chapter 8 of guidery astrophysics

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chapter 8 of guidery astrophysics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Challenge to the Heritage
- Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
- Light Propagation in a Warp Drive Spacetime.pdf
- CIA - Gravitational Control Research - John T. Watson
- std sci gr 8
- std sci gr 8
- Why So Much About Science is Wrong Lloyd Pye
- gravwaves
- Yang-Mills Field from Quaternion Space Geometry, and Its Klein-Gordon Representation
- Explosive Moments in the Laboratory
- Albert Einstein biography
- Relativity
- Phd Thises (Numerical Analysis of the Ultrarelativistic and Magnetized Bondi–Hoyle Problem)
- Pitka Nen
- Black Holes, Big Bangs and Cosmic Strings
- Long number hypothesis
- 2_Forces_and_Motion_S_08052016.pdf
- Article Yuxin Ge
- Quantum Foam
- solutions relativity

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Einsteins theory of gravitation is a covariant relationship among mass, density, and curvature that implements the principles of equivalence and general covariance. We now have assembled the tools necessary to construct that theory.

We begin by considering the weak eld limit of Einsteins theory as a guide to the structure of the full theory. We may expect, given the success of Newtons theory of gravitation in most applications, that the weak eld limit of Einsteins theory must reduce to Newtons theory. Let us assume for simplicity unit mass (m = 1) in the subsequent discussion. The Newtonian gravitational eld may be derived from a scalar potential that obeys the Poisson equation,

2 = 4 G ,

(8.1)

where i

d 2 xi = Fi = i , (8.2) 2 dt x where F is the gravitational force. For a point-like mass M the potential is = GM /r. Earlier we showed that the geodesic equation of motion is given by Eq. (7.19). If the metric is at

g (x) = = constant, in which case g (x)/ x = 0 and the afne connection (7.28) vanishes, the covariant derivatives equal the normal partial derivatives, and the equation of motion 115

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(7.19) becomes that of a free particle in Minkowski space. Generally though, space is curved by mass and the second term of Eq. (7.19) does not vanish. Let us assume for the moment gravitational elds that are static and weak, with velocities well below c. Then

g =0 x0

the equation of motion (7.19) becomes

2

(8.3)

1 g 00 =2

= 0,

(8.4)

g0 g0 g00 + 0 x0 x x

= 1 g 2

g00 . x

(8.5)

Since the eld is weak, we assume that the metric can be expanded around the at space metric, g = + (8.6) where is a small correction. Then, g00 / x = 00 / x and the afne connection to lowest order in is

= 1 00 2

00 . x 00 . xi

(8.7)

Since the metric (7.17) is diagonal, the non-vanishing connection components are 0 00 =

1 00 2 0

=0

1 i00 = 2

(8.8)

For the = 0 component we thus obtain d 2 x0 =0 d 2 and for the = i spatial components (Exercise 8.4) d 2 xi 1 2 00 = 2c . dt 2 xi (8.10) (8.9)

Comparing with the Newtonian equation (8.2), we conclude that 00 = 2 /c2 and thus that 2 (8.11) g00 = 00 + 00 = 1 + 2 , c

implying a scalar-eld source for weak gravity having the form

1 2 c (g00 + 1). = 2

117

(8.12)

Thus we obtain in the weak-gravity limit a strong glimmer of the Einstein conjecture that gravity derives from the geometry of spacetime, with the metric tensor g as its source. Example 8.1 For the specic case of a weak, static eld at the surface of a gravitating sphere of radius R and mass M , the potential is = GM /R and Eq. (8.11) may be written as 2GM g00 = 1 . (8.13) Rc2 The nal term in Eq. (8.13) measures the deviation of the metric from that for at space. It is proportional to the radius of an object divided by the radius of curvature associated with the surface gravitational eld, or equivalently to the ratio of gravitational energy to rest mass energy for a test particle at the surface, and thus measures the strength of the gravitational eld [see Eq. (6.3)]. It is of order 106 for the Sun and is still only of order 104 for a white dwarf. Thus, for objects up to white dwarf density the deviation of the metric from that for at space is extremely small and Newtonian gravity is an excellent approximation. For a neutron star the second term of Eq. (8.13) is about 0.3, invalidating the assumptions of the preceding weak-gravity derivation. Neutron star densities signal the onset of signicant effects from the curvature of spacetime and non-negligible general relativistic corrections to Newtonian gravity.

The preceding discussion suggests a general recipe for writing the equations of motion in a gravitational eld by applying the principles of equivalence and general covariance. 1. Invoke the equivalence principle to justify a local Minkowski coordinate system and formulate the appropriate equations of motion for at Minkowski spacetime in tensor form in those coordinates. 2. Replace the Minkowski coordinates by general curvilinear coordinates x in all equations (this is similar to converting from local Euclidean coordinates

118

describing a small region on the surface of the Earth to general spherical coordinates that describe the Earths surface globally)

3. Replace all partial derivatives with the corresponding covariant derivatives and all integral volume elements by invariant volumes. The resulting equations describe physics in a gravitational eld and, because of the structure of the covariant derivatives, this procedure clearly relates the gravitational force to the curvature of spacetime.

In the theory of general relativity, curved spacetime is responsible for gravity and mass, energy, and pressure are responsible for curving spacetime. Therefore, it is critical in the formulation of the theory to describe the distribution of these quantities and their coupling to gravity in covariant fashion. In order to do so it is convenient to introduce the stressenergy (or energymomentum) tensor T , where 1. T00 = c2 (energy density) 2. Tii = Pi (pressure) 3. cT0i (energy ow per unit area in direction i) 4. cTi0 (momentum density in direction i) 5. Ti j (i = j) (shear of the pressure Pi in the j direction) By physical arguments the 16-component tensor T is symmetric and thus has only 10 independent components. The most general form consistent with Lorentz invariance is T = ( + P)u u + P (at spacetime), (8.14)

where is the Minkowski metric, = c2 is the energy density, u = dx /ds is the velocity [with x (s) describing the worldline of a particle in terms of ] and = s/c is the proper time. Conservation of 4-momentum may then be expressed by the 4-divergence relation T , = 0 (at spacetime). (8.15)

119

where g is the metric. The corresponding generalization of the conservation law (8.15) to curved spacetime is the covariant derivative relation T ; = 0. (8.17)

The stressenergy tensor takes a particularly simple form when evaluated for a perfect uid in the rest frame of the uid, as was shown in Exercise 3.12. For future reference we note that in this special case 0 0 0 0 0 0 g00 0 P 0 0 0 Pg11 0 0 , (8.18) T = T = 22 0 Pg 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 Pg33 where in the latter expression a diagonal metric has been assumed. These relations imply a basic difference between general relativity and Newtonian gravity concerning their sources, as discussed in Box 8.1.

Combining the Poisson equation (8.1), the density expressed in terms of the time time component of the stressenergy tensor, = T00 /c2 , and the weak-gravity scalar eld = 1 c2 (g00 + 1) of Eq. (8.12), we obtain 2 2 g00 =

8 G T00 . (8.19) c4 Equation (8.19) is clearly not covariant (it is expressed in terms of tensor components, not tensors) and is valid only for weak, slowly varying elds. Nevertheless, we can use this equation as a guide to guessing the correct form of a fully covariant gravitational theory. Let uswith Einsteinconjecture the following concerning the form of a covariant theory of gravitation: 1. The right side of (8.19) is not a tensor, but since the Newtonian limit of the equation that we seek is proportional to one component of the stressenergy tensor, let us assume that the right side should be modied by the replacement T00 T . 2. Since the right side now transforms as a rank-2 tensor (the constants are scalars), covariance requires that the left side of Eq. (8.19) be replaced by something having the same transformation properties. We may surmise the following general requirements on the new left side:

120

Box 8.1 What Couples to Gravity? The form (8.16) of the stressenergy tensor points immediately to one fundamental difference between the Einstein theory of gravitation and the Newtonian theory. Because Lorentz transformations will mix the components of T , all components of the stressenergy tensor will contribute to the curvature and hence to the source of the gravitational eld. Thus, energy, mass, and pressure will all play a part in producing the gravitational eld. This is different from Newtonian gravity where pressure does not inuence gravity [it does not appear in the Poisson equation (8.1)]. But (you may object), what about the role of pressure in stabilizing stars against gravitational contraction in Newtonian gravity? In that case the forces opposing gravity are produced not by a pressure but by a pressure gradient. In contrast, gravity couples directly to the magnitude of the local pressure in general relativity, so there can be forces produced by pressure even if there is no pressure gradient. It follows that in a universe having a nite but constant pressure the existence of the pressure could still be detected by its (general relativistic) gravitational effect. This is precisely the nature of the cosmological vacuum energy to be discussed in Chapters 16 and following. That increasing the pressure increases the strength of gravitation in general relativity has implications for cosmology, but it also has implications for the gravitational stability of stars. Specically, it suggests a limit beyond which even increasing the pressure by an arbitrary amount cannot stop a massive object from collapsing under the inuence of its own gravity. This will lead us soon to the idea of a black hole.

Since the weak eld limit is proportional to a curvature 2 g00 , we may expect that the correct left side is a covariant measure of the curvature of spacetime. It must be a covariant tensor of rank 2 to match the tensorial properties of the right side. It must be symmetric in its indices to match the corresponding property of T on the right side. It must be divergenceless with respect to covariant differentiation since T has that property, by virtue of Eq. (8.17). Thus, we shall have to nd quantities that allow us to construct a left side that is a symmetric, rank-2, covariant measure of spacetime curvature, with vanishing covariant divergence.

121

3. The candidate eld equations must reduce to the Poisson equation describing Newtonian gravitation in the limit limit of weak, slowly-varying elds and non-relativistic velocities. These conjectures and the preceding development provide us with the necessary ingredients to construct a eld equation consistent with general relativity for the weak eld limit.

In order to write the correct generalization of Eq. (8.19), let us rst introduce the Riemann curvature tensor, R through

R = , , + .

(8.20)

This tensor has symmetries under index exchange most easily seen after lowering the upper index through contraction with the metric tensor. Then we nd that R = R = R (8.21)

R = R

R + R + R = 0

(the last relation is called the cyclic identity), and also that the curvature tensor obeys the Bianchi Identity: R ; + R ; + R ; = 0 (8.22)

Because of the symmetries (8.21), only 20 of the 44 = 256 components of the Riemann tensor are independent in 4-dimensional spacetime (see the discussion in Box 8.2). All components of the Riemann tensor vanish in at spacetime. Conversely, if the Riemann tensor vanishes the geometry of spacetime is at. The independent components of the Riemann curvature tensor thus represent the generalization of the Gaussian curvature describing the curvature of 2-dimensional spaces to a set of parameters describing the curvature of 4-dimensional spacetime.

We may form the symmetric Ricci tensor, R , by contraction of the Riemann tensor with the metric tensor,1 R = R = g R = R ,

choice to dene the Ricci tensor by contraction on the rst and third indices is the most common one, but some authors dene R by contraction on a different pair of indices. This amounts

1 Our

122

= , , + ,

(8.23)

(It is common practice to use the same basic symbol R for the Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci tensor, and Ricci scalar, with the number of indices distinguishing among these tensors.) Multiplying the Bianchi identity (8.22) by g and by g gives the identity 1 R 2 g R ; = 0, (8.25) where the Einstein tensor G is dened by the quantity in parentheses, G R 1 g R. 2 (8.26)

The Einstein tensor is in fact the rank-2, symmetric curvature tensor with vanishing covariant divergence that we seek as a replacement for the left side of Eq. (8.19). Thus, we may express the covariant theory of gravitation in terms of the Einstein equation,2 g R = 84G T , (8.27) G = R 1 2 c or even more compactly in geometrized units G = 8 T . (8.28)

Because the tensors are symmetric, this deceptively simple expression actually represents 10 coupled, partial, non-linear differential equations that must be solved to determine the effect of gravitation (Box 8.3 elaborates on the non-linear nature of gravity). For future reference, we note that by contraction with the metric tensor the Einstein equation can also be written in the alternative form (see Exercise 21.2) R = 8 G 1 (T 2 g T ), c4 (8.29)

to a sign choice in the denition, since you are asked to show in Exercise 8.7 that contracting on any other pair of indices gives zero, or differs from the present denition by at most a sign. A summary of sign conventions employed in the equations of this section by various authors is given in 8.8. 2 In c = 1 units the constant factor on the right side of (8.27) would be 8 G and in geometrized (c = G = 1) units it becomes just 8 . Note that if one uses the metric signature + instead of the + + + used here, there will be an additional factor of 1 on the right side of (8.27) and in the stressenergy tensor equations (8.14) and (8.16) the last term involving the metric tensor will have a minus sign rather than a plus sign (sign conventions are discussed more extensively in 8.8).

123

where the full contraction T represents the trace of the stressenergy tensor expressed as a mixed rank-2 tensor. This form is particularly useful for the important class of vacuum solutions of the Einstein equations, where the stressenergy tensor is assumed to vanish in the region where the solution is valid. Then from Eq. (8.29) we see that the vacuum Einstein equation can be written as G = R = 0, so for vacuum solutions one needs only to construct the Ricci tensor R and not the full Einstein tensor. However, in the general case only the full Riemann curvature tensor R , with its 20 independent components, contains the full information about the spacetime curvature. Because they are contracted (summed) quantities, the Ricci tensor R contains only 10 independent components and the Ricci scalar R only one. When R vanishes for the entire space, then so do R and R, but the converse need not hold. For example, a space for which R = 0 is termed Ricci at, but such a space is not necessarily at; only the vanishing of the full curvature tensor R ensures that.3 In subsequent chapters we shall be attempting to nd solutions to these equations in 4-dimensional spacetime. To x ideas, in Example 8.2 we rst illustrate the calculation of the quantities that enter the Einstein tensor in a simple 2-dimensional case with uniform curvature.

Example 8.2 Consider a 2-dimensional spherical surface in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. Let us nd the components of the metric tensor, the non-zero Christoffel symbols, the Riemann curvature tensor, the Ricci tensor, and the Ricci scalar curvature. In standard polar coordinates the line element is ds2 = a2 (d 2 + sin2 d 2 ), where a is the radius of the sphere. This corresponds to a diagonal metric with g = a2 g = a2 sin2 1 a2 g = g = 0. 1 . a2 sin2 Since g is the matrix inverse of g , we also have g =

3

g =

In three or fewer dimensions the vanishing of the Ricci tensor implies the vanishing of the Riemann curvature, but in four spacetime dimensions the Riemann curvature tensor can have nonzero components even if R = 0. An example is the Schwarzschild metric to be discussed in Ch. 9, which satises R = 0 but corresponds to a curved spacetime manifold because it has non-vanishing components of the full Riemann curvature tensor. Indeed, the curvature will be found to be so strong in that case that it can lead to a black hole with an event horizon.

124

From Eq. (7.28), the non-vanishing connection coefcients with as an upper index are 1 g g g , + = g 2 x x corresponding to The non-vanishing connection coefcients with as an upper index are 1 = g 2 corresponding to

= = cot = = 0. = sin cos = = = 0.

g g g + x x

The Riemann curvature tensor is given by Eq. (8.20). Since this is a two-dimensional space, there will be only one independent component. Up to symmetries we may take this to be R = +

2 = sin . The metric tensor may be used to lower the upper index, R = g R , giving

= R = R = a2 sin2 , where we have used the symmetry R = R from Eq. (8.21). The Ricci tensor is then given by Eq. (8.23). The non-vanishing components are R = g R = sin2 R = g R = 1.

Finally, the Ricci scalar curvature is the full contraction (8.24) of the Ricci tensor with the metric tensor, 2 R = g R = g R + g R = 2 . a which is, up to a multiplicative factor, the Gaussian curvature (see 7.2.1). You are now encouraged to work through Exercise 8.1, which does the same thing for a general spherical metric in 4-dimensional spacetime. For future reference, the results of Exercise 8.1 are summarized in Appendix C.

125

It is relatively easy to demonstrate that the Einstein tensor has the following limits For weak, non-relativistic elds, G00 2 g00 , as required in our previous derivation of the weak eld limit. If spacetime is at (no curvature), G 0. If there is no matter, energy, or pressure in the universe, G 0. These are exactly the properties that we expect from a theory of gravitation in which curved spacetime is responsible for gravity and massenergypressure is responsible for curving spacetime, and that reduces to Newtonian gravitation in the weak eld limit.

There is no uniform standard for the sign convention that different authors choose for the metric tensor, curvature tensors, and Einstein eld equations. The conventions used in various textbooks and in this presentation are summarized in Table 8.1 in terms of overall signs S1 , S2 , and S3 chosen for the metric, Riemann curvature tensor, Ricci tensor, and Einstein eld equation, respectively:

R = S2 ( , , + )

R = S2 S3 R

G = S3 8 T

These choices are arbitrary as long as they are used consistently, but obviously care must be exercised in comparing relations quoted in different sources.

See Hartle [3], Schutz [10], Islam [5], Straumann [18], Rindler [6], Roos [20], Weinberg [7], Carrol and Ostlie [17], Coles and Lucchin [21], Peebles [8], Cheng [2], and Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler [12].

126

Box 8.2 Curvature and Space Dimensionality The curvature tensor has n4 components in n dimensions but symmetries reduce that to n2 (n2 1)/12 independent components. Thus in four dimensions the curvature tensor has 20 independent components and in three dimensions it has 6 independent components. In two dimensions there are 15 symmetry relations on the 24 = 16 components of the Riemann curvature tensor, leaving only one independent component of curvaturethe Gaussian curvature introduced in 7.2.1. In one dimension the curvature tensor vanishes: it is impossible to dene curvature in a 1-dimensional space. At rst sight this does not seem rightwhat about a curved line? But remember that we are, with Gauss, dening curvature as an intrinsic property of a space. In one dimension there can be no intrinsic curvature. What we really mean by a curved line is the embedding of a 1-dimensional surface in a higher dimensional one; the perceived curvature of the line then is a property of the embedding in the higher-dimensional space, not an intrinsic property of the 1-dimensional space itself. In a similar vein, a cylinder is a at 2-dimensional surface (its Gaussian curvature vanishes), since it may be constructed by identifying two opposite edges of a at surface. This also may be veried by parallel transporting a vector on a closed rectangular path on the cylindercompare with the sphere in Fig. 7.3. Unlike for the sphere, the vector will remain unchanged under parallel transport on the cylinder, indicating that the surface has zero curvature. The curvature that we perceive for the cylinder is an artifact of viewing the 2-dimensional cylinder embedded in a 3-dimensional space. As another example, consider a torus (doughnut), which may be thought of topologically as a square with both pairs of opposite sides identied. (Imagine how you would construct a torus from a exible piece of at material.) Although the torus certainly looks curved as we view it in 3-dimensional space, it can be unfolded into a at surface described by a euclidean metric. Once again, the apparent curvature results from embedding the 2-dimensional surface in 3-dimensional space. As Carrol [11] discusses in more detail in his Appendix A, a manifold embedded in a larger space inherits an induced metric from the larger space by virtue of the embedding, and the apparent curvature of embedded spaces having no intrinsic curvature results from this induced metric. However, in relativity we are most often interested in the intrinsic curvature of the space, which is specied by the Riemann curvature tensor. Finally, we may note that a geometric theory ascribing gravity to curvature of space can be shown to be self-consistent only in four dimensions or more. Thus, according to general relativity there would be no gravity in the Universe if it did not have at least 4 spacetime dimensions.

127

Box 8.3 Quantum Field Theory and the Non-Linearity of Gravity The Einstein equations are non-linear because the solution for the gravitational eld (metric tensor) is also the source of the gravitational eld. Quantum eld theory provides a useful perspective on this non-linearity in terms of a pictorial representation of interaction matrix elements (probability amplitudes) called Feynman diagrams. These are highly intuitive and therefore extremely useful: given a Feynman diagram one can (with practice) write the corresponding matrix element and given the matrix element one can sketch the Feynman diagram. Here are some examples:

e e p W e

(a)

e n

e

(b) (c)

The solid lines represent (fermion) matter elds and the dashed and wiggly lines represent exchanged virtual gauge bosons that mediate the forces. Each diagram can represent several related processes, depending on the direction in which it is read. For example, diagram (a) read from the bottom represents two electrons interacting by exchanging a virtual photon (symbolized by ) and diagram (b) read from the bottom represents an interaction in which a neutron (n) exchanges a virtual W intermediate vector boson with an electron neutrino (e ), converting the neutron to a proton and the neutrino to an electron (this describes neutron -decay). The photon and the W particle differ fundamentally in that the photon is an abelian gauge boson but the W is a non-abelian gauge boson (signied graphically in the above diagrams by using a dashed line for abelian gauge bosons and a wiggly line for non-abelian gauge bosons). This is a consequence of their symmetry under gauge transformations. In essence, abelian gauge bosons are associated with a single operator or a set of commuting operators, while non-abelian gauge bosons are associated with a set of operators that do not commute among themselves. There are signicant differences in the behavior of non-abelian versus abelian gauge eld theories. One of these differences is illustrated in diagram (c) above. The physical interpretation of this diagram (which represents the interaction of 3 gauge bosons among themselves) is that non-abelian gauge bosons can interact directly with themselves (self-coupling), which produces a non-linear theory. Such self-coupling diagrams are strictly forbidden for abelian theories like electromagnetism (built on the exchange of abelian photons). The relevance to the present discussion is that the virtual exchange particle that mediates gravity (called the graviton) is non-abelian. Thus gravitons can couple to themselves, implying that gravity is described by a non-linear eld theory, in contrast to the electromagnetic eld, which does not self-couple and is described by a linear eld theory.

128

Table 8.1: Sign conventions for some textbooks in general relativity Sign S1 S2 S3 This text + + + Ref. [4, 6, 14] + Ref. [3, 10, 12] + + + Ref. [7] +

EXERCISES FOR CHAPTER 8

129

8.1 Find the non-vanishing connection coefcients (Christoffel symbols) for a met-

ric of the form ds2 = e dt 2 + e dr2 + r2 (d 2 + sin2 d 2 ) where = (r, t ) and = (r, t ). Find the nontrivial components of the corresponding Riemann curvature tensor R , Ricci tensor R , Ricci scalar R, and Einstein tensor G .

8.2 The commutator [ A, B ] of two objects A and B is dened by [ A, B ] = AB BA.

Show that the action of two successive covariant differentiations with respect to the indices and then on an arbitary vector V is

V ; = V ( )V V ( V V ) ( V V ),

where / x . Hint: Take the covariant derivative of V and then take the covariant derivative of the result, but remember that the covariant derivative of the vector yields a rank-2 tensor, so the second covariant derivative is not that of a vector but of a rank-2 tensor. Use this result to show that the Riemann curvature tensor is the commutator of the covariant derivatives. That is, for an arbitrary vector V , prove that [D , D ]V = R V , where D denotes taking a covariant derivative with respect to x and the curvature tensor is dened in terms of connection coefcients in Eq. (8.20). Estimate the deviation of the spacetime metric from the Minkowski metric in weak-gravity approximation at the surface of a proton, the Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, and a neutron star. Is weak gravity a good approximation for all these objects?

8.3 8.4 Demonstrate that Eq. (8.10) follows from Equations (8.4) and (8.8). 8.5 Consider an object falling slowly in a weak gravitational eld. Show by energy

conservation and the equivalence principle that d = g00 dx0 , where is the proper time, is the Newtonian gravitational potential, and g is the metric tensor.

130

8.6 For a 2-dimensional space the Riemann curvature tensor reduces to a single

independent, non-trivial component, which may be taken to be R1212 . Show that for a diagonal metric in two dimensions R1212 is just the Gaussian curvature (7.2), up to a normalization factor 1/ det g.

rst and third indices that denes the Ricci tensor in Eq. (8.23) is the only possible independent, non-zero contraction of the Riemann curvature tensor on two of its indices. That is, show that any other choice for contracting two indices gives either R or zero.

8.8 Use the symmetries of the Riemann curvature tensor to prove that the Ricci

8.9 Geodesics must satisfy the geodesic equation (7.19). Assuming the Earth to

be a sphere, use this to prove that the equator is the only circle of latitude that is a geodesic. Hint: The required connection coefcients for a sphere were already derived in Example 8.2. Prove that the Einstein equations reduce to the Poisson equation (8.1) for Newtonian gravity in the static, low-velocity, weak-eld limit. Hint: For this problem it is convenient to use the Einstein equations in the form (8.29).

8.10 8.11 To solve a general relativistic problem we typically must nd solutions for

the Einstein equations in the form (8.27) [or (8.29)]. Because of Eq. (8.27) and the identity (8.25), the stressenergy tensor obeys Eq. (8.17), which is T ; = 0, in mixed tensor form. Thus, we can choose to solve the equation T; = 0 in place of solving one of the Einstein equations. In many cases this can lead to a faster solution than solving all the Einstein equations directly. As an example of such manipulations, show that for a static metric ds2 = e dt 2 + e dr2 + r2 (d 2 + sin2 d 2 ),

with = (r) and = (r), and a diagonal stressenergy tensor of the form T = 1 diag ( , P, P, P), the constraint T; = 0 leads to the equation P + 2 (P + ) = 0, where primes denote partial derivatives with respect to r. Hint: The connection coefcients that you will need to evaluate the covariant derivatives are derived in Exercise 8.1.

8.12 Obtain an expression for the Riemann curvature tensor R for the special

case of a local inertial (freely-falling) frame. (Hint: See Exercise 7.14.) Since R is a tensor (see Exercise 8.13), conclusions derived from this equation in this particular frame are valid in all frames. Use this simplied equation to verify the

symmetry relations R = R = R in Eq. (8.21). R = R

131

8.13 Use the results of Exercise 8.2 and the quotient theorem illustrated in Exercise

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