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Thursday, September 30, 2010 WS3A-5

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MAF analogue signal: Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:40 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

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Idle air control :

This is a solenoide which is controlled by the ECU . This solenoide controls the amount of air bypassing the throttle butterfly and entering the intake manifold to keep the car running when the engine is at idle and the throttle fly is not open to allow air inside the intake manifold so it can have sufficient air to keep the car running smoothly. It is a PMW and the frequency increases as the engine RPM increases and the On time gets smaller. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:39 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


MAP Digital :
This sensor calculates the pressure inside the intake manifold so the ECU knows how much air is going inside the engine so it can adjust the air/fuel ratio accordingly . Some people like refering to this sensor as Vacuum sensor . We can see in the photo above there is high vacuum in the manifold therefore a low output volatge but as we rev the engine up the air inside the intake manifold increases due to the throttle butterfly allowing more air past it this means less vacuum inside the manifold or more pressure inside the intake manifold , consequently this will increase the output voltage of signal wire back to the ECU. which we can see as the peaks on the graph above. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:39 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


RPM Hall Effect Crank or Cam position sensor:

This sensor provides the ECU information about the position of the crank and Cam shaft and in relation with the TDC . ECU would know which cylinder is in which cycle and where abouts are they in their stroke cycles by this sensor input and the TDC reference mark . It produces a digital signal same as the above and also dtermines the dwell time of the primary circuit and also the firing period . as the engine RPM rises the frequency increase and dwell time and firing preiod decreases. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:39 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


O2 sensor:
The O2 sensor works in comparing the amount of oxygen in the exhaust and amount oxygen in the ambient air ... above we can see the oxygen sensor is operational which normaly has to reach 300 deg/C and after that ECU goes in to closed loop which means the ECU uses oxygen sensor to see if the air/fuel mixture is lean or rich and if rich it will make it leaner and when lean it will make it rich and we can see this cycle in the above photo. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:38 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


Ignition Primary pattern :

This pattern is a good way to check the condition of the ignition circuits . It also uses string theory so as the firing voltage increase the burn time decreases and vice-versa. Firing voltage: The voltage or push needed for the spark to jump the spark plug gap . Burn voltage: Voltage needed to maintain an arc or spark between the spark plug electrodes so it can burn all of the fuel in the combustion chamber. Burn time: The length of time in which the arc or the spark maintained , its a good indication of the state of the secondary circuit components (spark plugs , HT leads , King lead , distributor cap , rotor and secondary ignition coil ) Dwell time: The length of time in which the primary circuit is grounded (turned on) for prior to the each spark . It is to build enough magnetic field in the primary so then after collapsing it can induce a high enough voltage in the secondary windings . Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 6:37 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


RPM magnetic pick up distributor:

The frequency and the ampiltude of the voltage changes as the magnetic teeth speed increases or decreases . As the teeth magnetic field approaches the sensor it creates negative voltage first then as it gets next to the magnet there is no vltage created because no magnetic field are being crossed , as the magnetic teeth field starts going away from the magnetic pick up sensor it craetes positive voltage which we see on the graph above or the video below will show as we rev the engine up the frequency and amplitude increases rapidly.

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Petrol Injectors:
At the voltage supply the injectors are closed because they havent been earthed out by the ECU yet at the point where we have injector opening the ECU earths out the injector and the solenoide inside is energised to open the injector and the Back EMF is produced as the magnetic field collapses on itself which creates a hight peak ... to keep the injector open only a little bit of energy is needed compare to when they need to be opened . after the injector is closed the voltage goes back to supply voltage till the next time its earthed out by the ECU to be opened and this opening and closing is also known as PWM. which is sent from ECU . Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 5:10 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


-Toyota 4Age By looking at the vehicle workshop manual we can obtain the correct pin to bridge and with the key on we can put the car into diagnostic mode , I really like this as we dont need expensive scan tool only a jumper wire , also so easy to use as in which direction you should be looking at , It does not always tell you what we exactly need to check or where to look but its always a good start . - After looking at the workshop manual ... it states the ignition should be in the ON position and bridge terminal TE1 and E1. and this puts the car into diagnostic mode and we can use the car's own ECU it can tell us what faults it has logged on its memory .

- After fault codes were put in by the tutor we put the car in to diagnostic mode and the codes we found were : 2 & 7 these faults made the car run very rugh and keep turning off at idle . There were also 3 & 5 which we got because we had the ignition module unplugged ( code 3) and unpulging engine RPM sensor inside the distributor ( code 5) - By looking at the list below we can see what does each code number means

- After doing the visual inspection at faults found : I found the TPS sensor plug was not in properly and also the vacuum sensor plug was not in properly so the ECU was not getting good signal from these sensors . - I repair these faults by making sure they were plugged in properly . - To check and make sure I turned the car on and now it was running with out a problem and was running smoothly at idle and also when reved up . - To clear the fault codes I disconnected the battery and left it for a couple of mins and then connected the battery back to the vehicle . I put the jumper wire back in TE1 and E1 and turned the ignition on .

code 1 means everything is normal and there are no faults detected by the ECU - Code 2: Interupted signal from the manifold vacuum sensor . This fault will cause the vehicle to not run smoothly as the ECU doesnt know what the vauume pressure inside the intake manifold is ... also how much engine load we have specially when driving , not so much at idle and how much load its carrying and might struggle going up hill since it has no value from the vacuum sensor . It will cause the engine run poorly and to make the engine emission to rise because its not running at the optimum condition . - Code 7: Interupted signal from the TPS . This fault will cause the engine run very poorly as the ECU has no idea what the driver intend is and how much air is coming inside the intake manifold and whether the diver is accelerating fully or half way and what he wants to do exactly . This will cause the engine to run poorly at idle or even more when driving and cause the emissions to rise as the ECU can not find the optimum condition for the vehicle. - We can also check the supply wire voltage , check the ground by Voltage droping the earth wire with a good ground e.g negative post of the battery . also we can check the signal wire and make sure it is changing in the right manner and check all these information with manufator spec to see if it is within specified spec. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 3:50 AM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook


Petrol Fuel Injector Testing :

Checking the voltage at the injectors and the battery

Make : Toyota Model : 4AFE (Grouped injection) - After turning the engine on we can listen to the injectors opening and closing which sounds more like ticking than any thing else . I put the end of the screw driver on the body of the injectors and the plastic handle of screw driver on my ear and could hear ticking from the injectors . This shows each injector is opening and closing and as long as there is fuel available to the injectors , it also means that they are injecting fuel into the cylinders and they are opening and closing . All injectors OK and could hear ticking from all 4 . - Bychecking the voltage at the injectors we can also make sure they are getting the right voltage which is the battery volatge ( 13.50 Volts) and this will show if there is high resistance in the circuit and no poor connections. These results are within the manufactorer spec which is good under 0.1 volts from the battery supply .

- Another way of checking to see if injectors are working properly is to back probe each injector and hook up a LED tester to it ... as the ECU grounds each injector so those the LED tester and it consequently turns the LED on ... this happens so quickly that makes it look like the LED is always on especially when we rev the engine up . This can show if the injector is repetetive is in order and is getting a good PWM.

- By using the multimeter set to duty cycle we back probe the injectors and connect our multimeter to the injectors . we can see how much of the time they are staying open at idle . shows that the injectors are staying opened roughly around 2.2-2.4% of the time to spray petrol in the engine . which shows that the engine is running lean at idle.

- Having the multimeter on the same setting and back probed to the injectors we rev the engine up to see if the duty cycle changes and by how much . This results show that when we rev the engine up our injectors are staying open longer to spray more petrol as we need more to be able to increase the RPM , ECU does this to comply with the driver intend which picks up from TPS , MAF ... My results show when we accelerate the engine with a short fast throttle , the injectors are staying open 34-37 % of the time which shows more of a richer mixture than idle .

- Now by setting the multimeter to Hz and still having it hooked up to the back of the injectors we can see the frequency of how many times per second our injectors are opening and closing . we first do this at idle . Our results show that the injectors are opening and closing 47.5-48.2 Hz times they are opening and closing per second . This shows a lean mixture.

- We now repeat the steps above but reving the engine for a short time to see if the frequency of the injectors are changing or not and by how much . Our results show that the frequency has more than doubled and that also tells us the injectors are opening and closing 112.7-116.1 Hz times per second . this tells us that we have richer mixture since the

frequency of the injectors opening and closing has more than doubled .

- Now using this formula " Pulse width ms = (% duty cycle x 100)/frequency" would show us how long in ms the injectors are staying opened . since we have grouped injection I am doing cylinder 1&3 and 2&4 together .

At idle :
Cylinder 1 & 3 : Pulse width ms = (2.2 x 100) / 47.5 = 4.63 ms Cylinder 2 & 4 : Pulse width ms = (2.4 x 100) /48.2 = 4.98 ms

Reving up :
Cylinder 1 & 3 : Pulse width ms = (37 x 100) / 112.7 = 32.83 ms Cylinder 2 & 4 : Pulse width ms = (28 x 100) / 116.1 = 24.11 ms Conclusion : This is a very good way to check how good they are working . Easy and faster way to check injectors with out pulling them all out and if we dont have pattern tester or flow rate tester then there is actually no other way to test weather they are working and how long they are being opened for in realtion with RPM . Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 3:45 AM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Tuesday, September 28, 2010 Building a simplify ignition module

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:27 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Wiring up an ignition system

Above also similar to 3rd diagram is a coil over ignition system which each spark plug would be using their own coil , and sometimes even their own ignition module (darlington pair ) built in one and located on top of each spark plug .

Above is a wasted spark ignition system consisting of function generator to trigger the module , and darlington pair (ignition module) wasted spark coil and 2 spark plugs.

Above is an ignition module (darlington pair) functin generator to trigger the module , coil and a spark plug .

Above we have an ignition module (darlington pair) disributor to trigger the module , coil and a spark plug .

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:26 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Testing ballast resitors

Checking ballast resistors is very easy ... unfortunatly the ones we used didnt have any idetification still written on them so we couldnt get any specs . Ballast No1 measured resistance was 1.4 Ohms. Ballast No2 measured resistance was 1.5 Ohms . most of the ballast resistors have a similar resistance so if significantly higher than 1.5 Ohms or signifiacntly less can tell us there is an issue with this resistor but ofcourse if we had the spec it would have been much easier to do this ... Also none of these ballast resistors are serviceable. Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:26 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Wasted spark coil pack

checking the resistance of secondary windings because it was not possible to check the primary Coil #1 secondary was 6.91 Kilo Ohms Coil #2 secondary was 6.82 Kilo Ohms Pin outs : 1= + positive supply 12 V 2= - negative earth 3= Signal 1 4= Signal 2 Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:25 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Testing ignition coils off-car

Above shows how to check the internal resistance of the primary windings.

Below shows how to check the internal resistance of the secondary windings.

Testing Ignition coils : I could only get these information of the coils and the primary and secondary spec was not visable and only the number and volatge rating was still on the coils

Using a multimeter I recorded the default error of the multimeter which was 0.1 Ohms and took it out of the readings I got so I could get an accurate reading. I first checked the primary windings and recorded it and then the secondary winding following the diagrams above ... then did the earth leakage test from negative terminal to the body of the coil and the result was OL which shows there is no circuit between earth and the body so no leakage (good). Its very hard to be able to tell if these coils are in good condition as we dont have the manufaturer specifications to compare them with our findings and also to see if they are within the manufaturer specs . I dont think these coils need serviceing.

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Injector testing off-car

Testing injectors:

To check the injectors and to see if they are in good working condition we measure the resistance in their windings to make sure they are in good condition. The manufacturers specification for the types we were using (without resistor) was 14-17 Ohms. they all seemed to be in good working condition. Earth leakage by checking the resistance between the earth terminal and body of the injector , This should be OL which means the there is no part of the injector(specialy windings) has not been earthed out thru the body injector. If there is a reading between the earth and the body that means the injector is faulty and is shorting out thru the body which means it needs to be replaced.

Now we have wired up the injectors to a power supply and I can hear them ticking as I turn the power on and off. This shows that they are opening and closing in the right manner and internal parts are in working condition. Other engine problems that could give us the same results as an injector not working could be : Fuel pump siezed or not working , Fuel filter blocked , Fuel line broken or no petrol in the tank.

Next test is injector spray pattern test to make sure they are spraying an even cone shape without any distortion , this is to make sure the fuel is getting fully atomised and fuel is not just running in the manifold.

Next test is to check the Delivery volume of the injector and to compare this results against the manufaturer spec but a little variation between the injectors is ok. If the flow is restricted within the injector, the delivery volume is reduced therefor that cylinder will run lean.

An other and the last test we did was the injector leakage(dribble) test. We do this by applying full line pressure to the injectors without operating them . Fuel leakes and passes the seats and will drip from the injector nozzle... Most of the manufaturer spec specifies only 1 drop per minute is acceptable and any more that is not and needs to be rectified . Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:24 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Hall effect type sensor off-car

Hall effect type sensor which enables the ECU to know the position of the camshaft and also tells ECU where the reference point (TDC) is . It only consists of 3 major parts , Magnet, steel chopper plate, Hall integrated IC. As the window (gap) in the plate comes between the magnet and Hall integrated IC which are only milimeters apart it creates voltage a digital signal . Depending on the manufaturer the primary Ignition is depended on the sensor . dwell time could be when the gap between the magnet and Hall IC is blocked and the fireing time when there is a window between the magnet and Hall IC... therefor this signal is vital for this types of engine to even start.

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:24 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Optical type Sensor off-car

Optical type and hall effect type work in the same way but with a little difference , they use infra red diode instead of the magnet and photo electric cell instead of the Hall IC to create a output voltage to let the ECU know which angle the camshaft or in some cases where crankshaft and reference point where TDC is . Also to trigger the ignition primary. optical and hall effect types create a digital wave form.

This sensor creats a voltage when the infa red hits the photo electric cell(window on the chopper plate) due to the property of the photo electric cell and when the infa red is blocked with part of the chopper plate it produces no voltage in the cell.

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:23 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

RPM / speed inductive/magnetic type sensor off-car

The shape and size of the graph changes due to the shape of the teeth and the amplitude and the frequency of this graph changes due to speed of the teeth passing the pick up sensor windings .

This sensor utillises Faradays Law

Magnetic or Inductive type Speed or position Sensor :

Modern engines need to know which position the crankshaft is so they can fire the spark plug and spray the fuel from the injectors at the perfect time to keep the emissions low and provide good performance . These sensor consist of a winding and as a teeth(magnet) approaches the winding it starts producing a negative voltage in the sensor windings , when directly next to it sensor (windings) because not many fields are crossing the winding it creates close to 0 volts in the sensor. As it starts to travel away from sensor windings it start producing a positive voltage in the sensor windings , and how many time this cycle repeats itself per second is none as the frequency. there is a gap placed on some wheels as a reference point to TDC for ECU. Its real easy to find out whether they are inductive/magnetic type sensor because they are the only type of sensor which creates a negative and a positive voltage signal or in other words it creates analouge signal.

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:22 PM No comments:

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O2 sensor off-car

O2 sensor: It basicly tells the ECU the amount of O2 in the exhaust compare to the amount ambient O2. When the engine is running rich there are very less oxygen particals present in the exhaust and more on the ambient side so there is more pressure as the outside Oxygen particals want to go where there is less oxygen particals so this pressure creats a higher voltage which at max it gets close to 1 Volts to the ECU. When we have a lean mixture there are more oxygen particals present in the exhaust manifold so therefor the pressure between each side of the o2 sensor is less and this causes less voltage output to ECU.

One of the draw backs of these sensor is that they need to be heated up first to around 300 celsious before it starts working . The ECU uses this sensor to go into closed loop as soon as it has been heated up and in working temerature to balance the air/fuel ratio mixture and it constantly going lean /rich .... as it is trying to find the optimum mixture for emmisions and performance . It puts out nearly 1 volts when the mixture is too rich(very low oxygen levels in the exhaust) and close to 0 Volts when the mixture is lean (more oxygen present in exhaust)

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:22 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Knock sensor off-car

Knock Sensor: This sensor is pretty much in all the modern engines and it lets the ECU know if there are any knockes or detenations inside the cylinder . These knocks are produced by the engine when the timing is poor or if there is detenation due to too much advanced timing or a very lean fuel/air ratio mixture .The ECU also uses this to balance the timing if it is controlled by the ECU and to lean the air/fuel mixture or richen it if knocking. This sensor uses piezo crystal and one of this crystal properties is when deform it creates a voltage . Knocking inside the cylinder causes the crystal to vibrate and therefore it creates a voltage to be sent back to the ECU so it can rectify it and delay the advance timing to stop it form knocking or richen the air/fuel mixture . By connecting the sensor to oscilliscope and tapping the knock sensor we can see how this sensor works .

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:21 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:21 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:20 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

CTS sensor off-car

CTS , THw , ECT , ATS , IAT These sensors job is to let the ECU know the temperature of various parts of the engine from the air going in ,to the coolent circulating around the engine also to turn the radiator fan on after a certin temperature so the engine wouldnt over

heat. All these informations are needed to keep the engine in optimum temperature for performance and more importantly emissions. These sensors are normaly NTC which means negative temperature co-efficient so as the temperature increases their resistance decreases so as the temprature rises so those the voltage signal back to the ECU . For checking these type of sensor you can part of them in a bowl of water , heat the water up and check the resistance with a multimeter we can see how the resistance falls as the temperature increases .

Posted by Amir Ahmadi at 7:20 PM No comments: Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

MAP Sensor off-car

As the pressure decreases inside the manifold so those the voltage output of this sensor

Manifold Absolue pressure: This sensor compares the pressure inside the manifold with ambient pressure which is normaly 1 bar . It is either located on the manifold or on the fire wall and is connected to the intake manifold via a hose . As the silicon inside is deform between the two different pressure on either side of it ,it creates a voltage which sends back to the ECU . It normally consists of 3 pins inside the plug . 1 is power normal 5 Volts ,2 is ground , 3 is the signal back to the ECU to report back how much pressure or vacuum is inside the manifold... More pressure is less vacuum and that means more voltage output to the ECU also less pressure means more vacuum and that means less voltage output to the ECU I'm trying to figure out what I need to do ignition wise for the Escort. I've done a bunch of research on the net but pretty much have no experience setting up this kinda thing so am at the point where I need to ask some possibly stupid questions. First of all I have this distributor: I got it off TradeMe a few years ago and apparently it is a fully Electronic Bosch Distributor (no points). It requires an additional +12volt wire from the ignition switch and it interfaces to the standard coil ballast system perfectly. Also by looking at it, it appears to use a vacuum advance (Assuming that gold thing on the side is the vacuum advance diaphragm?).

The car also came with this coil, which after doing a bit of hunting on the net appears to be a Bosch GT40T or a GT40RT. The RT requiring a Ballast Resistor, and the T not. I don't currently have the car with me so can't check which coil it is and if it does have the resistor.

I'm also going to be running twin Weber DCOE 40's on this manifold:

Soooo my questions are... Should I be using this Coil with my Distributor as the new Dizzy is non points and the old one was a standard points based unit. Does this matter at all? If so and it is the Ballast Resistor type, is there any advantage or difference to getting the non ballast type instead? Should I bother with this coil anyway, as I've read a bunch of people saying they are crap but that is possibly due to them being used for the wrong application? Do I need to use the vacuum advance? (assuming yes), and if so how should I go about plumbing it to the manifold (assuming it would run off manifold pressure). Is it as simple as running a vacuum hose from the dizzy to the manifold, and if so would that be what the nobbin on the left most intake pipe on the manifold would be for?

The auxiliary fan should always come on at low speed whenever the a/c & ignition are on. If not, Bentley covers the troubleshooting on pg. 170-7(e32). The first thing is to check to see if the aux. fan motor runs using a jumper wire on the aux. fan switch socket, located on the right side of the radiator:

With the ignition on, jumper between the blue-white-yellow wire & black-brown, the fan should run on low:

A jumper between the black-grey-yellow wire & black-brown, the fan should run on high:

If the engine overheats, the temperature switch should automatically run the fan on at low at 196F (91C) and high at 210F (99C). Switches are available from BMP with lower temperature set values. If it runs in high but not low, then the ballast resistor could be blown. If the fan does not run in either position, check fuse #25 (high) & #29 (low) in the main fuse box. Also check the relays in the relay panel in front of the left shock tower:

If it runs on low but keeps blowing fuse #29, then the ballast resistor may be shorted. Also check to see if the fan spins freely by hand. These fan motors have a history dislodging the magnets & physically locking the motor. New aux. fan assemblies are expensive (in excess of $400US). There is a repair for them but that will have to wait for another post. Direct replacement bolt-in aftermarket complete aux. fan assemblies are plentiful on e-bay for ~$125. The ballast resistor is located at the outer perimeter of the aux. fan at about the 4 o'clock position:

it is rated at .5 ohms x 85 watts. To access the ballast resistor, remove the "kidney grill". With the hood open, remove the two clips on the top of the grill & it will tilt forward & lift off from the front:

You can measure the resistance of the old one by unplugging the socket located behind the lower grill below the bumper:

To remove the lower grill, pry out the smaller grills adjacent to the fog lights:

Remove the 3 screws & clips on the underside of the bumper:

Insert a screwdriver into the crack & pry loose the two tabs on the top edge:

The bottom edge of the grill will pry out but will likely require more effort since it will be caked with bugs & dirt. There are 7 tabs on the bottom edge which push into the lower edge of the spoiler:

Unplug the socket & measure between the pins for the black & blue wires in the plug:

A good one should measure about .7 to .8 ohms. My old one measured 2.5 k-ohms in other words, basically open. A new ballast resistor, BMW part # 64 12 1 388 069 is $35.75 list (Siemens) at the dealer, $31.28 (Magna) at Zygmunts, & $21.29 (Bosch) at Zygmunts. There are alternatives but may be more trouble that it's worth. Low resistance, high wattage resistors are not common. You could use four 2 ohm x 25 watt ceramic resistors in parallel giving .5 ohms x 100 watt capacity, from an electronic surplus for about $.50 ea. I doubt Radio Shack would have any resistors more than 5 or 10 watts but you could use any combination to get .5 ohms & approx. 85 watts or better by wiring them in parallel where the total resistance R = 1/(1/r1 + 1/r2 + . . . + 1/rn). Also, ~1970 vintage Chryslers used a large ballast resistor on the ignition coil, on the order of .5 or 1 ohm but I'm not sure what wattage they would be rated at but I'm sure it's fairly high & they sell for about $5 at auto parts places. Here's a specific application and part number for a ceramic dropping resistor for an '82 Chrysler Cordoba: "Wells" brand, Part no. CR-107, cost is only $1.89. The ballast resistor is just for low speed, high speed is "direct-drive". Note the OBC outside temperature sensor in the grill next to the right foglight:

If removing the auxiliary fan entirely, it's easier to remove the front bumper. It comes off with 4 bolts & a few wires. Do a search on e34 archives to get details.

AccuSpark Electronic Ignition Units

Suitable all cars running a Lucas 45D4 Type Distributor , Typically cars after 1974 , replaces 45D4 points as shown below . Does not fit early 25D4 Distributor points also shown below Negative Earth only, Needs no other parts .

Lucas 45D4 Type Points with fixing clip Lucas 25D4 Type Points with fixing nut

Works Best with a Standard 12 Volt Coil , Will work with a Ballast coil , in good condition ,of 1.4 Ohms or more We recommend bypassing the ballast resistor or ballast wire and fitting a 3ohm standard coil If you are unsure of the location of ballast wire or resistor you can remove the wires from the + terminal of the coil and run a new feed from the ignition key or any other switched live 12volt feed .

Ignition Ballast Resistor


Just what is a Ballast Resistor and why is one needed? A Ballast Resistor is an extra electrical "load" which is installed in the electric circuit providing power to the ignition coil for the purpose of reducing the voltage that the coil receives. This may seem somewhat counter-intuitive as one would think that the higher the voltage to the coil, the better the spark to the plugs and the better the engine will run. That is true up to a certain point. After that point, the extra voltage simply causes the coil to run at a higher temperature than it needs to. For years, the Indigo Electronic Ignition Kit has been offered and installed without a Ballast Resistor with essentially no feedback that there was any issue with the coil running hot. It has been known that the coil can be found to operate near 200 F but that was to be expected and has not presented any problem. However, a very lively and informative discussion was held on the Moyer Marine Forum in 2011 regarding coil heating, failures and possible solutions. At that time it came to light that a few A4 owners, at least those who participate in the Forum, had indeed experienced multiple coil failures. The concensus was that the coils were operating at too high a temperature and that was leading to premature failure. It was also realized that there are a number of variables that can have a significant affect on coil temperature, including the coil internal resistance, alternator output voltage, type of alternator regulator, A4 operating speed, A4 operating temperature and engine compartment temperature, and A4 duty cycle (long periods of operation versus short periods).

We took this concern to heart and decided it was time to conduct our own testing. Three different Ballast Resistors (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Ohms) were tried initially. Picking the proper resistor is not as straightforward as one might think. While the coil has a certain internal resistance (as measured across the two brass studs on it), a coil does not behave in the same manner as does a plain resistor when installed in an electrical circuit. Inductance and capacitance come into play such that the current flowing through the coil is less that the value obtained by simply dividing the Voltage across the coil by the coil resistance (I=V/R). As testing progressed, it was quickly realized that the 1.5 Ohm version would be the optimum choice for several reasons. First, the 1.5 Ohm resistor provides about a 2 Volt drop. This will give a range at the coil of from 10-12 Volts with the system Voltage being 12-14 Volts. That range insures that you have sufficient spark to keep the engine running yet protects against high system Voltage. Second, the 1.5 Ohm Resistor reduces the Wattage (and thus the heating and operating temperature)in the coil about 35%. The type of Ballast Resistor chosen provides reasonable cooling surfaces and a miminal full load rating of 50W. However, the resistor selected has to be de-rated from the 50 Watt rating as no additional heat sink is installed and also for an ambient temperature of 150F (typical engine compartment). Nevertheless, the resistor is still rated for continuous operation at 6 Watts which is just about two times the worst case operating condition for the A4 (See Table Below). One very important consideration given to any ignition system is that is must be capable of starting the engine when the starter motor is running. It is at this time that the system voltage is at its lowest as the starter motor draws a very significant amount of current. It is not unusual to see the voltage drop as low as 10 volts when starting. For this reason, a jumper wire is utilized during starting to remove the Ballast Resistor from the circuit and provide full available voltage to the coil. On all late Model A4 starter motor solenoids, there is an #8-32 stud which attaches to an internal auxiliary contact. This stud is normally not energized. However, when the starter motor is engaged and running, full system voltage is present at this stud. A jumper wire can be run from this stud to the (+)

terminal on the coil thus providing full system voltage to the coil for starting. Once the starter disengages, the stud is no longer energized. That is OK as the system voltage has returned to its normal level as the starter motor is no longer energized and system voltage is supplied via the normal path. Test data was obtained utilizing a bench mounted system which is routinely used to verify Electronic Ignition Kit components prior to packaging and shipping. The shutter is rotated at a constant speed of 360 RPM which is equal to an engine idle speed of 720 RPM. The slower the engine runs, the greater the heating of the coil so this shutter speed represents a worst case condition. Voltage applied to this system is maintained with a 12 VDC battery and a Smart Charger. A voltage of 13.5 VDC was chosen to simulate an alternator which charges at a voltage level appropriate for proper charging. Voltage and Amperage were both measured with a Fluke Digital Volt-Ohmeter and temperatures measured with a non contact Infrared Laser Thermometer and verified with a contact probe used with the Fluke meter.

Indigo Ignition System Performance - With and W/O a Ballast Resistor

Measured Current Amps 1.90 1.42 Coil Temperature / Watts 195F / 25.7 165F / 16.2

oltage from Ignition

witch VDC 3.5 3.5

A Complete Retrofit Package including: Step-by-step instructions One High Quality 1.5 Ohm, 50 Watt Ballast Resistor o Ring Terminals Soldered to Resistor o High Temperature Silicon Rubber Stand-off

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High Temperature Tie Wrap for Securing Resistor to Coil #10-32 Brass Bolt and SS Nut for Connecting Existing (+) Wiring #14 Jumper Wire with Ring Terminals and one #8-32 SS Nut for Connecting to Solenoid

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Ballast Resistors and Coil

I took BR2 and BR3 2 ballast resistors. The specifications

BR2 Resistance 0.5 to 0.7R

BR3 1.5 to 1.7R

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Measured Resistance Values

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o The value of BR2 is 1.0R-0.2R=0.8R

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o The value of BR3 is 2.1R-0.2R=1.9R

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Measuring Current Draw and Voltage Drop 1. Wire up a ballast resistor in series with your coil primary winding values as show in the following diagram. o

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o 2. Connect an ammeter in series and note the current draw. 3. Measure the note the voltage drop across the ballast resistor. 4. Measure the note the voltage drop across the coil primary.

The current in the series circuit

The voltage across the coil

The voltage across the ballast resistor BR3

Voltage Current across the coil 3.57A

o o o o o o o o

Voltage across the ballast resistor BR3 6.15V


Calculation Rt=Rcoil + Rbr3= 1.4 + 1.9=3.3R I=V/R=12V/3.3R=3.6A Vcoil=IR=3.6A x 1.4R=5.04V Vbr3=IR=3.6A x 1.9R=6.84V The calculated values are close to the measured results. Because the power supply is close to 12V.

Ignition System Problems

An example of a running engine at idle. (my 400, of course) This is looking at the tachometer line of the The wave form of the tachometer output line of the HEI ignition system. A standard ignition doesn't look HEI. The lower valleys are the voltage sags as the coil all that different because the points do the same job as draws current during buildup of inductive charge, and the module in an HEI. The HEI has the coil as part of the tall spikes are the coil's discharge kickback. This the cap to reduce spark loss, and it keeps the coil away happens at 55 cycles per second (18 milliseconds from engine heat better. The switching transistors in apart) at an idle speed of 900 RPM in this engine. the module make for a faster coil collapse and hotter These pulses on the coil's minus side are what a spark then mechanically moving points can. Points tachometer counts and displays as RPM. also move position, and build up arc material on the contacts, reducing efficiency.

Testing a standard ignition coil. Set the meter for Measure from the coil's minus (-) to the inside of the ohms, and measure across the plus (+) and minus (-) tower. It should be several thousand ohms, and at least terminals. It should be between 1.5 and 2.0 ohms. This 4,000 minimum. This one is 10.25k ohms. (10,250 one is 1.6 ohms. Measure from each terminal to the ohms) If it measures more than 40,000, the coil is bad.

coil's case also. The meter should NOT read anything here.

(unless it's a special high output coil like an Accel) Measure from the terminal to the coil's case also. The meter should NOT read anything. An ignition coil is called an autotransformer. This just means the coils are tied to a common point. In this case the - terminal.

Right click and select "View image" for a better look. Testing the condenser. (capacitor) Open the points and set the meter on ohms. The meter should start out at several megohms and drop to 0, then start rising again. Reverse the leads, and it should do the same again. A steady low reading means a shorted condenser. No reading at all, (OL on a digital) means an open condenser. A condenser is a 0.25 microfarad (approx) capacitor with high voltage and heat ratings. It absorbs the reverse kickback from the coil as the points begin to open. If the condenser is open, the points will arc over as they open up and the engine will have weak if any spark, because the coil's current falls off too slowly. If the points aren't all that old, but have massive contact buildup, it's going bad. If it's shorted, it's the same as points that aren't opening at all. If the engine runs but won't rev up past a certain RPM, the advance plate may have loose rivets and is moving around.

Right click and select "View image" for a better look. This is the entire ignition system on most older vehicles. The key switch has an IGN terminal that stays powered in every position except OFF. The ACC powers in the ACC and ON positions, and is OFF during START. The START powers the starter solenoid. The I terminal on the starter bypasses the ballast resistor during starting to increase the spark. The ballast resistor is about 2 - 4 ohms and reduces the total current to the coil to prevent overheating. During startup, the battery voltage can drop very low, and the coil may not even produce spark without the starter's bypass terminal. The running engine will measure about 4 to 7 volts on the coil + terminal. This is normal due to the resistor. The distributor's function is to position the rotor somewhere in the middle of the cap terminal during cylinder sparking. When things are right, the rotor moves in position, then the spark jumps the gap as the points open. Harley Davidsons don't have a distributor because both plugs fire at the same time. the other cylinder is in it's exhaust stroke and doesn't care. More cylinders need better coordination than that, hence the distributor. Hard Starting There can be several things that cause this, but 9 out of 10 times it isn't the carburetor. I can't count the times I've seen someone start turning the idle jets when the truck won't fire up. Spare me please.

Intermittent Stalling This problem drives most people crazy. It shuts off when going down the road, then mysteriously starts running again and may run for minutes or hours before the next stallout. My tried and true way to find it is to

get 2 test lights. Run wires from the + and - terminals of the coil into the cab. Extend them if necessary. Have a friend hold the lights and then go for a drive. The light on the + side will be steady, and the - side will be dim and/or flickering. This is normal. Have the friend watch the lights like a hawk. When the ignition cuts out, see which light goes out. If it's the flickering light (- terminal) Look for shorts in the distributor, bare spots in the wire leading to it, points that are set too far from the cam to open, or a bad condenser. If it has dual points, one set may set so close that they are intermittently not opening. If the steady light goes out (+ terminal) Look for shorts or opens on the + wire. Typically, the wire leading to the starter melts into the manifold and intermittently shorts, kills the truck, then it moves away again. The ballast resistor may be bad. The firewall connector may be loose. It could also be a bad ignition switch. If both lights stay on, or go out at the same time, then the coil has a heat failure problem. Replace it. They heat up, then short internally for a few minutes.

A bad or missing resistor bypass line can do it. Put a test light on the + side and watch it during starts. If the light all but goes out, use a clip lead to connect straight to the battery for full coil power as a test. A failing condenser will cause weak spark. If the distributor was removed, it may have been put in wrong. Yes, it can make a difference where it lands as it's reinstalled. If it's too far off, the coil will fire during correct timing with the rotor all but out of position. If it's a half inch away from the cap terminal, it will either not fire, not start easily, or rev up much if it does start. If you can't seem to time it, pull it out and start over with TDC and then reset it in the hole. Bad spark plug wires are not too uncommon, but they don't all fail at once! They degrade over time, but not catastrophically and all 8 (or 6). same for plugs. Measure the wires. They should be several thousand ohms depending on the type used. They should be within 10% of each other though. Buildup on the points will cause the timing to move off, and if it's bad enough, the points will fail to switch anymore.

The ballast resistor coil

Summary A ballast resistor coil is designed to operate at approximately 7.5 volts and still provide the step-up transformer action needed, for secondary circuit operation.

Most contact breaker systems incorporate a ballast resistor in the primary circuit. The ballast resistor is inserted in series in the primary circuit between the ignition switch and the positive terminal of the ignition coil. When the engine is running, its resistance provides a voltage drop in the primary circuit, which lowers the voltage applied to the coil. The coil is designed to operate at this lower voltage level and still provide the stepup transformer action needed, for secondary circuit operation.

However, during cranking, a parallel connection from the starting circuit by-passes the ballast resistor. The voltage available at the battery terminals at this time, will now be applied to the positive terminal of the ignition coil. This voltage will give a boost to the current flowing in the primary circuit. The increased current flow strengthens the magnetic field to increase the voltage induced in the primary winding, and consequently increase the voltage in the secondary winding. So even under adverse conditions, sufficient ignition energy is available to ignite the air-fuel mixture and start the engine.

Home The OPUS amplifier REOPUS amplifier REOPUS H Hall Effect Amplifier and Pickup Testimonials Ignition Circuit Tests The OPUS wiring diagram + repair hints. Jaguar V12 Starting problems. The OPUS Pickup and wiring The OPUS distributor rotor REOPUS dealers REOPUS Installation instructions Stromberg carburettors SU Fuel pump Jaguar V12 Engine specs and capacities Butec Regulator and Alternator Contact REOPUS

REOPUS amplifier

I had stopped using my E type as I lost confidence in the car due to the missfiring and starting problems when the engine was hot so I decided to talk to our electronic engineers about a replacemant OPUS circuit board using modern components. As a electronic instrument technician I was aware of the problems created by repairers who changed how something operates, and the problems this creates if the information is not kept for the later owner/repairer. We set out to design a circuit board that was repairable, that would improve the ignition performance and directly replace the original OPUS amplifier board in the alloy case and use the original ignition parts and to work with a a standard hi-performance ignition coil with a primary rersistance of between 0.8 and 1.5ohms as the special REOPUS coil was becoming difficult to obtain. we believe it was also essential for owners/repairs that the ignition system could still be maintained as per the instruction manual.

REOPUS was developed to operate the same way as the original OPUS using the same wiring, aluminium case, ballast resistor, distributor rotor, pickup and coil. The amplifier was redesigned using modern Hi-quality components with a low temperature coefficient and modern design methods to ensure improved amplifier stability.

The REOPUS circuit board use high stability resistors and capacitors, the coil driver transistor has been designed for ignition coil switching applications therefore the REOPUS produces a more powerfull spark. The REOPUS amplifier, oscillator and control circuit has is own regulated power supply, the oscillator circuit has temperature compensation to maintain its frequency over a wide temperature range therefore REOPUS is more stable and accurate, the IGBT coil driver transistors fast switching time produces a more powerful spark, this enables the use of modern non-ballasted Hi-performance coil Type DLB193 or Col220, or Bosch GT40R coils with REOPUS, if the old 13C12 has failed, the 13C12 coil is now becomming hard to obtain. The REOPUS amplifier will provide improved starting, smoother running, more engine torque, better fuel economy than your old OPUS amplifier. We have also incorporated a 2 LEDs to indicate if the amplifier is powered and if the pickup is working. REOPUS is the only manufacture of replacement OPUS amplifiers who use a separate regulated 5V power supply for the ignition control circuit, it costs is a little more but the results are worth it. With a REOPUS amplifier Battery voltage does not affect pickup output or the amplifier circuit. Your battery voltage changes from (8.5V starting and up to 14.6V running) so even when the battery voltage is low after start up and whilst idling, or when your battery is fully charged the ignition timing does not change. Yes battery voltage effects the coil output voltage, but with a REOPUS amplifier its ON time every time, and when coupled with the IGBT output transistor specially designed to trigger ignition coils we are also getting the maximum output from the coil. The REOPUS circuit board has now been in production since 2006 and the development over this time has been continuous thanks to our many customers providing feedback and testing in our own car, the combined result is VERSION 4. In 2010 REOPUS developed a Hall effect pickup and amplifier. The REOPUS H hall effect Pickup and amplifier provides ignition reliability and engine smootness that was unobtainable from the original OPUS system. see our notes REOPUS H Hall effect amplifier and pickup. The REOPUS circuit boards use precision industrial electronic components, they are not a modular unit and yes REOPUS circuit boards are repairable and the ver.3 and ver.4 can be upgraded or modified to work with the

REOPUS H pickup. A test rig with a rotor and pickup that can provide revs from 0 to 7000 RPM, a Dual channel oscilloscope and a heat source is required, so repairs and up-grades are best done by the manufacturer. The REOPUS Boards are all hand-made due to the relatively low production numbers. If you contact REOPUS Engineering you talk to the person who makes the REOPUS amplifiers and has owned his 1972 V 12 E Type since 1982. REOPUS Engineering provides Free technical support for OPUS/REOPUS ignition systems . Our service and attention to detail is without parallel. Use our Contact form for your enquiry. 10/08/2010 The customer below has owned his V12 E Type since 1971 and it sums up his issues with his original OPUS amplifier. Dear Reopus, I bought your reopus ignition for my 1972 Jaguar XKE that I had bought new in late 1971. My original opus failed 6 months after I had bought the car and several times after that. It has always been hard to start and didn't run well until warmed up. I soldered the unit into the old case easily. It tested OK with you red and green internal lights. The car starts up easily on the 1st or 2nd twist of the starter key. It runs smoothly even while cold. I haven't even equalized the carburators or retuned the timing. I did put new spark plugs in place. I can't remember when it had been running so well in years. I have more confidence when I drive it around that I won't get stranded somewhere. Thanks for a wonderful product, Ron