Jet database used by Exchange 5.5 and WINS. The ESE has the capability to grow to 16 terabytes which would be large enough for 10 million objects.Only the Jet database can manipulate information within the AD datastore. 16. Explain about Group Policy. Group policies are used by administrators to configure and control user environment settings. Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are used to configure group policies which are applied to sites, domains, and organizational units (OUs). Group policy may be blocked or set so it cannot be overridden. The default is for subobjects to inherit the policy of their parents. There is a maximum of 1000 applicable group policies. Group policies are linked to domains, organizational units, or sites in Active Directory. A policy must be linked to a container object in Active Directory to be effective. They are stored in any domain for storage but can be linked to other domains to make them effective there also. The policy must be linked to the container (site, domain, or OU) that it is stored in to be effective in that container. One policy object can be linked to several containers. Several policy objects can be linked to one container.

17. What is the default time for group policy refresh interval time? The default refresh interval for policies is 90 minutes. The default refresh interval for domain controllers is 5 minutes. Group policy object's group policy refresh intervals may be changed in the group policy object. 18. Explain Hidden Share. Using hidden shares on your network is useful if you do not want a shared folder or drive on the network to be easily accessible. Hidden shares can add another layer of protection for shared files against unauthorized people connecting to your network. Using hidden shares helps eliminate the chance for people to guess your password (or be logged into an authorized Windows account) and then receive access to the shared resource. Windows automatically shares hard drives by default for administrative purposes. They are hidden shares named with the drive letter followed by a dollar sign (e.g., C$) and commented as Default Share. Thus, certain networking and administrator functions and applications can work properly. Not that preventing Windows from creating these hidden or administrative shares by default each time your computer boots up takes a registry change. 19. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Requests are on UDP port 68, Server replies on UDP 67. 20. How do I configure a client machine to use a specific IP Address? Reservation using mac address in DHCP. 21. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. 1. We can give easy name resolution to your clients. 2. By creating AD- integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone. 3. AD integrated zoned all for incremental zone transfers which on transfer changes and not the entire zone. This reduces zone transfer traffic. 4. AD Integrated zones support both secure and dynamic updates. 5. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application partitions in AD. 22. How do you backup & Restore AD? You can backup Active Directory by using the NTBACKUP tool that comes built-in with Windows Server 2003. Backing up the Active Directory is done on one or more of your Active Directory domain Controllers, and is performed by backing up the System State on those servers. The System State contains the local Registry, COM+ Class Registration Database, the System Boot Files, certificates from Certificate Server (if its installed), Cluster database (if its installed), NTDS.DIT, and the SYSVOL folder. the tombstone is 60 days (Windows 2000/2003 DCs), or 180 days (Windows Server 2003 SP1 DCs). You can use one of the three methods to restore Active Directory from backup media: Primary Restore, Normal Restore (i.e. Non Authoritative), and Authoritative Restore. Primary Restore: This method rebuilds the first domain controller in a domain when there is no other way to rebuild the domain. Perform a primary restore only when all the domain controllers in the domain are lost, and you want to rebuild the domain from the backup. Members of the Administrators group can perform the primary restore on local computer. On a domain controller, only members of the Domain Admins group can perform this restore. Normal Restore: This method reinstates the Active Directory data to the state before the backup, and then updates the data through the normal replication process. Perform a normal restore for a single domain controller to a previously known good state. Authoritative Restore: You perform this method in tandem with a normal restore. An authoritative restore marks specific data as current and prevents the replication from overwriting that data. The authoritative data is then replicated through the domain. Perform an authoritative restore for individual object in a domain that has multiple domain controllers. When you perform an authoritative restore, you lose all changes to the restore object that occurred after the backup. You need to use the NTDSUTIL command line utility to perform an authoritative restore. You need to use it in order to mark Active Directory objects as authoritative, so that they receive a higher version recently changed data on other domain controllers does not overwrite System State data during replication. 23. How do you change the DS Restore admin password? Microsoft Windows 2000 uses the Setpwd utility to reset the DS Restore Mode password. In Microsoft Windows Server 2003, that functionality has been integrated into the NTDSUTIL tool. Note that you cannot use the procedure if the target server is running in DSRM. 24. How can you forcibly remove AD from a server? In run use the command ->dcpromo /forceremoval 25. What is the SYSVOL folder? The sysvol folder stores the server's copy of the domain's public files. The contents such as group policy, users etc of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain. The sysvol folder must be located on an NTFS volume 26. What is the entire problem if DNS Server fails? If your DNS server fails, you can't resolve host names. You can't resolve domain controller IP Address. 27. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? The Group Policy Object Editor and the Software Restriction Policies extension of Group Policy Object Editor are used to restrict running certain applications on a machine. For Windows XP computers that are not participating in

a domain, you can use the Local Security Settings snap-in to access Software Restriction Policies. 28. What can you do to promote a server to DC? Start->Run->DCPROMO 29. How will map a folder through AD? Navigate domain user properties->give path in profile tab in the format \\servername\sharename. 30. Explain Quotas. Disk Quota is a feature or service of NTFS which helps to restrict or manage the disk usage from the normal user. It can be implemented per user user per volume basis.By default it is disabled. Administrative privilege is required to perform the task. In 2003server we can control only drive but in 2008server we can establish quota in folder level. 31. Explain Backup Methodology. The different types of backup methodologies are:

Normal Backup:-This is default backup in which all files are backed up even if it was backed up before. Incremental Backup:-In this type of backup only the files that havent been backed up are taken care of or backed up. Differential Backup:-This backup is similar to incremental backup because it does not take backup of those files backed up by normal backup but different from incremental because it will take backup of differentially backed up files at next time of differential backup. Copy Backup:-This type of backup is which is used during system state backup and asr backup. It is used in special conditions only. Daily Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of only those files that are created on that particular day. System Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of files namely, Boot file, COM+Class Registry, Registry. But in server it takes backup of ads. ASR Backup:-This type of backup takes backup of entire boot partition including OS and user data. This should be the last troubleshooting method to recover an os from disaster.

32. Explain how to publish printer through AD. The group policy setting Automatically publish new printers in AD when disabled, prevents the Add Printer Wizard from automatically publishing shared printers. In addition, Group policy setting Allow printers to be published should be enabled(default) for printers to be published on that computers. 33. Explain the functionality of FTP Server? The FTP server is to accept incoming FTP requests. Copy or move the files that you want to make available to the FTP publishing folder for access. The default folder is drive:\Inetpub\Ftproot, where drive is the drive on which IIS is installed In the client-server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files. A file server allows users to share information over a network without having to physically transfer files by floppy diskette or some other external storage device. 34. Specify the Port Number for AD, DNS, DHCP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, POP3 & FTP AD- uses LDAP Udp 389 and UDP 135,DNS- 53,DHCP-67,68,HTTP-80,HTTPS-,SMTP-25,POP3-110 & FTP-20,21. 35. Explain Virtual Directory in IIS? A virtual server can have one home directory and any number of other publishing directories. These other publishing directories are referred to as virtual directories. 36. What is Exclusion Range in DHCP Server? Exclusion Range is used to reserve a bank of ip addresses so computer that require only static ip address such as DNS servers, legacy printers can use reserved assigned addresses .These are not assigned by DHCP server. 37. Explain SOA Record. Start Of Authority(SOA) Records indicate that NameServer is authoritative server for the domain.
Desktop Administrator Interview Question

1. What is the difference between Windows XP & Windows 7? Windows Defender, Parental Control, Windows Touch and Tap instead of point and Click, Multiple Active Firewall. 2. One Fine Morning System is not booting up. Explain what would be the problem.

2x2 or 2x4 Power Connector Not Plugged In Processor Issues Memory Issues Monitor Issues Power Supply and Chassis Issues Cable Issues

Electrical Short or Overload Defective Components

3. System No Display. What the steps are to Diagnoses the problem? Check the monitor is switched on and the power indicator LED of the monitor is glowing. Check the monitor power connection. Adjust the contrast/brightness knob of the monitor to maximum. Check whether the monitor is connected properly to the video adapter of the system. If your system has add-on video adapter, switch off the system and remove the power. Check whether the CPU, memory are connected properly to the motherboard. 4. System is power on, but beep sound occurs. What would be the problem? One long beep: Memory problem One long and two short beeps: Video error One long and three short beeps: Video error Continuous beeps: Video/memory problem Other beeps: Check the motherboard manual 5. Different and NTFS and FAT32. NTFS

FAT 32

Allows access local to w2k w2k3 XP win NT4 with SP4 & later may get access for some file. Maximum size of partition is 2 Terabytes & more. Maximum File size is up to 16TB. File & folder Encryption is possible only in NTFS.

Fat 32 Allows access to win 95 98 win millennium win2k xp on local partition. Maximum size of partition is up to 2 TB. Maximum File size is up to 4 GB. File & folder Encryption is not possible.

6. How will you convert FAT32 to NTFS? To convert a volume to NTFS from the command prompt Open Command Prompt. In the command prompt window, type convert drive_letter: /fs:ntfs For example, typing convert D: /fs:ntfs would format drive D: with the ntfs format. 7. What are primary Partition, Extended Partition and Logical Partition? A primary partition contains one file system. The first partition (C:) must be a primary partition.. An extended partition is a primary partition which contains secondary partition(s). A hard disk may contain only one extended partition.. Extended partition that is sub divided into many drives is called as Logical partition.. 8. In a computer how many primary partition can be held. Four Primary partitions can be done... 9. Difference between Microsoft outlook and Outlook Express. Microsoft Outlook:

Files will be saved in .PST Format. Have some Additional Features like Address Book, Contacts, and Remainderetc... Not a free product have to purchase it..

Outlook Express:

Files will be saved in .DBX Format. Dont have any additional features. Free product that comes along with the OS Installation.

10. What is Virus? Vital Information Resource under Seige.It is an executable Program which Performs Malicious activities in the system. 11. What is Antivirus? An Antivirus Is a Software that protects the system from Virus Attack.. 12. What is the difference between Delete and Quarantine in Action methodology for Virus Scanning? Delete will delete all the virus infected files and Quarantine create a copy from an infected file and produce a new one.. 13. What are the procedures for cleaning an infected virus system? Unplug the system from the Network if it is in a Network & Scan the System with the Updated Antivirus..

14. What is SMTP Protocol? What is the port Number used by SMTP? Simple Mail Transfer Protocol which performs all outgoing Mail. The port number is 25. 15. What is POP3 Protocol? What is the port Number used by POP3? Post Office Protocol which performs all incoming mails. The Port number is 110. 16. Tell me the procedure for Backup and Restore Mail in Outlook Express. Go to C:\Documents & Setting\User Profile\Application Data\Local Settings\Identities\Outlook Express & Copy the .DBX files and Save it in another location as a Backup. Copy the files from the location that was saved as a Backup & Go to the same path & Paste it. 17. Tell me the Procedure for Backup and Restore Mail in Microsoft Express. Go to C:\Documents & Setting\User Profile\Application Data\Local Settings\Microsoft \Outlook Express & Copy the .PST files and Save it in another location as a Backup.. Copy the files from the location that was saved as a Backup & Go to the same path & Paste it. 18. How will you repair a PST Files? Using scanpst.exe files 19. How to set Password for PST Files?

Select Go | Folder List from the menu. Click on the root item of the desired PST file with the right mouse button. If you want to protect only certain email folders with a password, you can move them to a newly created PST file and assign a password only for that file. Select Properties for... from the menu. Click Advanced.... Now click Change Password.... Enter the desired password under both New password: and Verify password:. If a password had already been set for the PST file, enter that phrase under Old password:. If you assign a password to a previously unprotected PST file, leave the Old password: field blank. To remove the password from a PST file, enter it under Old password: and leave both New password: and Verify password: blank. Click OK. Click OK again. Now click Cancel.

20. How to set store a mail copy in Server for 30 days while configuring mail in Microsoft outlook? Go to Outlook 2007's Tools, Account Settings, and With the Account Settings dialog open, select the account and click Change, then click More Settings. Look on the Advanced tab.. 21. How to set Rules in Microsoft outlook in order to organize mailbox? Open Microsoft Outlook.

Click Tools. Click Rules Wizard. Click the New button and run through the wizard..

22. Explain about Junk Mail option in outlook. Low. This level is designed to catch only the most obvious junk e-mail messages. You can make the filter more aggressive, but if you do it may catch legitimate messages sometimes. Any message that is caught by the Junk Email Filter is moved to a special Junk E-mail folder. You should review messages in the Junk E-mail folder from time to time to make sure that they are not legitimate messages that you want to see. 23. Explain about Registry? This is a database used by Microsoft Windows to store configuration information about the software installed on a computer. This information includes things like the desktop background, program settings, and file extension associations. 24. How to backup and Restore Registry? Import and Export from regedit. 25. When system booting NTLDR file Missing Error. What would be the solution? Boot the System from the OS cd and Select Repair Option 26. When XP is booting up system gets restart automatically. What would be the solution? May be RAM problem so replace it... Virus would have affected.. 27. Explain about Windows Firewall? Firewall Restricts the System from Unwanted Traffic. 28. Difference between Administrators and Power Users? Members of the Administrator group have total control over the computer and everything on it. The user named

Administrator is the default account within this group The Power User class can perform any task except for those reserved for Administrators. They are allowed to carry out functions that will not directly affect the operating system or risk security 29. What is Service Pack? Is it needed to be installed in all the system? A service pack (in short SP) is a collection of updates, fixes and/or enhancements to a software program delivered in the form of a single installable package. Yes it should be installed in all the systems. 30. What is Device Drivers? Why it is needed? A device driver is a program that controls a particular type of device that is attached to your computer. There are device drivers for printers, displays, CD-ROM readers, diskette drives, and so on 31. Explain about Local Printer and Network Printer? A network printer is shared by more than one computer using the IP Address that is assigned to the printer. A local printer is directly connected to one computer & shared using sharing & security 32. Explain detail how to install a Network Printer? To install the printer using an IP address, go to Start>Control Panel>Printers and Faxes and then click the Add Printer icon. Next, click Create a new port, then select Standard TCP/IP Port from the drop-down menu. You will then be asked to enter an IP address. Enter the IP address of the print server and click Next. You will be asked to select the printer manufacturer and the model from the list. If you do not see your printer listed, insert the disk that came with the printer and click Have Disk. If you do not know the IP address of the printer, you can sometime select Browse for printer in the beginning of the process. If the networked printer is attached to another computer is being shared, you will need to enter the name of the computer followed by the share name of the printer. For example: \\computername\printername. 33. How does virus get loaded into computer? Through Exe Files, Pen drive, CD, E-mail, Internet Etc... 34. What is Boot Process in a computer? First is the POST, this stands for Power On Self-Test, for the computer. This process tests memory as well as a number of other subsystems. You can usually monitor this as it runs each test. After that is complete the system will run POST for any device that has BIOS (Basic Input-Output System). 35. What is the difference between RAM & ROM? RAM Random Access Memory which is called as Temporary Memory.. ROM- Read Only Memory which stores the data Permanently. 36. What is Cache Memory? Cache memory is fast memory that is used to hold the most recently accessed data in slower main memory. The idea is that frequently accessed data will stay in cache, which allows the CPU to access it more quickly, which means it doesn't have to wait for the data to arrive. 37. What is the difference between Primary Storage and Secondary Storage? Usually the primary storage is a hard drive(s). Secondary is a flash drive(s), cd and so on. But nowadays, it's mostly a game of words. The primary memory of CPU is the place where computer program and data is stored during processing. this storage unite is often called either main memory or primary memory.. There is usually two types primary memory 1. RAM 2:.ROM The devices of computer that store information such as software and data permanently are called secondary storage device. There are many types of secondary storage devices such as ,magneticdisk, Hard disk floppy disk , CD Rom , magnetic tape etc... 38. How to increase or set virtual memory in Window XP?

Click Start, and then click Control Panel. ClickPerformance and Maintenance, and then click System. On the Advanced tab, under Performance, click Settings. On the Advanced tab, under Virtual memory, click Change. UnderDrive [Volume Label], click the drive that contains the paging file that you want to change. UnderPaging file size for selected drive, click to Custom size check box. You can enter the amount of memory you would like to reserve for Virtual memory by entering the initial and maximum size. ClickSet

39. What are the advantages of having SATA HDD over PATA HDD? SATA HDD uses different channel for incoming and outgoing traffic. Wherelse PATA HDD uses same Channel for incoming and outgoing traffic. 40. What are Bidirectional and Unidirectional Bus? The address bus (sometimes called the memory bus) transports memory addresses which the processor wants to access in order to read or write data. It is a unidirectional bus. The data bus transfers instructions coming from or going to the processor. It is a bidirectional bus. 41. How does the browser know to go to a certain IP address when you enter a domain like Whenever an address is typed on the browser it immediately connects with the DNS.This DNS Finds the IP address related to the Domain & connects with the Server & the requested web page will be displayed.

42. Whats the difference between L1 and L2 cache? Short for Level 1 cache, a memory cache built into the microprocessor. Short for Level 2 cache, cache memory that is external to the microprocessor. In general, L2 cache memory, also called the secondary cache, resides on a separate chip from the microprocessor chip. 43. What is BIOS? How to clear password for BIOS? BIOS or Basic Input/output System is the first program accessed by the processor during start up to ensure that all the other basic programs, hard drives, ports, peripherals and the central processing unit are in good working condition. In order to clear the password for BIOS Just Remove the CMOS Battery & Insert it again after Sometime or Change the Jumper Settings. 44. What difference between original motherboard & chipset motherboard? A chipset is a group of microchips designed to work as a unit in performing one or more related functions. They are chip or chips on a motherboard containing various functions supporting the CPU. Motherboard is the "heart" of your PC -- it handles system resources (IRQ lines, DMA channels, I/O locations), as well as core components like the CPU, and all system memory. It accepts expansion devices such as sound and network cards, and modems. The main printed circuit board in a computer that carries the system buses. It is equipped with sockets to which all processors, memory modules, plug-in cards, daughterboard, or peripheral devices are connected. 45. What is the SMPS? Explain about its output voltage? Switch Mode Power Supply is an electronic power supply Unit that incorporates a switching regulator in order to provide the required output voltage 46. What is Power Good Signal? Explain its functionality. In addition to the voltages and currents that a computer needs to operate, power supplies also provide a signal called the Power-Good signal, sometimes written as Power_OK or Power Good or you can distinguish it by its gray color. Its purpose is to tell the computer all is well with the power supply and that the computer can continue to operate normally. If the Power-Good signal is not present at startup, the CPU is held in reset state. If a PowerGood signal goes down during operation the CPU will shutdown. The Power-Good signal prevents the computer from attempting to operate on improper voltages and damaging itself. 47. What is the difference between AGP and PCI graphics cards? AGP stands for 'Accelerated Graphics Port the speed at which the AGP bus transfers data to and from the video card was too Fast. PCI stands for 'Peripheral Component Interconnect the speed at which the PCI bus transfers data to and from the video card was too Slow. 48. While Installing Windows XP File Missing Error Occurs. What would be the Problem? If you are attempting to boot from a CD-ROM and are receiving this error message it is likely that the diskette does not have all the necessary files and/or is corrupt. 49. What is Defragmentation? Why its needed? Defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in file systems. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the disk to store the pieces of each file close together and contiguously. 50. One fine morning system is not able to login into domain. What could be the problem? May be Network problem. Password would have expired. May be some restriction policy applied. 51. In a workgroup environment how many system can access a shared folder simultaneously. 10 Systems 52. What is command to view computer name? Ipconfig /all or hostname 53. Explain Ping command in detail. Packet Internet Gopher is a simple command line network tool that you can use to verify your connectivity to a network. 54. What would the problem if system gets restarted frequently? RAM problem, Virus Attack, Dust in processor FAN. 55. What would the problem if the system gets hanged off? RAM problem,OS Corrupt,Virus Attack,Hard Disk Problem. 56. What could be the problem if hard disk gets in problem? Disk boot failure, Hard Disk not detected, CableProblem, BlueScreen, No power supply, Bad Sectors. 57. What is msconfig? Why it is used? Microsoft System Configuration Utility is a utility to troubleshoot the Windows startup process. 58. What is Remote Desktop? Why it is used? Remote Desktop is used to take another network system remotely Remote desktop allows you to control the desktop and, indeed, the entire contents of a computer from another machine entirely 59. How to run legacy application in windows xp? In both XP , right click on the executable of the application you wish to run. Select "Properties". Select the "Compatibility" tab on the "Properties" dialogue box. There will be a number of options. Choose "Windows 95 or 98 compatibility mode" 60. What is the command to shutdown and restart the computer? Shutdown s t 00

61. What is system restore? Why it is used? System Restore helps you restore your computer's system files to an earlier point in time. It's a way to undo system changes to your computer without affecting your personal files, such as email, documents, or photos.
Network Administrator Interview Questions

1. To monitor ipx traffic on a network, what command would you use? Show ipx traffic 2. What command would you use to find out the names of Novell servers on a network? show ipx servers 3. "arpa" is used by the Cisco IOS for which encapsulation types? Ethernet_II 4. To prevent Service Advertisements (SAPs) from flooding a network, Cisco routers do not forward them. How are services advertised to other networks? Each router builds its own SAP table and forwards that every 60 seconds. 5. Which type of Ethernet framing is used for TCP/IP and AppleTalk? Ethernet SNAP 6. Which type of Ethernet framing is used for TCP/IP and DECnet? Ethernet II 7. Which NetWare protocol works on layer 3--network layerof the OSI model? IPX 8. Which NetWare protocol provides link-state routing? NLSP 9. What is the Cisco name for the encapsulation type used on a serial interface? HDLC 10. IGRP uses flash updates, poison reverse updates, holddown times, and split horizon. How often does it broadcast its routing table updates? 90 seconds 11. When using RIP, routing updates are broadcast every ____ seconds. 30 12. A default route is analogous to? Default gateway 13. What does the command "IP name-server" accomplish? It sets the domain name lookup to be a local broadcast. 14. How would you configure one host name that points to two IP addresses? IP host jacob 15. Which IP Address Class can have 64,000 subnets with 64,000 hosts per subnet? Class B 16. There are two processes to pair MAC address with IP addresses. Which process finds an IP address from a MAC address? RARP 17. Where would network testing be included in an IP packet? IP Options field 18. What field tells the Internet layer how to handle an IP packet? Type of Service 19. What is the UDP datagram format? Source Port - 16 bits, Destination Port - 16 bits, Length - 16 Bits, Checksum - 16 bits, Data 20. What is the function of DDR on Cisco routers? DDR is dial-on-demand routing. It provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic. It initiates a call to a remote site when there is traffic to transmit. 21. When using access lists, what does a Cisco router check first? The first thing checked is to see if the packet is routable or bridgeable. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. 22. What do the following statements in an extended access list accomplish? access-list 101 deny TCP eq 21 access-list 101 deny TCP eq 20 access-list 101 permit TCP This will block ftp traffic since ftp uses ports 20 and 21. 23. Which protocol for PPP LCP (Link Control Protocol) performs a challenge handshake? CHAP 24. Which form of PPP error detection on Cisco routers monitors data dropped on a link? The Quality protocol monitors data dropped on a link. Magic Number avoids frame looping. 25. Which protocol for PPP provides load balancing across multiple links? Multilink Protocol (MP) 26. Which OSI layer end to end communication, segmentation and re-assembly? Layer 4 the Transport layer performs this function. 27. What IP command would you use to test the entire IP stack? Telnet is an application and it resides at the top of the stack it traverses down the stack and up the stack at the receiving end. 28. What is the default bandwidth of a serial connection? Default bandwidth is T1. 29. Which OSI layer handles physical address, network topology? Layer 2 the Data-Link layer performs this function.

Hardware Interview Questions

30. Which OSI layer establishes, maintains and terminates sessions between hosts? Layer 5 the Session layer performs this function. 31. Where Cisco IOS is stored? By default the Cisco IOS is stored in flash. 32. Which layer is responsible for providing mechanisms for multiplexing upper-layer application, session establishment, and tear down of virtual circuits? The Transport layer does the following: Responsible for end-to-end integrity of data transmission. Handles multiplexing upper-layer application, session establishment and tear down of virtual circuits. Hides details of network dependent info from the higher layers by providing transparent data transfer. The 'windows' works at this level to control how much information is transferred before an acknowledgement is required. 33. What's the default CDP holdtime in seconds for Cisco routers? Cisco Discovery Protocol is a proprietary protocol to allow you to access configuration information on other routers and switches with a single command. It uses SNAP at the Data-Link Layer. By default CDP sends out a broadcast every 60 seconds and it holds this information for 180 seconds. CDP is enabled by default. 1. 2. Explain what is DMA? DMA (direct memory acesses) it is used to transfer the data from the memory to I/O devices or vice versa without the intervention of processor. What is aliasing? When considering the reconstruction of a signal, we are familiar with the idea of the Nyquist rate. This concept allows us to find the sampling rate that will provide for perfect reconstruction of our signal. If we sample at too low of a rate (below the Nyquist rate), then problems will arise that will make perfect reconstruction impossible - this problem is known as aliasing. Aliasing occurs when there is an overlap in the shifted, periodic copies of our original signal's FT, i.e. spectrum What are the types of memory management? Memory Management is a crucial role in every operating system. Memory management is there are many types such as 1. Storage memory Management 2. I/O Memory Management etc... What is the difference between web service and web application? Web services can be implemented at any client or server place to make data secure because even programmer cannot find that data while web services are used on server side. Web services use soap protocol while web application http protocol, 80% coding of banking is done by using web services. How virus does affect computer? Due to Malicious site visit, download of MP3, Games, Downloading Screen Savers, through network, through Floppy, and many more. What are the basic functions of an operating system? Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various applications programs for various uses. Operating system acts as resource allocator and manager. Since there are many possibly conflicting requests for resources the operating system must decide which requests are allocated resources to operating the computer system efficiently and fairly? Also operating system is control program which controls the user programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer. It is especially concerned with the operation and control of I/O devices. Explain briefly about, processor, assembler, compiler, loader, linker and the functions executed by them? Processor:--A processor is the part a computer system that executes instructions .It is also called a CPU. Assembler: -- An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language. Compiler: --- A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language or "code" that a computer's processor uses. Typically, a programmer writes language statements in a language such as Pascal or C one line at a time using an editor. The file that is created contains what are called the source statements. The programmer then runs the appropriate language compiler, specifying the name of the file that contains the source statements. Loader:--In a computer operating system, a loader is a component that locates a given program (which can be an application or, in some cases, part of the operating system itself) in offline storage (such as a hard disk), loads it into main storage (in a personal computer, it's called random access memory), and gives that program control of the compute. Linker: -- Linker performs the linking of libraries with the object code to make the object code into an executable machine code. What is boot processing computer? As soon as the CPU is turned on, it initializes itself and looks for ROM BIOS for the first instruction which is the Power on Self-Test (POST). This process checks the BIOS chip and then the CMOS RAM. After checking everything and detecting no power failure, it checks the hardware devices and the storage device. Then CMOS looks through the boot sequence of drives to find the OS. The boot sequence is the sequence of drives which the CMOS scans to find OS and load it. Generally, OS is stored in C drive. If it is not found there, the next drive to scan is a drive that is the floppy drive.Hence on finding the OS, it is loaded. Its files are copied to main memory by BIOS, and from here, the Os takes the charge of boot process like loading device drivers etc. What is the difference between x86 and i386 computer? X86 refers to a popular set of instructions most commonly used in processors from Intel, AMD, VIA, and others. It usually implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386 (a.k.a. i386). i386 (as eluded to above) is the



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common name for the Intel386 (or 80386) based PCs. It is sometimes emphasized as x86-32 (for 32-bit) and x86-64 (also called x64 - for 64-bit). 10. What are the difference between FAT32 and NTFS? NTFS : Operating System - Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003 Server and Windows VistaMax Volume Size - 2TB, Max Files on Volume Nearly Unlimited, Max File Size - Limit Only by Volume Size, Max Clusters Number - Nearly Unlimited, Max File Name Length - Up to 255 characters, Built-In Security, Recoverability, Maximum Disk Space Economy, Maximum Fault Tolerance. FAT32: Operating System - DOS v7 and higher, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 & Windows XP, Max Volume Size - 32GB for all OS. 2TB for some OS, Max Files on Volume 4194304,Max File Size - 4GB minus 2 Bytes, Max Clusters Number 4177918, Max File Name Length Up to 255 characters, No Built-In Security, No Recoverability, Average Disk Space Economy , Minimal Fault Tolerance 11. What is NV RAM? Non volatile read write memory also called flash memory, it is also known as RAM. 12. What is called scratch pad of computer? Cache memory is scratch pad of computer. 13. What is the difference between RAM and ROM? RAM: Read/Write memory, it performs at High speed, Volatile memory. ROM: Read only memory, it performs at Low speed, Non-volatile memory. 14. What is cache memory? Cache memory is a small high speed memory. It is used for temporary storage of data& information between the main memory and the CPU.The cache memory is only in RAM. 15. What is the difference between primary& secondary storage device? Primary storage: Capacity is Limited, volatile memory. Secondary storage: Capacity is larger, Non-volatile memory. 16. Which processor structure is pipelined? All X86 processor have pipelined structure. 17. How do difference between Windows XP, 2000 professionals and Windows server 2003? Windows XP, Windows 2000 is a client operating system .where as Windows server 2003 is server operating system. Windows XP and 2000 is 32 bit while server is 64 bit. 18. What is virtual memory? Virtual Memory is a way of extending a computers memory by using a disk file to simulate adds memory space. The OS keeps track of these adds memory addresses on the hard disk called pages, and the operation in bringing in pages is called page fault. 19. What is a real time system? A real time system is a computer system that updates the information at the same rate it receives it. It is of two types, hard real time system and a soft real time system. 20. What is stack? Stack is a portion of RAM used for saving the content of Program Counter and general purpose registers. 21. Can ROM be used as stack? ROM cannot be used as stack because it is not possible to write to ROM. 22. What is a compiler? Compiler is used to translate the high-level language program into machine code at a time. It doesnt require special instruction to store in a memory, it stores automatically. The Execution time is less compared to Interpreter. 23. What is interrupt? Interrupt is a signal send by external device to the processor so as to request the processor to perform a particular work. 24. Difference between static and dynamic RAM? Static RAM: No refreshing, 6 to 8 MOS transistors are required to form one memory cell, Information stored as voltage level in a flip flop. Dynamic RAM: Refreshed periodically, 3 to 4 transistors are required to form one memory cell; Information is stored as a charge in the gate to substrate capacitance. 25. What is the full form of SATA hard disk? Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (is a computer bus primarily designed for transfer of data between a computer and mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. The main advantages over the older parallel ATA interface are faster. 26. What is difference between TCP protocol& UDP protocol? TCP stands for Transmission control protocol and it is a connection oriented protocol. The sender will get acknowledged after receiving the packets successively, by the receiver. No other packets were send till the acknowledgement from the receiver. 27. What is the requirement of DNS? Each and every system on the network has its individual and unique IP address but we cannot remember the IP address of all, so we have assigned a particular name to each I address, which is known as domain name. 28. What is the difference between domain & workgroup? Domain consists of server. Domain means a logical group of network. Domain is a centralized security and administration. Workgroup means there is no act as sever on the network. All the systems on network are equal. 29. How do you configure Proxy Server in Windows? To configure proxy server in windows first install the 2 LAN cards one for internet connection and another one for sharing internet connection to clients pc. now first configure Internet connection and then give the IP to 2nd LAN card for ex. 30. How to change in domain name? This article describes how to change a computer's Domain Name System (DNS) server or servers from the command line, either locally or remotely. This operation requires you to use the Regfind.exe tool from either the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource. shadow

31. What is Private IP? Give an example? The addresses which can't be routed through public (internet) are private IP addresses and it is schema of saving public addressex: in class A range is10.0.0.0 to 32. What is the subnet mask of this network? Subnet Mask: of IP addresses assigned in that subnet: 2^9 -2=510Subnet ID: ID: ... 33. Why WINS server is required? Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is an older network service (a protocol) that takes computer names as input and returns the numeric IP address of the computer with that name or vice versa. WINS was designed to replace the LMHOSTS file functionality. 34. What is SSL? It's a secure socket layer. the Https. 35. What is the role of network administrator? Here is a very short list of basic tasks for which a network administrator may be responsible: Setting up and configuring network hardware and software Installing and configuring network media and connections Connecting user nodes and peripherals of all. 36. What is the advantage and disadvantage of local area networks? LAN Advantages: Workstations can share peripheral devices like printers. This is cheaper than buying a printer for every workstations. Workstations do not necessarily need their own hard disk or CD-ROM drives which make them cheaper to buy than stand-alone. 37. What is a Microprocessor? - Microprocessor is a program-controlled device, which fetches the instructions from memory, decodes and executes the instructions. Most Micro Processor is single- chip devices. 38. Give examples for 8 / 16 / 32 bit Microprocessor? - 8-bit Processor - 8085 / Z80 / 6800; 16-bit Processor - 8086 / 68000 / Z8000; 32-bit Processor - 80386 / 80486. 39. Why 8085 processor is called an 8 bit processor? - Because 8085 processor has 8 bit ALU (Arithmetic Logic Review). Similarly 8086 processor has 16 bit ALU. 40. What is 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor? - The processor made of PMOS / NMOS / HMOS / HCMOS technology is called 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th generation processor, and it is made up of 4 / 8 / 16 / 32 bits. 41. Define HCMOS? - High-density n- type Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon field effect transistor. 42. What does microprocessor speed depend on? - The processing speed depends on DATA BUS WIDTH. 43. Is the address bus unidirectional? - The address bus is unidirectional because the address information is always given by the Micro Processor to address a memory location of an input / output devices. 44. Is the data bus is Bi-directional? - The data bus is Bi-directional because the same bus is used for transfer of data between Micro Processor and memory or input / output devices in both the direction. 45. What is the disadvantage of microprocessor? - It has limitations on the size of data. Most Microprocessor does not support floating-point operations. 46. What is the difference between microprocessor and microcontroller? - In Microprocessor more opcodes, few bit handling instructions. But in Microcontroller: fewer op-codes, more bit handling Instructions, and also it is defined as a device that includes micro processor, memory, & input / output signal lines on a single chip. 47. What is meant by LATCH? - Latch is a D- type flip-flop used as a temporary storage device controlled by a timing signal, which can store 0 or 1. The primary function of a Latch is data storage. It is used in output devices such as LED, to hold the data for display. 48. Why does microprocessor contain ROM chips? - Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain instructions to execute data. 49. What is TCP/IP? Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet.TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP. 50. How does the browser know to go to a certain IP address when you enter a domain like It searches through local DNS cache, if nothing is there; it queries the ISPs DNS server. 51. What are * and? When using them for wildcards in Windows? * Any characters, arbitrary among? - Single character. 52. How many logical drives is it possible to fit onto a physical disk? Maximum of 24 logical drives. The extended partition can only have 23 logical drives. 53. Whats the maximum hard drive size for FAT16-based Windows system? 2GB 54. What are the speed and device maximum specs for Firewire? IEEE 1394 (Firewire) supports the maximum of 63 connected devices with speeds up to 400 Mbps. 55. Whats the difference between L1 and L2 cache? Level 1 cache is internal to the chip, L2 is external. L1 (level 1) cache - L1 cache stores information for use by the processor. L1 cache is extremely quick but also expensive. Most processors have an L1 cache divided into space for data and space for instructions. L2 (level 2) cache - L2 cache is the next step down from L1 cache. Most processors today have L2 cache,

which increases cache performance. Most desktop processors have an L2 Cache of about 256KB, but some high-end processors can have as much as 2MB. 56. Name the processor lines of two major manufacturers? High-end: Intel - Pentium (II, III, 4), AMD Athlon. Low-end: Intel - Celeron, AMD - Duron. 64-bit: Intel - Itanium 2, AMD - Opteron. 57. Where does CPU Enhanced mode originate from? 80386 was the first 32-bit processor, and since the company had to backward-support the 8086. All the modern Intel-based processors run in the Enhanced mode, capable of switching between Real mode (just like the real 8086) and protected mode, which is the current mode of operation. 58. Where does the Real mode on the CPU come from? The original 8086, which only had 1 MB of memory. This megabyte is split into low memory for IRQ tables, application memory and high memory. 59. How do you clear CMOS password? Since CMOS is a special chip with its own battery, the best way to clear out a CMOS chip is to disconnect it from its power supply. 60. What are the basic expansion card types? ISA and PCI, ISA can be used only on XT, AT and ATX boards. The industry now considers ISA obsolete. According to me Ext2 file system is like windows fat16 type file system. Little information in fat16. It is the linux partition type. And vfat is related to windows file system. When we list the hard drive in the linux if there is already a windows o/s then it shows them Vfat. 61. Which transistor is used in each cell of EPROM? Floating gate Avalanche Injection MOS (FAMOS) transistor is used in each cell of EPROM. 62. What difference between original & chipset motherboard? Chipset: A chip set is a group of integrated circuits (microchips) that can be used together to serve a single function and are therefore manufactured and sold as a unit. The most common chipset reference is the input/output control chips of a motherboard. Motherboard: The "heart" of your PC -- it handles system resources (IRQ lines, DMA channels, I/O locations), as well as core components like the CPU, and all system memory. It accepts expansion devices such as sound and network cards, and modems.
Windows Administrator Interview Question


Describe how the DHCP lease is obtained. Its a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, (c) IP selection and (d) acknowledgement. I cant seem to access the Internet, dont have any access to the corporate network and on ipconfig my address is 169.254.*.*. What happened? The 169.254.*.* netmask is assigned to Windows machines running 98/2000/XP if the DHCP server is not available. The name for the technology is APIPA (Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing). Weve installed a new Windows-based DHCP server, however, the users do not seem to be getting DHCP leases off of it. The server must be authorized first with the Active Directory. How can you force the client to give up the DHCP lease if you have access to the client PC? ipconfig /release What authentication options do Windows 2000 Servers have for remote clients? PAP, SPAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and EAP. What is data link layer in the OSI reference model responsible for? Data link layer is located above the physical layer, but below the network layer. Taking raw data bits and packaging them into frames. The network layer will be responsible for addressing the frames, while the physical layer is responsible for retrieving and sending raw data bits. What is binding order? The order by which the network protocols are used for client-server communications. The most frequently used protocols should be at the top. What is LMHOSTS file? Its a file stored on a host machine that is used to resolve NetBIOS to specific IP addresses. Whats the difference between forward lookup and reverse lookup in DNS? Forward lookup is name-to-address; the reverse lookup is address-to-name.



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10. How can you recover a file encrypted using EFS? Use the domain recovery agent. 11. Explain hidden shares. Hidden or administrative shares are share names with a dollar sign ($) appended to their names. Administrative shares are usually created automatically for the root of each drive letter. They do not display in the network browse list. 12. How do the permissions work in Windows 2000? What permissions does folder inherit from the parent? When you combine NTFS permissions based on users and their group memberships, the least restrictive permissions take precedence. However, explicit Deny entries always override Allow entries. 13. Why cant I encrypt a compressed file on Windows 2000? You can either compress it or encrypt it, but not both.

14. If I rename an account, what must I do to make sure the renamed account has the same permissions as the original one? Nothing, its all maintained automatically. 15. Whats the most powerful group on a Windows system? Administrators. 16. What are the accessibility features in Windows 2000? Sticky Keys, Filter Keys Narrator, Magnifier, and On-Screen Keyboard. 17. Why cant I get to the Fax Service Management console? You can only see it if a fax had been installed. 18. What do I need to ensure before deploying an application via a Group Policy? Make sure its either an MSI file, or contains a ZAP file for Group Policy. 19. How do you configure mandatory profiles? Rename ntuser.dat to 20. I cant get multiple displays to work in Windows 2000. Multiple displays have to use peripheral connection interface (PCI) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) port devices to work properly with Windows 2000. 21. Whats a maximum number of processors Win2k supports? 2 22. I had some NTFS volumes under my Windows NT installation. What happened to NTFS after Win 2k installation? It got upgraded to NTFS 5. 23. How do you convert a drive from FAT/FAT32 to NTFS from the command line? convert c: /fs:ntfs 24. How does Internet Connection Sharing work on Windows 2000? Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) uses the DHCP Allocator service to assign dynamic IP addresses to clients on the LAN within the range of through In addition, the DNS Proxy service becomes enabled when you implement ICS.\ 25. What is Active Directory? Active Directory is a Meta Data. Active Directory is a data base which stores a data base like your user information, computer information and also other network object info. It has capabilities to manage and administer the complete Network which connect with AD. Active Directory service is an extensible and scalable directory service that enables you to manage network resources efficiently. Active Directory is directory service that stores information about objects on a network and makes this information available to users and network administrators. Active Directory gives network users access to permitted resources anywhere on the network using a single logon process. It provides network administrators with an intuitive, hierarchical view of the network and a single point of administration for all network objects.Active directory is a domain controller which is use to authenticate and administrate the group of computer, user, server etc. remotely. All the policies and security will be applicable on the client machine which one is join the domain. And all this policies and security is defined in active directory. 26. What is the Global Catalog? Global Catalog is a server which maintains the information about multiple domains with trust relationship agreement. The global catalog is a distributed data repository that contains a searchable, partial representation of every object in every domain in a multidomain Active Directory forest. The global catalog is stored on domain controllers that have been designated as global catalog servers and is distributed through multimaster replication. Searches that are directed to the global catalog are faster because they do not involve referrals to different domain controllers. 27. What is LDAP? LDAP (light weight directory access protocol) is an internet protocol which Email and other services is used to look up information from the server. 28. What is KCC? KCC (knowledge consistency checker) is used to generate replication topology for inter site replication and for intrusive replication. Within site replication traffic are done via remote procedure calls over ip, while between sites it is done through either RPC or SMTP. 29. Where is the AD database held? What other folders are related to AD? The AD data base is store in NTDS.DIT file 30. What is the SYSVOL folder? The sysVOL folder stores the servers copy of the domains public files. The contents such as group policy, users etc of the sysvol folder are replicated to all domain controllers in the domain.

31. What is the ISTG? Who has that role by default? Windows 2000 Domain controllers each create Active Directory Replication connection objects representing inbound replication from intra-site replication partners. For inter-site replication, one domain controller per site has the responsibility of evaluating the inter-site replication topology and creating Active Directory Replication Connection objects for appropriate bridgehead servers within its site. The domain controller in each site that owns this role is referred to as the Inter-Site Topology Generator (ISTG). 32. What is REPLMON? Replmon displays information about Active Directory Replication. 33. What is ADSIEDIT? ADSIEdit is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for Active Directory. It is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) tool. Network administrators can use it for common administrative tasks such as adding, deleting, and moving objects with a directory service. The attributes for each object can be edited or deleted by using this tool. ADSIEdit uses the ADSI application programming interfaces (APIs) to access Active Directory. The following are the required files for using this tool: ADSIEDIT.DLL ADSIEDIT.MSCNETDOM. 34. What is NETDOM? NETDOM is a command-line tool that allows management of Windows domains and trust relationships. It is used for batch management of trusts, joining computers to domains, verifying trusts, and secure channels. 35. What is REPADMIN? This command-line tool assists administrators in diagnosing replication problems between Windows domain controllers. Administrators can use Repadmin to view the replication topology (sometimes referred to as RepsFrom and RepsTo) as seen from the perspective of each domain controller. In addition, Repadmin can be used to manually create the replication topology (although in normal practice this should not be necessary), to force replication events between domain controllers, and to view both the replication metadata and up-to-datedness vectors. 36. How to take the backup of AD? For taking backup of active directory you have to do this : first go to START -> PROGRAM ->ACCESORIES -> SYSTEM TOOLS -> BACKUP when the backup screen is flash then take the backup of SYSTEM STATE it will take the backup of all the necessary information about the system including AD backup , DNS ETC. 37. How to restore the AD? For this do the same as above in the question 36 but in place of backup you select the restore option and restore the system state. 38. What are the DS* commands? You really are spoilt for choice when it comes to scripting tools for creating Active Directory objects. In addition to CSVDE, LDIFDE and VBScript, we now have the following DS commands: the da family built in utility DSmod - modify Active Directory attributesDSrm - to delete Active Directory objectsDSmove - to relocate objectsDSadd - create new accountsDSquery - to find objects that match your query attributesDSget - list the properties of an object 39. Whats the difference between LDIFDE and CSVDE? Usage considerations? CSVDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a CSVformatted file. A CSV (Comma Separated Value) file is a file easily readable in Excel. I will not go to length into this powerful command, but I will show you some basic samples of how to import a large number of users into your AD. Of course, as with the DSADD command, CSVDE can do more than just import users. Consult your help file for more info. Like CSVDE, LDIFDE is a command that can be used to import and export objects to and from the AD into a LDIF-formatted file. A LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) file is a file easily readable in any text editor; however it is not readable in programs like Excel. The major difference between CSVDE and LDIFDE (besides the file format) is the fact that LDIFDE can be used to edit and delete existing AD objects (not just users), while CSVDE can only import and export objects. 40. What is tombstone lifetime attribute? The number of days before a deleted object is removed from the directory services. This assists in removing objects from replicated servers and preventing restores from reintroducing a deleted object. This value is in the Directory Service object in the configuration NIC. 41. What are the requirements for installing AD on a new server? 1)The Domain structure 2)The Domain Name 3)storage location of the database and log file 4)Location of the shared system volume folder 5)DNS config Method 6)DNS configuration 42. What are application partitions? When do I use them? AN application directory partition is a directory partition that is replicated only to specific domain controller. Only domain controller running windows Server 2003 can host a replica of application directory partition. Using an application directory partition provides redundany, availabiltiy or fault tolerance by replicating data to specific domain controller pr any set of domain controllers anywhere in the forest.

43. You want to standardize the desktop environments (wallpaper, My Documents, Start menu, printers etc.) on the computers in one department. How would you do that? How it is possible? Login on client as Domain Admin user change whatever you need add printers etc go to system-User profiles copy this user profile to any location by select Everyone in permitted to use after copy change ntuser.dat to and assign this path under user profile 44. How do you create a new application partition? Use the DnsCmd command to create an application directory partition. To do this, use the following syntax: DnsCmd Server Name /CreateDirectoryPartition FQDN of partition Global catalog provide a central repository of domain information for the forest by storing partial replicas of all domain directory partitions. These partial replicas are distributed by multimaster replication to all global catalog servers in a forest. Its also used in universal global membership. 45. How do you view all the GCs in the forest? C:\>repadmin /showreps <domain_controller> where domain_controller is the DC you want to query to determine whether its a GC. The output will include the text DSA Options: IS_GC if the DC is a GC. . . . 46. Trying to look at the Schema, how can I do that? Type adsiedit.msc in run or command prompt 47. Can you connect Active Directory to other 3rd-party Directory Services? Name a few options. Yes, you can use dirXML or LDAP to connect to other directories In Novell you can use E-directory 48. What is Page File and Virtual Memory? Page File Is Storage Space For The Virtual Memory, Page File Uses Hard Disk Space As a Memory To Provide Memory Allocation... 49. What is the difference between DNS in Windows 2000 & Windows 2003 Server? We can rename or moved the domain name without rebuilding in windows 2003 server, but in windows 2000 server, we can't do that. 50. Shadow copy feature available in windows2003 server but not in windows2000 server. A new tool to recover files. There are 220 new group polices are added in windows2003 server over windows2000 server. In windows2000 server support maximum 10 users access shared folders at a time through network, but windows2003 server no limitation. Windows 2003 server includes IIS in it. 51. How do you double-boot a Win 2003 server box? The Boot.ini file is set as read-only, system, and hidden to prevent unwanted editing. To change the Boot.ini timeout and default settings, use the System option in Control Panel from the advanced tab and select Startup. 52. What do you do if earlier application doesnt run on Windows Server 2003? When an application that ran on an earlier legacy version of Windows cannot be loaded during the setup function or if it later malfunctions, you must run the compatibility mode function. This is accomplished by right-clicking the application or setup program and selecting Properties > Compatibility > selecting the previously supported operating system. 53. If you uninstall Windows Server 2003, which operating systems can you revert to? Win ME, Win 98, 2000, XP. Note, however, that you cannot upgrade from ME and 98 to Windows Server 2003. 54. How do you get to Internet Firewall settings? Start > Control Panel > Network and Internet Connections > Network Connections. 55. Where are the Windows NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) and its Backup Domain Controller (BDC) in Server 2003? The Active Directory replaces them. Now all domain controllers share a multimaster peer-to-peer read and write relationship that hosts copies of the Active Directory. 56. How long does it take for security changes to be replicated among the domain controllers? Security-related modifications are replicated within a site immediately. These changes include account and individual user lockout policies, changes to password policies, changes to computer account passwords, and modifications to the Local Security Authority (LSA). 57. Whats new in Windows Server 2003 regarding the DNS management? When DC promotion occurs with an existing forest, the Active Directory Installation Wizard contacts an existing DC to update the directory and replicate from the DC the required portions of the directory. If the wizard fails to locate a DC, it performs debugging and reports what caused the failure and how to fix the problem. In order to be located on a network, every DC must register in DNS DC locator DNS records. The Active Directory Installation Wizard verifies a proper configuration of the DNS infrastructure. All DNS configuration debugging and reporting activity is done with the Active Directory Installation Wizard. 58. When should you create a forest? Organizations that operate on radically different bases may require separate trees with distinct namespaces. Unique trade or brand names often give rise to separate DNS identities. Organizations merge or are acquired and naming continuity is desired. Organizations form partnerships and joint ventures. While access to common resources is desired, a separately defined tree can enforce more direct administrative and security restrictions.

59. How can you authenticate between forests? Four types of authentication are used across forests: (1) Kerberos and NTLM network logon for remote access to a server in another forest; (2) Kerberos and NTLM interactive logon for physical logon outside the users home forest; (3) Kerberos delegation to N-tier application in another forest; and (4) user principal name (UPN) credentials 60. What snap-in administrative tools are available for Active Directory? Active Directory Domains and Trusts Manager, Active Directory Sites and Services Manager, Active Directory Users and Group Manager, Active Directory Replication (optional, available from the Resource Kit), Active Directory Schema Manager (optional, available from adminpak) 61. What types of classes exist in Windows Server 2003 Active Directory? Structural class. The structural class is important to the system administrator in that it is the only type from which new Active Directory objects are created. Structural classes are developed from either the modification of an existing structural type or the use of one or more abstract classes. Abstract class. Abstract classes are so named because they take the form of templates that actually create other templates (abstracts) and structural and auxiliary classes. Think of abstract classes as frameworks for the defining objects. Auxiliary class. The auxiliary class is a list of attributes. Rather than apply numerous attributes when creating a structural class, it provides a streamlined alternative by applying a combination of attributes with a single include action. 88 class. The 88 class includes object classes defined prior to 1993, when the 1988 X.500 specification was adopted. This type does not use the structural, abstract, and auxiliary definitions, nor is it in common use for the development of objects in Windows Server 2003 environments. 62. How do you delete a lingering object? Windows Server 2003 provides a command called Repadmin that provides the ability to delete lingering objects in the Active Directory. 63. How is user account security established in Windows Server 2003? When an account is created, it is given a unique access number known as a security identifier (SID). Every group to which the user belongs has an associated SID. The user and related group SIDs together form the user accounts security token, which determines access levels to objects throughout t he system and network. SIDs from the security token is mapped to the access control list (ACL) of any object the user attempts to access. 64. If I delete a user and then create a new account with the same username and password, would the SID and permissions stay the same? No. If you delete a user account and attempt to recreate it with the same user name and password, the SID will be different. 65. What do you do with secure sign-ones in an organization with many roaming users? Credential Management feature of Windows Server 2003 provides a consistent single sign-on experience for users. This can be useful for roaming users who move between computer systems. The Credential Management feature provides a secure store of user credentials that includes passwords and X.509 certificates. 66. What remote access options does Windows Server 2003 support? Dial-in, VPN, dial-in with callback. 67. Where are the documents and settings for the roaming profile stored? All the documents and environmental settings for the roaming user are stored locally on the system, and, when the user logs off, all changes to the locally stored profile are copied to the shared server folder. Therefore, the first time a roaming user logs on to a new system the logon process may take some time, depending on how large his profile folder is. 68. Where are the settings for all the users stored on a given machine? \Document and Settings\All Users 69. What languages can you use for log-on scripts? JavaScript, VBScript, DOS batch files (.com, .bat, or even .exe) 70. Whats the difference between local, global and universal groups? Domain local groups assign access permissions to global domain groups for local domain resources. Global groups provide access to resources in other trusted domains. Universal groups grant access to resources in all trusted domains. 71. I am trying to create a new universal user group. Why cant I? Universal groups are allowed only in native-mode Windows Server 2003 environments. Native mode requires that all domain controllers be promoted to Windows Server 2003 Active Directory. 72. What is LSDOU? Its group policy inheritance model, where the policies are applied to Local machines, Sites, Domains and Organizational Units. 73. Why doesnt LSDOU work under Windows NT? If the NTConfig.pol file exists, it has the highest priority among the numerous policies. 74. Where are group policies stored? %SystemRoot%System32\Group Policy

75. What are GPT and GPC? Group policy template and group policy container. 76. Where is GPT stored? %System Root%\SYSVOL\sysvol\domain name\Policies\GUID 77. You change the group policies, and now the computer and user settings are in conflict. Which one has the highest priority? The computer settings take priority. 78. You want to set up remote installation procedure, but do not want the user to gain access over it. What do you do? gponame> User Configuration> Windows Settings> Remote Installation Services> Choice Options is your friend. 79. Whats contained in administrative template conf.adm? Microsoft NetMeeting policies 80. How can you restrict running certain applications on a machine? Via group policy, security settings for the group, then Software Restriction Policies. 81. You need to automatically install an app, but MSI file is not available. What do you do? A .zap text file can be used to add applications using the Software Installer, rather than the Windows Installer. 82. Whats the difference between Software Installer and Windows Installer? The former has fewer privileges and will probably require user intervention. Plus, it uses .zap files. 83. What can be restricted on Windows Server 2003 that wasnt there in previous products? Group Policy in Windows Server 2003 determines a users right to modify network and dial -up TCP/IP properties. Users may be selectively restricted from modifying their IP address and other network configuration parameters. 84. How frequently is the client policy refreshed? 90 minutes give or take. 85. Where is secedit? Its now gpupdate. 86. You want to create a new group policy but do not wish to inherit. Make sure you check Block inheritance. among the options when creating the policy. 87. What is tattooing the Registry? The user can view and modify user preferences that are not stored in maintained portions of the Registry. If the group policy is removed or changed, the user preference will persist in the Registry. 88. How do you fight tattooing in NT/2000 installations? You cant. 89. How do you fight tattooing in 2003 installations? User Configuration - Administrative Templates - System - Group Policy - enable - Enforce Show Policies Only. 90. What is Super Scope? A super scope is an administrative feature of DHCP servers running Windows Server 2003 that you can create and manage through the DHCP console. Using a super scope, you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative entity. With this feature, a DHCP server can: Support DHCP clients on a single physical network segment (such as a single Ethernet LAN segment) where multiple logical IP networks are used. When more than one logical IP network is used on each physical subnet or network, such configurations are often called multinets. Support remote DHCP clients located on the far side of DHCP and BOOTP relay agents (where the network on the far side of the relay agent uses multinets). 91. What is the requirement of DNS? Each and every system on the network has its individual and unique IP address but we cannot remember the IP address of all, so we have assigned a particular name to each Ip address, which is mapped with a domain name. 92. Why WINS server is required? Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is an older network service (a protocol) that takes computer names as input and returns the numeric IP address of the computer with that name or vice versa. 93. What is the role of network administrator? Setting up and configuring network hardware and software Installing and configuring network media and connections Connecting user nodes and peripherals of all. 94. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of DHCP? Advantages: All the IP configuration information gets automatically configured for your client machine by the DHCP server. If you move your client machine to a different subnet, the client will send out its discover message at boot time and work as usual. However, when you first boot up there you will not be able to get back the IP address you had at your previous location regardless of how little time has passed. Disadvantage: Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. The DNS (Domain

Name System) name is associated with your Ipaddress and therefore does change. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. 95. What does IntelliMirror do? It helps to reconcile desktop settings, applications, and stored files for users, particularly those who move between workstations or those who must periodically work offline. 96. Whats the major difference between FAT and NTFS on a local machine? FAT and FAT32 provide no security over locally logged-on users. Only native NTFS provides extensive permission control on both remote and local files. 97. How do FAT and NTFS differ in approach to user shares? They dont, both have support for sharing. 98. Explain the List Folder Contents permission on the folder in NTFS. Same as Read & Execute, but not inherited by files within a folder. However, newly created subfolders will inherit this permission. 99. I have a file to which the user has access, but he has no folder permission to read it. Can he access it? It is possible for a user to navigate to a file for which he does not have folder permission. This involves simply knowing the path of the file object. Even if the user cant drill down the file/folder tree using My Computer, he can still gain access to the file using the Universal Naming Convention (UNC). The best way to start would be to type the full path of a file into Run window. 100. For a user in several groups, are Allow permissions restrictive or permissive? Permissive, if at least one group has Allow permission for the file/folder, user will have the same permission. 101. For a user in several groups, are Deny permissions restrictive or permissive? Restrictive, if at least one group has Deny permission for the file/folder, user will be denied access, regardless of other group permissions. 102. What hidden shares exist on Windows Server 2003 installation? Admin$, Drive$, IPC$, NETLOGON, print$ and SYSVOL. 103. Whats the difference between standalone and fault-tolerant DFS (Distributed File System) installations? The standalone server stores the Dfs directory tree structure or topology locally. Thus, if a shared folder is inaccessible or if the Dfs root server is down, users are left with no link to the shared resources. A faulttolerant root node stores the Dfs topology in the Active Directory, which is replicated to other domain controllers. Thus, redundant root nodes may include multiple connections to the same data residing in different shared folders. 104. Were using the DFS fault-tolerant installation, but cannot access it from a Win98 box. Use the UNC path, not client, only 2000 and 2003 clients can access Server 2003 fault-tolerant shares. 105. Where exactly do fault-tolerant DFS shares store information in Active Directory? In Partition Knowledge Table, which is then replicated to other domain controllers? 106. Can you use Start->Search with DFS shares? Yes. 107. What problems can you have with DFS installed? Two users opening the redundant copies of the file at the same time, with no file-locking involved in DFS, changing the contents and then saving. Only one file will be propagated through DFS. 108. I run Microsoft Cluster Server and cannot install fault-tolerant DFS. Yeah, you cant. Install a standalone one. 109. Is Kerberos encryption symmetric or asymmetric? Symmetric. 110. How does Windows 2003 Server try to prevent a middle-man attack on encrypted line? Time stamp is attached to the initial client request, encrypted with the shared key. 111. What hashing algorithms are used in Windows 2003 Server? RSA Data Securitys Message Digest 5 (MD5) produces a 128-bit hash, and the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA-1), produces a 160-bit hash. 112. What third-party certificate exchange protocols are used by Windows 2003 Server? Windows Server 2003 uses the industry standard PKCS-10 certificate request and PKCS-7 certificate response to exchange CA certificates with third-party certificate authorities. 113. Whats the number of permitted unsuccessful logons on Administrator account? Unlimited. Remember, though, that its the Administrator account, not any account thats part of the Administrators group. \ 114. If hashing is one-way function and Windows Server uses hashing for storing passwords, how is it possible to attack the password lists, specifically the ones using NTLMv1?

A cracker would launch a dictionary attack by hashing every imaginable term used for password and then compare the hashes. 115. Whats the difference between guest accounts in Server 2003 and other editions? More restrictive in Windows Server 2003. 116. How many passwords by default are remembered when you check "Enforce Password History Remembered"? Users last 6 passwords. 117. What is the difference between domain & workgroup? Domain consists of server. Domain means a logical group of network. domain is a centralized security and administration. workgroup means there is no act as sever on the network. 118. How do you configure Proxy Server in Windows? To configure proxy server in windows first install the 2 lan cards one for internet connection and another one for sharing internet connection to clients pc. now first configure Internet connection and then give the IP to 2nd lan card for ex. 119. How to change in domain name? This article describes how to change a computer's Domain Name System (DNS) server or servers from the command line, either locally or remotely. This operation requires you to use the Regfind.exe tool from either the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource 120. How will you backup DNS server? If you are using Active Directory-integrated DNS, then your DNS information is stored in Active Directory itself, and you'll need to back up the entire system state. If not, however, you can back up the zone files themselves from the c:\windows\system32\DNS directory. 121. What is all the protocol involved in Active Directory Replication? The administrative tool, "Active Directory Sites and Services", is used to manage Active Directory replication. Replication data is compressed before being sent to minimize bandwidth use. There are two protocols used to replicate AD: Normally Remote Procedure Call (RPC) is used to replicate data and is always used for intrasite replication since it is required to support the FRS. RPC depends on IP (internet protocol) for transport. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) may be used for replication between sites. SMTP can't replicate the domain partition, however. Therefore the remote site would need to be in another domain to be able to effectively use SMTP for carrying replication data. Bridgehead server - A domain controller that is used to send replication information to one or more other sites. 122. Difference between SID and GUID? A security identifier (SID) is a unique value of variable length that is used to identify a security principal or security group in Windows operating systems. Well-known SIDs are a group of SIDs that identify generic users or generic groups. Their values remain constant across all operating systems. 123. Explain Stub Zone in DNS Server? Stub zones are similar to secondary zones in that they have a read only copy of the server that is authorative for a child DNS domain. The difference is that secondary zones contain a copy of all the A records from the authorative zone, stub zones contain just three records for each of the child domains, these are the SOA (Start of Authority) for the primary zone, the A record and NS record. This means that when a query is sent to the stub zone it can forward it straight to the correct DNS server as it knows its details.

What is all the Partition available in Active Directory? Active Directory objects are stored in the Directory Information Tree (DIT) which is broken into the following partitions: Schema partition - Defines rules for object creation and modification for all objects in the forest. Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest. Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest, it is known as an enterprise partition. Configuration partition - Information about the forest directory structure is defined including trees, domains, domain trust relationships, and sites (TCP/IP subnet group). Replicated to all domain controllers in the forest, it is known as an enterprise partition. Domain partition - Has complete information about all domain objects (Objects that are part of the domain including OUs, groups, users and others). Replicated only to domain controllers in the same domain. Partial domain directory partition - Has a list of all objects in the directory with a partial list of attributes for each object.The DIT holds a subset of Active Directory information and stores enough information to start and run the Active Directory service.

Linux Administrator Interview Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

How do you create a Linux User ? And what are the files it reflects? Explain few Directory & File related Commands? Explain about Wild Card Characters? When you install OS how do you define partions ? Where do you set environment variable? Where and how do you change the UMASK Value?

7. 8. 9.

What is the use of nmap command? How do u test the rpm packages installed or not? How do start the apache service?

10. What is the use su command? 11. What is the difference between su and su - ? 12. Explain linux system folder structure? 13. How do you create folders and subfolders in single command? 14. How do you change the ownership and permission for particular folder? Explain with example? 15. Explain UMASK value ? 16. How do you configure service to start service while booting? 17. How do install source file that is TAR Files? 18. Explain 5 find commands to search file ? 19. What is the difference between locate & whereis? 20. What is the use updatedb command? 21. Test neat command and explain? 22. What is difference between rm rf & rmdir ? 23. How do you install different architecture RPM Package? 24. What is the use fdisk command? 25. How do you remove the User? 26. What is the difference between init 0 & init 6? 27. Explain ssh command ? And write the syntax ? 28. How do you create dummy file ? 29. Write 10 command about VI Editor? 30. What is the use of DirectoryIndex in Apache? 31. Explain SAMBA with all commands? 32. Explain about chkconfig command ? 33. What is the difference between ssh and scp command? 34. Explain Full Path & Relative Path? 35. What is Standard Red Hat Linux file system? Explain? 36. What is the use of mkfs? 37. What is the use of separate filesystems? 38. Can you separate the filesystems /etc, /lib, /bin, /sbin, /dev from / Filesystem? 39. Explain about RAID 0 1 5 Concepts? 40. What is LVM? 41. Explain about default log files? 42. What is the use of /etc/modules.conf? 43. Explain the syntax to mount the file system? 44. What is /etc/fstab ? 45. Know about umount & remount? 46. Explain about autofs? 47. What is swap space& how do you create swap space? Write the steps? 48. Where do you configure init level ? 49. Explain init levels? 50. What is the steps of Kernel Initialization? 51. What is the important tasks of /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit? 52. What is the use of /etc/rc.local ? 53. Which utility is used to control Default Services Startup? 54. What is the utilities toControl Services Manually?
Solaris Administrator Interview Questions

1. What are the main differences between solaris 10 and 9? The main difference in solaris 9 & solaris 10 is "SMF(Solaris Management Facility)". In solaris 9, if any service goes down then we should restart all services this is the disadvantage. But in solaris 10,if any service goes down

then that particular service we can select and enable it instead of restarting all services. 2. What is the command to do an interactive boot from the ok prompt? stop+a command is to boot an interactive boot from the ok prompt 3. Which NFS daemons are found on the NFS server? In NFS server side there are 4 Deamons They are 1.mountd 2.statd 3.lockd 4. What file controls system wide password aging? /etc/shadow 5. What command will display the VTOC for disk c0t0d0s0? prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0 6. What command enables a printer? Enable 7. Where are the templates stored that are copied into the user's home directories for their personal customizations? /etc/skel 8. How do we know how many LAN cards we have in server? dmesg - It displays all configured items on systems. 9. Give the command that will display your default boot device? eeprom boot-device 10. What command can you use to display all of your groups? groups - To display full list 11. What is the command can reconfigure devices with out reboot? Devfsadm 12. What are the different phases in boot process? Boot phases of Solaris Operating Environment are: 1.boot PROM 2.boot programs like bootblk,ufsboot 3.kernel initialization like loading modules 4. init phase 13. How many cpu's we can connect to a spark machine ? Sun Fire 15K can have upto max of 106 processors 14. List the hidden files in current directory ? - ls -a1 | grep "^\." 15. How much space is used for users in kilobytes ? - quot -af 16. How to know the date & time for when script is executed ? add the following script line in shell script.eval echo "Script is executed at `date`" >> timeinfo.infHere, timeinfo.inf contains date & time details ie., when script is executed and history related to execution. 17. Display the files in the directory by file size ? - ls ltr | sort nr k 5 18. Display the state of interfaces used for TCP/IP traffice ? - netstat -i 19. How to find 32 or 64 bit system instances of OS? isainfo b 20. How would you find out what version of Solaris is currently running? Uname -r is the command to know the version of the OS and uname -s for the type of OS.