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1. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY RESEARCH?

 Good: “It is a careful, critical, disciplined inquiry, varying in


technique and method according to the nature and conditions of
the problem identified, directed toward the clarification or
resolution (or both) of a problem.”
 Aquino: “Research is, simply, the systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic or problem. After a
careful, systematic search for pertinent information or data on a
specific topic or problem and after the research worker has
analyzed and interpreted the data, he eventually faces another
essential task – that of preparing the research report.”
 Manual and Medel: “The process of gathering data or
information to solve a particular or specific problem in a scientific
manner.”
 Sanchez: “A systematic study or investigation of something for
the purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher.”
 Treece and Treece: “Research in its broadest sense is an
attempt to gain solutions to problems. More precisely, it is the
collection of data in a rigorously controlled situation for the
purpose of prediction or explanation.”

2. HOW DO YOU DISTINGUISH A RESEARCHABLE FROM NON


RESEARCHABLE PROBLEM?
 Researchable problems imply the possibility of empirical
investigation
 Non researchable problems include explanations of how to do
something, vague propositions, and value-based concerns

3. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH


PROBLEM?
A. Research is systematic. It follows an orderly and sequential
procedure that leads to the discovery of truth, solution of a
problem, or whatever is aimed to be discovered.
B. Research is controlled. All variables except those that are
tested or being experimented upon are kept constant so that
the changes made on the subjects of the study can be
attributed only to the experimental variable.
C. Research is empirical. All procedures employed and the
data gathered are perceived in the same manner by all
observers.
D. Research is analytical. There is a critical analysis of all the
data used so that there is no error in their interpretation.
E. Research is objective, unbiased, and logical. All findings
and conclusions are logically based on empirical data and no
effort is made to alter the results of the research.
F. Research employs hypothesis. This is to guide the
investigation process. In experimental. In experimental
studies, hypotheses are expressly stated but in descriptive
studies, the specific sub problems or specific questions serve
as the hypotheses and the hypotheses are tested and not
proved.
G. Research employs quantitative or statistical methods.
Data are transformed into numerical measures and are
treated statistically to determine their significance or
usefulness.
H. Research is original work. Data are gathered from primary
sources or first hand sources and not from secondary sources.
I. Research is done by an expert. The researcher uses valid
and carefully designed procedures, valid data – gathering
instruments, and valid data.
J. Research is accurate investigation, observation and
description. Every research activity must be done accurately
so that the findings will lead to the formulation of scientific
generalizations. All conclusions are based on actual evidence.
K. Research is patient and unhurried activity. This to ensure
accuracy.
L. Research requires an effort-making capacity. No research
can be conducted without the exertion of much effort because
research involves much work and time.
M. Research requires courage. Research requires courage
because the researcher oftentimes undergoes hazards,
discomforts and the like.

4. HOW DO YOU DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM?


 A research problem is (1) any significant, perplexing and
challenging situation, real or artificial, the solution of which
requires reflective thinking; (2) a perplexing situation after it has
been translated into a question or series of questions that help
determine the direction of subsequent inquiry.

5. WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE SOURCES OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM?


 When there is an absence of information resulting in a gap in our
knowledge.
 When there are contradictory results.
 When a fact exists and you intend to make your study explain it.

6. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF REVIEWING RELATED LITERATURE?


 The review of related literature is the major process that leads
you to past theory. It provides the conceptual or theoretical
framework of the planned research.
 It provides information about past researches related to the
intended study. This process prevents unintentional duplication
of these past researches and leads into what needs to be
investigated.
 It gives you a feeling of confidence since by means of the review
of related literature you will have on the hand all constructs
related to your study. You therefore are an authority on the
subject as far as mastery of information is concerned.
 It gives you information about the research methods used, the
population and sampling considered, the instruments used in
gathering the data, and the statistical computation in previous
research.
 It provides findings and conclusions of past investigations which
you may relate to your own findings and conclusions.

7. HOW SHOULD LITERATURE REVIEW DONE?


A. You must demonstrate a critical and evaluative mind since
you have to do some judgments regarding the profitability of
the material.
B. Do some outlining of the salient areas of the investigation on
index card, one source to a card. Note taking must start with a
bibliographical entry of the material on the topmost left hand
corner of the first index card.
C. Note down problems or questions of the investigation that you
are reviewing. This is followed by the methodology which
presents the methods and procedures done in the research.
D. Note down specific techniques inasmuch as from this area you
get insights into what you will do in your own thesis.
E. Review the results, conclusions, and recommendations. From
the results and conclusions, you get to accumulate gaps and
inconsistencies among the constructs you are reviewing.
F. By and large, you formulate a theory based on your massive
review of related research literature.