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Hyper- and HypoThyroidism

Disruptions to Homeostasis
Christopher Tran 6/17/2013

Hyperthyroidism is the act in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormones i.e. too much Thyroxine (T4), Tri-iodothyronine (T3) as well as Calcitonin. A normal thyroid produces these hormones in such a way that they are balanced to maintain the regulation of the use of fats and carbohydrates, the regulation of body temperature, Heart rate, protein production etc. i.e. they regulate metabolism and homeostasis in the body. Calcitonin also regulates blood calcium levels.

Graves disease
An autoimmune disease in which the body produces too many antibodies causing an increase in stimulation to produce Thyroxin. This is because Graves disease causes your immune system to attack your own body and in this case the thyroid gland. This is why the thyroid gland fights back through its production of thyroxine (T4). Graves disease is still unknown on what it is caused by, but scientists have seen trends in hereditary links, causing it to be seen as a hereditary disease.

Thyroid Nodules
An abnormal Growth of the thyroid gland causes an increase in activity and hormones produces by the thyroid. Diseases toxic adenoma and multinodular and Plummers disease.

Excessive intake of Iodine

The thyroid produces thyroid hormones from the iodine taken up from the blood; the increase of iodine thus increases thyroid hormone production.

Resulting from a viral or bacterial infection, this results in the production of antibodies which then damage the thyroid gland. This can cause two extremes as thyroid hormone levels in the blood can increase because they leak into the blood while levels can become very low until self-repair can occur. I.e. this can fluctuate to both Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism.

Medications that contain iodine e.g. heart medication can cause the increase in production of thyroid hormones

Follicular Thyroid Cancer

How It Affects Homeostasis

The thyroid, with its regulation of thyroid hormones, in turn regulates metabolism. In hyperthyroidism, the metabolism increases. I.e. bodily functions operate a higher rate The effect of Hyperthyroidism includes: Increased Heart Rate Increased Breathing Rate Weight loss Muscle loss/weakness Increased Appetite Increase perspiration Low Cholesterol Increased mental awareness, thinking

Radioactive Iodine
Taken orally, it causes the glans to shrink in size It slows the activity the thyroid considerably, potentially causing hyperthyroidism; thyroxine may need to be replaced with medication.

Anti-thyroid Medication
Medication to reduce the levels or hormones produced (Tapazole) Can cause severe liver damage sometimes even leading to death

Beta Blockers
Not used to treat Hyperthyroidism rather symptoms and results of hyperthyroidism to make it more tolerable. i.e. Medication to treat Heart Rate Can cause fatigue, dizziness and diarrhoea

Surgery (Thyroidectomy)
Removal of a majority of the thyroid gland. Side effects can include: Damage to the vocal cords Damage to the Parathyroid glands Will most likely result in the lifelong treatment of medication to make up for loss of thyroid hormones

How Treatments Restore the Bodys homeostasis

These treatments restore the bodys homeostasis by lowering the amount of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid, because to have hyperthyroidism is to have and overactive thyroid gland producing too much hormone. These treatments this act counteract the disruption.

Hypothyroidism is the condition where the thyroid is too underactive resulting in a lack of thyroid hormone production. This unbalanced level of thyroid hormones can lead to many problems. Myxoedema is a life threating disease in which results from a long term undiagnosed case of hypothyroidism. If left untreated can cause join pain, infertility, obesity and heart disease

Autoimmune Disease
A disease in which the persons own immune system attacks the body by producing antibodies to attack tissue, and in this case the thyroid gland, thus decreasing the ability to produce hormones. Almost 90% of sufferers of Hypothyroidism are sufferers of this disease

Treatments of hyperthyroidism
Radioactive and anti-thyroid medications work by lowering thyroid hormone levels even causing levels to become so low they are diagnosed as hypothyroidism sufferers.

Thyroid surgery
The removal of parts of the thyroid can cause hypothyroidism, as the gland cannot make enough hormones. Thyroid hormone needs to be taken for life

Radiation therapy (exposition to radiation) Medications

Uncommon cases that can lead to Hypothyroidism:

Congenial Disease
Where the patient is born without a thyroid or a faulty thyroid

Pituitary Disorder/ Hypothalamus Disorder

Where not enough Thyroid Stimulating Hormone is produced due to problems with the control centres of the hormones (pituitary and hypothalamus) to stimulate the thyroid.

How it affects homeostasis

Hypothyroidism, the deficiency of thyroid hormones can lead too: Gaining of weight Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure) Frequent Cramping and Aches High levels of cholesterol Anaemia (low levels of Red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood) Energy Loss (Fatigue)

Treatments should be shaped in a way such that the administrator should consider the weight, age and existing medical problems of the patient. Note that hypothyroidism is a long term condition.

The standard treatment

because hypothyroidism is the deficiency of thyroid hormones ( Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine and Calcitonin) is the daily replacement and use of thyroid hormone replacement medications such as Levothyroxine

Increase iodine uptake Hormone replacement tablets (thyroxine tablets) Change in Diet
Decrease intake of sugars and refined carbs Increase protein intake as protein helps aid in the transport of thyroid hormones to bodily tissues Increase intake of healthy fats (cholesterol aids hormone production) Stick to natural iodine sources rather than iodine supplements and iodised salts Gluten had an almost identical structure to that of the thyroid tissue. i.e. A case of mistaken identity. Thus decrease gluten intake as it may cause the immune system to mistakenly attack the thyroid gland.

How treatments Restore homeostasis

Treatments of hypothyroidism are permanent for the life span of the patient. Because hypothyroidism is the deficiency of thyroid hormones, the treatments / medications taken restore homeostasis by replacing thyroid hormones that the body cannot produce Calcium is also taken to treat the lack of calcitonin to increase calcium blood levels