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Common name

7th July 2009. Anthony C. Dweck FLS, FRSC. FRSPH Latin name

Part extracted

Ajowan Alantroot Ambrette

Trachyspermum ammi Inula helenium Hibiscus abelmoschuus

seed root seed

Angelica

Angelica archangelica

root

g/kg Dermal LD50 Additional Toxicology Dermal Irritant: suspected moderate Mucous membrane irritant: severe (contains thymol and no data no data carvacrol). PROHIBITED Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. >5.00 >5.00 Oral Toxicity(LD50) : Oral-Rat 11160.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 2200.00 mg/kg Dermal Toxicity(LD50) : Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Restriction in leave-on formulations to 0.78% and wash-off formulations to 3.9%. This is due to phototoxic effects (genotoxicity) associated with the potential presence in the oil of UV-reactive furocoumarins. Large oral doses should not to >2.2 >5.00 be taken during pregnancy May be used in cosmetic products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. 3% in fragrance concentrate. 35 ppm in flavour. 15ppm CO2 extract in flavour. The seed oil is not phototoxic.

g/kg Oral LD50

Traditional use and ethnobotany

Country

see above

In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout. The tea is a good eye tonic. In the form of an ointment it has a soothing effect on skin complaints, arthritis and rheumatism. A decoction of the root can also be used for scabies or itching and also for wounds. As a compress in gout. The tea is a good eye tonic.

Europe

Angelica

Angelica archangelica

seed

Europe

Aniseed

Pimpinella anisum

seed

2.17

Oral-Rat 2250.00 mg/kg >5.00 Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg

Anise oil is useful in destroying body lice, head lice and itching insects , where the oil can be used by itself, so is useful for pediculosis, the skin condition caused by lice. It may be used for scabies, where it may be used externally in an ointment base. It used either in oil or ointment base as a stimulating liniment and against vermin. Spain Alpine Rosebay, Sunpati. The stems and leaves are used in Tibetan herbalism. They have a sweet, bitter and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin disorders. In Nepal, the leaves are boiled and the vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. It a sweet herbal, faint balsamic essence and is used in perfumery.

Anthopogon

Rhododendron anthopogon

leaf/flower

no data no data No data found

Nepal

Artemisia

Artemisia vulgaris

leaf/flower

0.37

Used in fomentations for skin diseases and ulcerative sores. The entire plant is often made into a decoction and used as a wash for all sorts of wounds and skin ulcers. The boiled leaves are used as a poultice to allay headaches and nervous twitching of the skin and muscles. The dried leaves cut into small fragments are used to help induce more rapid scarring of unhealed wounds. Practitioners also use the leaves in eczema, herpes and purulent scabies. Wormwood extract is the Oral LD50: 0.37g/kg main ingredient in absinthe, a toxic liquor that Recommended max 0.5% in fragrance concentrate. induces absinthism, a syndrome characterized by Wormwood is classified as an unsafe herb by the Food and addiction, GI problems, auditory and visual Drug Administration (FDA) because of the neurotoxic potential hallucinations, epilepsy, brain damage, and increased risk of psychiatric illness and suicide. of thujone and its derivatives. The safety of wormwood is poorly documented despite its long history as a food additive. Thujone-free wormwood extract is currently used as a flavoring, primarily in alcoholic beverages such Convulsions, dermatitis, and renal failure have been documented. as vermouth. Also known as armoise. Nepal It is called tulsi in India and used for ayurvedic medicine. Sacred to Krishna and Vishnu. the leaves are heart shaped and are considered a love symbol in Italy. The oil clears the head and is uplifting. It is useful in nervous conditions: good for anxiety, depression, hysteria, indecision and nervous debility. It is good for earache, colds, sinus, migraine, muscular spasm. It is good for sluggish and congested skin and is an insect repellant. Nepal see above South Africa see above Madagascar Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains, bruises, etc., and was sometimes dropped into the ears to relieve pain. Use with care and never more than 1.25%. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well. Mildly narcotic, said to be good for promoting hair growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff.

Basil, French Basil, Sweet Basil, Tropical

Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum Ocimum basilicum

flowering plant flowering plant flowering plant

1.40 >5.00 1.40 >5.00 1.40 >5.00

Oral-Rat 1400.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer; methyl eugenol <6.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity 0.5% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours. Toxicity class B acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C (?), Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Contraindicated in the warning list for pregnancy see above see above

Bay, Sweet

Laurus nobilis

leaf

Bergamot

Citrus aurantium bergamia

peel

LD50: 1.80g/kg In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight. Some fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer >5.00 >5.00 sensitization issues Oral-Rat 11520.00 mg/kg Bergamot essential oil has GRAS status. Irritation/Sensitisation - Nil at 30% (Human). 3/200 patients with dermatitis affected. When the level of furocoumarins is decreased to below >10.00 >20.00 0.0075% phototoxicity is avoided. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (30%), bergapten-free is safe and does not cause phototoxicity. LD50: 1.70g/kg As a food flavouring additive the material has been assessed to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The rodent LD50 for black pepper essential oil is greater than 5 g/kg. The material is neither phototoxic nor sensitizing, and is considered non-toxic. 500 mg/24 hr caused a toxic reaction to/ rabbit skin.

It is used for oily skin, acne, seborrhea of the scalp, herpes, psoriais, ulcers and wounds. Bergamot is an antidepressant and gentle relaxant and has a refreshing, uplifting quality. Italy

Bergamot (bergaptene free) Birch, Sweet

Citrus aurantium bergamia Betula lenta

fruit wood

11.52

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

seeds

>5.00

It is anti inflammatory, anticatarrhal, expectorant, supportive to the digestive glands, and traditionally used for rheumatoid arthritis. Considered an aphrodisiac and sexual stimulant.

Indonesia

Boldo

Peumus boldus

leaf

0.30

Oral LD50: 0.13 g/kg Not recommended for topical use

Cajuput

Melaleuca cajuputi

leaf

2.48

Cajuput

Melaleuca leucadendron

leaf

3.87

Calamus (Sweet Flag)

Acorus calamus

rhizome

0.777

Acute Oral-Rat LD50: 2480mg/Kg Dermal-rabbit LD50: >5000mg/Kg Classified as non-toxic (Oral-Rats LD50 2-5 g/kg) and nonsensitizing, although skin irritation may occur at high concentrations. It has been approved for food use by the Food >5.00 and Drug Administration (FDA). Oral-Rat 3870mg/kg 4% in fragrances. >5.00 15ppm in flavours. Oral LD50: 0.84g/kg Oral-Rat 777.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat LD50 value 1298.50 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 221.00 mg/kg intravenous-Mouse 1138.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 177.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Guineapig 297.00 mg/kg Skin-Guineapig >5000.00 mg/kg methyl eugenol <0.60% as it has potential carcinogenic >5.00 activity, max. 4% in fragrances.

The leaves possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anodyne (pain relief) properties and used for burns, colds, influenza and dyspepsia. Cajeput oil is produced from the leaves by steam distillation. The oil is a common household medicine, especially in South-East Asia, used internally for the treatment of coughs and colds, against stomach cramps, colic and asthma. It is used externally for the relief of neuralgia and rheumatism, often in the form of ointments and liniments, and for the relief of toothache and earache. It is also applied in treating indolent ulcers. The oil is reputed to have insect-repellent properties. It is a sedative and relaxant and used as a flavouring in cooking and as a fragrance in soaps, cosmetics, detergents and perfumes. see Melaleuca cajuputi [Syn: Melaleuca leucadendron ]

Vietnam

Camphor (White)

Cinnamomum camphora

leaf

>5.00

Oral-Rat 3270.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 5000.00mg/kg IPR-Mice 3000mg/Kg IFRA specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides restricted components: citronellol <0.90 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.30 % has potential carcinogenic activity White camphor oil is said to be less toxic than the yellow and brown varieties which contain large amounts of safrole. Japanese camphor contains ketones. In Great Britain the recommended exposure limits of synthetic >5.00 camphor are 2 ppm (long-term) and 3 ppm (short-term).

In Arabia and Iran it is used as an aphrodisiac.In Japan the leaves were used as a bathing agent to make "Sweet Flag bath water". It is an aquatic perennial, which emits a smell rather like that of mandarin oranges. Used for treating rheunatism, fever and lumbago. Camphor is well-known for its analgesic and infection-fighting abilities when used in combination with eucalyptus oil. The U.S. OverThe-Counter (OTC) Drug Review Ingredient Status Report, (December 1991) listed camphor as a Category I ingredient for fever blisters and as a counter-irritant in the External Analgaesics Monograph. Camphor is also listed as an antitussive ingredient in the cough and cold monograph. A nasal product indicated for the relief of nasal irritations and nasal congestion due to colds consists entirely of a blend of essential oils cajeput, eucalyptus and peppermint. Methyl salicylate, or oil of wintergreen, is listed as a counter-irritantin the external analgaesic monograph.

Nepal

Camphor (Yellow)

Cinnamomum camphora

bark

3.73

Oral-Rat 3730.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal Irritation class B more likely C-D, Dermal sensitisation class D (10% for leaf). Not in the warning list for pregnancy Poisoning has occurred from administration of camphorated oil (camphor liniment) to children in mistake for castor oil. Symptoms included nausea, vomiting, colic, headache, dizziness, a feeling of warmth, delirium, muscle twitching, epileptiform convulsions, depression of the central nervous system, and coma. Breathing was difficult and the breath had see above >5.00 a characteristic odour; anuria may occur. Good for nervous exhaustion and mental fatigue. Used as a flavouring, and also for their carminative and stimulating properties. Properties are antiseptic and stimulative. Used for its aphrodisiac effect, also has an uplifting effect, helping to clear the mind of noise and confusion. Makes an excellent bath oil, light, refreshing and stimulating. Guatamala Larger or Greater Cardamom or Nepal Cardamom. Medicinally, the seeds are credited with stimulant and astringent properties. It is used in gastrointestinal and genito-urinary complaints. It is correctly described by the Arabian physicians under the name Hil-Bawa. Nepal

Cardamom

Ellettaria cardamomum

seed

5.00

Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Citral <0.60 % Sensitizer Geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer >5.00 12% in the fragrance.

Cardamom large

Amomum subulatum

seed

Cassia

Cinnamomum cassia

bark

Cassia

Cinnamomum cassia

leaf

22.00 no data Acure Oral-Mice 22,070 mg/kg Oral-Rat 2800.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 320.00 mg/kg IFRA Sensitization The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and concentration of Cinnamic aldehyde in the finished cosmetic product should not exceed 0.1%. benzyl benzoate <2.50 % Sensitizer cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer cinnamaldehyde <90.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity 1% in fragrances 2.80 0.32 25ppm in flavours Oral-Rat 3.40 ml/kg Skin-Rabbit 0.69 ml/kg IFRA Sensitization benzyl benzoate <2.40 % Sensitizer cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer cinnamaldehyde <60.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity 5% in the fragrance concentrate. 25ppm flavours. FEMA GRAS; FDA GRAS Toxicology: LD50 (oral, rat) 2800 mg/kg; poison by skin contact; mod. toxic by ingestion, IP routes; human skin irritant; suspected weak carcinogen. Repeated dose toxicity: LD50 Oral-Rat: 2650 mg/Kg 3.40 0.69 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit: 5000 mg/Kg? (seems high - ACD)

It yields Cassie oil for barbers shops, was one of the holy annointing oils mentioned in Exodus as being used by Moses on sacred occasions. The dried bark is used. Cassia is chiefly used to scent potpourri and to flavour chocolate; but in China it is given as an antiseptic and as a digestive tonic, and it flavours other medicines. Indonesia

Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes in two forms, cinnamon bark, which is steam distilled from the inner bark of the tree, and cinnamon leaf, steam distilled from the leaves and twigs. Cinnamon leaf essential oil has many uses in modern practice, and in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific for flatulent cholic and dyspepsia with nausea.

China

Catnip

Nepeta cataria

plant

3.16 >5.00

No health hazards or side effects have been associated with proper administration of catnip in designated dosages. Catnip was once listed in the FDA's Herbs of Undefined Safety listing in the mid 1970s. The intraperitoneal LD50 1300 mg/kg (oil). Catnip is contraindicated during pregnancy because of uterine stimulant activities. Catnip may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding and may be contraindicated in certain gynaecological conditions (as a herbal tea). Toxicity test was further performed to provide a broad spectrum on safety of using catnip oil as a biting insect repellent. The acute oral LD50 of catnip oil was 3160 mg/kg and 2710 mg/kg body weight (BW) in female and male rats. The acute dermal LD50 was > 5000 mg/kg BW. The acute inhalation LD50 was observed > 10,000 mg/L. The primary skin irritation test on New Zealand white rabbits showed that catnip oil is a moderate irritant. Catnip oil was classified as practically nonirritating to the eye. Compared to other EPA approved insect repellents, catnip oil is considered relatively safe to use although it may cause skin irritation as there was observed redness of the applied skin area after the treatment.

The tops and leaves are medicinal; they have a strong, characteristic odour and a peculiar, bitterish taste. It is very much liked by cats. Its sedative action on the nerves adds to its generally relaxing properties. Tea made from the leaves and flowers of this herbaceous perennial has traditionally been sipped to relieve coughs. The leaves and shoots can be used as ingredients in sauces and soups. The oil extracted from catnip plants is used in natural mosquito repellents. France Good for stress related disorders. Said to soothe acne, eczema, arthritis and rheumatism. One of the most ancient oils traditionally used as a fixative in the perfume industry. Soothing woody aroma helpful for oily skin and itchy scalp. Add to a fragrance jar in a wardrobe to repel moths. A very calming oil for respiratory problems. The oil is widely used for insect repellent activities and Turkish carpet shops are walled with cedarwood boards to deter the moths. France It has a fine fruity fragrance, with roman chamomilelike notes. It has been suggested that the oil can be used as an alternative to roman chamomile, and experts have suggested it could add a whole new dimension to the flavour and fragrance industry. The leaves are used in baths for its relaxing and invigorating scent. Used in pillows, the scent encourages pleasant dreams. Anti-inflammatory and soothing. South Africa

Cedarwood (Atlas Cedar)

Cedrus atlantica

wood

>5.00

>5.00

Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg 8% in fragrances

Chamomile, Cape

Eriocephalus punctulatus

flower

no data no data 3% in fragrances

Chamomile, German

Matricaria chamomilla

flower

>5.00

Oral-Rat 10000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg 0.6% in fragrances, 6ppm in flavours. The toxicity of bisabolol Acute LD 50: 15 ml/kg in rats and mice. 4-week subacute toxicity study, Oral-Rats: 1-2 ml/kg to rats did not cause toxicity. No teratogenic or developmental abnormalities were noted in rats and rabbits after chronic administration of bisabolol 1 >5.00 ml/kg.

Scientific Name(s): Matricaria recutita L., Family: Asteraceae (daisy). Synonyms: Chamomilla recutita , Matricaria chamomilla and Matricaria suavoelens . It is antispasmodic, antiseptic/wound healing, sedative, anti-inflammatory, tonic, soothing for conjunctivitis/sore eyes. Has been used for helping skin conditions such as dermatitis, boils, acne, rashes, and eczema as well as for hair care, burns, cuts, toothaches, teething pains, inflamed joints, menopausal problems, insomnia, migraine headaches and stress related complaints. Nepal, South Africa

Chamomile, Roman

Anthemis nobilis

flowers

>5.00

Chamomile, Roman

Chamaemelum nobile

flower

>5.00

Roman Chamomile flower [Syn. Chamaemelum nobile ] has certain uses similar to those of Matricaria flower (German Chamomile), although some of its constituents are markedly different and Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonit is mush less investigated pharmacologically and irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D clinically. Anti-inflammatory and sedative effects of >5.00 (4%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy volatile oil have been demonstrated in rats. May help with insomnia, muscle tension, cuts, scrapes and bruises. It is useful against infestions and is used extensively in Europe for skin disorders. Soothing and calming, especially on nervously excited children. >5.00 see Anthemis nobilis

South Africa, England

Chaste Tree

Vitex agnus-castus

berry

Vitex agnus-castus berry oil is sometimes used for hormonal balancing by aromatherapists: especially in post- and perimenopausal women. There is evidence that diterpenes in the oil cause circulating female hormone levels to change, sometimes dramatically. The oil should therefore only be used under medical monitoring & supervision. Commission E reports no counter indications or interactions for the fruit. Adverse effects: skin reactions. The Commission E approved the use of chaste tree fruit for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual complaints, and mastodynia. Note: If tension, swelling of the breasts, and disturbances of menstruation occur, a physician should be no data no data consulted.

Chaste berry has historically been used to treat hangovers, flatulence, fevers, and constipation. It was also recognized to bring on menstruation and to relieve uterine cramps. American Eclectic physicians of the nineteenth century recommended chaste berry not only as an emmenagogue but also to stimulate lactation. Today, chaste berry is used primarily for conditions of the female reproductive system that may stem from latent hyperprolactinemia or corpus luteum insufficiency (luteal phase defect). The herb has been studied for use in cases of insufficient lactation.

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum cassia

bark

2.80

Oral-Rat 2800.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 320.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the finished product. IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <2.50 % Sensitizer; cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer; cinnamaldehyde <90.00 % Sensitizer; eugenol <4.00 % Sensitizer; methyl eugenol <0.10 % has potential carcinogenic activity. 1% in fragrances, 25ppm in flavours. LC50 = 0.479 mg/mL. The Commission E has `approved the internal use of cinnamon for loss of appetite and dyspeptic complaints such as mild spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and flatulence. And, unless otherwise prescribed, 2- 4 g per day of ground bark is deemed acceptable' (Bundesinstitut fur Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, 1998). However, cinnamon is a AHPA-BSH Class 2 herb and should not be used for long term use, should not exceed an intake of 2-4 g per day and not 0.32 be taken during pregnancy (McGuffin, 1997).

Cinnamon is a cooking spice that has many medicinal therapeutic properties which include anticancer effects, however, its inherent allergic and irritant properties can lead to contact stomatitis in sensitive individuals.

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

bark

2.65

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

leaf

3.40

Essential oil basically cinnamon essential oils comes in two forms, cinnamon bark, which is steam distilled from the inner bark of the tree, and Oral-Rat 2650.00mg/kg cinnamon leaf, steam distilled from the leaves and Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg twigs: there is also a cinnamon cassia, but this is IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization from a slightly different subspecies and is IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is discusssed under Cassia. Cinnamon bark oil is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the mostly used for fragrance and flavouring, and is not finished product. to be used in aromatherapy, as it may be harmful IFRA restricted components: (E)-cinnamaldehyde <89.00 % on the skin. However, cinnamon leaf essential oil Sensitizer; (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <8.90 % Sensitizer; eugenol has many uses in modern practice, and is current <1.20 % Sensitizer; in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia as a specific 8% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours. for flatulent cholic and dyspepsia with nausea. The FEMA GRAS; FDA GRAS refreshing and cooling quality of the bark is due to Toxicology: LD50 (oral, rat) 2800 mg/kg; poison by skin the presence of methyl amyl ketone. Cinnamon oil contact; mod. toxic by ingestion, IP routes; human skin irritant; has antifungal, antiviral, bacteriacidal and larvicidal >5.00 suspected weak carcinogen. properties. Nepal, Sri Lanka Oral-Rat 2650.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA fragrance material specification: The prime allergen is Cinnamic aldehyde and should not exceed exceed 0.1% in the finished product. IFRA restricted components: benzyl benzoate <0.90 % Sensitizer; cinnamyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer; cinnamaldehyde <3.00 % Sensitizer; eugenol <89.00 % Sensitizer 0.69 6% in fragrances, 520ppm in flavours. see above Sri Lanka Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane assumed C-D (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 7200.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 713.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 4600.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 4700.00 mg/kg IFRA max levels citronellol <8.00 % Sensitizer farnesol <0.20 % Sensitizer geraniol <28.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <2.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity Recommended max usage levels: 5% in fragrances 4.70 25ppm in flavours. Oral-Rat 7200.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 713.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 4600.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 4700.00 mg/kg IFRA restrictions citronellol <14.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <3.00 % Sensitizer farnesol <0.60 % Sensitizer geraniol <26.00 % Sensitizer methyl eugenol <0.20 % has potential carcinogenic activity recommendation levels max: 3% in fragrances 30ppm in flavours. Ingestion may be fatal in some cases. A dose of 1 to 4 mL/kg given by stomach tube in rabbits caused paralysis, coma, and death. At least 1 case of death has been reported in a child who ingested an unknown quantity of citronella oil. A review of 5 cases of childhood citronella oil poisoning suggests that dilution of the oil following ingestion may be sufficient to treat most cases of ingestion and that emesis may be induced with a relatively low risk of major pulmonary complications. If spontaneous vomiting has occurred, observation for 4.70 respiratory symptoms is required.

Citronella

Cymbopogon nardus

7.20

Citronella (Java type)

Cymbopogon winterianus

herb

7.20

Citronella oil has been used as a flavouring for foods and beverages. In traditional medicine, the oil has been used as an aromatic tea, as a vermifuge, diuretic and antispasmodic. Perhaps the most widely recognised use for the oil is as an insect repellant. It is sometimes incorporated into perfumes and soaps. Citronella candles have been promoted as an effective way to repel mosquitoes. Sometimes referred to as Andropogon nardus. Nepal Anti spasmodic oil, good for menstrual difficulty, high blood pressure, muscle cramps, respiratory problems, emotional and physical tensions. The seeds become mucilaginous in water and may be used to extract foreign bodies from the eye. The essential oil, which is known as sage clary or Muscatel oil is obtained by steam distillation. An ointment made with clary leaves will help draw out inflammation and bring boils and spots to a head.

Clary Sage

Salvia sclarea

flowering tops/foliage

5.60 >2.00

Oral-Rat 5600.00 mg/kg IFRA restrictions geraniol <0.60 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances 100ppm in flavours.

France

Clary Sage

Salvia sclarea

leaves

2.60

Clove

Eugenia caryophyllus

bud

4.20

Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy Dermal-Dog 2000-5000mg/kg Oral-Rat 5000-5600mg/kg >5.00 IPR-Mouse 520550mg/kg see Salvia sclarea Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane B (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal Irritation class AB (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal sensitisation in some isolated cases. Not in the warning list for pregnancy, however, clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE LIST see above Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods, beverages, and toothpastes. The level of clove used in foods does not exceed 0.24% and the oil is not used in amounts greater than 0.06%. Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of the oil, but this type of poisoning is rare and poorly documented. Oral-Rat (eugenol) 2,680 mg/kg; toxicity of the compound increases almost 200-fold when administered intratracheally (LD 50 11 mg/kg). Clove and clove oils are used safely in foods, beverages, and toothpastes. Toxicity has been observed following ingestion of the oil, but this rarely occurs. Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane B (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal Irritation class AB (may be irritant to some sensitive individuals), Dermal sensitisation in some isolated cases. Not in the warning list for pregnancy, however, clove leaf and clove stem ARE IN THE >5.00 LIST LD50: 1.37g/kg 1.20 Containdicated in pregnancy Containdicated in pregnancy Oral-Rat 4130.00 mg/kg Oral-Mouse 3520.00 mg/kg Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (6%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy IFRA restricted geraniol <4.00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours. As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. Inhalation-Mouse LC50 3000 mg/m3 0.50 Dermal-Rabbit Rabbit 500 mg/24H

Clove

Syzygium aromaticum

bud

2.65

Bacteriacidal and insecticidal. Oil of cloves is used as a disinfectant and dental analgesic, and in alcohol as a stimulant. Applied externally it can produce local anaesthesia. Externally used on sores and infected areas and also used as a mosquito and moth repellant. Essential oils are obtained from the buds, stems, and leaves. Clove buds yield approximately 15% to 20% of a volatile oil that is responsible for the characteristic smell and flavor. The stems yield about 5% of the oil, and the leaves yield about 2%. Clove has been used for its antiseptic and analgesic effects and has been studied for use in platelet aggregation inhibition, antithrombotic activity, and chemoprotective and antipyretic effects.

Indonesia

Clove Clove Clove

Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum

flowers leaves stem

3.20 1.40 2.03

see above

Indonesia

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

seed

4.13

The oil is said to have anti-inflammatory and sedative properties. Coriander has been used as a flavoring and medicine since ancient times. Seeds have been found in the tombs of Pharohs, and the Roman legions carried coriander as they progressed through Europe, using it to flavor their bread. Externally it has been used as a lotion to treat rheumatic pains.

Ukraine

Cornmint / Peppermint

Mentha arvensis

fresh leaves

1.24 >5.00

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 1240 mg/kg [Rat]. Acute dermal toxicity (LD50): >5000 mg/kg [Rabbit]. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy 8% in fragrances

Cornmint oil, field mint oil, Japanese mint oil, marsh mint oil. Internal use of mint oil for flatulence, functional gastrointestinal and gallbladder disorders, catarrhs of the upper respiratory tract, and external use for myalgia and neuralgic ailments. Mint oil is official in the Indian Pharmacopoeia as a carminative. It is official in the Chinese pharmacopeia as an aromatic, flavoring agent, and carminative, for application to the skin or mucous membrane, and to relieve pain or discomfort. In Germany, it is taken internally as a carminative or cholagogue, inhaled as a secretolytic, and applied externally for its cooling property. Menthol, derived from mint oil, is widely used as an antipruritic component of OTC preparations to treat burns and sunburn, poison ivy rash, athlete's foot, and as a counterirritant in external analgesic preparations . Nepal

Cumin

Cuminum cyminum

fruit

2.50

Cypress

Cupressus sempervirens

leaf

>5.00

Cumin is an aromatic, astringent herb that benefits the digestive system and acts as a stimulant to the sexual organs. Orally, cumin is used as an antiflatulent, stimulant, antispasmodic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, for stimulating menstrual flow, treating diarrhea, colic, and flatulence also for chest conditions and coughs, as a pain killer and to treat rotten teeth. The seed is antispasmodic, Oral-Rat 2.50 ml/kg carminative, galactogogue, stimulant and Skin-Rabbit 3.56 ml/kg stomachic. In India it is also used in the treatment For applications on areas of skin exposed to sun, excluding of insomnia, colds and fevers and to improve milk wash-off products, limit cumin oil to 0.4% in the finished cosmetic product. Based on the photo-toxicity of cumin oil, the production in nursing mothers. The herb has been used externally as a poultice to relieve stitch and observed no-effect level of 25% on the skin of the hairless mouse and on the no-effect level of 5% in tests with humans. pains in the side. The essential oil obtained from the seed is antibacterial and larvicidal. In spices, leave on: 0.4% Restriction. wash off: 2% Recommendation. foods, and beverages, cumin is used as a flavoring component. Cumin oil is used as a fragrance no skin contact: 5% Recommendation. 5% in fragrances component in cosmetics (maximum use level 0.4% in perfumes). Egypt 3.56 3900ppm in flavours. Funeral Cypress, Italian Cypress, Mediterranean Cypress, Mediterranean Cyprus. It is used for circulatory conditions where its effects as a venous tonic make it helpful for varicose veins, haemorrhoids, bruising and thread veins. It helps decongest the circulatory and lymphatic systems Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Dermal irritation class and may help with oedema, cellulite and water D. Dermal sensitisation class D (5%). Not in the warning list retention. . It has been found useful for muscular for pregnancy stiffness, arthritis, rheumatism, cramps and post2% in fragrances, not in flavours. sports treatment. It is also used externally as a foot Acute oral LD50: >5g/kg. Found to be non-phototoxic, nondeodorant. It is anti infectious, antibacterial and France, Italy, Spain sensitising and non-irritant. Monoterpene content: Can be and Morocco >5.00 irritant to skin and mucus membranes in high concentrations. antimicrobial.

Dill Weed

Anethum graveolens

seed

4.00 >5.00

Dill Weed Elecampane

Anethum graveolens Inula helenium

herb root

4.00 >5.00

Oral-Rat 4040.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg 2% in fragrances 25ppm in flavours. As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLO - Lowest Lethal Dose/Conc Mouse-Oral LDLo 3 gm/kg Oral-Rat LD50 4040 mg/kg Subcutaneous-Mouse LD50 1350 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg Irritation - Skin standard Draize test Skin-Rabbit 500 mg/24H; Reaction: Moderate Oral-Rat 4040.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg IFRA restriction eugenol <0.30 % Sensitizer 4% in fragrances Dill is said to contain the alleged 'psychotroph' myristicine. There are also reports that dill can cause photosensitivity and or dermatitis in some people. PROHIBITED Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient.

Dill is a sedative herb and a good remedy for sleeplessness, acting as a mild tranquilliser. Flatulent pain in infants. Chewing dill seeds will help to sweeten thre breath. Carminative and local anodyne. the essential oil in the seed relieves intestinal spasms and griping, helping to settle colic.

France, America

see above see above

Reunion

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus globulus

leaf

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus radiata

leaf

Oral-Rat of cineole (Eucalyptol) 2480mg/kg It is a mild skin irritant. Chronic effects have not been reported Recommended adult oral dose is 0.05 mL to 0.2mL Has been used as a topical rubefacient at 0.5% to 3%. Oral-Rat 2480.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit 2480.00 mg/kg 10% in fragrances Cases of eucalyptus oil poisoning have been sometimes reported. In cases of babies and young children. Eucalyptus oil should not be applied on face, especially on the nose. Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 2.48 2.48 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 2480mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit >2000mg/Kg (Essentially non-toxic) Subcutaneous-Mouse 50mg/Kg LDLo Intramuscular-Guinea Pig 2250mg/Kg LDLo Subcutaneous-Dog 1500mg/Kg Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 2.48 >2.00 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy

Characteristic aromatic camphoraceous odour and a pungent camphoraceous cooling taste. Eucalyptus oil taken by mouth for catarrh and used as an inhalation often in combination with other volatile substances. Eucalyptus oil has also been applied as a rubefacient. Has local antiseptic, Nepal, Portugal, expectorant, deodorant and refreshing effects. Spain

Anti-infectious, antibacterial, antiviral, anticatarrhal, expectorant, anti-inflammatory. E. radiata with its richness in alcohols is more suitable for infectious conditions, either viral or bacterial. Though it works on the respiratory system, prefered use for higher infections than E. globulus. Australia Anticatarrhal, expectorant, excellent liquefaction of the secretions, digestive stimulant (internally), antiinfectious, antiviral, antibacterial, parasiticide, antirheumatic, analgesic, antineuralgic, febrifuge, stimulant and calming, balancing. South Africa

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus smithii

leaf

Eucaplyptus Fennel

Eucalyptus citriodora Foeniculum vulgare

leaf seed

Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Very mildly irritant no data no data according to some sources. Toxicity class C acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 2.48 2.48 (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy 3.00 5.00 Oral-Rat 1.038mL/kg Fennel may cause photodermatitis, contact dermatitis, and cross reactions. The oil may induce reactions such as hallucinations and seizures. Poison hemlock may be mistaken for fennel. No pathological toxicity was seen in the organs of dead animals, indicating that death may be caused by the effects of metabolite imbalance or a nervous system toxicity. The value of LD 50 was 1,326 mg/kg. Fennel oil was found to be genotoxic in the B. subtilis DNA-repair test. Estragole, present >5.00 in the volatile oil, has been shown to cause tumours in animals. LD50 of fennel oil was about 4 ml/kg in animal studies. Oral-Rat 1.038mL/kg Oral-Rat 3120.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg 5% in fragrances 100ppm in flavours Acute Oral rat LD50: >2g/kg. Weak estrogenic activity noted. The LD50 in animal studies have been observed at ranges from 3.12 g/kg to 4.5 mL/kg. The Oral-Rat LD50 (anethole) >5.00 2.09 g/kg

Spain

Fennel, Bitter

Foeniculum vulgare vulgare

seed

3.80

Fennel has been used as a flavoring, a scent, an insect repellent, as well as an herbal remedy for poisoning and gastric conditions. It has also been used as a stimulant to promote lactation and menstruation. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence to support the use of fennel for any indication. The two forms of fennel are very similar and not always distinguished.

Southern Europe, North Africa

Fennel, Sweet

Foeniculum vulgare dulce

seed

4.50

Antispasmodic, antiseptic and stimulating to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Topically fennel is good for conjunctivitis, and blepharitis (as eyewash). Useful as an oil when rubbed onto affected parts to relieve rheumatic pains. The essential oil is used in tinctures as a gargle and eyewash and in carminative preparations. Shown to be anti-inflammatory in rats and mice studies. The two forms of fennel are very similar and not always distinguished. France/Corsica The resin is a very effective antiseptic and healing agent. It is used as a healing and analgesic protective covering for burns, bruises, wounds and sores. It is also used to treat sore nipples and is excellent for a sore throat. The buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk remedies for treating corns, and warts. The resin is also antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. It is used internally in propriety mixtures to treat coughs and diarrhoea, though taken in excess it is purgative. A warm liquid of the gummy sap was drunk as a treatment for gonorrhoea. A tea made from the leaves is antiscorbutic. It is used in the treatment of coughs, colds and fevers. Widely used medicinally by various North American Indian tribes as an antiseptic healing agent applied externally to wounds, sores, bites etc., it was used as an inhalant to treat headaches and was also taken internally to treat colds, sore throats and various other complaints. America see below France

Fir, Canada Fir, Grand

Abies balsamea Abies grandis

needle needle

Oral-Rat 10200 mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides 5% in fragrances. IFRA recommends for example that oils from the Pinaceae e.g. Fir needle oil Canada Abies balsamea should have a peroxide value of less than 10 millimoles of peroxide per litre. SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea family, including Pinus and Abies genera, should only be used when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of production. Such products should have a peroxide value of less than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. Based on the published literature mentioning sensitising properties when containing peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology 11,1053(1973); 16,843(1978); 16,853(1978). The oleoresin (Canada balsam) is reported to produce dermatitis when applied as perfume. The foliage has also >10.00 >5.00 induced contact dermatitis. no data no data

Fir, Silver

Abies alba

leaf

>5.00

Fir has traditionally been used to help reduce symptoms of arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, sinusitis, colds, flu and fevers. It has been found to be a useful antiseptic, anticatarrhal, antiarthritic and stimulating. The buds are antibiotic, antiseptic and balsamic. The bark is antiseptic and astringent. The leaves are expectorant and a bronchial sedative. The resin is antiseptic, balsamic, diuretic, eupeptic, expectorant, vasoconstrictor and vulnerary. Both Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg the leaves and the resin are common ingredients in Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg remedies for colds and coughs, either taken IFRA reccomendation: < 10 mmoles / L of peroxides internally or used as an inhalant. The leaves and/or 5% in fragrances. the resin are used in folk medicine to treat SCCP: Essential oils and isolates derived from the Pinacea family, including Pinus and Abies genera, should only be used bronchitis, cystitis, leucorrhoea, ulcers and flatulent colic. The resin is also used externally in bath when the level of peroxides is kept to the lowest practicable extracts, rubbing oils etc for treating rheumatic level, for instance by adding antioxidants at the time of pains and neuralgia. Oil of Turpentine, which is production. Such products should have a peroxide value of obtained from the trunk of the tree, is occasionally less than 10 millimoles peroxide per liter. Based on the used instead of the leaves or the resin. The oil is published literature mentioning sensitising properties when also rubefacient and can be applied externally in containing peroxides (Food and Chemical Toxicology the treatment of neuralgia. France >5.00 11,1053(1973); 16,843(1978); 16,853(1978). Fresh, woody, balsamic, slightly spicy and fruity fragrance. Externally, it served in the treatment of stiffness, blood vessels, joints, and various wounds. It is also used in inflammatory conditions, pain in the legs, infections, stomach problems, pressure in the ear, and to stimulate birth. The oil was used as an ingredient in embalming liquids and in mummification. It is also used to treat various diseases of the eyes, toothaches, etc. The smoke was considered helpful for womens problems, to eliminate odours in the home, clothing, or body. It was known as a multi-purpose disinfectant. Mixed with pomegranate juice it found >5.00 8% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours use as an astringent. Boswellia sacra is a tree in the Burseraceae family. It is the primary tree in the genus Boswellia from which frankincense, a resinous dried sap, is derived. Some literature identifies B. sacra as growing in Oman and Yemen, and B. carterii as growing in Somalia. The latest scientific opinion is that these are both the same species and should Toxicity class not given for acute oral, Dermal Irritation class not given but assumed C/D, Dermal sensitisation class D (8% correctly be called B. sacra. The trees start as absolute). Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant) Rated safe producing resin when they are about 8 to 10 years >2.00 during pregnancy. old Applying B. serrata to the skin may cause contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or phytodermatitis. Boswellia spp. used in adhesive plasters and perfumes has caused dermatitis in sensitive people. Boswellia gum applied to intact or abraded rabbit skin for 24 hrs. under occlusion was found to be moderately irritating. Closed patch Indian frankincense is a gum resin from Boswellia tests with 8% Boswellia serrata of Burseraceae used in Ayurveda and were found to be non-irritant to human skin. The fragrance raw Western medicine for the antinflammatory effects material Boswellia of boswellic acids. B. serrata is listed in the USDA absolute, which was prepared by ethanol extraction of Database/Plants Profile as Indian frankincense, Boswellia gum, then followed by which was not considered true frankincense by evaporation of the ethanol, was found to be non-irritant, nontraditional standards. It produces a soft, odorous sensitizing, and nonphototoxic resin that hardens in a year. As a result, it is used >2.00 in various tests on mice, pigs, and human subjects. as incense solely by the natives. Swallowing 7-26g has been reorted to cause poisoning and death in humans Oral-Rat 400mg/kg IFRA restricted citral <1.50 % Sensitizer citronellol <28.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <21.00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances, 210ppm in flavours. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (10%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy RIFM- Monograph: Acute Toxicity: Oral LD50: 5 g/kg in rats. Dermal LD50: 2.5 g/kg in rabbits. Irritation: Tested without irritation at 10%. Sensitisation: Tested without sensitisation at 10%. Phototoxicity: No phototoxic reactions observed. Sensitising component detected in the Essential Oil: >5.00 Citronellol: 40%: Geraniol 18%: Linalool: 10%: Citral 1.5%

Frankincense

Boswellia carterii

resin

>5.00

Dhofar, Somalia

Frankincense

Boswellia sacra

resin

>2.00

Oman, Yemen, from Southern Saudi Arabia.

Frankincense, Indian

Boswellia serrata

resin

>2.00

Western India (Rajhastan)

Geranium Rose Concrete

Pelargonium graveolens

flowering plant

0.40

Egypt

Geranium, Bourbon

Pelargonium graveolens

flowering plant

>5.00

It was used by the ancients as a remedy for wounds and tumours.It makes a very refreshing and relaxing bath oil with a delightful light rose perfume and a fresh green note. Said to balance sebum levels. Also good for sluggish, congested and oily skins and is a good skin cleanser. S.Africa/Malawi

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

root

>5.00

Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Oral-Mouse 3450.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 1230.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation (may cause dermatitis in hypersensitive individuals or individuals with dermatitis), Not in the warning list for pregnancy. As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. Acute toxicity TDLO/TCLO - Lowest Published Toxic Dose/Conc Oral-Rat TDLo 200mg/kg Toxic Effects: lung, thorax, or respiration - other changes biochemical - effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation Oral-Mouse TDLo 50mg/kg Toxic Effects: behavioral - analgesia LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg; Intraperitoneal-Mouse LD50 1230mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50 3450 mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5 gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test Rabbit-Skin 500 mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate >5.00 LC50 = 0.477mg/mL

Gingergrass

Cymbopogon martinii var.sofia

plant

IFRA specification: <20 mmoles/L of peroxides contains IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer no data no data 2% in fragrances, not flavours. Oral-Rat >5.00gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.00gm/kg IFRA restricted components: citral <0.30 % Sensitizer farnesol <0.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer leave on products: 4% Restriction. grapefruit oil CO2 extract up to 6% in fragrances. >5.00 Dermal Irritation Class C Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 4400mg/kg Skin-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test Skin-Rabbit: 500mg/24h; Reaction: Mild 0.8% in fragrances As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions >5.00 of use.

Externally it is a rubefacient and used for rheumatic pains and stimulant of peripheral circulation in bad circulation, e.g. chillblains and cramps. It is diaphoretic (promotes sweating). Ginger baths decrease muscle soreness and muscle stiffness. Used also in morning sickness and travel sickness. Ginger has been used for centuries as a cooking spice and medicinally demonstrates a diverse range of applications having biological properties such as the ability to modulate platelet aggregation, serve as an analgesic, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, antiparasitic activity and antioxidant, also commonly used for nausea. Ginger and its constituents induce apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and display anticancer properties against spontaneous tumors in animal models. In humans, the administration of ginger up to 6 g/day is relatively safe, yielding few side effects with the exception of a few subjects who experience nausea and drowsiness. The Commission E approved the internal use of ginger for dyspepsia and prevention of motion sickness. Powdered rhizome, 0.25 -1.0 g, three times daily. AHPA-BSH recommends not exceeding the recommended 2-4 g/day, also warning against long term use or using during pregnancy. India Very close relative of the delightful Palmarosa oil, but with a hint of ginger and a different chemotype known as Gingergrass. Said to be antiinflammatory and to have insect repellant properties. Nepal grapefruit oil is a good astringent when used as a facial toner. It has a cooling, refreshing and stimulating effect on lifeless skin and jaded senses. When inhaled, grapefruit is an anti-depressant and helps relieve anxiety. It can be effective in treating symptoms of pre-menstrual syndrome and menopause. It is also a good addition to air freshner preparations and proves to be especially effective against kitchen smells and odours. Argentina

Grapefruit

Citrus grandis

peel

>5.00

Helychrysum

Helichrysum angustifolium

flowering plant

4.40

The plant is known as Everlasting or Immortelle and has a fresh, earthy almost herbaceous aromas. It is said to be good for stretch marks and particularly useful in cases of damaged and problematic skin conditions. Said to reduce skin redness, skin bruises and good for acneic skins. France/Corsica

Ho Oil Horseradish

Cinnamomum camphora Amoracia rusticana

leaf root

3.80

Hyssop Immortelle

Hyssopus officinalis Helichrysum angustifolium

flowering plant flowering plant

1.40 4.40

The essential oil has been used as an anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative and tonic. It has been used externally in liniments for treating joint and muscle pains, balms for chilblains, chapped lips, cold sores and skin diseases. It is often used as an inhalant for bronchial congestion. Some caution is advised, excessive use causes vomiting, Camphor in large doses is toxic. Toxicity symptoms include palpitations, convulsions and death. It is possible headache, nausea, excitement, confusion and delirium. Camphor also affects the central nervous system that the oil can be absorbed through the skin, causing systemic poisoning. The essential oil is and is toxic to humans. Toxicity China >5.00 symptoms in adults have been noted after use of as little as 2g. used in aromatherapy. Dermal Irritation Group A: Severely irritant The essential oil is spicy, fresh, warm and woody. Oral-Mouse 1400.00mg/kg The scent uplifts the mood, provides direction and suggests purity and clarity of Skin-Rabbit 5000.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: spirit. It has the ability to inspire, increase concentration and focus on difficult tasks. Hyssop methyl eugenol <1.00% has potential carcinogenic activity 4% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours. is believed to bring quick relief to the pain and bruising of a black eye. Spain 5.00 Chronic toxicity, fits. Not recommended for topical use >5.00 see above see above This is a powerful respiratory oil and mostly used for clearing congestion and easing breathing. It is said to be good for chest infections. The common name stinkweed or stinkwort is not particulalry pleasant! Some aromatherapists use it for backache and muscle cramps. PROHIBITED Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5 gm/kg IFRA restricted components benzyl alcohol <1.00 % Sensitizer benzyl benzoate <1.20 % Sensitizer eugenol <2.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours. As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201(s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavor and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use.

Inula Inula

Inula graveolens Inula helenium

flowering plant root

no data no data

Corsica

Jasmine

Jasminum grandiflorum

flowers

>5.00

>5.00

The Hindus string the flowers together as neck garlands for honoured guests. The flowers of one of the double varieties are held sacred to Vishnu and are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious ceremonies. An oil made by boiling the leaves of this eastern Jasmine is used to annoint the head for complaints of the eye, and an oil obtained from the roots is used medicinally to arrest the secretion of milk. This prized essence is calming, relaxing; it also raises the libido and is used to overcome frigidity. India, Italy

Jatamansi

Nardostachys grandiflora

rhizome

4.60

IPR-Mouse LD50 (jatamansone) 350mg/kg, cf 900 mg/kg for the whole essential oil A weak activity hypotensive was demonstrated on rats and mice. Rats and mice oral LD50 >3160mg/kg Oral-Rat >3160 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat: 353mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse: >1gm/kg IPR-Mouse 900 mg/kg Jatamansi oil contains a ketone, jatamansone which is the same as valeranone (in valerian). Jatamansone semicarbazone, a sesquiterpene ketone, was found to possess antioestrogenic activity. When given alone it is also manifested by its oestrogen-antagonising action on the uterus of mice at an oral dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Jatamansone Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 80.3 mg/kg IPR-Mouse (jatamansone ) 350 mg/kg

Also known as Indian Nard [Syn. Nardostachys jatamansi ]. Cooling, and used to reduce fevers. Soothing for the skin, excellent for skin irritations and allergies. Said to be good for wounds that do not heal. Helps to promote restful sleep, reduces tress and aids relaxation. Can assist in reducing inflammation. It is a member of the Valerian family. An essential oil is obtained from the root and young stems. It is harvested before the leaves unfurl. It is used in perfumery and as a hair tonic where it is said to make the hair grow faster and also to turn it black. The dried leaves are used as an incense. Essential oil is hypotensive in dogs, dosages for hypotensive humans, less than lab animal dosage. Preliminary clinical trials of jatamansone exhibited reduced aggressiveness, restlessness, stubbornness, as well as less insomnia. Nepal

Jatamansi

Nardostachys jatamansi

root

4.60

see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn: Nardostachys jatamansi ]

Juniper

Juniperus communis

needle/wood

Juniper

Juniperus mexicana

needle/wood

Juniper

Juniperus communis

berry

Oral-Rat 6280.00 mg/kg IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides 8% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours. IPR-Mouse LD50: 100mg/kg Juniperus communis var saxatilis IPR-Mouse LD50: 3 g/kg An acute Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 g/kg Oral gavage of common juniper needles (J. communis) caused abortion in late term pregnancies similar to pine needle induced abortion. In a study of multiple juniper species extracts used in fragrance and biological additives in cosmetic formulations, there was little toxicity of the oil or tar in animals. Irritant effects on skin were not found with the oils; however, there was some evidence of sensitization to the tar. A juniper (Juniperus sp.) oil-based phytomedicine was tested for nephrotoxicity in SpragueDawley rats by oral administration of varying doses and all were found to be non-toxic. No studies could be found on the skin irritation or possible hypersensitizing effects of western juniper oil. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 6.28 >5.00 (8%). Rated safe during pregnancy. as above Juniperus tetragona is probably the correct name for this species. The oil has anti-fungal and >5.00 >5.00 20% in fragrances antibacterial activity. Oral-Rat 6280.00 mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit > 5g/Kg Stimulates circulation. Good for acne and eczema. IFRA other specification : < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides Said to be good for anxiety and stress. Some 8% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours references say good for hangovers. Cleansing. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonJuniper when applied externally is a good irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D penetrator of the skin and is useful in cases of 8.00 >5.00 (8%). Rated safe during pregnancy. rheumatism, sciatica and dermatitis.

France

Texas

Spain, Nepal

Laurel

Laurus nobilis

dried leafs/branchlets

>5.00

Lavandin, abrialis

Lavandula hybrida

flowering plant

>5.00

In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight. Some fragrance houses internally restrict the use of bay laurel oil (Laurus nobilis) in their fragrances because of customer >5.00 sensitization issues Oral-Rat >5.00gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.00gm/kg Oral-Rat 5,001mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit 5,001mg/kg IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer 1-octen-3-yl acetate <0.80 % Sensitizer >5.00 15% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours.

Bay leaf oil is used externally for sprains, bruises, etc., and was sometimes dropped into the ears to relieve pain. Use with care and never more than 1.25%. The oil is used as a food flavouring as well. Mildly narcotic, said to be good for promoting hair growth and ridding the scalp of dandruff. Europe

Lavandin, grosso

Lavandula hybrida

flowering plant

>5.00

>5.00

Lavandin, sumian Lavandin, super

Lavandula hybrida Lavandula hybrida

flowering plant flowering plant

>5.00 >5.00

>5.00 >5.00 Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal sensitisation class D (16%). Not in the >5.00 warning list for pregnancy

It is a lavender oil derived from a hybrid plant that combines the properties of Aspic and true Lavender. It is said to be more effective than any of the other lavender types in reducing skin redness. Good for muscle aches and sprains and said to improve skin circulation. This is a hybrid between Lavandula officinalis and L. latifolia and has a more herbaceous smell (some would say harsher) than some lavenders. It has the same skin calming and sedative properties of all lavenders. This is another hybrid and in this case the lavender is more camphoraceous with an exciting woodiness. It is more rounded and smoother than some lavandins. This soft oil has the same calming and sedative properties possessed by all lavender oils. see above

France

France

France France

Lavandin, super

Lavandula hybrida

>5.00

Lavender

Lavandula angustifolia

flowering plant

>5.00

Lavender, Spike

Lavandula latifolia

flowering plant

4.00

Lemon

Citrus medica limonum

peel

>5.00

Oral-Rat 4250.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 540.00mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 640.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Guinea pig >5000.00 mg/kg IFRA specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: farnesol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer geraniol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer 1-octen-1-yl acetate <0.20 % Sensitizer 16% in fragrances, 220ppm in flavours. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D >5.00 (16%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat 3800.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components: eugenol <0.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.60 % Sensitizer 2.00 0.2% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours. Oral-Rat >5.0g/Kg (oral) rat; Dermal-Rabbit >5g/Kg Irritation/Sensitation-nil at 10% (human) and nil as 100%. 1/2000 dermatitis patients were sensitive to lemon oil. Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Rated safe during pregnancy. Not in the warning list >5.00 for pregnancy IFRA critical effect: Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <40.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <3.50 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer methyl N-methyl anthranilate <0.20% concerns phototoxicity 8% in fragrances, 35ppm in flavours. PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <52.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <5.50 % Sensitizer 60ppm in flavours Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives

A few drops in a foot bath will banish fatigue. Applied to the body it will act as a strong stimulant and may relieve various neuralgic pains, sprains and rheumatism, while in France it is used to treat painful bruises. Sedative to restless children and sleepless adults, a few drops on the pillow will bring sleep more easily. It yields a higher quantity of oil than the L. angustifolia, but the quality of the oil is perhaps inferior in odour. The oil is still sedative and has all the properties associiated with lavenders. Refreshing, revitalising and stimulating. This oil is used wherever a fresh, awakeing and invigourating property is needed in foam baths, shower gels or massage oils. Lemon oil is stimulating, calming, carminative, astringent, detoxifying, antiseptic, disinfectant, sleep inducing, and has antifungal properties.

Bulgaria, France

Spain

Italy

Lemon

Citrus medica limonum

leaf

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

leaf

Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with caution. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into a tea) has been used as a carminative and general relaxant, and the dried leaves are used in herbal pillows to induce relaxing sleep. The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. It has a fine, rounded lemon scent with a somewhat spicey undertone. Its antibacterial qualities are more powerful than tea tree oil. The antimicrobial and toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil, lemon myrtle, (Backhousia citriodora) were investigated. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity against the organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus niger, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium acnes comparable to its major component-citral. Australia

Lemon Myrtle

Backhousia citriodora

leaves

2.43

Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2.25 g/kg 2.25 Oral-Rat 2425.00 mg/kg LD50 [Oral]: 1.9ml/kg. LD50 [Dermal]: 200mg/kg. Oral-Rats 4880mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit 2850mg/kg Human open patch test skin irritation/sensitisation evaluation @10% (in vitro dermal and ocular irritection studies): minimal irritant in the ocular simulation test system. Non-irritant is the dermal simulation system. At 5% was a non-primary irritant 2.85 and a non-primary sensitiser to human skin in the test used. IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <19.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances Oral-Rat LD50: 5000mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: 5000mg/Kg The essential oil from the plant might sensitise the skin to sunlight (phototoxicity) Aloysia triphylla (CAS No. 8024-12-2) is synonymous with 5.00 Lippia citriodora (CAS No. 8024-12-2) so is banned

Lemon Tea Tree

Leptospermum petersonii

leaves/twigs

4.88

Has antiseptic, antimicrobial, carminative and sedative properties, it is used in aromatic blends to combat coughs and colds. It is also successfully used as a powerful insect repellent. Used for years by the Maori's the oil has qualities similiar to Tea Tree Oil. Calms and reduces stress and tension, helps relieve aches and pains, relaxes tight muscles. Healing to the skin. South Africa The essential oil is used in aromatherapy in the treatment of nervous and digestive problems and also for acne, boils and cysts. The essential oil obtained from the leaves (yield 0.5%) is extensively used in perfumery. There is evidence that the use of this oil can sensitise the skin to sunlight and has been largely replaced by the lemongrass, Cymbopogon spp. The dried leaves retain their fragrance well and are used in pot-pourri. The plant is an insect repellant and repels midges, flies and other insects. The essential oil is an effective insecticide at 1 - 2%. Corsica, Turkey

Lemon Verbena

Aloysia triphylla

fresh herb

5.00

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon citratus

cut herb

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon flexuosus

cut herb

IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <88.00 % Sensitizer citronellol <0.20 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer 3% in fragrances Lemongrass is considered to be of low toxicity. Constituent beta-myrcene was found to interfere with cytochrome P450 liver enzymes, suggesting possible toxicities. Toxic alveolitis has been associated with inhalation of the oil. Lemongrass is no data no data GRAS in the United States. Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA restricted components citral <90.00 % Sensitizer citronellol <1.00 % Sensitizer eugenol <0.30 % Sensitizer geraniol <3.50 % Sensitizer >5.00 >5.00 10% in fragrances, 290ppm in flavours.

With its lemony aroma, it is an excellent general skin tonic and antiseptic. It is also believed to soothe fevers, and to help relieve migraine. Said to normalise overactive oil glands and so good for acne and open pores. Makes a good skin tonic.

S.Africa/Malawi

It is known as cochin lemongrass or British Indian lemongrass and has similar properties to the above. The aroma definitely stimulates the brain and facilitates the logical thinking process. It is useful where clear thinking and powers of concentration are required and will refresh a weary traveler. Nepal

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon schoenanthus

cut herb

>5.00

Lime Lippia

Citrus aurantifolia Lippia rehmanni

peel leaves

>5.00

Acute oral LD50 >5g/kg. Lemongrass oils have been found non-irritant, non-sensitising & non-phototoxic. 0.7% in fragrances, not for use in flavours. Lemongrass is not approved by the German Commission E, but does have generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status in the United States. Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA fragrance material specification: Total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product should not exceed 1ppm. IFRA restricted components: citral <0.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.10 % Sensitizer >5.00 15% in fragrances, 3100ppm in flavours.

Geranium grass, Lemon grass, Camel grass, Fever grass, West Indian lemon grass [1]) is a herbal plant of southern Asia and northern Africa, with fragrant foliage. The volatile oil obtained by steam distillation of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (Guatamalan / light type - also known as C.citratus) as opposed to Cymbopogon flexuosus (Indian / Cochin type) West Indies Acts like lemon and the other citrus oils, beautiful tangy, fresh stimulating aroma. Warning: Do not use lime on the skin in direct sunlight, however if the essential oil of lime is distilled rather that expressed, then it does not have a phototoxic effect. oil. The aroma enhances and enlivens the mood and energizes and can help relieve fatigue and stimulate mental activity and memory. Similar to Lippia citriodora , check the legal status. Specific data not available.

USA (Peru, Mexico) South Africa

no data no data

Mandarin

Citrus reticulata

peel

>5.00

Mandarin, Petitgrain

Citrus reticulata

leaf

>5.00

Manuka

Leptospermum scoparium

leaves/twigs

1.13

Oral-Rat >5.00 gm/kg Skin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg IFRA restricted components citral <1.20 % Sensitizer citronellol <3.50 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.80 % Sensitizer 5% in fragrances Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D. Expressed tangerine is not phototoxic, >5.00 Not in the warning list for pregnancy. IFRA critical Effect: Phototoxicity IFRA restricted components: citral <0.10 % Sensitizer citronellol <0.10 % Sensitizer geraniol <0.30 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer methyl N-methyl anthranilate <60.00 % Phototoxicity limits in the finished product leave on products 0.165% Restriction. wash off products 2% no skin contact 4% >5.00 4% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours. Oral-Rat 1125mg/kg Skin irritation (rabbit, contact duration 4h) 100% oil: classified R38 - irrititating to the skin. Skin sensitisation by topical application and by intradermal injection (guinea pig): no evidence of skin sensitisation. Mutagenicity (Ames test): no evidence of mutagenicity Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Oral-Rat 2240.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg LD50 Oral-Rats: 2240mg/kg LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >5g/kg IFRA restricted components: citronellol <3.20 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.50 % Sensitizer 6% in fragrances, 12ppm in flavours LD50 oral-rat: between 2-5g/Kg. Opdyke found Marjoram oil sweet to be non-irritating and non-sensitising to human skin, >5.00 but the oil is not believed to have been tested for phototoxicity. Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg 10% in fragrances. Acute toxicity : The oral LD50 in rats exceeded 5g|kg based on 3|10 deaths at that dose, and the dermal LD50 in rabbits exceeded 5g|kg based on 0|3 deaths (Palanker and Lewis, 1979). Skin Irritation : As part of a dermal LD50 study, 5g|kg of the undiluted material produced no irritation on rabbits after an occluded application for 24 hr (Palanker and Lewis, 1979) . A 48-hr patch test with 8% in petrolatum on the backs of 61 volunteers no irritation (Epstein, 1979) . The Council of Europe (1981) included mastic in the list of plants and parts thereof, >5.00 which are acceptable for use in foods. PROHIBITED : Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient. IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components: citral <52.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <5.50 % Sensitizer 60ppm in flavours Listed in the FDA GRAS list for Food Additives

a sweet citrus, fruity essential oil with the typical oriental orange smell. Used in aromatherapy for acneic skin types. Tangerine (Citrus reticulata ) is a citrus fruit that is well known for being sweet and easy to peel. Tangerine contains vitamin C, folate, and beta-carotene. Several laboratory studies have shown that tangerine may have antioxidant properties. Tangerine peel has also shown antineoplastic activity in vitro . However, there is currently insufficient available evidence in humans to support the use of tangerine for any medical indication. Italy

China Manuka oil is antibacterial, antifungal, used in cases of acne and believed to be anti-inflammatory. It is used in skin and hair care preparations. It is used for the prevention of body and foot odour, foot care and also oral hygiene products. New Zealand

Marjoram, Sweet

Origanum majorana

flowering plant

>5.00

a slightly sweet, but definitely herbaceous, woody and campherous if not slightly medicinal odour. It is used for aching muscles, sprains, crampls, rheumatism and other conditions where its relaxing effects are needed. Spain

Mastic tree

Pistacia lentiscus

leaf/branch

>5.00

The resin that oozes when the tree is tapped, is known as mastic and smells like turpentine. It is widely employed in dentistry as a cement for filling decayed teeth, and is also used in varnishes. In the East it is used as a breath sweetener. Corsica

Melissa, True

Melissa officinalis

leaf

Melissa is extremely potent and should be used with caution. Melissa herb (as dried leaves and made into a tea) has been used as a carminative and general relaxant, and the dried leaves are used in herbal pillows to induce relaxing sleep. South Africa, Spain Sinapsis is a stimulating external application, the rubefacient action causing mild irritation to the skin, stimulating the circulation to that area and relieving muscular and skeletal pain, sciatica, neuralgia and various internal inflammations. Mustard oil can be mixed with rectified alcohol (1:40 oil to alcohol) and used as a lotion for gouty pains, lumbago and rheumatism. Mustard oils are absorbed through the skin and eliminated via the lung, so that the antibacterial action can take effect there.

Mustard

Sinapsis alba

seed

Oral LD50: 0.34g/kg Caution: large amounts or prolonged use internally or externally can cause serious irritation and inflammation. Undiluted mustard oil must never be used and it should never be used on sensitive areas. Dermal irritation Group A: Severely irritant

Myrrh

Commiphora myrrha

resin

1.70

Oral-Rats LD50: 1650mg/kg Toxicity class B acute oral for Myrrh (LD50 = 1.65), Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class D (8%), Dermal sensitisation class D (8%). Mrrrh is in the list contraindicated during pregnancy. 8% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours.

Myrrh has been used as a medicine and for ceremonial and religious purposes. In traditional medicinal myrrh is used for embalming, leprosy, bronchitis, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, mouth ulcers, inflammation, viral hepatitis, female disorders, wounds, coughs, tumour etc. It is also used to some extent in Ayurveda and Unani medicine although more preference is given to the related resin known as guggulu obtained from Commiphora mukul Engl. The Commission E approved myrrh for topical treatment of mild inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia indicates myrrh tincture as a mouthwash for gingivitis and ulcers. Myrrh is also an important drug in Chinese Traditional Medicine. It is used in East Africa as a decoction of myrrh resin to treat stomach ache.

Somalia

Myrtle, Lemon

Backhousia citriodora

flowering twig

2.43

Neem

Azadirachta indica

leaves

14.00

Neroli

Citrus aurantium dulcis

flower

5.70

Niaouli

Melaleuca quinquenervia

leaf

2.00

Dermal-Rabbit (citral) 2.25 g/kg 2.25 Oral-Rat 2425.00 mg/kg Oral-Rats LD50: 14ml/kg Oral-Rabbit LD50: 24ml/kg Neem oil is non-mutagenic in the Ames mutagenicity test. Acute oral toxicity in rats fed technical grade azadirachtin ranged from greater than 3,540 mg/kg to greater than 5,000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested when administered undiluted to albino rats. A primary eye irritation study in rabbits exposed to technical azadirachtin was rated mild to moderately irritating after instillation of 0.1 gm of the undiluted material. At one hour post-instillation, the maximum eye irritation score was 15.3/110; by 24, 48, and 72 hours the scores were 6.2/110, 0.3/110, and 0/110, respectively. It was given a toxicity category of III. The LD50 (12% azadirachtin a major active constituent from neem) >5000mg/kg in rats Acute Oral-Rat >5 g/kg Acute Dermal-Rat >2g/kg Acute Inhalation-Rat LC50 >0.72 mg/L Skin Irritation - Rabbit > No Irritation Skin Sensitization-Guinea Pig- Sensitization >2.00 Eye Irritation-Rabbit-Positive LD50 oral: >2000mg/kg. Not irritating to human skin (Kligman A 1966) : J Invest Derm 47, 395 Oral-Rats (nerol) 4.5g/kg Dermal-Rabbit (nerol) >5g/kg IM-Mouse (nerol) 3g/kg No irritation or sensitisation by 4% (nerol) in petrolatum on human volunteers. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 5.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy Ethanol extract LD50 147.5mg/kg Considered non-irritant, non-sensitising 5.00 Oral-Mice LD50 316mg/kg (grandinin major component)

The essential oil distilled from the leaf has strong anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. It has a fine, rounded lemon scent with a somewhat spicey undertone. Its antibacterial qualities are more powerful than tea tree oil. The antimicrobial and toxicological properties of the Australian essential oil, lemon myrtle, (Backhousia citriodora) were investigated. Lemon myrtle oil was shown to possess significant antimicrobial activity against the organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Aspergillus niger, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Propionibacterium acnes comparable to its major component-citral. Australia

The medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant extract has been known for generations. The earliest use of a plant being used as human medication is found on an Egyptian papyrus dated about 1550 BC. (The Ebers Papyrus - ACD). Almost every part of the neem tree is used in traditional medicine in India, SriLanka, Burma, Indochina, Java and Thailand. The stem, root bark, and young fruits are used as a tonic and astringent and the bark has been used to treat malaria and cutaneous diseases. The tender leaves have been used in the treatment of worm infections, ulcers, cardiovascular diseases and for their pesticidal and insect-repellant actions. It is used to reduce dental caries and inflammation of the mouth when used as an ingredient in dental preparations. Naturally occurring oil (from seeds of Azadirachta indica) with pronounced antimicrobial properties. India

The essential oil extracted from the fragrant flower of the bitter sour, or Seville orange tree, also known as Citrus bigaradia . The therapeutic properties are effective in treating the nervous system. For insomnia the oil has an almost hypnotic effect and a few drops into a warm bath prior to bedtime will help give a good night's sleep. The Queen of all essential oils. Morocco

Niaouli

Melaleuca viridiflora

leaf

no data no data 4% in fragrances Oral-Rat 2620.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000.00mg/kg IPR-Mouse LD50 1010.5mg/kg IFRA critical Effect : Sensitization IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0.60 % Sensitizer isoeugenol <1.00 % Sensitizer, geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer, methyl eugenol <1.00 % has potential carcinogenic activity 2% in fragrances, 640ppm in flavours. As a food flavouring additive, to be generally recognised as safe (GRAS). Acute toxicity LDLO/LCLo - Lowest Published Lethal Dose/Conc IPR-Cat LDLO: 10 ml/kg LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50: 2620 mg/kg toxic effects: Behavioral somnolence (general depressed activity) Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >10 gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test Skin-Rabbit: 500 mg/24H; Reaction: moderate Reproductive effects Oral-Mouse TDLo: 2400 mg/kg; duration: male 40 day prior to mating. Toxic effects: effects on fertility - Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile non-pregnant females) TDLo Oral: 4 gm/kg; duration: male 40 day prior to mating. Toxic effects: effects on newborn - germ cell effects (in 2.60 >10.00 offspring).

This oil has a sweet, fresh fragrance with a hint of tea tree. It is strongly antiseptic and so useful for treating acne, boils and other skin irritations. It is used as a chest rub and also has analgesic properties..

Madagascar

Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans

fruit

The inhaled aroma is stimulating and effective in fighting mental fatigue. High concentrations of this potent oil, however, can produce sedative effects. Warning: Nutmeg oil is toxic if used in large quantities, and can be stupefying. Use with caution on the skin.

Sri Lanka

Opopanax

Commiphora erythraea

gum

Phototoxic. IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization leave on products: 0.6% Restriction. wash off products: 0.6% Restriction. no skin contact products: 8% Restriction. no data no data 8% in fragrances, not for use in flavours. Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. IFRA restricted components:citral <0.10 % Sensitizer; citronellol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer; limits in the finished product leave on products: 1.25% Restriction. wash off products: 6.00% Recommendation. no skin contact products: 10.00% Recommendation. 10% in fragrances, 1000ppm in flavours. Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1.4% of a blend For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, bitter orange oil expressed should not be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds 1.4%. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic >5.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils). LD 50 Oral-rat: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974) I2 (3), 733. LD 50 Oral-rabbit: >5g/kg Food and Cosmetic Toxicol (1974) I2(3), 733. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D 5.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >10000.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Photoirritation IFRA fragrance material specification: May be used in cosmetic products, provided that the total concentration of furocoumarin-like substances in the finished cosmetic product do not exceed 1ppm. IFRA restricted components:citral <0.10 % Sensitizer; citronellol trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer; limits in the finished product leave on products: 1.25% Restriction. wash off products: 6.00% Recommendation. no skin contact products: 10.00% Recommendation. 10% in fragrances, 1000ppm in flavours. Oral LD50 (15kg child): 83g/kg Oral LD50 (70kg adult): 389g/kg Topical application dose to skin exposed to UV: 1.4% of a blend For applications on areas of skin exposed to sunshine, excluding bath preparations, soaps and other products which are washed off the skin, bitter orange oil expressed should not be used such that the level in the consumer products exceeds 1.4%. This is equivalent to 7% in a fragrance compound used at 20% in the consumer product (see remark on phototoxic >5.00 ingredients in the introduction and the guideline on citrus oils). Oral-Rat LD50: 1850mg/kg Toxic effects: behavioral somnolence (general depressed activity) Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >320 mg/kg Skin - Standard Draize Test Mouse Skin; Dose: 100%; Reaction: Severe. IFRA restricted components: geraniol <0.90 % Sensitizer 4% in fragrances As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions 0.32 of use (FEMA 2828).

Opopanax is used as a fixative and fragrance for high class perfumery. Aromatherapy uses have been suggested to be similar to myrrh oil (to which it is related). Opopanax is often adulterated. Myrrh is commonly used in Chinese medicine for rheumatism, arthritis and circulatory problems. It is employed in perfumery. Not to be confused with Cassie (Acacia farnesiana) which is also called Opopanax.

Orange, Bitter

Citrus aurantium amara

peel

5.00

A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel of the bitter orange. Dried peel is official in the British Pharmacopoeia as a bitter tonic. It may have applications as a topical antifungal agent; oil of bitter orange was effective in curing patients with treatment-resistant fungal skin diseases. In vitro tests show that limonene from citrus peels may have relevant anticancer, antitumor, and celldifferentiation promoting activities. Egypt

Orange, Sweet

Citrus aurantium dulcis

peel

5.70

The volatile oil obtained by expression from the ripe peel of the fruit Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Fam. Rutaceae) / Citrus dulcis .

Orange, Sweet

Citrus sinensis

peel

5.00

See Citrus aurantium dulcis [Syn. Citrus sinensis ]. The essential oil of orange is warm, radiant, sweet, uplifting and best described as alive. It is uplifting to the mood, while promoting relaxation and being calming. It is also calming and brightening to dull complexions. Italy

Oregano, Green

Origanum vulgare

flowering top

1.85

A warming oil, it assists improvement of circulation, digestion, mental clarity and alertness. It is used to relieves muscle aches and pains and is said to assist in increasing physical endurance and energy. It may assist in reducing cellulite. In China it is used additionally to treat itchy skin conditions. Origanum oil was investigated for its antifungal properties. Origanum oil at 0.25mg/ml was found to completely inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. In addition, both the germination and the mycelial growth of C. albicans were found to be inhibited by Origanum oil in a dose-dependent manner. France

Palmarosa

Cymbopogon martini

cut herb

>5.00

Parsley

Petroselinum crispum

herb/leaf

Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization contains IFRA restricted components citral <0.40 % Sensitizer farnesol <2.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <94.00 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances, 15ppm in flavours Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane assumed C-D (non-irritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. Acute toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50 >5gm/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50 >5gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test >5.00 Rabbit Skin 500mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate Oral-Mouse: 1.52g/kg Oral-Rat: 3.96g/kg Parsley herb and leaf oils and some chemotypes of the seed oil Petroselinum crispum contain dill apiole to 20% which is severely hepatoxic and high dose levels have (endangering the subject) been used to procure an abortion. 2% in fragrances Commission E reports contraindications: pregnancy and nephrosis; adverse effects: allergic reactions of skin/mucosae (rare) and phototoxicity. The essential oil and its constituent apiole are toxic. Hepatotoxic. The pure oil is toxic and should not be used.

This oil is floral, fresh and sweet with the characteristic smell of geranium oil, but with a roseovertone - hence the alternative name rose geranium. It helps with skin problems such as candida, rashes, scaly and flaky skin. It is antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral. It is also used as an insect repellent and a carminative. It has been used on cuts, as an insect repellant and to relieve headaches. Nepal, Madagascar

Patchouli

Pogostemon cablin

plant

>5.00

Pennyroyal, European

Mentha pulegium

aerial parts

0.40

Peppermint

Mentha arvensis

fresh leaves

1.24

Strongly and a characteristic oriental and musty odour. It helps reduce skin oiliness, soothes skin problems and burns, reduces inflammation and is Oral-Rat >5.00 gm/kg mildly antiseptic. It is a nerve sedative and antiSkin-Rabbit >5.00 gm/kg depressant. is very beneficial for the skin and may Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal help prevent wrinkles or chapped skin. It is also sensitisation class D (10%). Rated safe during pregnancy, Not said to regenerate tissue and helps relieve itching >5.00 in the warning list for pregnancy from hives and other pruritic conditions. It is a reputed abortifacient, antiseptic, blood purifier, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, insect repellant, natural flea repellant on pets, pectoral, refrigerant, spasmolytic, stimulant, sudorific, Oral LD50: 0.40g/mg uterine stimulant, uterine vasodilator. Oral-Rat LD50: 1240mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5000mg/kg >5.00 8% in fragrances see above Oral-Rat LD50: 2.43mg/kg Acute oral LD50: 4.4g/kg Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy A short-term oral toxicity study on male and female rats for 28 days demonstrated that peppermint oil causes brain lesions at doses of 40 and 100mg/kg bw/day which was confined to the white matter especially of the cerebellum. Pulegone at 80 and 160mg/kg bw/day caused histopathological changes in liver and in the white matter of the cerebellum. No signs of encephalopathy was observed in rats given menthol. The toxicity of menthol was studied on four different in vitro systems covering organ, cellular and subcellular levels. 0.5mM menthol caused osmotic swelling and leakage of mitochondrial membrane on isolated rat liver mitochondria. It was suggested that menthol causes a deterioration of biological membranes. Potentially neurotoxic, moderate mucous membrane irritant. Acute oral LD50 (menthol): 3300mg/kg Oral-Mouse: 2.77g/kg Oral-Rat: 5.0g/kg mild sensitiser. Use with care during pregnancy.

Indonesia

Nepal

Peppermint

Mentha piperita

fresh leaves

4.40

Typical minty fragrance with mentholic undertones. It has a clean, clearing, penetrating odour. Invigorating - ideal travel companion, calms the stomach. Used to bathe tired and sweaty feet. A good insect repellent. Has a cooling effect on the body. Stimulating, used for headaches and nausea, very cooling. Breath freshener. S.Africa/Malawi

Perilla

Perilla frutescens

leaves/flowers

5.00

Peru Balsam

Myroxylon pereirae

resin

LD50 Oral-Rats > 5,000mg/kg >5.00 >10.00 LD50 Dermal-Rabbit >10,000 mg/kg.

Peru balsam is extracted from the cortex of the tree Myroxolon balsamum pereiae that grows in Central America, e.g. along the coast of El Salvador. Peru balsam is used as a fragrance and flavour additive in foods. Peru balsam is weakly antiseptic, and traditionally has been applied in pharmaceuticals for the treatment of wounds, eczema and pruritis (itching). I has been used for the care and relief of haemorrhoids.

Petitgrain

Citrus aurantium amara

leaf/twig

>5.00

Pimento

Pimenta dioica

berries/leaves

3.60

Oral-Rat >5000.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >2000.00mg/kg IFRA other specification: < 20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: citral <1.00 % Sensitizer geraniol <2.40 % Sensitizer (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer 15% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours Additionally, bitter orange peel, oil, oleoresins, and extracts are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) as a direct additive to food. The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) standard for bitter orange peel oil is 1.25% in products applied to areas of the skin that are exposed to the sun. In volunteers receiving skin applications of bitter orange peel oil expressed (5 L/cm2 of 100% oil) under occlusion followed by exposure to visible light or ultraviolet A, all subjects exhibited phototoxic reactions. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D >2.00 (8%). Not in the warning list for pregnancy Acute oral LD50: 3.6ml/kg strong irritant of mucous membranes hepatotoxic

It is made from the twigs and buds of the orange tree, similar properties and aroma to neroli (see above), but not quite as sophisticated or floral. Bitter orange is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although C. aurantium is listed in its Poisonous Plants Database, C. aurantium orange oil extract, peel, flowers, and leaf are listed in its food additive database, an inventory often referred to as "Everything" Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS). In frozen concentrated orange juice, the volume of bitter orange that may be added cannot exceed 5%. Petitgrain oil is extracted from the leaves of the tree but was once extracted from the green unripe oranges, when they were still the size of cherries, hence the name Petitgrain or 'little grains.' Egypt

Pine

Pinus nigra

needle

2.70

IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides 5% in fragrances The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine >2.00 can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.

The European Black Pine Pinus nigra is a variable species of pine, occurring across southern Europe from Spain to the Crimea, and also in Asia Minor, Cyprus, and locally in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa. The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge and is used as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful for coughs, colds, influenza and tuberculosis. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers. France Distilled from the needles. Clearing and deodorising. It is an excellent air-freshener and has antiseptic properties that give it good disinfectant properties. It is stimulating, good for circulation and useful for colds, flu, and bronchitis conditions, especially decongestant baths. High quality oils do not smell as basic as toilet cleaners and have a lighter more delicate aroma.

Pine, Douglas

Pseudotsuga menziesii

needle

no data no data Oral-Rat LD50: 6880mg/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >3g/kg IFRA other specification: <10 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: citronellol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer geraniol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances (Pine Oil, Estonia) 10% in fragrances (Pine Oil, Scotch) 90-day dermal toxicity study in rats. Dermal NOAEL of > 226 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested). Systemic Toxicity NOAEL = >226 mg/kg/day. Systemic Toxicity LOAEL = >226 mg/kg/day. NOAEL can be estimated from a 14-day rangefinding study >3.00 that showed a dermal NOAEL of 940 mg/kg/day.

France

Pine, Scotch

Pinus sylvestris

needle

6.88

France

Ravensara

Ravensara aromatica

leaf

Sometime called Clove Nutmeg and is a member of the Lauraceae (laurel) family. The smell is slightly medicinal with a camphoraceous or eucalyptus-like note with a very slightly sweet back note of fruitiness. In Madagascar it is known as "the oil that heals" because of its antiseptic activity and for its useful properties in respiratory problems. It has anti-infectious, antiviral and antibacterial properties. It has shown to help with insomnia and muscle fatigue. Five leaf essential oils of Ravensara aromatica Sonn. from Madagascar have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS were found to The safety of this oil is far from confirmed, as can be seen contain mainly methyl chavicol (79.7%), methyl from the analysis figures there is the possibility a number of eugenol (8.5%) and limonene (3.1%). Another R. aromatica chemotypes and this makes proper identification study analysed 28 samples of formally identified vital. Ravensara oils should not be regarded as safe because R.aromatica leaf oils and divided the leaf oils into 4 the presence of the carcinogens methyl chavicol and methyl types: a <90% methyl chavicol type, a 74-92% eugenol in the bark and leaf oils totally contradict this methyl eugenol type, a terpinene (25-28%) and assumption. limonene (15-22%) type, and a sabinene (25-34%), Reported to be carcinogenic, hepatotoxic linalool (7-21%) and terpinen-4-ol (6-12%) type. Rate this oil as unproven and potentially dangerous until Ravintsara Oil (Cinnamomum camphora ) should not be confused with Ravensara Oil. Madagascar no data no data further data is available. Alpine Rosebay, Sunpati. The stems and leaves are used in Tibetan herbalism. They have a sweet, bitter and astringent taste and they promote heat. They are antitussive, diaphoretic and digestive and are used to treat lack of appetite, coughing and various skin disorders. In Nepal, the leaves are boiled and the vapour inhaled to treat coughs and colds. It a sweet herbal, faint balsamic essence and is used in perfumery.

Rhododendron

Rhododendron anthopogon

leaves/flowers

no data no data No data found

Nepal

Rose, Damask

Rosa damascena

flowers

2.98

Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (2%). Rated safe during pregnancy, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant). Not in the warning list 2.50 for pregnancy

Rosa damascena is more commonly known as the Damask rose or simply as "Damask", or sometimes as the Rose of Castile, is a rose hybrid, derived from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata . DNA analysis has shown that a third species, Rosa fedtschenkoana , is associated with the Damask rose. The Damask rose is commonly used to flavor food and to make rose water. Rose extract and rose oil have a host of beneficial affects on the skin and are great for promoting a youthful complexion with good tone, elasticity and an even colored complexion. The typical fragrance is sweetly herbal and slightly medicinal with a hint of camphor. Rosemary is forthright and strong, helping to improve mental clarity aiding concentration and used to enhance meditation. It may be beneficial for problem skin conditions and dandruff. It is anti-catarrhal, antiinfectious, antispasmodic and is a useful component in decongestant baths. It helps overcome mental fatigue. The Commission E approved the internal use of rosemary leaf for dyspeptic complaints and external use as supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. No reported drug interactions, side effects and recommended use is 4-6 g of cut leaf for infusions, powder, dry extracts and other galenical preparations for internal and external use. AHPA-BSH has classified rosemary as a Class 2b/emmenagogue herb where it can stimulate uterine contraction and induce miscarriage, establishing counter-indication of use during Portugal, South pregnancy. Africa, Spain

Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis

flowering plant

LC50 = 0.299 mg/mL Oil of rosemary can have dangerous side effects including 5.00 >10.00 nausea, vomiting, seizure and pulmonary oedema. Oral-Mice LD50: 800mg/kg The oil of sage, can induce hypoglycemia, tachycardia, convulsions, muscle cramps and respiratory disorders. The Commission E has approved the internal use of sage leaf for dyspeptic symptoms and excessive perspiration, and external use for inflammations of the mucous membranes of nose and throat with recommended dry leaf intake, 1-3 g, three times daily or fluid extract 1,1 (g/mL), 1-3 mL, three times daily. Sage is none the less classified as a AHPA-BSH Class 2b herb, not advised for long term use or during pregnancy, and >5.00 not to exceed the recommended dose of 4-6 g daily. IFRA restricted components: geraniol <1.00 % Sensitizer 8% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours. There were no significant side effects reported by healthy patients in two clinical trials. In one pilot open-label study involving oral administration of S. lavandulaefolia essential oil to patients with Alzheimer disease, a significant increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure was observed in two patients with preexisting hypertension. Although sage oil contains thujone, the oil does not have a reputation for toxicity. The oil has been found to be non-irritating and non-sensitizing when applied topically to human skin in diluted concentrations. Spanish sage oil was also nonphototoxic when applied to mice >5.00 and pigs.

Sage

Salvia officinalis

flowering plant

2.60

It has been used in Europe for skin conditions such as eczema, acne, dandruff and hair loss. It has been recognized for its benefits in relieving mental fatigue. The aromatherapy benefits are said to be uplifting and relaxing. There are many different sages and each have a unique aroma. France

Sage, Spanish

Salvia lavandulaefolia

leaves

>5.00

Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers. The chief uses of sandalwood are as a deodorant, in skin care, for cutaneous inflammation and as an antiseptic. It is claimed to be a skin softener and stimulates peripheral blood circulation in the skin. It protects against skin diseases and allergic conditions, is haemostatic or styptic and removes skin blemishes.

Sandalwood

Santalum album

wood

>5.00

Sandalwood

Santalum spicatum

wood

5.58

Sassafras

Sassafras albidum

root bark

1.95

Oral-Rat 5580.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg >5.00 10% in fragrances, 50ppm in flavours. Oral-Rat LD50: 5580mg/Kg Dermal-Rabbit: 5g/Kg 5.00 Sandalwood oil has GRAS status. LD50: 1.9g/kg Acute Oral toxicity: Oil: LD50 (rats): 1,90 g/kg (1,52 - 2,37 g/kg) Safrole: LD50 (rats) 1,95 g/kg; LD50 (mice) 2,35 g/kg Acute dermal toxicity: Oil: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg Safrole: LD50 (rabbits): > 5 g/kg Chronic toxicity Natural oil of Sassafras was fed to animals (species not indicated) in the dry diet at 390 and 1170 ppm for up to 2 yrs. Routine blood and urine examinations were within normal limits. Skin irritation: Oil: (hairless mice and swine; undiluted) within 30 sec. mild erythema and oedema; (rabbit; intact or abraded skin; undiluted ; under occlusion; 24 hrs): moderate irritation; Humans (4% pet.; closed patch test; 48 hrs):no irritation. Sensitization - man: Oil: Maximization test (25 volunteers; 4% pet): no senzitation reactions. Phototoxicity: (977 hairless mice and swine; undiluted): no >5.00 effects. Safrole: no effects

see Santalum album

Savory, Mountain

Satureja montana

flowering plant

LD50: 1.37g/kg (Summer Savoury) Not recommended for topical use

Savory oil is sometimes used as a local application to carious teeth, for relieving toothache; and its tincture is a valuable carminative. It is an antiseptic oil with antibacterial and antifungal properties and so would ne useful in problem acneic skin conditions France

Spearmint Spearmint

Mentha spicata Mentha viridis

fresh leaves fresh leaves

5.00 4.00

Oral-Rat 5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill Oral-Rat LD50: 5gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draize Test Dermal-Rabbit 500mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate. Dermal Guinea Pig: Dose: 100%; Reaction: Mild IFRA restricted components: (E)-2-hexen-1-al <0.10 % Sensitizer, 1-octen-3-yl acetate <0.20 % Sensitizer, 8% in fragrances, 8000ppm in flavours. Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane class B, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (4%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy. As a food flavouring additive, it has been assessed to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives has assessed l-carvone as presenting no safety concerns at current levels of intake when used as a flavouring agent. The daily per capita intake is estimated at 170 g/kg bw/day in the USA and at 46 g/kg bw/day in Europe. Acute Toxicity LD50/LC50 - Lethal Dose/Conc 50% Kill [LCarvone] Oral-Rat LD50: 1640mg/kg Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 56mg/kg >5.00 Oral-Guinea Pig LD50: 766mg/kg 5.00 see Mentha spicata [Syn. Mentha viridis ]

The aroma of spearmint is not as sharp and intense or vital as peppermint, as it contains no menthol. It is often described as minty with a slightly fruity aroma. Used for colic, indigestion, flatulence, intestinal cramps, fevers, nausea, antidepressant, relieves mental strain and helps to soothe headaches. The chief constituent of spearmint oil (essential oil of Mentha spicata) is Lcarvone (more than 60%). Spearmint is used for culinary purposes and in the aroma and flavour industry. It has antifungal, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses. An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant, the yield is about 4kg of oil from 1 tonne of leaves and is used as a food flavouring and in oral hygiene preparations. see Mentha spicata [Syn. Mentha viridis ]

South Africa

Spikenard Spikenard

Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi

rhizome root

4.60 3.16

see above see above

Cooling, and used to reduce fevers. Soothing for the skin, excellent for skin irritations and allergies. Said to be good for wounds that do not heal. Helps to promote restful sleep, reduces tress and aids relaxation. Can assist in reducing inflammation. It is a member of the Valerian family. India see Nardostachys grandiflora Oil [Syn: Nardostachys jatamansi ]

Styrax Benzoin (Benzoin) Extract

Styrax benzoin

exudate Oral-Rat 3700.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components:eugenol <0.20 % Sensitizer; geraniol <0.40 % Sensitizer leave on products: 0.01% Restriction. wash off products: 1.00% Recommendation. no skin contact: 2.00% Recommendation. >5.00 1% in fragrances, 20ppm in flavours.

It is used as an antiseptic, astringent and expectorant, and the tincture is widely used as a skin protectant and as an antiseptic and styptic on small cuts. It is under the domination of the Sun or Jupiter. It has a sweet, vanilla-like smell. It is a scented gum that has been used in cosmetics for hundreds of years. The ancient civilisations thought it a grand remedy for driving away evil spirits and was often used in fumigations and incense. It is an ingredient in Friar's Balsam. It was often referred to in old herbals as 'gum benzoin', 'balsam' or 'gum benjamin'. 'Virgin Milk' an old fashioned toilet water, included benzoin as well as lavender and ethanol. It was supposed to make the skin 'clear and brilliant'. Nowadays used as a fixative in perfumes. Externally, it is used to treat haemorrhoids and skin infections. It is an insect repellant and branches of are placed in amongst blankets and winter clothing to repel moths and other insects. If the dogs' baskets and kennels are lined with the plant, the fleas will soon leave, and a few leaves rubbed into the pet's coat is a good flea repellant. South Africa no data - the tangelo is another mandarin, tangerine, clementine type orange fruit. USA Tangerine oil is extracted from Citrus reticulata (also known as Citrus nobilis, C. madurensis, C. unshiu and C. deliciosa) of the Rutaceae family and is also known as European mandarin, tangerine, naartjie and true mandarin. The odour is the traditional oriental, slightly spicey orange that reminds us of Christmas. The oil is described as calming, sedating, anti-inflammatory, and is said to help with anxiety, dizziness, and nervousness. It has a warming freshness. USA A weak anthelmintic and mild irritant, tansy can be poisonous even when applied externally; therefore it is little used. American Indians used the plant to cause abortion. It is used as an an ointment for pruritis. In medieval times, the leaves were placed in beds and strewn over floors as their camphor smell kept away flies and fleas. If large amounts of any preparation containing tansy are taken, toxicosis with epileptic convulsions may result. The essence is an insecticide. As this is an emmenagogic plant (one which restores the menstrual flow) it should on no account be taken in any form by pregnant women. The smell of tea tree is well known, a combination of medicinal, eucalyptus and woody citrus notes. The oil is antibacterial, used for cold sores, acne skin washes, and decongestant baths when a cold is coming on. Good for spots and other skin infections. South Africa It has been used amongst other things for psoriasis, rheumatism, and topically for warts. It is useful in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatism. Thuja oil is a very poisonous essential oil and should only be used under strict medical supervision.

Tagetes Tangelo

Tagetes minuta Citrus tangelo

flowering herb peel

3.7

no data no data

Tangerine

Citrus reticulata

peel

>5.00

Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg >5.00 5% in fragrances, 10ppm in flavours

Tansy Tarragon (Estragon)

Tanecetum vulgare Artemisia dracucnculus

aerial parts aerial parts

0.73

Oral-Dog LD50: 0.3g/kg Oral-Rat LD50: 1.15 g/kg Avoid during pregnancy owing to the presence of thujone. LD50: 1.9g/kg

Tea Tree

Melaleuca alternifolia

leaves

1.90

5.00 LD50 1.9-2.6ml/kg.

Thuja

Thuja occidentalis

0.83

Oral LD50: 0.83g/kg The oil is poisonous when ingested in large quantities, producing symptoms such as hypotension and convulsions and eventually death.

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

flowering plant

2.84

Thyme, Thymol

Thymus zygis

flowering plant

2.84

8 % solution: no irritation or sensitization in human studies Oral-Rat 2840.00mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00mg/kg IFRA restricted components: (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer 2% in fragrances, 30ppm in flavours. Essential Oil Safety Data Manual, Acute Oral Toxicity rates as C (relatively safe), Acute Dermal Toxicity rates as C-D (not hazardous), Abortifacient rating as class B (risk) use only with great caution in pregnancy. Mucous membrane Irritation rated as class A (severely irritant), the A rated should be used with great caution if applied to any of the orifices of the body, e.g. oral administration, inhalation, douches or enemas. Dermal Irritation rated as class B (irritant). Dermal Sensitisation rated as class D (not sensitisers) Red Thyme 8%, wild thyme not >5.00 tested. Photosensitisation not reported Oral-Rat 2840.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg IFRA restricted components: citronellol <0.20 % Sensitizer; geraniol <0.50 % Sensitizer; (E)-2-hexen-1-al trace to <0.10 % Sensitizer >5.00 2% in fragrances, 100ppm in flavours.

The essential oil is found to be useful for overcoming fatigue and physical weakness after illness. It is antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and is strongly germicidal. It is used for joint pain, backache and sciatica in a hot bath. Inhaled, thyme oil uplifts the spirit, relieves depression and is an excellent decongestant and cold treatment.

France, Spain

Turpentine

Pinus roxburghii

resin

no data no data IP-Mouse (dry extract root): 3300mg/kg Low toxicity: IP-Mouse extract: 360-400mg/kg LD50 for each of the triesters >4.6g/kg. No observable cytotoxicity seems that when there is a more direct contact between valepotriates and tissues. IFRA restricted components:eugenol trace to <0.20 % Sensitizer 1% in fragrances Oral-Rats (root oil) LD50: 15g/kg (relatively safe) Valerian root and its constituent valepotriates are apparently nontoxic. Valerian root has approval status by the German Commission E for restlessness and sleeping disorders (e.g. insomnia) based on nervousness. It may be taken internmally, or used in a bath. As a food flavouring additive, the material has been assessed under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 201 (s), by the Expert Committee of the USA Flavour and Extract manufacturers Association (FEMA), to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under current conditions of use. Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 1580.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Rat 1160.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rabbit 2600.00 mg/kg Gavage-Mouse [sex: M] 1000.00 mg/kg Intraperitoneal-Mouse 475.00 mg/kg Gavage-Guineapig [sex: M,F] 1400.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 1580.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 3978.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M,F] 3925.00 mg/kg Gavage-Rat [sex: M] 3830.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat [sex: M,F] 3300.00 mg/kg Oral-Rat 4370.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5010.00 mg/kg Subcutaneous-Rat 1500.00 mg/kg >5.00 Skin-Rat >2000.00 mg/kg

see Thymus vulgaris Turpentine and its related products have a long history of medicinal use, where they have been employed as topical counterirritants for the treatment of rheumatic disorders and muscle pain. A gum derived from turpentine was used in a traditional Chinese medicine to relieve the pain of toothache.

Spain

Nepal

Valerian

Valeriana officinalis

>5.00

Very soothing and relaxing, especially during difficult times. Encourages sleep and restfulness, calms the nerves during sleep. The oil has a very characteristic musty odour.

Nepal

Vanilla

Vanilla planifolia

pod

4.37

Vanilla is comforting, calming and soothing. The fragrance relaxes and softens anger, frustration and irritability when used in massage oils. It is also considered to be an aphrodisiac by many. New Hebrides The alternative name is Lippia citriodora and this essential oil should not be used as a fragrance ingredient according to the latest legislation Council Directive 76/768/EEC (CAS No. 8024-12-2) France/Spain

Verbena

Lippia citriodora

fresh herb

Vetiver

Vetiveria zizanioides

root

>5.00

Wintergreen

Gaultheria procumbens

1.40

Prohibited IFRA Oral-Rat LD50: >5 gm/kg Dermal-Rabbit LD50: >5 gm/kg Irritation Skin - Standard Draixze Test Rabbit Skin: Dose: 500 mg/24h; Reaction: Moderate Toxicity class D acute oral, Mucous Membrane C-D (nonirritant), Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D >5.00 (8%), Not in the warning list for pregnancy. Methyl Salicylate values Oral-Mouse 1110mg/kg Oral-Rat 887mg/kg Oral-Rat 1250mg/kg Oral-Guinea-pig 700mg/kg (MLD) Oral-Guinea-pig 1060mg/kg S.C-Guinea-pig 1500mg/kg (MLD) Oral-Rabbit 1300mg/kg Oral-Rabbit 2800mg/kg Oral-Dog 2100mg/kg The adult human oral LD50 is estimated at 0.5 g/kg bodyweight. The ester is potentially the most toxic salicylate for infants and children, as 4 ml can be fatal 3% in fragrances 2.80 The pure distilled essential oil is toxic in large doses

A scented grass with a woody, sultry almost smoky aroma. Deeply relaxing, the essential oil is sedating and ideal in massage oil or bath. Traditionally used in men's toiletries. Madagascar

An essential oil (oil of wintergreen' obtained from the leaves contains methyl salicylate, which is closely related to aspirin and is anti-inflammatory. The oil is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, stimulant and tonic.

Wintergreen, Fragrant Wormseed Wormwood

Gaultheria fragrantissima Chenopodium ambrosioides Artemisia absinthium

leaves

Ylang Ylang Zedoary

Cananga odorata Curcuma zedoaria

no data no data see Gaultheria procumbens Oral LD50: 0.25g/kg Oral LD50: 0.96g/kg leaves / flowering tops 0.96 Not advised for topical use Oral-Rat >5000.00 mg/kg Skin-Rabbit >5000.00 mg/kg IFRA critical Effect: Sensitization IFRA other specification: <20 mmoles / L of peroxides IFRA restricted components: benzyl alcohol <3.50 % Sensitizer benzyl benzoate <9.00 % Sensitizer benzyl salicylate <3.00 % Sensitizer (E)-cinnamyl alcohol <0.40 % Sensitizer eugenol <0.50 % Sensitizer isoeugenol <0.50 % Sensitizer farnesol <3.00 % Sensitizer 10% in fragrances, 25ppm in flavours. Toxicity class D acute oral, Dermal Irritation class C, Dermal sensitisation class D (10%). Rated safe during pregnancy, Mucous Membrane C-D (non-irritant), Not in the warning list flower >5.00 >5.00 for pregnancy bark no data no data 1% in fragrances

It has been described as a fresh, cleansing minty aroma, but the smell is better known as the characteristic smell of Germolene and the typical smell of many embrocations. It is the methyl salicylate that gives it the characteristic smell. Used for its muscle relaxing and decongestant properties. The oil is employed in a rub used externally for rheumatic and muscular pains and to flavour dental preparations. The leaves yield around 1.25% of an essential oil, this is a wintergreen substitute and it is used in perfumery, as a hair oil and medicinally.

Nepal

Ylang Ylang is extremely effective in calming and bringing about a sense of relaxation. It is antispasmodic, balances equilibrium, said to help with sexual disabilities and frigidity and has been used traditionally to balance heart function. Ylangylang in the Malayan language means "flower of flowers." The scent is very sensual, sweet and reminiscent of almonds. It is mentally relaxing and soothing. It is useful in treating insomnia, anger, anxiety and low self-esteem. It is said to relax facial muscles, and a massage with ylang-ylang helps to ease tension headaches. Indian Ocean