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# MATHEMATICAL METHODS / IN LINGUISTICS

by BARBARA H. PARTEE
Department of Linguistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

ALICE TERMEULEN
Department of Linguistics, University of Washington, Seattle and ROBERT E. WALL Department of Linguistics, University of Texas, Austin

DORDRECHT / BOSTON / LONDON

LIST OF SYMBOLS PREFACE PART A: SET THEORY
CHAPTER 1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF SET THEORY

xiii xvii

## 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8.

The concept of a set Specification of sets Set-theoretic identity and cardinality Subsets Power sets Union and intersection Difference and complement Set-theoretic equalities Exercises

3 3 4 8 9 11 11 14 17 23 27 27 28 30 33 36 39 39 43 44 45 47 51 55 55 58 62 69 71

## 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5.

Reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, and connectedness Diagrams of relations Properties of inverses and complements Equivalence relations and partitions Orderings Exercises

CHAPTER 4: INFINITIES

## 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4

Equivalent sets and cardinality Denumerability of sets Nondenumerable sets Infinite vs. unbounded Exercises

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## APPENDIX A: SET-THEORETIC RECONSTRUCTION OF NUMBER SYSTEMS

75

A. 1. The natural numbers A.2./Extension to the set of all integers A.3. Extension to the set of all rational numbers A.4. Extension to the set of all real numbers
REVIEW EXERCISES

75 78 80 82
85

87

## 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4.

Formal systems and models Natural languages and formal languages Syntax and semantics About statement logic and predicate logic

89 93 94 95
99

## CHAPTER 6: STATEMENT LOGIC

6.1. Syntax 6.2. Semantics: Truth values and truth tables 6.2.1. Negation 6.2.2. Conjunction 6.2.3. Disjunction 6.2.4 The Conditional < 6.2.5 The Biconditional / 6.3. Tautologies, contradictions and contingencies 6.4. Logical equivalence, logical consequence and laws 6.5. Natural deduction 6.5.1. Conditional Proof 6.5.2. Indirect Proof 6.6. Beth Tableaux Exercises CHAPTER 7: PREDICATE LOGIC 7.1. Syntax 7.2. Semantics 7.3. Quantifier laws and prenex normal form 7.4. Natural deduction 7.5. Beth Tableaux 7.6. Formal and informal proofs 7.7. Informal style in mathematical proofs Exercises CHAPTER 8: FORMAL SYSTEMS, AXIOMATEATION, AND MODEL THEORY 8.1. The syntactic side of formal systems 8.1.1. Recursive definitions,-?

99 101 101 102 103 104 105 107 110 115 120 122 123 130 137 137 142 148 154 165 170 172 175 181 181 181

8.2. Axiomatic systems and derivations 8.2.1. Extended axiomatic systems 8.3. Semi-Thue systems 8.4. Peano'is axioms and proof by induction 8.5. The semantic side of formal systems: model theory 8.5.1. Theories and models 8.5.2. Consistency, completeness, and independence 8.5.3. Isomorphism 8.5.4. An elementary formal system 8.5.5. Axioms for ordering relations 8.5.6. Axioms for string concatenation 8.5.7. Models for Peano's axioms 8.5.8. Axiomatization of set theory 8.6. Axiomatizing logic 8.6.1. An axiomatization of statement logic 8.6.2. Consistency and independence proofs 8.6.3. An axiomatization of predicate logic 8.6.4. About completeness proofs 8.6.5. Decidability 8.6.6. Godel's incompleteness theorems 8.6.7. Higher-order logic Exercises
APPENDIX B-I: ALTERNATIVE NOTATIONS AND CONNECTIVES APPENDIX B-II: KLEENE'S THREE-VALUED LOGIC REVIEW EXERCISES

185 188 191 194 200 200 202 203 205 207 213 215 217 219 219 222 225 227 229 230 231 234
239 241 245

PART C: ALGEBRA CHAPTER 9: BASIC CONCEPTS OF ALGEBRA 9.1. Definition of algebra 9.2. Properties of operations 9.3. Special elements 9.4. Maps and morphisms Exercises
CHAPTER 10: OPERATIONAL STRUCTURES

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## 257 263 266 271 273

viii

CHAPTER 11: LATTICES I L L Posets, duality and diagrams 11.2. Lattices, semilattices and sublattices 11.3. Morphisms in lattices 11.4. Filters and ideals 11.5. Complemented, distributive and modular lattices Exercises CHAPTER 12: BOOLE AN AND HEYTING ALGEBRAS 12.1. Boolean algebras 12.2. Models of BA 12.3. Representation by sets 12.4. Heyting algebra 12.5. Kripke semantics Exercises REVIEW EXERCISES PART D: ENGLISH AS A FORMAL LANGUAGE CHAPTER 13: BASIC CONCEPTS 13.1. Compositionality 13.1.1. A compositional account of statement logic 13.1.2. A compositional account of predicate logic 13.1.3. Natural language and compositionality 13.2. Lambada-abstraction 13.2.1. Type theory 13.2.2. The syntax and semantics of ^.-abstraction 13.2.3. A sample fragment 13.2.4. The lambda-calculus 13.2.5. Linguistic applications Exercises CHAPTER 14: GENERALIZED QUANTIFIERS 14.1. Determiners and quantifiers 14.2 Conditions and quantifiers 14.3. Properties of determiners and quantifiers 14.4. Determiners as relations 14.5. Context and quantification Exercises CHAPTER 15: INTENSIONALITY 15.1. Frege's two problems 15.2. Forms of opacity

277 277 280 285 287 290, 295 297 297 300 301 303 306 309 311

317 317 319 323 333 338 338 341 343 348 351 367 373 373 375 380 391 395 400 403 403 409

ix

15.3. Indices and accessibility relations 15.4. Tense and time 15.5. Indexicality Exercises PART E: LANGUAGES, GRAMMARS, AND AUTOMATA
i

## 414 423 427 429

CHAPTER 16: BASIC CONCEPTS 16.1. Languages, grammars and automata 16.2. Grammars 16.3. Trees 16.3.1. Dominance 16.3.2. Precedence 16.3.3. Labeling 16.4. Grammars and trees 16.5. The Chomsky Hierarchy 16.6. Languages and automata CHAPTER 17: FINITE AUTOMATA, REGULAR LANGUAGES AND TYPE 3 GRAMMARS 17.1. Finite automata 17. 1.1. State diagrams of finite automata 17. 1.2. Formal definition of deterministic finite automata 17. 1.3. Non-deterministic finite automata 17. 1.4. Formal definition of non-deterministic finite automata 17. [.5. Equivalence of deterministic and non-deterministic finite automata 17.2. Regular languages 17.2.1. Pumping Theorem for fal's 17.3. Type 3 grammars and finite automaton languages 17.3.1. Properties of regular languages 17.3.2. Inadequacy of right-linear grammars for natural languages Exercises CHAPTER 18: PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA, CONTEXT FREE GRAMMARS AND LANGUAGES 18.1. Pushdown automata 18.2. Context free grammars and languages 18.3. Pumping Theorem for cfl's 18.4. Closure properties of context free languages 18.5. Decidability questions for context free languages 18.6. Are natural languages context free? Exercises CHAPTER 19: TURING MACHINES, RECURSIVELY ENUMERABLE LANGUAGES AND TYPE 0 GRAMMARS 19.1. Turing machines 19.1.1. Formal definitions

433 433 437 439 440 441 443 446 451 453 455 455 457 458 460 462 462 464 471 473 477 480 482

## 19.2. 19.3. \9A. 19.5. 19.6. 19.7. /

Equivalent formulations of Turing machines Unrestricted grammars and Turing machines Church's Hypothesis Recursive versus recursively enumerable sets The universal Turing machine The Halting Problem for Turing machines Exercises

## 514 515 517 519 520 522 525

CHAPTER 20: LINEAR BOUNDED AUTOMATA, CONTEXT SENSITIVE LANGUAGES AND TYPE I GRAMMARS

529

20.1. Linear bounded automata 20.1.1. Lba's and context sensitive grammars 20.2. Context sensitive languages and recursive sets 20.3. Closure and decision properties Exercises
CHAPTER 21: LANGUAGES BETWEEN CONTEXT FREE AND CONTEXT SENSITIVE

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## 536 542 548 550

555 561 565 573

CHAPTER 22: TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMARS APPENDIX E-l: THE CHOMSKY HIERARCHY APPENDIX E-II: SEMANTIC AUTOMATA REVIEW EXERCISES SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED EXERCISES

Part A

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Review Problems, Part A Part B. Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Review Problems, Part B Part C Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Review Exercises, Part C

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