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THE REPUBLIC OF PERU

Daniel Villavicencio & Lluvia Ponce

1. The development of Science and Technology


In order to define a policy for Science,
Technology and innovation, the National
Council of Science and Technology
(CONCYTEC in Spanish) has
established 5 steps which must be
followed in order to unify the efforts of the
various national agents (businesses,
universities, scientific community,
foreign affairs and so on), these are:
1. A systematic analysis of the
scientific and technological
reality (1998).
2. A National development Plan
(1999).
3. Approval of such a Plan.
4. The incorporation of the results
into the productive system.
5. Improving the efficiency of the
State in the area of the
management of science and
technology.

1.1 Problems related to the development of science and technology.


In the past, the resources that Peru has designated for investment in science and technology have
been very scarce (in 1970, the investment in R&D was only 0,13% of the GNP, in
1975 it reached 0.36%, in 1981 it fell to 0.28% and then decreased to 0.11% in 2000 and to 0.1% in
2002).

Moreover, the number of researchers is very small and often they are poorly qualified. Such a situation
has been reflected in the small number of patents produced throughout the country and in the few
international publications credited to Peruvian researchers.

There is little relationship between the academic sector and the area of production. This generates a
duplication of effort and an inadequate use of resources. In addition, there is a misuse of already
acquired knowledge (businesses tend to acquire technology from the outside instead of exploring
national possibilities).

The innovation developed by the enterprise sector is close to naught (on average it dedicates 0, 06%
of its revenues to science and technology).

A significant deterioration in higher education has been observed together with a reduction in the
resources dedicated to infrastructure, science and technology.
The government of Peru has accepted that “it does not have in place political or economic legislation
that could induce the public and private sectors to invest in science and technology or initiate a
process of innovation in these fields.”
Because the country has not given proper importance to science and technology, it has not been able
to proceed with passing legislation, which would regulate science, technology and innovation in the
long term.

Likewise, fruitful cooperation between those aiming to build a national system of researchers has not
been achieved because of weak communication between businesses and their feeble relationship with
the other participants in the National system of science and technology (SINACYT in Spanish). In
other words, the configuration of the productive sector makes
it very difficult to consolidate corporative chains or clusters that could reinforce the capacity for
innovation.

The reason why businesses do not relate to other agents is that there is no market
for scientific or technological services because of the rigidity of the economy that only satisfies
corporate demands. Even inside businesses, there is no innovation, because
they think it is too risky. International businesses, on the other hand, import not only machinery and
equipment but all other services required for consultancy and, in general, technological services.

Universities, on the other hand, possess little capacity to access networks specialized in scientific and
technological information. Besides, they have restricted access to up-to-date information and have
limited resources. They publish little and, in general terms, produce a negligible quantity of research.

1.2 Policies: Towards a Legislation concerning Science, Technology and the Construction of a
National Board of Researchers
The first step should be the creation of a National Centre of strategic planning
to institutionalize and elaborate future policy. It should also guarantee sustained economical growth
and the reduction of poverty besides stimulating and decentralizing science
and technology.

Hence, a new model designed to develop science and technology should be aimed at generating
surplus value. For this task the system will need to establish links between businesses, universities,
institutes and the State. However, given the country’s limitations, the cornerstone of science and
technology will necessarily be the country’s natural resources.

An additional element would be the improvement of the level of education among the population using
evaluation and updating the curriculum.

To obtain this, public scientific and technological institutions must be strengthened in order
to carry out the directives of scientific legislation by means of projects embodied in a
long-term strategy. Fields such as biotechnology, genomics, nanotechnology, the structure
of materials, basic sciences, earth science and biodiversity would become important. Further still, the
CONCYTEC must be able to evaluate and follow up the supply and demand
of science and technology. It would also be essential for businesses and institutions to become part of
the networks that permit feedback between the agents. Finally,
the development of projects in financial, public, private, national and international institutions, as well
as strengthening the system of education is also crucial. The aim is to generate
an endogenous capacity for the creation and transfer of scientific and technological knowledge. The
object is to reach an investment of 1% of the GNP in R&D.
By these means, and in order to promote private investments in the scheme mentioned above, a
Programme for International Cooperation will be outlined to encourage science and technology. In
addition, economic incentives, agreements about competitiveness, access to scientific and
technological services and so on will be encouraged.

1.3 Regional political legislation on Science and Technology


One of the objectives set out by the CONCYTEC is the decentralization of science and technology,
thus promoting social acceptance of science and technology, which is an essential part of the
developmental process that should take place in every region.

In the process of designing and formulating the requirements for science and technology there are
several actors: governments, universities and regional businesses. From these the following ideas
have emerged:
1. Analysis of regional supply and demand of Science, Technology and Innovation.
2. Politics of CTI that correspond to regional characteristics.
3. Identification of essential programmes and projects.

Additionally, regional agendas of CTI have been created; these operate regional groups of science,
technology and innovation, consultancy groups, and regional study programmes and forums that offer
technological innovation for SME’s.

1.4 Project for political legislation


The Programme for Efficient Development (PRODEV in Spanish) is focused, in the medium term, on
making regional governments effective. Hence it works as an underpin that improves public
management. This includes designing the relevant processes, making them work, monitoring and
evaluating political legislation, strategies and programmes. These should be coordinated in order to
obtain a rational assignment of public resources.

As mentioned earlier, the structure, which supports science and technology in Peru, is feeble.
However, one of the first organisms to regulate such issues is the CONCYTEC, which is responsible
for the construction of a national legislation for science and technology.

In 1968 the National Board of Researchers was founded and, under its wing, the National Council of
Science and Technology was established in 1981.Today these institutions depend on the Ministry of
Education. The Council aims at promoting political-normative and technical instruments that should
strengthen the national system of science, technology and technological innovation (SINACYT). They
will coordinate the State’s actions, the academic world, businesses and society. They should muster,
at the same time, ideas and capabilities that adapt and spread scientific knowledge.

Among its functions, the CONCYTEC must formulate political legislation and national plans for the
development of scientific knowledge, helping different sectors, regional and institutional, to better the
economic and social development of the country.
1.4.1 Programmes established by CONCYTEC
1. Programme 1: Scientific and technological research and technological innovation
• This programme strives to promote scientific development and achieve the
sustainable use of resources by means of national and regional scale programmes
as well as other activities purpose-built for research and technological innovation. It
relies on five other subprograms.
2. Programme 2: Formation of human resources and excellence in science and technology.
• This aims at developing human resources specialized in different scientific
disciplines. It started in 2004 and has so far benefited 976 students to
postgraduate levels.
3. Programme 3: System of scientific, technological and knowledge innovation.
• This Programme tries to set up an information system that integrates public and
private scientific and technological institutions to the University of Peru. It relies on
three backup subprograms.
4. Programme 4: Scientific and Technological acceptance
• The programme encourages scientific education and promotes the rational use of
human resources. Through it (and another two subprograms) endowments are
offered to scientists and development agents.
5. Programme 5: Decentralization of scientific and technological activities
• This programme has as its target the decentralization of science and technology,
with the participation of national institutions, businesses and the academic world,
through the development of regional plans.
6. Programme 6: Plans and political legislation for science, technology and innovation
• This is directed towards managing plans in the short, medium and long term
through annual operative schemes. It embodies two other subprograms; the first is
concerned with generating information, and the latter is related to political
legislation.
7. Programme 7: Updating institutional management for science and technology
• The programme aims at improving the efficiency of the management of
CONCYTEC through transparency and updating. This programme relies on two
backup subprograms.

1.5 National Programme for Biodiversity and Biotechnology (PRONIDIB in Spanish)


The PRONIDIB focuses on promoting efficiency in the area of biological diversity and
its relationship to the productive sector. It relies on seven subprograms (basic sciences, genomics,
biotechnology, Incubacyt, the transfer of technology, the development of human resources, and
support for research, information and education). Each subprogram
works towards the creation of a national research plan that should prioritize the issues in these fields.

1.5 National programme for scientific and technological infrastructure


This programme endeavours to promote innovation in, and development of, designs and techniques
that encourage better infrastructure or, when necessary, the modification of the existing resources.
Simultaneously, the project will permit data collection and
the development of tools that improve the recognition of weak points and help avoid
future problems.

1.6 Programme for vulnerability and adjustment


The object of this programme is to evaluate the vulnerability of the coastal region to weather changes.
It also evaluates its relationship to the fishing industry. The project encourages the retrieval of useful
data and creates tools that should improve evaluation of vulnerabilities and probable future scenarios.

1.7 Programme for the acceptance of science, technology and innovation in Peru
The programme links institutions that spread ideas: public offices, universities, research institutes, the
media, businesses etc. This would encourage scientific and technological education throughout all the
different class structures. The programme is carried out in cooperation with similar programmes
developed by UNESCO, OAS, the CAB, etc.

1.8 Programme for innovation and future technology


The programme is intended to speed up the development of research and the transference and the
innovation of technology with the object of supporting national development programmes. For this task
coordination and interaction relies on businesses, universities and research institutions.

2. Actors of R&D
There are many centres and institutes all over Peru. However, few are intended to work on scientific
and technological research. Hence, the following institutes have been analysed according to the
degree of their relevance to our concerns.

Table 1: Public Research Institutes and Centres

Institution Mission

Mining, Metallurgical, and Geological institute Public Institution decentralized of the Sector Energy and
(Instituto Geológico, Metalúrgico y Minero Mines of Peru, it is oriented to obtain through the Research,
(INGEMMET) www.ingemmet.gob.pe the Geo-scientific information (regional geology, mineral
resources, geo-environment and mining-metallurgy) of the
Created in 1979, but has its antecedents in the national territory, to process, to manage, and to diffuse it in
Central Meeting of Engineers founded in 1852. an efficient way to promote the investment, to protect the
environment and to support the sustainable development of
the country.

Geophysics Institute of Peru (Instituto Geofísico Its mission is to carry out studies and scientific research in
del Perú IGP) www.igp.net.pe the Geophysics field, the training and the teaching in a
higher level to university students and provide scientific
services in the different areas of the Geophysics. This
Institute has 4 research programs (in Aeronomy, Astronomy,
Seismology and Volcanology), and 8 Research Centres (in
Seismology, Volcanology and Prediction of the Climate).

Sea Institute of Peru (Instituto del Mar del Perú , Its mission is the study of the marine environment and bio-
MARPE), www.imarpe.gob.pe diversity, evaluates the fishing resources and provides
information and guidance for the making decisions on the
It has its first antecedent in the "Council of fishing, the aquaculture and the protection of the marine
Hydrobiology Research" created in 1954. environment. It offers courses, consultancy and training and
However, it was formally created in 1964, by the has cooperation covenants with 8 universities.
fusion of the Council of Hydrobiology Research
with the Research Institute of the Marine
Resources.
Table 1 Continued

Institution Mission

Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute (Instituto Its Mission is to develop and to promote the science and
Peruano de Energía Nuclear, IPEN) nuclear technology to the benefit of the population,
www.ipen.gob.pe regulating and prosecuting the use of the ionizant radiation.
This institute carries out research in development of new
applications, molecular biology, biotechnology, development
of software, experimental techniques, etc., through 4
laboratories of Sciences (in chemistry, physical, biology and
electronic).

National institute of Telecommunications Its mission is to promote and to collaborate in the


Research and Training (Instituto Nacional de development and use of the Technologies of Information
Investigación y Capacitación de and Communication (TICs), in favour of the social and
Telecomunicaciones (INICTEL) economic development of the country; carrying out research,
training, workshops, studies and projects. This institute
www.inictel.gob.pe possesses a technological businesses incubator.
Created in 1971.

Fishing Technological Institute (Instituto Its mission is to promote, to perform and to divulge
Tecnológico Pesquero (ITP) technological and scientific research programs in order to
contribute with the rational and integral use of the
www.itp.org.pe hydrobiology resources, promoting the technology and
Created in 1979. knowledge transfer in the fields of the manipulation,
conservation, prosecution and sanitary control of the fish
and the fishing products.

Agro-industrial Development Institute (Instituto de It belongs to the Agrarian Univ. Molina, and its mission is to
Desarrollo Agroindustrial, INDDA), cooperate and to promote the development of the agro
www.lamolina.edu.pe/ industry in the country, through products, services and
technology transfer to consumers.

Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (Instituto de Its mission is to contribute in the improvement of the life
Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana , IIAP) quality of the Amazon people through the research directed
to the sustainable development and the conservation of the
www.iiap.org.pe natural resources of the Amazon region. This institute has 4
Created in 1980. Research Centres and offers diverse services of
technological development, environmental impact, zoning,
pre-investment studies, technology transfer, etc. At the
present time is performing 26 Projects on Biodiversity,
Ecosystems and Environmental Code Research.

National Geographic Institute (Instituto Geográfico Its mission is to elaborate and to update the official
Nacional, IGN) cartography of Peru, through planning, directing and
performing the activities related to the geomatic, required for
www.ignperu.gob.pe development of the private and public institutions and the
This institute belongs to the Military Geographical national defence.
Institute (IGM) in 1980.

National Institute of Civil Defence (Instituto Its mission is to direct, to establish norms and to execute the
Nacional de Defensa Civil, INDECI) National System of Civil Defence in the prevention and
attention of disasters, for the protection of the population
www.indeci.gob.pe and their patrimony.
Created in 1990.
Table 1 Continued

Institution Mission

National Institute of Natural Resources (Instituto This Institution is the public authority responsible for carrying
Nacional de Recursos Naturales, INRENA) out and to promote the necessary actions for the sustainable
use of the renewable natural resources, the conservation of
www.inrena.gob.pe the wild biological diversity and the sustainable management
Created in 1992. of the rural environment.

National Institute of Agrarian Research and This Institution interacts in the areas of the scientific
Extensión (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y investigation, generating know-how and adapting
Extensión Agraria, INIEA) www.inia.gob.pe technologies in response to the demands of the market,
those are methodological and systematically transferred to
the agrarian producers, through technological services and
agrarian extension. Similarly offers technological information
by means of consultancy services.

National Institute of Statistics and Informatics This institution contributes to the decisions taking with
(Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, qualified statistical information and the use of information
INEI) www.inei.gob.pe technologies for the development of country.
Created in 1990.

National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology Its mission is to manage the hydrologic, meteorological,
(Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología, agro-meteorology and environmental activities of the
SENAMHI) country, to contribute in the world atmospheric vigilance, and
likewise to provide specialized services to support the
www.senamhi.gob.pe sustainable development, the security and the national
Created in 1969. welfare. The SENAMHI generates the knowledge,
evaluation, study and classification of the climatic and
hydrologic resources of the country and the execution of the
necessary investigations for the best use of those resources.
This institute offers covenants for studies, services and
technical cooperation.

Health National Institute (Instituto Nacional de Its mission is the promotion, development and diffusion of
Salud, INS) www.ins.gob.pe the technological and scientific research, as well as to offer
services of health in the fields of the public health, the
In 1981 it acquires this name; nevertheless the control of not-transmissible and transmissible illnesses, the
origin of this institute goes back to 1896 with the diet and nutrition, the production of biological products, the
Institute of Public Health. quality control of food, pharmaceutical products, the health
employment and protection of the environment oriented in
public and intercultural health to improve the population life
quality.

National Commission of Aerospatiale Research Its mission is to lead the Research and Development
and Development (Comisión Nacional de National and Regional through the peaceful control and
Investigación y Desarrollo Aeroespacial development, research and work projects in favour of the
(CONIDA) www.conida.gob.pe country in spatial features.
Created in 1974.

National Institute of Neoplasy Diseases (Instituto Its mission is to generate important medical research
Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, INEM) through the training of its personnel and the submission of
www.inen.sld.pe top-level services.
Created in 1939.
Table 1 Continued

Institution Mission

Peruvian-Japanese Centre of Seismic Research Its mission is to develop research relating to the Study of
and Disaster Mitigation (Centro Peruano Japones Natural and Induced Hazards and Risks, Vulnerability and
de Investigaciones Sísmicas y Mitigación de Seismic Risk Studies and Research of Seismic-resistant
Desastres (CISMID) http://www.cismid-uni.org Housing Multi-familiar Studies of low cost (Investigaciones
de Estudios de Vivienda Multifamiliares Sismorresistente de
It was created in 1986 by the Faculty of Civil bajo costo.). It is supported by the development of research
Engineering of the University of Engineering and laboratories and departments of engineering.
financed by the Japanese government through its
agency of cooperation.

National Service of Agrarian Salubrity (Servicio Its mission is to improve the health, harmlessness and
Nacional de Salubridad Agraria (SENASA) quality agrarian with the aim to contribute to national
www.senasa.gob.pe) development. It maintains a system of Phyto-sanitary and
Zoo-sanitary Vigilance, that protects the country of plagues
Created in 1992. and illnesses. This institute offers the services of inspection,
verification and certification, diagnoses, identifies and
provides biological controllers, likewise offers consultancies
and statistics from clients, services and results observed.

Coinciding with these pubic research centres, public universities have developed their own institutes
and research centres.

The National University of San Marcos (UNMSM – Spanish acronymn) is the main public university of
the country and includes the production centre management office (OCCP in Spanish) concerned with
bringing universities and businesses closer together. It was created in 2003 with the object of
strengthening the production centres of the UNMSM and consequently improving the quality of
products and services with better standards of efficiency and innovation. For this, the joint effort of
businesses and the State are required. Among the services provided by the university are:
consultancy, technical support in mathematics, engineering, chemistry, agriculture and business
management as well as others offered by different faculties.

The National University of Engineering was founded 130 years ago and has developed the General
Research Institute (IGI - Spanish acronymn) similar to the OCCP in the UNMSM. The IGI is in charge
of carrying out the scientific work and multidisciplinary research of the University.

The institute offers grants to research projects in its different departments. It is also through this
institute that the university has contact with other universities and other public and private institutions.
The IGI owns a magazine called “TECNIA” where the results of research projects are published.
Through the magazine the results are brought to the university, the State and the different productive
sectors, besides being distributed to institutions concerned with social, scientific and cultural
development.
National Agrarian University of Molina (UNAM) has developed two research centres focused on
scientific research:
1. Research centre for desert areas.
2. Research centre for genetics, biotechnology and bio-safety.

The UNAM has also developed technological institutes such as:


1. Institute of agro-industrial development (INDDA) that carries out research concerned with
the development of better productive processes, besides encouraging technological
education.
2. The Institute of Biotechnology develops and promotes education and research related to
genetic engineering, molecular and cellular biology. It also promotes technological
transference and information services that should enable the agricultural industry in Peru
to better itself.
3. Institute of Authentication, Inspection and Assays, created to satisfy the requirements of
the agricultural and fish markets. It develops authentication and inspection services
besides collecting data from a large array of samples and analysing them in laboratories.
4. The Molina Consultancy group is designed to improve, through professional assessment,
the quality and services provided by Peruvian businesses.
5. Institute of sustainable production (IPP in Spanish) promotes interdisciplinary research to
ensure the sustainability of agricultural production.
6. Institute of Regional Rainforest Development (IRD-Selva in Spanish) which supports
academics who supervise the sustainable development of the regions where they work.
7. Institute of Regional Mountain Range Development (IRD-Sierra in Spanish) that promotes
technology that should contribute to the development of the region through research.

Table 2: Private Research Institutes and Centres

Institution Mission

Peruvian Foundation for the Conservation of Its purpose is to contribute in the conservation of the natural
Nature (Fundación Peruana para la patrimony of Peru, especially its biodiversity. For this,
Conservación de la Naturaleza, FPCN) ProNaturaleza promotes and performs activities of
conservation, sustainable use of the natural resources and
www.pronaturaleza.org creation of an environmental conscience, through the
Created in 1984. development of investigation and projects (regional). This
institute has a multidisciplinary team of biologists, forest
engineers, geographers, anthropologists, sociologists,
instructors, communicators and managers.

Group of Analysis for Development (Grupo de Its mission is to develop applied research to stimulate and to
Análisis para el Desarrollo, GRADE) improve the design and implementation of public politics. This
group is dedicated to the study of social, environmental,
www.grade.org.pe educational, and economic subjects. This Group seeks to
Founded in 1980. expand their high-quality research capacity, to increase their
impact in the public sphere and to enhance and diversify its
sources and forms of financing (supported in the UN and
diverse organizations and foundations). It also offers seminars
and develops cooperative projects.
In the same way as public institutions, private universities have developed their own centres and
institutes. The most significant are mentioned below.

Peruvian Cayetando Heredia University (UPCH in Spanish) is one the most important private
universities of the country. It owns over 40 laboratories and research units directed to cellular biology,
maritime biology, bio-mining, quality control and medicine (endocrinology, diabetes, ecotoxicology,
epidemiology, etc.) which provide many publications and services. Additionally, the UPCH embodies
three research institutes:
• Institute of Gerontology, created in 1989 with the object of promoting geriatric and
gerontologic research, designing multidisciplinary links and formulating better academic
activities, public services, methods of evaluation and outreach activities. The institute
specializes in the human ageing process and correlates the psychosocial variables. It also
offers a Masters in geriatrics and gerontology.
• Institute of Tropical Medicine Alexander von Humboldt. The institute was founded in 1968.
It works towards developing and strengthening academic activities and research projects
concerned with tropical diseases. It focuses on epidemiology, clinical medicine,
therapeutic prevention and control. The institute runs 4 laboratories and enjoys the
collaboration of Italian and Swiss universities besides running a Masters degree in tropical
infectious disease control.
• Institute of High Altitude Research. In essence, the institute focuses on studying the
biological and human processes of elevated regions. It deals with the physiological,
clinical, psychosocial and epidemiologic aspects of the regions. Concurrently, the centre
prepares researchers in biomedical and psychosocial sciences besides offering
postgraduate degrees.

Catholic University of Peru (PUCP in Spanish) embodies the following research institutes related to
social sciences and law. The institutes related to science and technology are
the following:
• Centre for Innovation and Design (CIDE in Spanish). Founded with the purpose of
generating innovations and starting businesses from the university.
• Institute for Quality improvement (IC in Spanish) that provides services to the private
sector (consultancy, legal assistance and training courses).
• Centre for research on applied geography (CIGA in Spanish): developed in order to
provide data concerning the land area of the country.
• Institute of Corrosion and Protection (ICP in Spanish): concerned with generating data on
corrosion and the development of technologies useful for its prevention and control.
• Institute of Environmental Studies (IDEA in Spanish) that works towards the construction
of sustainable services and interdisciplinary research projects.
Additionally, the PUCP has created a network with other universities and development centres
throughout the country.

Further still, there is another organism in Peru dedicated to the promotion of science and technology:
the National Society of Industries.

The National Society of Industries (SNI) is an institution that coordinates the private businesses of
Peru. Its primary function is the development of manufacturing industry. It was founded in 1896 as an
association to protect the interests of private businesses and has worked accordingly ever since.
Today the SNI (in Spanish) includes over 1,000 of the most representative companies. These
contribute over 90% of GNP. The following organisms are encompassed in the SNI:
• The Institute of Economic and Social Studies (IEES in Spanish). This addresses its
attention to economic and social research, economic, statistical and social consultancy
(with grants, advice, sector studies etc.). It also offers a data bank with information on the
industrial sector and international commerce besides running a variety of publications.
• Centre for Industrial Development (CDI). It was established to aid businesses and
encourages them to evolve through competition, preparing them for the global market. Its
programmes and actions are self financed and are directed towards the modernization of
Peruvian industries besides promoting efficiency, productivity and participation in global
markets.

Table 3: Public Institutes of Scientific Services

Institution Services

National institute of Competence Defence This institution is oriented to promote inside the Peruvian
and the Intellectual Property Protection economy a culture of loyal and honest competence,
besides to protect all the intellectual property forms.
Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la
Competencia y la Protección de la Propiedad
Intelectual (INDECOPI)
www.indecopi.gob.pe Created in 1992.

Table 4: Private Institutes of Scientific Services

Institute Mission

Association of Inventors of Peru (Asociación This institution was created to promote, stimulate, encourage,
de Inventores del Perú, ADIP) and support the part of the population interested in the
development of the research area, promoting inventions.
http://www.concytec.gob.pe/adip/index.htm Likewise, it performs events and seminars directed to parents
Created in 1982. of family, professors, etc., to promote the culture of the
invention in the infancy.

Peruvian Institute for the Development, Its mission is to support the implementation of up-to date
Innovation and Maintenance (Instituto Maintenance engineering in technology for the national
Peruano para el Desarrollo, la Innovación y enterprises. It seeks to promote the continuous training of the
el Mantenimiento (IPEMAN) personnel, through consultancy, the elaboration of
www.ipeman.com maintenance guides, courses and seminars.

Centre of Energy and Environment Its mission is to promote the efficient and rational use of the
Conservation (Centro de Conservación de Energy sources in the country, the energy sources
Energía y del Ambiente, CENERGIA) replacement by other more efficient, the development of
www.cenergia.org.pe renewable energies and the conservation of the environment,
through the qualification and efficient research promotion in
Created in 1985. energy use. In addition, it offers technical support and
performs academic activities, forums, conferences, seminars,
etc. CENERGIA is self-financed through its consultancy
services and projects financed by the international
cooperation.

None of the centres and institutions mentioned above is subject to control or evaluation. Thus, it is
practically impossible to register progress in research, projects and services.

2.1 Human Resources


Peru lacks reliable statistics. Figures concerning the number of researchers and the areas of their
specialities are inconsistent and incomplete.

There are several organisms in charge of promoting development and preparing human resources.
Some of the institutes are mentioned below. Here are few institutions that specialize in preparing
human resources specifically for science, technology or innovation at a competitive level. According to
the National Plan for Science, Technology and Technological Innovation, there are over 500 Masters
and 70 PhD programmes (Albedo, 2003). Of these, 16% of the former and 32% of the latter are
related to science and technology. Moreover, it should be noted that the quality of these programmes
is uneven. They are in need of serious scrutiny. However, only 5% of all students registered in these
programmes graduate. The following table shows the postgraduate programmes designed for science
and technology. The foremost universities of Peru have developed these.

Table 5: Master and Ph D Programmes in the Principal Universities

Postgraduates Mayor National National La Molina Pontifical Cayetano Total


Degrees University of University of National Catholic Heredia
San Marcos Engineering Agrarian University University
University of Peru

Master Programmes 49 24 24 16 18 131


(Sciences,
Engineering, Geology,
Mathematics, Physics,
Agronomy, Biology,
Chemistry, Medicine,
Nutrition)

Ph D Programmes 9 4 6 1 7 27
(Sciences,
Engineering, Physics,
Mathematics, etc.)

Source: Based on Universities Website.

The National Institute of Scholarships and Educational loans (INABEC) is a decentralized public
institution belonging to the Ministry of Education. It regulates the flow of national and international
loans to low income students. Its object is the stimulation of social wealth by means of improving
Peruvian social, scientific, technological and cultural knowledge.

The organism was founded in 1971 and started operations in 1973. However, in 1976, a government
decree gave it legal existence.

The international postgraduate scholarships granted by the INABEC have cooperation agreements
with Germany, Holland, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Czech Republic, Malaysia, Italy, Sweden, Egypt,
Russia, U.S.A, Singapore, India, France, etc.

Some of the international organisms involved are listed in the table below.

Table 6: Public research institutes and centres


Institution Mission

Mining, Metallurgical, and Geological institute Public Institution decentralized of the Sector Energy and
(Instituto Geológico, Metalúrgico y Minero Mines of Peru, it is oriented to obtain through the
(INGEMMET) www.ingemmet.gob.pe Research, the Geo-scientific information (regional
geology, mineral resources, geo-environment and mining-
Created in 1979, but has its antecedents in the metallurgy) of the national territory, to process, to
Central Meeting of Engineers founded in 1852. manage, and to diffuse it in an efficient way to promote
the investment, to protect the environment and to support
the sustainable development of the country.

Geophysics Institute of Peru Its mission is to carry out studies and scientific research in
the Geophysics field, the training and the teaching in a
(Instituto Geofísico del Perú higher level to university students and provide scientific
IGP) www.igp.net.pe services in the different areas of the Geophysics. This
Institute has 4 research programs (in Aeronomy,
Astronomy, Seismology and Volcanology), and 8
Research Centres (in Seismology, Volcanology and
Prediction of the Climate).

Sea Institute of Peru (Instituto del Mar del Perú, Its mission is the study of the marine environment and bio-
MARPE), www.imarpe.gob.pe diversity, evaluates the fishing resources and provides
information and guidance for the making decisions on the
It has its first antecedent in the "Council of fishing, the aquaculture and the protection of the marine
Hydrobiology Research" created in 1954. environment. It offers courses, consultancy and training
However, it was formally created in 1964, by the and has cooperation covenants with 8 universities.
fusion of the Council of Hydrobiology Research
with the Research Institute of the Marine
Resources.

Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute (Instituto Its Mission is to develop and to promote the science and
Peruano de Energía Nuclear, IPEN) nuclear technology to the benefit of the population,
www.ipen.gob.pe regulating and prosecuting the use of the ionizant
radiation. This institute carries out research in
development of new applications, molecular biology,
biotechnology, development of software, experimental
techniques, etc., through 4 laboratories of Sciences (in
chemistry, physical, biology and electronic).

National institute of Telecommunications Its mission is to promote and to collaborate in the


Research and Training (Instituto Nacional de development and use of the Technologies of Information
Investigación y Capacitación de and Communication (TICs), in favour of the social and
Telecomunicaciones (INICTEL) economic development of the country; carrying out
research, training, workshops, studies and projects. This
www.inictel.gob.pe institute possesses a technological businesses incubator.
Created in 1971.

Fishing Technological Institute (Instituto Its mission is to promote, to perform and to divulge
Tecnológico Pesquero (ITP) www.itp.org.pe technological and scientific research programs in order to
contribute with the rational and integral use of the
Created in 1979. hydrobiology resources, promoting the technology and
knowledge transfer in the fields of the manipulation,
conservation, prosecution and sanitary control of the fish
and the fishing products.
Table 6 Continued

Institution Mission

Agro-industrial Development Institute (Instituto It belongs to the Agrarian Univ. Molina, and its mission is
de Desarrollo Agroindustrial, INDDA), to cooperate and to promote the development of the agro
www.lamolina.edu.pe/ industry in the country, through products, services and
technology transfer to consumers.

Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (Instituto Its mission is to contribute in the improvement of the life
de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana , quality of the Amazon people through the research
IIAP) www.iiap.org.pe directed to the sustainable development and the
conservation of the natural resources of the Amazon
Created in 1980. region. This institute has 4 Research Centres and offers
diverse services of technological development,
environmental impact, zoning, pre-investment studies,
technology transfer, etc. Twenty-six projects on
Biodiversity, Ecosystems and Environmental Code
Research are currently conducted.

National Geographic Institute (Instituto Its mission is to elaborate and to update the official
Geográfico Nacional, IGN) www.ignperu.gob.pe cartography of Peru, through planning, directing and
performing the activities related to the geomatic, required
This institute belongs to the Military for development of the private and public institutions and
Geographical Institute (IGM) in 1980. the national defence.

National Institute of Civil Defence (Instituto Its mission is to direct, to establish norms and to execute
Nacional de Defensa Civil, INDECI) the National System of Civil Defence in the prevention and
www.indeci.gob.pe attention of disasters, for the protection of the population
and their patrimony.
Created in 1990.

National Institute of Natural Resources (Instituto This Institution is the public authority responsible for
Nacional de Recursos Naturales, INRENA) carrying out and to promote the necessary actions for the
www.inrena.gob.pe sustainable use of the renewable natural resources, the
conservation of the wild biological diversity and the
Created in 1992. sustainable management of the rural environment.

National Institute of Agrarian Research and This Institution interacts in the areas of the scientific
Extensión (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y investigation, generating expertise and adapting
Extensión Agraria, INIEA) www.inia.gob.pe technologies in response to the demands of the market,
those are methodological and systematically transferred to
the agrarian producers, through technological services
and agrarian extension. Similarly offers technological
information by means of consultancy services.

National Institute of Statistics and Informatics This institution contributes to the decisions taking with
(Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, qualified statistical information and the use of information
INEI) www.inei.gob.pe technologies for the development of country.
Created in 1990.
Table 6 Continued

Institution Mission

National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology Its mission is to manage the hydrologic, meteorological,
(Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e agro-meteorology and environmental activities of the
Hidrología, SENAMHI) www.senamhi.gob.pe country, to contribute in the world atmospheric vigilance,
and likewise to provide specialized services to support the
Created in 1969. sustainable development, the security and the national
welfare. The SENAMHI generates the knowledge,
evaluation, study and classification of the climatic and
hydrologic resources of the country and the execution of
the necessary investigations for the best use of those
resources. This institute offers covenants for studies,
services and technical cooperation.

Health National Institute (Instituto Nacional de Its mission is the promotion, development and diffusion of
Salud, INS) www.ins.gob.pe the technological and scientific research, as well as to
offer services of health in the fields of the public health,
In 1981 it acquires this name; nevertheless the the control of not-transmissible and transmissible
origin of this institute goes back to 1896 with the illnesses, the diet and nutrition, the production of
Institute of Public Health. biological products, the quality control of food,
pharmaceutical products, the health employment and
protection of the environment oriented in public and
intercultural health to improve the population life quality.

National Commission of Aerospatiale Research Its mission is to lead the Research and Development
and Development (Comisión Nacional de National and Regional through the peaceful control and
Investigación y Desarrollo Aeroespacial development, research and work projects in favour of the
(CONIDA) www.conida.gob.pe country in spatial features.
Created in 1974.

National Institute of Neoplasy Diseases Its mission is to generate important medical research
(Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades through the training of its personnel and the submission of
Neoplásicas, INEM) www.inen.sld.pe Created in top-level services.
1939.

Peruvian-Japanese Centre of Seismic Research Its mission is to develop research relating to the Study of
and Disaster Mitigation (Centro Peruano Natural and Induced Hazards and Risks, Vulnerability and
Japones de Investigaciones Sísmicas y Seismic Risk Studies and Research of Seismic-resistant
Mitigación de Desastres (CISMID) Housing Multi-familiar Studies of low cost (Investigaciones
http://www.cismid-uni.org de Estudios de Vivienda Multifamiliares Sismorresistente
de bajo costo.). It is supported by the development of
It was created in 1986 by the Faculty of Civil research laboratories and departments of engineering.
Engineering of the University of Engineering
and financed by the Japanese government
through its agency of cooperation.
Table 6 Continued

Institution Mission

National Service of Agrarian Salubrity (Servicio Its mission is to improve the health, harmlessness and
Nacional de Salubridad Agraria (SENASA) quality agrarian with the aim to contribute to national
www.senasa.gob.pe) development. It maintains a system of Phyto-sanitary and
Zoo-sanitary Vigilance, that protects the country of
Created in 1992. plagues and illnesses. This institute offers the services of
inspection, verification and certification, diagnoses,
identifies and provides biological controllers, likewise
offers consultancies and statistics from clients, services
and results observed.

These grants for higher education include maintenance (the courses, lodging and transportation) and
other forms of financial aid. The INABEC website provides the user with useful data concerning the
number of loans granted, besides the number of approved credits and dropouts. Nonetheless, there is
no data concerning the fields of knowledge of the candidates receiving scholarships.

2.2 Scholarships granted by the CONCYTEC


The CONCYTEC is in charge of granting national and international scholarships for Peruvian students.

International Scholarships - These are offered by governments and international institutions for
postgraduate students, and may be used for Masters, PhDs, courses, academic events and research
projects.

The object of these grants is to increase the number of high-level researchers. In this sense,
international agreements have put in place many grants, scientific and technological projects without
taking into account the collaboration of foreign universities and international centres. Peru has
agreements with Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Korea, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, China, Ecuador, Salvador,
Spain, France, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Panama, Thailand, U.S.A., Venezuela, Israel, the UN, the
OEA, the UNESCO, etc.

National Scholarships - In order to promote scientific and technological development in the country,
the CONCYTEC has developed a national competition for postgraduate scholarships through Peruvian
universities. The purpose of the competition is to raise the quality of the specialities taught in the
national universities.

2.3 National Training Service for the Construction Industry (SENCICO in Spanish)
It was founded in 1975. Its purpose is to be technically, economically and administratively autonomous
in order to train professional workers throughout all of the construction industry. The SENCICO works
with a complete programme of activities that certify the quality of the education. It has forged technical
cooperation agreements that allow technological information to be exchanged with national and
international organisations. Moreover, the SENCICO helps regional governments by signing
agreements that permit the training, specialization, updating and certification of the construction
workers.
2.4 National Graduate Business School (ESAN in Spanish)
The ESAN is found in Lima. It was the first university in the Spanish-speaking world to start an MBA. It
was launched in 1963 with the consent of the American and Peruvian governments and is carried out
under the wing of the Graduate Business School of Stanford, California. The school was transformed
into ESAN in 2003 and has regional representation to strengthening influence of the institution. In
addition, it publishes a large range of technical journals related to management.

The ESAN is a world famous, non-profit, private institution. It is an autonomous institution and offers
PhDs, MBAs and programmes for executives, in addition to other academic and professional services.

Internationally, the ESAN offers the ESADE-ESAN doctorate in collaboration with the ESADE
Barcelona. Likewise, there are agreements for short-term exchanges with France, Finland, the United
Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden. Furthermore, an MBA programme enables student exchange
programmes to be carried out in over 20 different universities throughout Europe, Asia, the United
States and Latin America.

2.5 Other academic programs


The National Industrial Training Service (SENATI) was founded to allow professional instruction for the
manufacturing industry. It designs programmes that meet the needs of the structure of the industry. It
covers maintenance, installation and repair activities in addition to other management needs.

The Technological Institutes offer instruction in publicity, computing, tourism, business management,
marketing, etc., and appeal strongly to the Peruvian population.

Moreover, and because of the simplicity of its educational requirements, the numbers of technical
institutes have grown more than those of universities. This situation has excited debates on the
necessity of supervising the quality of the programmes through a government run institution. The
popularity they have among the young students is a consequence of the relative brevity of the time
required to finish the degrees (three years).

The National Convention of Science, Technology and Innovation (FENCYT) was established to
encourage scientific and technological education among young people. It is presented in private and
public centres throughout the country and is, unfortunately, the only instrument concerned with
attracting Peruvian youth to these fields of knowledge.

3. Financial aid to Science and Technology


The financial aid provided to science and technology is limited. In 2002, it reached 0.1% of the GNP
and reveals the poor quality of the Peruvian economy in comparison to the rest
of the world, and in particular, to its own region. Most of the resources (55.5%) are contributed by the
Ministry of Economy, the presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Auditing Office. The private
sector contributes with 11.5% of the total investment (partly because there are no incentives for private
investment and because these lack, at the same time, enough financial instruments).
In general, the formal financial mechanisms for science are the following:
• The Competition Fund of the CONCYTEC was created in order to finance the innovations
of the Association of Producers in collaboration with the Association of Exporters (ADEX
in Spanish), the National Board of Industries (S.N.I. in Spanish) and the Ministry of
Production. The object of the fund was to regulate the financial aid coming from
productive associations and private businesses.
The CONCYTEC provides subsidies for scientific and technological research projects
(PROCYT – Spanish acronym) and competitive innovation projects (PROCOM) which
have to meet the following requirements:
− The PROCOM projects must be directed towards improving the competitiveness,
productivity and profitability of businesses through the adaptation and development
of new products and productive processes.
− The PROCYT projects must include original scientific and technological ideas for
clearly defined purposes.
• The International Fund for Science provides grants for research projects on maritime
resources, animal production, agricultural sciences, forest sciences, food sciences,
natural products and aquatic resources, etc. The aid provided is only for the acquisition of
equipment, repair material and laboratory and bibliographical support.
• The Financial Development Corporation (COFIDE) is a mixed, autonomous economic
enterprise founded in 1992 and forms a part of the National Financial System. It works as
a second level development bank that, together with private investment grants, aids the
export sector with long, short and medium term loans. It also helps small and medium
sized businesses. This is accomplished through investment and through providing
products and services that are demanded by the business sector.
• The government of Peru together with the collaboration of the InterAmerican
Development Bank (BID – Spanish acronym) has developed a programme designed to
improve technology. The amount invested is as much as 36 million dollars and is
distributed by the board of ministers. The first 25 million dollars were donated by the BID
and the rest was gathered through local contributions. The aim of the project is to
strengthen the National System of Innovation by promoting a larger participation of the
private sector in the development of scientific and technological activities. In addition, it
helps researchers to better the efficiency of the scientific, academic and productive
sectors.

Subsidies to scientific and technological publications - The CONCYTEC has organized biannual grant
competitions with aim of encouraging scientific and technological publications such as:
• The publication of scientific and technological printed research
• Publication in specialized magazines.

Publications are allowed to participate in the contest under the condition that they treat issues of
scientific and technological importance or are relevant to these fields of knowledge.

4. Statistics and available Information


As mentioned before, the data available in Peru is deficient. However, certain instruments that provide
information are mentioned below.
The National Institute of Statistics and Computation has created different statistical documents of
which the following are the most important:
• Peru in Figures: with statistics and demographic, economic and social indicators.
• Economic Information: supplies us with an array of data on national accounts, price
indicators, production levels, benefits, employment, investments and so on. However, no
surveys or indicators are directed to economic activities from a scientific viewpoint.
• Social Information: intended to provide data on the natural environment, education,
health, social welfare, etc.
• Census.

The CONCYTEC works as a think-tank that formulates possible scientific and technological political
legislation. It has, among it several functions, the task of promoting the installation and development of
a national network of scientific information and telematic interconnections. This should allow the
country to give an efficient use to scientific and technological statistics and help improve, at the same
time, all activities that benefit from science and technology.

The CONCYTEC also embodies the International Network of Information Sources and Knowledge for
the Management of Science, Technology and Innovation (SCienTI – Spanish acronym), which is the
result of collaboration between the national scientific and technological institutions, universities and
international organisms.

The system allows the existence of exchange programmes to be carried out through researchers and
institutions of the countries cooperating with the CONCYTEC. Additionally, there has been a web site
created to update the results of these collaborations. The web site is www.concytec.gob.pe/scienti/

The CONCYTEC created the National Survey of Science, Technology and Technological Innovation in
order to gather data that should help formulate political legislation concerning science and technology.

The survey should uncover the demand for science and technology in Peruvian industry. Furthermore,
it should also collect data concerning human and financial resources, infrastructure and innovations. It
will be carried out in universities and other high education institutes, among government officials,
public scientific and technological institutions, in addition to other non-profit private organisms. The
information can be checked out at after registering at: opcyt_indicadores@concytec.gob.pe

The Head Office for Programmes encourages the development of science and technology through
education and evaluation, besides keeping track of scientific and technological projects. The aim of
the office is to organize, analyse and distribute the collected information to users.

The National Information and Documentation Centre for Science and Technology (CENDICYT)
organize the scientific and technological information of the country. It offers access to scientific and
technological information through a virtual library and other library services. Moreover, it promotes the
National Network of Scientific and Technological Telematic Interconnection to enhance scientific
development.

The CONCYTEC offers a synthesis of the book called “Peru facing the knowledge society: scientific,
technological and innovation indicators 1960-2002.” This synthesis was made in order to provide the
user with a useful tool concerning the development of science and technology. It is available at
www.concytec.gob.pe
5. Conclusion
During the last decades, political turbulence in Peru (i.e. changes of political regime, dictatorships) has
had a detrimental impact on macroeconomic development, and particularly on science and technology
development.

Evidence analysed suggests that in Peru there is no science and technology policy as such, but only
incipient guidelines that would eventually lead into a more consolidated science and technology
system. However, until now, current measures are ambiguous and prone to technological effort
duplication (leading to the consequent waste of resources). Additionally, official statistics are scarce
and provide inadequate information on science and technology issues.

There is an apparent lack of articulation between firms, universities, research institutes and
government, which hinders scientific research, technological change and innovation. This can be
attributed of a shortage of financial resources and a low motivation from the private sector to link with
universities and R&D centres. We have to consider that national expenditure on R&D is low and
mainly comes from public sources (0.1% of GDP in 2002). Private expenditure in R&D is an
exceptional practice and rarely reaches 5% of sales. A plausible hypothesis to explain the low levels of
investment in R&D should relate a strong tradition to rely on the exploitation of country’s natural
resources.

Finally, it should be noted that the Peru has a weakness in the area of human resources formation.
These days, the number of postgraduate programmes in scientific areas is high, however, the
programmes’ quality is low; moreover, completion rate is low (only 5%). The small number of scientific
projects undertaken with reduced founds is a representative characteristic of Peru’s science and
technology situation.