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Q.1 Define training. Explain the need and objectives of training along with the difference between training and development? Ans. INTRODUCTION Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If the current or potential job occupant can meet this requirement, training is not important. But when this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. In adequate job performance or a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning or a technological break through require some type of training and development efforts. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is application of knowledge. It gives people and awareness of the rule and procedure to guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job or prepare job or prepare them for an intended job. Training plays an important role in manpower development. Employees need training to perform their duties effectively, eliminate wastage and reduce accident. While training is directed towards maintaining and improving current job, managerial development seeks to develop skills for future jobs. DEFINITION Training is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his ability to perform on the job. (D. De Cenzo and S Robbins). Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. ( Edwin Flippo) Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skil. (Steinmez) Training involves changing of skills, knowledge, attitude or social behaviour. ( S P Robbins)

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING 1. To impart the basic knowledge and skills needed for an intelligent performance of a definite task. 2. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills needed in their fields of work. 3. To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions. 4. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of the outlook that may arise from over-specialization. 5. To impart customer education for the purposes of meeting the needs of the customers effectively. ADVANTAGES OF TRAINING To the Organisation: It improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. It improves the morale of the workforce and helps people to identify with organizational goals. It fosters openness and trust by improving the relationship between superiors and subordinates. It leads to improved profitability. It helps development for promotion from within. It helps in developing leadership skill, motivation, loyalty and better attitudes. Facilitate conflict handling, adjust to change. It helps to improve corporate image & reduce outside consulting cost. To the employees: Encourages self-development and self-confidence. Facilitate employees to handle stress, tension &conflict. Helps in better decision making and problem solving.

Improves leadership skills, communication & attitude. Encourages to take job involves risk. Enhances group cohesiveness. Increases job satisfaction, reduce labour turnover & absenteeism. It helps in avoiding accidents, waste elimination and damage to equipments. NEED FOR TRAINING To increase productivity To improve quality To help fulfill future manpower requirements. To improve work environment. To improve safety to prevent accidents. To achieve personal growth. To improve creativity and initiatives of employees. Shortage of skills: As skilled and knowledgeable people are on short supply it is advisable to improve skill and knowledge of existing employees. Technological Obsolescence: There is a great need to update technology as it obsolete over a period and hence need to update through training. Personal Obsolescence: As time passes knowledge and skill of employees become obsolete and there to update it through training. Organizational obsolescence: To prevent obsolescence of organization, employees must be exposed to modern techniques of management through training. Upgrading ability: New employees require extensive training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard. Conversion of Agrarian labour to industrial worker: Employees coming from agrarian/farming background need to be trained to industrial culture or workshop ethos. Coercive training by Govt.: Apprenticeship training conducted by Govt. of India. Human Capital: The latest thinking is to treat employees as human capital. The expenses involved in training and development are now considered as investment.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker need skills to operate machine, and use other equipment with lease damage and scrap This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for Motor skills. Motor skills (or Psychomotor skills, as they are sometimes called) refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve learning to move various parts of ones body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, trying a shoelace, throwing a ball, and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees from the janitor to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popularly known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand oneself and others better, and act accordingly. Example of skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others feelings. Training is conscious, deliberate and planned. It is continuing process; it has to be repeated from time to time in view of fast changes taking place in society. It means imparting instruction about a particular work or profession. Its purpose is to improve the skill, knowledge and effectiveness of the employees. In simple terms, training development refer to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Development is an inclusive process with which both managers and individual employees are involved. It offers opportunities to learn skills, but also provide an environment designed to discovering and cultivating basic attitudes and capabilities and facilitating continuing personal growth (Dale Yoder).

Development is a systematic process of training and growth by which managerial personnel gain and apply skill, knowledge, attitudes and insights to manage the work in their organizations effectively and efficiently. It is a process of: Transforming the organizational climate in which knowledge will be appreciated. Providing experiential learning for the improvement of performance by self-study. Self-development through culturisation. Acquiring skills by tapping hidden talents.


TRAINING Short-term process Knowledge & skills for specific Purpose. Primarily related to technical skills learning

DEVELOPMENT Long-term process For overall development Related to managerial, skills learning behavioural & attitudinal development.

Q. 2. Explain the various methods of off the job training? Ans. Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participant to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision making and problem solving abilities. OBJECTIVES To impart the basic knowledge and skill to the new entrants and enable them to perform their job well; To equip the employee to meet the changing requirements of the job and the organization; To teach the employee the new techniques and ways of performing the job. To prepare employees for higher level tasks and build up a second line of competent managers. TRAINING METHODS 1. ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS 2. OFF THE JOB TRAINING

OFF THE JOB TRAINING Class room lectures Conferences/seminars Group discussions/case study analysis Vestibule training Role playing/games T Group training Audio-visual/film shows Simulation

Class room training: It is to convey rules, policies, and procedures. It is simple and efficient, have only minimum cost and time. The disadvantages are: One way communication, passive participation. Conferences, seminars , workshops: Discuss points of common interest for enriching knowledge and skill. This is a group activity. Group discussions/case study analysis: Case study is based on the belief that managerial competence can be best attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases (Bass). Experience is the best teacher is the principle used in this method. Vestibule Training: Employees are trained on the equipment they are employed, but the training is considered away from the work place. For training a machine shop operator necessary equipment required in an actual machine are duplicated. Simulation: Any training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near and realistic as possible. Role playing/Games: A real life situation is simulated by a group of trainees in which each take up the role of different persons-customers, vendors, accountants, supervisors as the case may be. T Group Training: T stands for training. This is also known as Sensitivity Training or Laboratory Training. It is originated in 1940s. In this programme, an attempt is made to change attitude and behavior of people in the group. It is a small discussion group without any leader. Trainer raises a question and encourages open discussion, which is unstructured, without any set task or agenda. In T group the members train one another. In Basket Exercise: This is for developing decision making skills among the trainees. The trainee is provided with a basket or tray of papers/files related to his functional area. The trainee is expected to study and make recommendations on the problem situation. Programmed Instruction: It incorporates a prearranged and proposed acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge. It includes teaching machines, instructions and programmed learning. The core feature of this method is participation by the trainee and immediate feedback by him. Programmed Instruction include film, tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed materials etc. Management games: It is a classroom exercise, in which teams of students compete each other to achieve certain common objectives. In this method the trainee learn by analyzing problems by using some intuition and by taking trial and error type of decisions. Case Histories : The trainer uses stories or descriptions of patients to help learners relate to the topic and/or solve a hypothetical problem or set of problems. The case description is typically given

to a small group with a set of instructions for such tasks as diagnosing, developing treatment plans, solving compliance issues, etc.

Q. 3. Elaborate the process of training in detail. Ans. Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If the current or potential job occupant can meet this requirement, training is not important. But when this is not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. In adequate job performance or a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning or a technological break through require some type of training and development efforts. Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. It is application of knowledge. It gives people and awareness of the rule and procedure to guide their behavior. It attempts to improve their performance on the current job or prepare job or prepare them for an intended job.

The Training Process Steps:

1. Organizational objectives 2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results
The steps in training process in detail:

I. Organizational Objectives and Strategies: The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. II. Assessment of Training needs:
Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and individual. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance

deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem. Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary, they do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Jobs have disappeared as technology, foreign competition, and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. Needs Assessment Methods: How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. As shown below some are useful for organizational-level need assessment and others for individual need assessment.: ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS Organization structure Objectives Strength & quality of human resources Future plan of the organization (short-term & long term) Organization culture. Task Analysis Detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and the conditions under which it has to be performed. (This process will help to identify the skills and training required as per the standards) MAN ANALYSIS Individual employees abilities, skills, input required for performance, growth and development in terms of career planning. Observation at the place of work, job schedules, wastages, inter-personal relations. Interviews with superiors & employees. Comparative study of good vs. poor employees. Personnel records. Production reports. Group or organizational analysis Individuals Analysis

Organizational goals and objectives. Personnel /skills inventories Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interview MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes

Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales.

Benefits of Needs assessment: As pointed above, needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. Causes require remedial actions. This being a generalized statement there are certain specific benefits of needs assessment. They are: 1. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. 2. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programmes. 3. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants.

III. Training and Development objectives

Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly set goals, it is not possible to design a training and development programme and, after it has been implemented there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skills training is involved. For example, the successful trainee will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page. Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated.

IV. Designing Training and Development Programme

Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues 1. Who participates in the programme? 2. Who are the trainers? 3. What methods and techniques are to be used for training? 4. What should be the level of training? 5. What learning principles are needed?

6. Where is the program conducted? Who are the trainers: Trainers should be selected on the basis of self-nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audience. For example, rank-and-file employees and their supervisors or by the HR department itself. Several people, including the following may conduct training and Development programmes: 1. Immediate supervisors 2. Co-workers, as in buddy systems, 3. Members of the personnel staff, 4. Specialists in other parts of the company, 5. Outside consultants, 6. Industry associations, and faculty members at universities.

V. Methods and Techniques of training

A multitude of methods of training is used to train employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups (i) on the job training and (ii) off-the job methods. On the job training: refers to methods that are applied in the workplace, while the employees is actually working. On-job training Cannell (1997:28) defines on-the-job training as: Training that is planned and structured that takes place mainly at the normal workstation of the trainee- although some instruction may be provided in a special training area on site - and where a manager, supervisor, trainer or peer colleague spends significant time with a trainee to teach a set of skills that have been specified in advance. Advantages Tailor-made course content with use of REAL company situations/examples. It is usually less expensive than off-job training Learning will take place using the equipment which will be actually used Trainees acclimatise more rapidly

Disadvantages Possibility of poor instruction and insufficient time. Trainee may be exposed to bad work practices. A large amount of spoiled work and scrap material may be produced. Valuable equipment may be damaged. Training takes place under production conditions that are stressful, i.e. noisy, busy, confusing and exposing the trainee to comments by other workers. Off-job training Advantages A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training. Wider range of facilities and equipment are available. The trainee can learn the job in planned stages. It is free from the pressures and distractions of company life. It is easier to calculate the cost of off-job training because it is more self-contained Cross-fertilisation of ideas between different companies. Disadvantages Can result in transfer of learning difficulties when a trainee changes from training equipment to production equipment. No training can be entirely off-job as some aspects of the task can only be learned by doing them in the normal production setting, with its own customs and network of personal relationships. Can be more expensive. Carrying out the training Everyone involved in the training should be informed well in advance of the training session(s). It is equally important that the person(s) delivering the training whether in-job or off-job training are well versed in what has to be achieved and the most suitable techniques to adopt.

V. Points in Planning Training Evaluation

Why Evaluate? To monitor the quality of training Provide feedback To appraise the overall effectiveness of the investment in training To assist the development of new methods of training To aid the individual evaluate his or her own learning experience. John Dopyera and Louise Pitone identified eight decision points in planning training evaluation. They are: 1. Should an evaluation be done? Who should evaluate? 2. What is the purpose of evaluation? There are mainly two purposes of doing evaluation. They are justification evaluation and determination evaluation. Justification evaluations are undertaken as reactions to mandates. Other purposes that will make evaluation efforts more fruitful. These purposes include training needs assessment, programme improvements and impact evaluation. 3. What will be measured? The focus of the evaluation will be on training and delivery, programme content, materials, impact of training on individuals through learning, behaviour or performance change. Learning can be measured through pre-test and post-test. Evaluate the effects of training after the trainee returns to the work place using changes in between or the work results as indicators.

4. How comprehensive will the evaluation be? The scope or the duration and comprehensiveness of the evaluation is influenced by available support, communication and evaluation purpose. 5. Who has the authority and responsibility? Who has the authority and responsibility at different stages of evaluation will be determined by the factors like personnel, credibility of internal staff, communication, objectivity of internal staff to do an evaluation regardless of results. 6. What are the sources of data? The most common sources of evaluation data are reactions, opinions and/ or test results of the participants, managers, supervisors, production records, quality control, financial records, personnel records, safety records, etc. 7. How will the data be collected and compiled? Data can be collected before training for needs analysis or pre-testing purpose, during training programme to make improvements along the way

and after training for evaluation. Next step is selection of treatment or control groups and determination of nature of samples. Data can be complied either manually or by computers. 8. How will the data be analysed and reported? First reporting issue is concerned with audiences like participants or trainees, training staff, managers, customers etc. Second and third issues are concerned with analysis and results and accuracy, policies and format respectively. These decision points are intended to increase awareness of and interest in u. evaluation of training, to improve planning skills and to encourage more systematic- evaluation of training. Methods of Evaluation Various methods can be used to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of these are: Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinion reactions, views of trainees. . Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives. Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors and peer groups about the training. Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction, which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in employee turnover, absenteeism, accidents, grievances, discharges, dismissals, etc. Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers, tools to learn training centre, wastage, production stoppage, opportunity cost of trainers and trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time improved learning, superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme. Feedback: After the evaluation, the situation should be examined to identify the probable causes for gaps in performance. The training evaluation information. (about costs, time spent, outcomes, etc.) should be provided to the instructors trainees and other parties concerned for control, correction and improvement of trainees' activities. The training evaluator should follow it up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementation of the feedback report at every stage. No training is complete without its evaluation. That is, the follow up of a training programme is very essential.

Impediments or problems in Training Process:

Managements commitment is lacking Aggregate spending on training is inadequate The trainers may lack skills Poaching Q. 4. a) Explain the KIRKPATRICK model of training evaluation. Ans. Donald Kirkpartick has developed a very popular evaluation model that has been used since the late 1950s by the training community. The focus is on measuring four kinds of outcomes that should result from a highly effective training program. Kirkpatricks model includes four levels or steps of outcome evaluation:

Level 1 EvaluationReaction Level 2 EvaluationLearning Level 3 EvaluationBehavior Level 4 EvaluationResults

According to Kirpatrick behaviour change brought about by the training function can be divided into:
Change of skill Change of Knowledge Change of Attitude Skill: Change of skill may be measured by a change in production/output Knowledge: Testing the conceptual clarity on the subject matter can assess change of knowledge. Here trainer deals with concepts or principle Attitude: Attitude change is the most difficult of behavioural change. There are three ways to evaluate attitudinal changes in an individual: I) By the subjective evaluation of others about the person; II) By the individual verbalization of his or her family

III) By the individuals total productivity

This model is considered very effective in evaluating Training. It has since been adapted and modified by a number of writers; however, the basic structure has well stood the test of time. The basic structure of Kirkpatricks four-level model is shown here.

Kirkpatrick Model for Evaluating Effectiveness of Training Programs

Level 4 Results

What organizational benefits resulted from the training? To what extent did participants change their behavior back in the workplace as a result of the training? To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training? How did participants react to the program?

Level 3 Behavior

Level 2 Learning

Level 1 Reaction

Level 1Reaction Here your goal is to measure participants reactions to the training program. You should measure their reactions immediately after the program. Level one evaluation should not just include reactions toward the overall program (e.g., Did you like the program?); it should also include measurement of participants reactions or attitudes toward specific components of the program, such as the instructor, the topics, the presentation style, the schedule, audiovisuals, etc. Furthermore, each of these components can be further broken down into sub-components for evaluation (e.g., you can ask participants to evaluate specific characteristics of the instructor, the presentation, etc.). In short, level one evaluation is far more than just the measurement of overall customer satisfaction. Level 2Learning Here your goal is to determine what the training program participants learned during the training event. Because the training instructor should have specific learning objectives, one hopes to find clear learning outcomes. Learning outcomes can include changes in knowledge (e.g., What are the key differences between Windows 95 and Windows ME?), skills (Can the participant upload a new operating system to a computer), or attitudes (Have participants attitudes toward computers improved?). Some training events will emphasize knowledge, some will emphasize skills, some will emphasize attitudes, and some will emphasize multiple learning outcomes. The

evaluation should focus on measuring what was covered in the training event (i.e., the learning objectives). Level 3Behavior Here your goal is to find out if training program participants change their on-the-job-behavior (OJB) as a result of their having attended and participated in the training program. If the behavior change does not occur, you also want to find out why the change did not occur. The level three question is, Did the training have a positive effect on job performance? Level three evaluation specifically involves measuring the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitudes from the training context to the workplace. Level 4Results Here your goal is to find out if the training program led to final results, especially business results that contribute to the bottom line (i.e., business profits). Level four outcomes are not limited return on training investment (ROI). Level four outcomes can include other major results that contribute to the well functioning of an organization. Level four includes any outcome that most people would agree is good for the business. Level four outcomes are either changes in financial outcomes (such as positive ROI or increased profits) or changes in variables that should have a relatively direct effect on financial outcomes at some point in the future. Here are some examples of different kinds of level four outcomes:

Improved quality of work.

Higher productivity.

Reduction in turnover.

Reduction in scrap rate (i.e., less wasted resources).

Improved quality of work life.

Improved human relations (e.g., improved vertical and horizontal communication)

Increased sales.

Fewer grievances.

Lower absenteeism.

Higher worker morale.

Fewer accidents.

Greater job satisfaction.

Increased profits.

An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. Its not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. All levels of evaluation are important. In fact, the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training evaluations at each level. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. So, if participants did not learn (Level 2), participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. Now moving up to the next level, if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3), perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. So, you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs, Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for hard-skills programs only, Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for high costing programs . Above all else, before starting an evaluation, be crystal clear about purpose in conducting the evaluation. (b) Explain the various reasons for, resistance to training program. Reasons for resistance to training: (a) Disturbance in existing work environment: Employees are habitual to work in particular working environment and the training, which brings ne w production methods and techniques, disturb the existing working conditions or environment. (b) Insecurity regarding job: Training, sometimes facilitates adopting new production techniques and methods, which according to workers acts as a detrimental to the safety of their jobs. (c) Fear of economic loss: The new production, management techniques introduced by the training, may, sometimes cause panic regarding the financial aspects among the workers and employees.

(d) Rigidity: Employees, normally tend to resist training as they are not mentally and physically prepared for it. Lack of flexibility also forces them to resist training. (e) Opposition only for the sake of opposition: There is a tendency among some workers to resist any new development in the organization. The kind of situation is found when any development is taken by the workers emotionally and sentimentally without getting going into logic of it. This same is applicable to training aspect also. Q. 5. Attempt any 3 short notes a. Training aids: The choice of training methods should be determined by the intended training outcomes, and the design of the actual teaching method by awareness of the variety of formats and other available resources. However, there will always be certain constraints on resources, such as trainer availability, accommodation, specific budget allocations, time available for training etc. Audio-visual aids As already mentioned, visual aids can help your audience to understand the structure of your presentation and can also help in retaining their attention by introducing some variety. There are a number of different forms of audio-visual aids that can be used, e.g. overhead projectors, slide projectors, computer graphics, black/white boards, flipcharts, videos, objects or handouts. Each has its advantages and disadvantages each has particular use depending on particular purpose. In general, however, you should only use audio-visual aids where they are appropriate, and you should keep them as simple as possible. Also, keep in mind the particular circumstances of the area where the training is taking place if e.g. it is prone to daily power cuts you might be better off using very simple visual aids such as flipcharts and handouts, rather than something which needs a constant supply of electricity to function. Why use audio-visual aids in presentations? To put across a point with more effect. To help trainees take more in as mentioned above up to 75 % of knowledge or information is gained through sight. To maintain interest. To focus attention on one spot or in one place. To break up a lecture, particularly every 20 minutes. To help in the preparation of a talk extensive preparation leads to a polished product. To help keep both the speaker and the audience on track.

To aid memory by providing a summary. To help standardise presentations involving a number of trainers at different locations. To add variety. How to use audio-visual aids in presentations Use audio-visual aids economically and avoid overkill, otherwise you lose one of the main reasons in using them, i.e. to maintain the participants' interest. Ensure that the content is relevant and that they emphasise the key issues in your presentation. Do not put too much information into one kind of audio-visual aid at the time, otherwise you will overload the audience. If you are using slides for example, do not put down more than seven lines of five words on each slide. Flipcharts Flipcharts are easy to use and very helpful at times of reporting to groups. Overhead projector slides Overhead projector slides are also easy to use. b. Principles of learning: Following are the educational and psychological principals on which the learning concepts and theories are based: (i) Every human being is capable of learning. Each has an intellectual capacity and the ability to learn from training. (ii) The training program should be planned in a logical manner so that each succeeding step builds upon the previous one. The best is to bring about the organization through a progression of small and orderly steps. Thus, probability of success increases because the trainee encounters the steps in sequence. (iii) It is simpler and easier for the trainee to remember and understand the material that is meaningful. Training material can be made understandable and more meaningful in the following six ways: (a) At the starting, the trainee should be provided with the birds eye view of the material. Knowing the overall picture and understanding how each part of the programme fix into it, helps to make the entire programme meaningful.

(b) When presenting material to the trainees, a variety of similar examples should be used. (c) The training material is to be organized in logical manner and should have meaningful units. (d) The training material should be split up into meaningful parts rather than present all the material at one time. (e) The terms and concepts used should be those with which the trainees are familiar. (f) Along with theoretical material, adequate visual aids should be used. (iv) In learning, different levels exist. Learning may involve awareness, changed attitudes, changed behavior etc. It may involve mental processes or physical strength, therefore, to bring different levels of learning, different time and different requirements are needed. (v) The basic principle of learning consists of: (a) Identifying the components of tasks of final desired performance. (b) Assuring that each component is fully achieved. (c) Arranging the total learning situation in a sequence. (vi) There are different aims or motives of learning. (a) A new employee may learn in order to please his boss, to get confirmed in his job, to acquire the requisite knowledge and skill to perform it in a much better and effective manner. (b) Supervisors may go for training to learn how to dele gate responsibility more effectively, how to save their own limited time, how to read reports quickly, how to understand their subordinates better, how to eliminate potential labour troubles and how to administer the agreements reached between the management and the employees. (vii) Learning is essential because people are goal-oriented. They work to satisfy their needs for self-expression, self-accomplishment, self-actualization and financial incentives. Mostly, learning is self-motivated and related to the attachment of personal goals. The trainer must explain to the trainee how his training can be instrumental in his success.

(viii) Objectives of training should be established for every training programme. These objectives guide the instructor in planning the training, guide the trainee and provide criteria for evaluating how much learning has been achieved. (ix) Previous experience of the individual trainee affects his learning experiences. New material is related to his previous knowledge. New behavior is formulated using existing foundations as a basis. (x) Learning is active and not passive. Effective education demands active involvement on the part of all participants. A research reveals that, people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they see and hear, 70% of what they say as they more perform the task. Therefore, people learn best and more by doing rather than by hearing only. This is because, the mare human senses involved, the more complete is the training.

c. Cost-Benefit Analysis: The major business consideration in any project is the cost of the project and the benefits likely to accrue to the organization. It is an important management tool to assess the effectiveness of any project. This concept extends to personnel function as well. Generally it is presumed that personnel administrators are rarely aware of the cost implications of some of their proposals and projects. They are not equipped to prepare budgets and cost estimates and make projections of the cost-benefit analysis prior to undertaking a personnel project.

One of the key ways for the evaluation of a training programme is to calculate the benefit accrued in relation to the cost. Cost benefit analysis is a way of determining whether a particular training programme as a solution has produced a greater benefit than the incurred. As an approach, it can also be used in advance to assess whether particular training solution is likely to make sense financially. It may be fundamentally requirement of senior managers while sanctioning a training programme.

In reality, however, attempting a financial ROI assessment of training is a controversial issue. It is difficult to assess ROI in absolute terms, as the impact depends on many factors many of which cannot be qualified. There would be a number of questions such as: (I) How to put a price tag on improved morale?

(II) What would be impact of reduced stress levels? How much of production could be attributed to this? (III) Higher productivity may be due to experience gained by the person. Can that be discounted? (IV)Increased productivity may be due to hiring better qualified workers or the quality of supervision may be improved, resulting in highly motivated workforce, better time management, better equipment and improved maintenance etc.

All of these can be benefits coincidental to the training programme. Attaching a better performance and relating this to single cause, i.e. training is often impossible. At best, therefore, many training ROI assessments are necessarily best estimates or notional estimates. To make it comparable from programme to programme over period of time , this method of calculating the benefits should be used consistently, so that a pattern emerges.

Steps in undertaking cost-benefit analysis: (i) (ii) (iii) Determining the time period to which the analysis will apply. Generating a list of cost factors related to the solution. Determining the cost associated with each factor. Initially ,it could be in the form of estimations with assumptions as the basis. It could be refined later while preparing the evaluation system. The cost items should be itemized ans spelt out in detail All items should carry the cost labels. These cost are then added to get the total cost of the programme. (iv) Determining the financial benefits of the solution. Here again, all tangible items should be listed. The benefit could be in terms of reduced downtimes of men and machinery, increased production or sales, better quality standards, reduced accidents etc. (v) Expressing the results as a ratio: Benefits/Costs.