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Photojournalism Fundamentals
| Dep-Ed RIZAL | 23 July 2011
JIMMY A. DOMINGO
Freelance Photojournalist Chair (2004-2006) and current Board Member Philippine Center for Photojournalism (PCP)

Presentation Outline:
Introduction: What is Photojournalism Photography as Building Blocks
> Exposure Controls; quality of light > Depth of Field, Point of Interest > Framing, composition and the decisive moment

General Photojournalism Categories

Program Coordinator & Instructor Diploma in Photojournalism Program @ Ateneo de Manila University
Associate Professor Photography and Photojournalism @ De La Salle University - Manila

Photography

Texts and Captions

+ striking pictures + WITH


Photography

Texts and Captions

artistic techniques

data & info gathering

+ striking images artistic techniques +


Photography

Texts and Captions

data & info gathering

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VARIOUS SUBJECTS AND THEMES

the mosaic of our lives captured on film and on electronic disks.


Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism page 14

SIMPLE JOYS

HAPPINESS

RELIEF

DAILY LIFE

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DAILY LIFE in a RAILROAD TRACK

PROTESTS

PARTY

EXCITEMENT

DAILY LIFE

MURDERS

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Photojournalism is a photo of Asi on a sports page

Its also a photo of backyard game played with passion by the common folks

Anywhere, the mission is the same to INFORM, TO REPORT, TO CARRY THE SCENE to the readers, whether they are thousands of miles away or just down the street. To show them something they might not have had a chance to see themselves.
Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism page 14

TO GRAB A MOMENT OF HISTORY AND PRESERVE IT FOR THE FUTURE.

Associated Press Guide to Photojournalism page 14

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CONTENT
What is the photograph all about? Who are represented?

5 Ws + 1 H

It is our duty to write the caption and info it is a must in photojournalism. Assume that any viewer dont know anything about the picture.

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MESSAGE
The purpose of a press photograph is to inform the viewer about what can be seen and what the facts are.

BUT, what is the message?

CONTENT AND MESSAGE Denotative meaning, Connotative meaning

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PHOTOGRAPHIC STYLE
What can you see? How was it photographed? Light Composition, Frame, Perspective Details, close up Color, tone Movement, motion

light

drawing

Photography is more than just taking a photograph with a camera

it is an active engagement with science, technology & society and art

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Digital VS Film
same principle only the FILM is OUT, SENSOR and STORAGE DEVICE is IN
Henry Cartier-Bresson

Image Storage Devices

FILM

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Digital Pixels

Pixels The larger the pixel size (now measured in MEGAPIXELS), the better the image

"picture" and "element


Pixels - the smallest electronic elements that compose digital images

Pixel Dimensions of 8MP Camera


Quality Large Fine Large Normal Medium Fine Medium Normal Small Fine Small Normal Raw Pixel Dimension / No. of photos with 1 GB storage card 3456 x 2304 / 239 3456 x 2304 / 474 2496 x 1664 / 415 2496 x 1664 / 832 1728 x 1152 / 726 1728 x 1152 / 1004 3456 x 2304 / 100

NSPC Requirement: Camera with 10-14 megapixel image size? Set the IMAGE QUALITY (or IMAGE SIZE) of your camera to LARGE.

FIRST THING: Set the date and time of your camera Metadata (show sample image)

WHITE BALANCE
Digital cameras are designed to primarily designed to see sunlight that is containing all the spectrum.

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WHITE BALANCE
Unlike the human eye, digital cameras cant automatically adjust to compensate for variations in the color of light, potentially causing unnaturally colored pictures.

Shade | Tungsten | Fluorescent | Flash

Key Areas of Technical Excellence:

EXPOSURE:
Light is the main ingredient of photography IT MUST BE RIGHT

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EXPOSURE CONTROL: ASA/ISO light sensitivity rating 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 If scene is bright, use low number AND VICE VERSA > SAFE

SETTING: Auto ISO

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EXPOSURE CONTROLS:

What is Aperture (opening in the lens?

the aperture and the shutter speed controls And the principle of reciprocity

The aperture is a hole whose size can be varied to allow more or less light to pass through it.
The size of apertures is expressed in f-numbers. f1.4, f2.0, f2.8.. f5.6.. f32

What is Shutter Speed (of curtain)?


The shutter speed is a measurement of the amount of time the shutter on the body is open to allow light to hit the film. The most commonly used speeds are actually fractions of a second. 1=1 second; 2 = sec; 15=1/15 seconds

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Be careful when the shutter speed so slow, there maybe movement and motion blur

Solution: TURN ON FLASH

The opening in the lens and the speed of the shutter operate in a principle called RECIPROCITY to achieve a photograph with proper exposure.

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Exposure Controls

MANUAL (M) you select the setting of both aperture (opening of the lens) and the shutter to achieve desired exposure

Exposure Controls

Exposure Controls

SHUTTER PRIORITY (TV) you select the shutter speed, the opening reciprocates APERTURE PRIORITY (AV) you select the aperture (opening of the lens), the shutter speed reciprocates

AUTO (A) the camera does everything, you cannot override, it uses flash automatically when needed (if theres a built-in flash) PROGRAM (P) the camera does everything but you can override, you can turn on or off the flash

Key Areas of Technical Excellence:

sharp focus, depth of field to achieve a selected point of focus, lead the viewer to a point of interest
Controlling

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Framing / composition
Arrangements of all elements intended to be included in a frame

> Capture an artistic and content-rich image. Compete to get readers attention

VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL FRAME?

VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL FRAME?

DOMINANT FOREGROUND

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FRAMES WITHIN FRAMES / SHAPES

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LINES, PERSPECTIVES

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REFLECTIONS / SYMMETRY

POINT OF ENTRY / low angle

TIPS: 1) Shoot from a variety of angles 2) Avoid the 52 syndrome; Be a worm, be a bird 3) Experiment, explore-specialization is for the ants
POINT OF ENTRY / high angle

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POINT OF ENTRY / 5 6 Syndrome

POINT OF ENTRY / TOP SHOT

Lesson from Dora the Explorer and Boots

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The right time to press the shutter to record the

decisive moment

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PEAK OF THE ACTION

The key to a decisive moment capture is SWIFTNESS & PATIENCE.

Spot news

GENERAL CATEGORIES

pictures of unscheduled events, no advance planning was possible


tragedy to good fortune; crime to war; fire; accident; rescue; sudden police dispersal of a rally or demonstration

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General News

Pictures of planned and scheduled events; anticipated


Parades, concerts, rallies, press conference; anniversaries; school openings and closings
Death and Celebration

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Feature

Human interest to show slice of life; some are planned events, but most feature photographs are found situations.
Having a ready camera and eyes (and minds) open to everything is the best way to find features

Sports The news approach to sports usually involves getting sharp, freeze frame action shots of players in mid-air, grasping for the ball. A more impressionistic feature approach can add drama and reinforce motion in a still photograph.

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Portrait Close up portraits to show visual character of the subject. Environmental portrait add storytelling detail in the environment; you lead the viewer to a hint in what the subject is involved with.

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Photo Stories / Photo Essays Any set of photos presented as one arranged in a cohesive visual narrative Could cover any genre or category

For many PJs, telling whole stories with pictures is the ultimate professional experience.
built in minutes built in years

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE Formula for Visual Variety OVER-ALL wide angle to establish the scene, sense of place MEDIUM focuses on one activity or group CLOSE-UP one element, like a persons hands or an intricate detail of a building

Formula for Visual Variety PORTRAIT either a dramatic, light headshot or a person in his environmental setting INTERACTION people conversing or in action SIGNATURE summarizes the situation with all the key elements

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Formula for Visual Variety SEQUENCE A how-to, before and after, or a series with a beginning, middle, and end (the sequence gives the essay a sense of action) CLINCHER A closer that would end the story

" The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in seeing with new eyes."
- Marcel Proust

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