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Definition of bar:

A bar is a structural element which carries primarily axial loadings and also torsion & bending loads. in general the cross section of bar is quadrilateral If a bar carries transverse loadings, it becomes a beam. A beam is a horizontal structural element that is capable of with standing load primarily by resisting bending. A beam carries both axial & transverse loadings primarily. Axial loading:
If the load (or) force is applied along the axis of the beam, it is called axial loading. Internal Resisting force: When a body is subjected to external force , due to the cohesion between the molecules an internal force is developed which resists the deformation . this internal force developed against the external force is called internal resisting force Example: If we try to pull a bar by applying 2 equal & opposite forces F then an internal resisting force, P developed as shown.

Thus internal forces hold the particles of body together. Stress: ( ) Stress at a point is defined as force of resistance developed per unit area. = P A = Internal resisting force developed (N) Area ( )


a) The intensity of stress normal to sectional plane is called intensity of normal stress b) The intensity of stress parallel to sectional plane is called shearing stress. Note: =

Variation of stress: Stress is not uniformly distributed in a material. There are some variations in the distribution of stress. Example:

If A thin plate of circular hole in the middle is subjected to 2 equal and opposite pulls at both ends, it will break at (or) near the circle .the reason is more stress is induced near the circular hole when compared to remaining portion.

Classification of stress:

Earlier we have discussed about normal through each type in detail.

& shearing stress. Let us go

1) Normal stress: a) Tensile stress: The stress causing the extension of bar is called tensile stress. Tensile stress is induced when a body is subjected to 2 equal & opposite as a result of which there is an increase in length along the direction force.

The tensile stress acts normal to cross sectional area b) compressive stress: The stress which causes the shortening are called compressive stress. This stress is induced when a body subjected to equal and opposite pushes. acts normal to the cross sectional area.

Thus whether tensile or compressive force stress developed=load per unit area. Shear stress : (c)

The stress induced in a body , when subjected to equal and opposite forces, which are acting tangentially across the resisting section as a result of which the body tends to shear off the section is known as shear stress.

STRAIN: Since no material is perfectly rigid , under the action of forces there is some change in dimension of the body. The ratio of change in dimension to original dimension is called strain. It is dimensionless. The extension can be coursed by electric , strain gauges. Longitudinal strain: The strain along the direction of applied force is called longitudinal strain. Lateral strain: The strain at right angles to the direction of applied load is called lateral strain.

Linear strain e Lateral strain

= = = =

The ratio increase in length to original length of the body is known as tensile strain. The ratio of decrease in length to original length to original length of the body is known as compressive strain. The ratio of change in volume to original volume is called volumetric strain. The strain produced due to shear stress is called shear strain.

Poissons ratio: ( It is the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain.

Elasticity: The property by virtue of which the materials regain their original size Shape after removal of ext forces is called elasticity. There is a limiting value of force, so that the deformation completely disappears

Plastisity: A material in plastic state is permanently deformed by the application of load & it has no tendency to recover. Hookes law:

stress stress

= =

strain (modules of elasticity) strain Ee

. Youngs modules of elasticity: It is the ratio of tensile stress (or) compressive stress to corresponding strain with in elastic limit

Modulus of rigity /shear modulus:

Bulk modulus: (K)

It is the ratio of identical pressure P acting in three mutually Directions to corresponding volumetric strain


= =
( )

Relation between modules of elasticity (E)& modules of rigidity (G):Consider a square element ABCD of side a subjected to pure shear Q as shown. shown is the deformed shape due to shear Q. drop Diagonal DE Let be shear strain & G be modules of rigidity. Strain in diagonal BD = = = Assuming = = = = = = r BF

Strain in diagonal BD

The pure shear gives rise to axial tensile stress Q in the diagonals direction of DB& axial compression q at right angles to it. These 2 stresses cause tensile strain along the diagonal DB Tensile strain along the diagonal DB Equating 1&2 = E E = 2G(1+ (or) = 2G(1+ ) = = + (1+

Relation between modulus of elasticity (E)& Bulk modulus (K):Consider a cubic element subjected to stress p in 3 mutually directions x, y & z Now stress P in x direction causes tensile strain P/E in x direction , while the stress P in y & z direction causes compressive strains P/E in x directio e n. Henc Hence Similarly

= = volumetric strain but Solving 3&4 = E = = = 1)] E = = = = = = =

Faction of safety: It is the ratio of ultimate tensile stress to working stress

Stress strain diagram for mild steel:The stress strain relationship of any material can be obtained by conducting tensile test on standard specimen .the figure shows a tensile test specimen of mild steel. this test is conducted by using universal testing machine. The figure shows vs strain diagram for mild steel specimen & the following observations were made on the curve

a)Limit of proportionality (A): it is the limiting value of the stress up to which stress is proportional to strain . b)Elastic Limit: this is the limiting value of stress up to which if the material is stressed and then released, strain disappears completely & original length is regained .this point is slightly beyond the limit proportionality. c)upper yield point (B): This is the stress at which ,the starts reducing and the extension increases. The phenomenon is called yielding of material . d)lower yield point(c): At this stage , the stress remains same but strain increases for some time. e)ultimate stress(D): This is the maximum stress the material can resist .At this stage cross sectional area at a particular section starts reducing very fast. This is called neck formation .After this stage load resisted & hence stress developed starts reducing. f)Breaking point(E): This is the stress at which finally the specimen fails is called breaking point. Thermal stresses: Every material expands when temperature rises and contracts when temperature falls.

The change in length due to change in temperature is found to be directly proportional to length of member & also change in temperature. Change in length, = = Coefficient of thermal expansion

If the changes due to temperature are permitted freely no stresses develop in the member as shown below

If the free expansion is prevented fully or partially , the stresses are induced called temperature stresses Case 1: When free expansion is fully restricted = = l =

Case ii:

Free expansion is partially restricted

= = l

Bars of varying cross section:

Consider a bar of length L having three different cross sections over the length L1,L2,L3 and is acted upon by a axial load P .let A1A2A3 be the cross section areas of the three sections respectively. Even through the total force is each of the section is same, the intensities of stress will be different for the three sections. For ex,

1 2 3

= = =

= = =

Let E be the youngs modules, 1 2 3 = = = = = = )

= =

2 3

= = =

= =

+ + =

bars of composite sections: Consider a bar of circular cross section consisting of different materials. the load p applied on the member is shared by both of the bars. Consider, = = = =

= = =

= ,

= =

The following two points are important in the analysis of composite bars. 1. The extension or compression in bares equal. Hence deformation per unit length i.e strain in each bar is equal. 2. The total external load on the composite bar is equal to the sum of the loads carried by two bars. Strain Energy (or) Residence: When a load is applied on a member, the member is deformed. The member offers a resistance against this deformation . This works done on the member is stored by the member as energy and is called strain energy or residence. strain energy is the energy absolved by the member when the work is done on it ,to deform it. Consider a bar of length L and uniform cross section a its top and is fixed and the bottom end is pulled down. Due to this tensile force ,the change is length process of extension ,at any instant , if the extension of the member is x, = =

The resistance increase gradually from zero, when then the bar is not stretched to maximum deformation of s1. therefore ,the average resistance put by the member is . Work done = against this resistance Strain energy, u = = = Strain energy = E Average resistance diatance through which deformation took place. e sl

= = =

Stress due to various types of axial loads: 1) Gradually Applied Loads: Let a load of magnitude P, uniform cross section A. Let S1 be the extension of the rod, and be the intensity of stress in the rod. Strain energy stored by the member (u)=

= = =

Strain energy = work done by the external stored by the member load = = .

Suddenly Applied loads: Let a load of magnitude p is suddenly applied on a member axially and this causes a extension of s1 in the member. the load p remains constant during the entire process of Loading .Let, the max stress be induced in the member.

Strain energy stored by the member = Work done by the external load = =

Equating strain energy to the work done, we get

Impact (or) shock Loading:

Structural components are more after subjected to the impact or dynamic loads, which produce stress much higher than stress caused by the same force applied gradually .stress caused by these impact loads is normally determined by the principle of conservation of energy. Consider a vertical bar, whose upper and is and a collar is provided at the bottom. when a dynamic load of magnitude to take place.

= = = = =

*From the above equations, it is found that the stress in suddenly applied load is twice that of the gradually applied load for the same magnitude.