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PRINCIPLE OF CHEMISTRY

ENV 110 Chapter 1

Environmental Link to Chemistry


Water -Drinking water -Recreational water -Waste water Food -Food spoilage Built Environment -Disinfection, antiseptic, bleaching

Effect of air pollution Acid rain

Several processes can result in the formation of acid deposition. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) released into the atmosphere from a variety of sources call fall to the Earths surface simply as dry deposition. This dry deposition can then be converted into acids when these deposited chemicals interact with water. Most wet acid deposition occurs when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are converted to nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) through oxidation and dissolution in the atmosphere. Wet deposition can also form when ammonia gas (NH3) from natural and agricultural sources is converted into ammonium (NH4).

Food spoilage
Chemical reactions such as oxidation also contribute to food spoiling. Oxidation occurs naturally in all foods and causes a loss of nutritional value and chemical changes of the foods properties. Molecular oxygen combines with nutrients in the food, creating rancidity. Oxidative rancidity occurs in a three-step process:

Disinfection
The process of killing pathogenic organisms or rendering them inert. Disinfectant: An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that disinfects by destroying, neutralizing, or inhibiting the growth of diseasecarrying microorganisms.
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Chlorines, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, ozone.

Chlorine is generally applied to the process water as an aqueous chlorine solution: chlorine gas is hydrolyzed to form hypochlorous acid, HOCl, and hypochlorite ion (OCl-) in ammonia free water. Hydrolysis: Cl2 + H2O HOCl + H+ + ClIonization: HOCl H+ + OClChlorine reacts with ammonia to form chlroamines which less effective disinfectants than chlorine. NH3 + HOCl NH2Cl (monochloramine) + H2O NH2Cl + HOCl NHCl2 (dichloramine) + H2O NHCl2 + HOCl NCl3 (nitrogen trichloride) + H2O

Generation of chlorine dioxide involves reacting sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with chlorine to produce gaseous chlorine dioxide as follows: 2NaClO2 + Cl2 2ClO2 + 2NaCl Among commonly available disinfectants, ozone is the most powerful oxidant and disinfectant. Produce ozone: O2 (high voltage) O + O O + O2 O3

Ozone disinfection: O3 + H2O HO3+ + OHHO3+ + OH- 2HO2 O3 + HO2 HO + HO + HO2 H2O + O2 The free radicals formed, HO2 and HO have great oxidizing powers.

Bleaching
Bleaching Agents Bleaching agents are compounds which are used to remove color from substances such as textiles. Most commercial bleaches are oxidizing agents, such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which are quite effective in "decolorizing" substances via oxidation.

The hypochlorite ion (OCl-), found in many commercial preparations, is reduced to chloride ions and hydroxide ions forming a basic solution as it accepts electrons from the colored material as shown below. OCl- + 2e- + HOH --------> Cl- + 2 OHIn acidic solutions, H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers. 2Fe2+(aq) + H2O2 + 2H+(aq) 2Fe3+(aq) + 2H2O(l)