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Menjustifikasi bagaimana melibatkan para pelajar sekolah secara aktif dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran melalui motivasi, penyoalan dan pemilihan kaedah mengajar

Analisis cara mengajar 3 Penglibatan dan latihan untuk pelajar 1. Motivasi 2. Penyoalan 3. Kaedah mengajar 4. Jenis latihan -kesukaran -kaedah mengajar -pentaksiran

When student is unmotivated, wants to be entertained rather than work: Provide choice Pursuit of special interest area Personal goal setting Develop leadership skills to promote selfconfidence

When the student does not feel academically or intellectually challenged: Question activities Activities at the higher level of Blooms Enrichment activities that involve real life problem solving Tiered Lessons/units

MESEJ

Enkod PENGIRIM
Dekod GANGGUAN

Enkod
PENERIMA Dekod

MAKLUMBALAS

Tujuan menyoal murid:


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Menggalakkan murid terlibat secara aktif dalam pnp Membangkitkan perhatian dan perhatian murid Memfokuskan perhatian murid kepada idea atau konsep Menggalakkan murid kemukan soalan Memperkembangkan kemahiran berfikir Minta penjelasan dan perincian idea2 muridkenalpasti miskonsepsi murid Taksir pengetahuan murid

Nyatakan soalan dengan tepat dan ringkas. Elakkan guna soalan retorik Kemukakan terhadap kesluruhan kelas Kemukakan soalan kepada yang angkat tngn dan tidak angkt tngn Guna pelbagai jenis soalan Soalan sesuai dengan kebolehan murid Situasi yang tidak mengancam

Gunakan masa tunggu yang sesuai Beri masa utk murid berfikir-sebelum dan selepas murid menjawab Purata masa tunggu 3-5 saat Lebih lama utk soalan aras tinggi Masa tunggu mampu meningkatkan kemahiran analisis dan penyelesaian masalah murid

Pilih yang angkat tangan dan tidak angkat tangan Panggil nama salah seorang murid walaupun satu kelas menjawab in unison Rawakkan panggil agar kekalakan penglibatan murid Asertif terhadap peraturan-angkat tangan sebelum menjawab

Pastikan semua murid beri perhatian terhadap jawapan Respon tanpa judgement dgn memfrasa semula jawapan murid dengan mngunakan perkataan sendiri guru, jika guru ingin meneruskan perbincangan. Jika tidak, akur akan jawapan yang betul dengan pengukuhan positif, bagi jawapan yang salah dapat penjelasan dan dapatkan jawapan yang betul Bagi murid yang tidak menjawab, beri kue, frasa semula atau meringkaskan Cukil idea murid untuk mnggalakkan pmikiran aras tinggi Alih-alih soalan sblm trima sesuatu jawapan Kaitkan jawapan-jawapan supaya boleh buat keputusan

Is what you do at the outset o a lesson ie what you do to get the students undivided attention, teachers arouse their interest and to establish a conceptual framework for the information that follows

Enable students to organize the new meterial in relation to itself and to other lessoins. Main pints and concept must be puled together so that why will be organized and integrated whithin the students existing cognitive structure(bgn konten tersusun dalam minda pelajar)

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Set induksi Soal jawab Penutup Taksiran formatif

Konvergen- hanya satu jawapan betul, mungkin memerlukan para pelajar mengingat kembali, mengintergasi dan menganalisa maklumat untuk memberikan satu jawapan betul Divergen soalan yang meminta pandangan, hipotesis, penilaian dimana ada lebih dari satu jawapan yang betul

Soalan konvergen 1. Siapakah perdana menteri Malaysia 2. Apakah jumlah 2+4 3. Dimanakah letaknya kg Pinang Sebatang 4. Apakah yang menyebabkan darurat

Soalan Divergen 1. Kenapakah Amerika melibatkan diri dalam Pearang dunia kedua 2. Siapakah merupakan negarawan ulung Malaysia 3. Apakah tajuk yang sesuai untuk cerita ini

1.berdasarkan perbincangan kita apakah yang menyebabkan berlakunya migrasi 2.Berdasarkan definisi demokrasi, bolehkah anda namakan negara yang mengamalkan demokrasi

3. kenapakah penting kita terus meneroka sebabsebab berlakunya banjir? Bagaimanakah perkataan luluhawa dapat digunakan

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_ Apakah yang anda boleh beritahu kelas berkenaan negeri Kelantan _ Tumbuhan manakah yang paling tinggi? _ Definisi kata nama? _Adakah kita mempunyai maklumat yang cukup untuk menjawab soalan itu? _Apakah yang boleh buat dengan tepung ini? _ Apakah perayaan yang dirayakan di bulan Disember? _ Apakah rasanya hidup di hutan hujan tropika? _ Berdasarkan apa yang anda baca dalam buku teks itu, apakah yang menyebabkan musim-musim yang berbeza? _ Jika panjang segi empat ialah 10 sm dan lebarnya adalah 6 sm, berapakah luas kawasan segi empat itu?

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D_ Apakah yang anda boleh beritahu kelas berkenaan negeri Kelantan K_ Tumbuhan manakah yang paling tinggi? K_ Definisi kata nama? K_Adakah kita mempunyai maklumat yang cukup untuk menjawab soalan itu? D_Apakah yang boleh buat dengan tepung ini? K_ Apakah perayaan yang dirayakan di bulan Disember? D_ Apakah rasanya hidup di hutan hujan tropika? K_ Berdasarkan apa yang anda baca dalam buku teks itu, apakah yang menyebabkan musim-musim yang berbeza? K _ Jika panjang segi empat ialah 10 sm dan lebarnya adalah 6 sm, berapakah luas kawasan segi empat itu?

Mental operation questions Fakta

Taksonomi Bloom Pengetahuan & kefahaman


Aplikasi & Analisis Sintesis Penilaian

Guilford structure of Intellect Proses kognitif @ ingatan


Pemikiran Konvergen Pemikiran divergen Pemikiran penilaian

Emprikal Produktif Penilaian (evaluative)

Soalan fakta Menguji daya ingatan pelajar Pelajar hanya perlu ingat semula melalui mengenal atau hafaz atau pelajar terjemahkan maklumat 1.Siapakah yang mencipta kereta? 2. Apakah yang berlaku semasa hujan lebat?

Soalan emprikal Pelajar integrasi/analisis maklumat yang dihafaznya atau diberikan guru dan jawapan yang di jangka 1.Apakah yang menyebabkan tertubuhnya PTM 2. Antara kedua-dua parti ini yang manakah lebih demokratik

Soalan produktif
Tidak mempunyai satu jawapan yang betul Soalan terbuka dan sukar diramal jawapannya Pelajar perlu maklumat (sendiri// diberi guru) untuk menjawab 1. Bagaimanakah kita boleh meningkatkan..? 2. Apakah perubahan sikap yang akan berlaku jika PM adalah wanita? 3. Apakah penyelesaian untuk

Soalan penilaian
Soalan terbuka Lebih sukar daripada soalan produktif Berlandaskan sesuatu kriteria 1. Siapakah pelajar tersohor dikalangan anda? 2. Adakah/ Perlukah PATI diperlakukan dengan adil? 3. Adakah pemilihan guru pakar/cemerlang dalam Geografi tepat?

Kategori
1. Fakta
2. Emprikal

Jenis Pemikiran
Pelajar perlu ingat kembali sahaja
Pelajar integrasikan & analisa yang diberi maklumat yang diberi@ diingat semula

Contoh
Definisikan.? Siapakah?
Bandingkan? Jelas.? Kira?

3. Produktif

Pelajar berfikir secara kreatif untuk hasilkan sesuatu yang unik


Pelajar menilai/ memberi pandangan

Bagaimanakah kita boleh Apakah bentuk kehidupan di?


Siapakah yang terbaik? Kenapa lebih suka

4. Penilaian

1._ kira luas kawasan bulatan ini 2._ Apakah pandangan anda mengenai sistem kehakiman Malaysia? 3. _ Menurut teks, apakah yang menyebabkan kemelesetan ekonomi? 4. _ Apakah yang akan berlaku pada kenderaan ini dalam masa 20 tahun? 5. _ Bandingkan karya Zaaba dan karya Shahnon Ahmad? 6. _Bagaimanakah kita sebagai seorang guru 1 Malaysia boleh mengubah masyarakat? 7._ Kenapakah anda lebih cenderung memilih Parti A berbanding Parti B 8._ Apakah makna cerita Si-Tenggang pada anda? 9._ Apakah perbezaan antara mamalia dan ikan? 10. _ Siapakah perdana Malaysia selepas PRU13

1. E_ kira luas kawasan bulatan ini 2.Pe_ Apakah pandangan anda mengenai sistem kehakiman Malaysia? 3. F_ Menurut teks, apakah yang menyebabkan kemelesetan ekonomi? 4. Pr_ Apakah yang akan berlaku pada kenderaan ini dalam masa 20 tahun? 5.E _ Bandingkan karya Zaaba dan karya Shahnon Ahmad? 6.Pr _Bagaimanakah kita sebagai seorang guru 1 Malaysia boleh mengubah masyarakat? 7.E_ Kenapakah anda lebih cenderung memilih Parti A berbanding Parti B 8.Pr_ Apakah makna cerita Si-Tenggang pada anda? 9.E_ Apakah perbezaan antara mamalia dan ikan? 10.Pe _ Siapakah perdana Malaysia selepas PRU13

Bertanyakan soalan yang sesuai untuk memenuhi hasil pembelajaran. 1. Soalan-soalan fokus (focussing questions) 2. Soalan-soalan kue/ prompting (prompting questions) 3. Soalan meneroka (probing questions)

Soalan yang mungkin fakta, emprikal, produktif atau penilaian. Digunakan untuk memfokuskan perhatian pelajar untuk pembelajaran pada hari itu atau terhadap bahan yang dibincangkan untuk 1. Menentukan sama ada murid dah belajar(soalan fakta) 2. Memotivasikan murid di awal kelas( soalan produktif/penilaian) 3. Semak pemahaman murid semasa atau selepas guru mengajar.(Soalan fakta/emprikal)

Apakah segitiga? 2. Apakah yang akan terjadi jika saya gabungkan segitiga dan empatsegi 3. Bagaimanakah menjadi seorang guru yang berjaya? 4. Wajarkah AS menjalankan tugas sebagai polis dunia?
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Apakah segitiga? (soalan fakta) Apakah yang akan terjadi jika saya gabungkan segitiga dan empatsegi? (Soalan emprikal) Bagaimanakah menjadi seorang guru yang berjaya? (Soalan produktif) Wajarkah AS menjalankan tugas sebagai polis dunia? (Soalan penilaian)

Digunakan bila murid gagal jawab soalan guru.(pindah ke murid lain?) Guna kue & panduan(hints & cue) untuk membantu murid membetulkan respons pertama mereka Soalan prompt biasanya adalah soalan yang asal yang disusun semula struktur ayatnya dengan penambahan kue Penggunaan soalan prompt memberi murid peluang untuk menikmati kejayaan setelah berjaya menjawab soalan guru dan mengukuhkan keyakinannya untuk terus melibatkan diri

G-Ok kelas, mari kita semak data yang telah kita kumpul berkaitan penyerapan cahaya. Apakah perbezaan yang anda lihat antara bekas yang bertutup dengan yang tidak bertutup (3-5 saat tunggu) Zul? Zul-air dalam bekas tertutup mempunyai suhu 96 darjah. Gu- Bilakan bacaan suhu ini diambil Zul- Bila bekas telah ditutup selama 10 minit G- Apakah suhu air bila awak mulakan eksperimen( guru menggunakan prompt dalam situasi yang tidak mengancam murid(beserta mesej bukan lisan). Episod diteruskan sehingga semua maklumat yang diperlukan diperolehi untuk penutup

G:

Apakah maksud kata nama, Mimi? Murid: (Diam) Lari G: Cuba semak semula jawapan anda. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kata nama? Murid: (Diam lama) seorang, satu tempat, satu benda G: Adakah lari itu seorang, satu tempat atau satu benda? Murid: [Diam] Tidak G: Bolehkan anda memberi satu contoh lain? Murid: Port Dickson G: Bagus

G- dalam pelan rumah ini (rumah tepi pantai di Pantai Cherating), bilik di ruang tamunya mengadap timur. Adakah satu idea yang baik? (tunggu) Izan? Izan- Saya rasa satu idea yang bagus. Boleh nampak matahari terbit. G- Jawapan Izan itu adalah contoh yang baik berdasarkan keutamaan individu. Bagi sesetengah orang, melihat matahari terbit adalah suatu yang penting. Apakah bentuk cuaca yang dijangka di hujung tahun khasnya jika tangkapnya besar?

Soalan ditanya bila jawapan yang murid berikan adalah cetek/ kurang kedalaman Soalan meneroka menggalakkan murid untuk berfikir dengan lebih mendalam berkaitan respon pertamanya. Melalui soalan meneroka, murid diminta memberi maklumat tambahan untuk lebih jelas. Khasnya untuk respon yang kurang sempurna atau yang tidak menampakkan murid berfikir dengan baik akan jawapan berkenaan.

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Apakah asas fakta yang anda berkata demikian? Kenapa anda kata begitu? Apakah andaian anda? Anda pasti tiada yang perlu ditambah? Bolehkah anda kaitkan jawapan ini dengan ini dengan ? Cuba kita lihat semula jawapan ini berkaitan dengan ? Apakah implikasi jawapan anda ini? Bolehkah anda kaitkan jawapan Abu tadi kepada isu ini ? Aplikasi jawapan anda kepada ..?

Minggu ini, kita telah pun belajar mengenai poligon dan saya ingin ulangkaji apa yang kita telah pelajari setakat ini. Apakah poligon? Namakan satu poligon yang yang kita gunakan seharian Segiempat Anda betul (tepat sekali), tapi ada banyak objek yang mempunyai empat sisi. Apakah nama objek 4 sisi ini? [Hentian] paralellogram.

Alih arah (redirecting)- guru minta setiap orang murid menjawab soalan yang sama. Masa tunggu- masa yang gur berikan sebelum guru menyambung semula setelah menyoal.

Guru kemukakan soalan Wait time

Masa tunggu 1
Guru panggil nama murid Murid beri respon Masa tunggu 2

Murid yang sama tambah lagi responnya

Murid lain tokok tambah respon

M1

M2

G G G

M1 M2 M3

M3
G

M4 M7

G- saya akan tanya anda satu soalan, tunggu sebentar dan kemudian memanggil 3-4 orang untuk menjawab. Dengar betul2 kerana saya tidak akan ulang soalan itu. Dengar respon kawan anda bila mereka menjawab kerana saya juga tidak akan ulang respon mereka. Setakat itu, ada soalan? Ok kita mula. Di manakah Sultan Perak pertama mendarat jika baginda belayar dari Sumatera ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu pada arah timur? (tunggu) Aman, Dina, Siti, Leman Aman- Mungkin mendarat di Pulau Pangkor G- (senyum dan tunjuk kepada Dina tanpa sebarang komen) Dina- di Pulau Pinang kot? Siti- Dua2 silap, Baginda akan tiba di Pulau Ketam Leman- Itu pun tak akan berlaku. Sultan itu akan ditiup oleh monsun balik ke Sumatera. G- Ok idea yang bagus. Kelas, buka muka surat 200, kita lihat peta berkaitan angin dan arus.

What am I? How do I? When do I? Why do I? Which am I?

Meningkatkan motivasi untuk belajar Meningkat kefahaman isi pelajaran dan mengingat isi pelajaran lebih lama Menggalakkan kreativiti Mengajar cara berfikir dan belajar (mengemukakan soalan) Menjadi asas kepada pbl, penyelesaian masalah dan membuat keputusan

UNTUK GURU
Guru kurang bercakap Kurang mengulang soalan Kurang soalan setiap waktu Lebih soalan dengan pelbagai respon Kurang soalan aras rendah Lebih banyak probing Lebih soalan aras aplikasi

UNTUK MURID Respon yang lebih panjang Lebih murid terlibat Kurang murid yang tidak respon Lebih banyak murid terlibat Soalan beraras tinggi meningkatkan penaakulan Lebih banyak interaksi rakan sebaya Lebih berkeyakinan Pencapaian lebih tinggi

Menyerupai masa tunggu Bertujuan memberi masa untuk berfikir khasnya bila guru memberikan bahan/ arahan yang kompleks Semasa hentian, semak apa yang mereka cuba komunikasikan (faham- teruskan; jika murid kelihatan keliru) mungkin perlu terangkan semula.

Silent time- masa selepas murid tamat memberi respon dan Oleh kerana para guru terlalu ghairah untuk terus mengajar, mereka lupa

Lisan Bukan lisan

Kemukakan soalan yang jelas/ tidak kabur Kemukakan soalan, baru panggil responden Tanya soalan selaras dengan HP Agihkan soalan dengan adil Tanya soalan yang sesuai untuk pelbagai aras soalan Mengemukakan soalan sekali sahaja

Good
Great

What

Super

an outstanding idea

Ditanya satu soalan, dan dijawab oleh beberapa orang murid. Kemudian mengukuh untuk sumbangan mereka. Kemudian, kembali semula kepada jawapan yang terbaik. Jangan terlalu awal guru respon super, murid lain risau sama ada jawapan mereka bagi 5 soalan terbaik

Masa yang dibenarkan guru menantikan respon pelajar sebelum guru sambung Masa yang dibenarkan guru

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Mengulangi soalan- berapa ramaikah penduduk Tg. Malim? Berapa populasi Tg. Malim? Berapa ramaikah orang yang tinggal di Tg. Malim? Mengulangi respon murid- verbatim. Murid tunggu Instant replay guru- beza jika sesi orang sangat ramaidi dean besar atau murid yang suaranya perlahan Guru kemukakan soalan, guru menjawab sendiri Tidak beri peluang murid untuk menyudahkan jawapannya yang panjang Tidak beri perhatian semasa murid memberi respon Memilih murid yang sama untuk menjawab

Beri mereka kurang masa Beri jawapan untuk mereka atau terus memanggil murid lain tanpa guru membantu meningkatkan kualiti jawapan dengan penggunaan kue/ paraphrasa 3. Pengukuhan yang kurang wajar 4. Lebih mengkritik 5. Gagal beri maklumbalas 6. Kurang beri pujian 7. Kurang beri perhatian 8. Kurang memanggil mereka untuk respon 9. Kurang guna kontak mata dll 10. Bahasa bukan lisan
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Remember wait time Provide at least three seconds of thinking time after a question and after a response Utilize think-pair-share Allow individual thinking time, discussion with a partner, and then open up the class discussion Ask follow-ups (Why? Do you agree? Can you elaborate?) Tell me more. Can you give an example? Withhold judgement

Respon to student answers in a nonevaluative fashion Ask for summary (to promote active listening) could you please summarize Johns point? Survey the class How many people agree with the authors point of view? (thumbs up, thumbs down) Allow for student calling Richard, will you please call on someone else to respond? Play devils advocate

Require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view Ask students to unpack their thinking Describe how you arrived at your answers. (think aloud) Call on students randomly. Not just those with raised hands Student questioning. Let the students develop their own questions. Cue students response. there is not a single correct answer for this question. I want you to consider alternatives.

These purposes are generally pursued in the context of classroom recitation, defined as a series of teacher questions, each eliciting a student response and sometimes a teacher reaction to that response. Within these recitations, students follow a series of steps (consciuosly or unconsciously) in order to produce responses to the questions posed. These steps include:

Attending to the question Deciphering the meaning of the question Generating a covert response (i.e. formulating a response in ones mind) Generating an overt response and often Revising the response (based on teacher probing or other feedback)

Instruction which

includes posing questions during lessons is more effective in producing achievement gains than instruction carried out without questioning student. Students perform better on test items previously asked as recitation questions than on items they have not been exposed to before. Oral questions posed during classroom recitations are more effective in fostering learning than are written questions. Questions which focus student attention on silent elements in the lesson result in better comprehension than questions which do not.

Asking

question frequently during class discussions is positively related to learning facts. Increasing the frequency of classroom question does not enhance the learning of more complex material. (some researches have found no relationship, others have found a negative relationship) Posing questions before reading and studying material is effective for students who are older, high ability, and/ or known to be interested in the subject matter. Very young children and poor readers tend to focus only on material that will help them answer questions if these are posed before the lesson is presented.

The majority of researches however have conducted more simple comparisons, they have looked at The relative effects on student outcomes produced by what they call higher and lower cognitive questions. Lower cognitive questions are those which ask the student merely to recall verbatim or in his/her Own words material previously read or taught by the teacher. Lower cognitive question are also referred To in the literature as fact, closed, direct, recall and knowledge questions.

Higher cognitive questions are defined as those which ask the student to mentally manipulate bits of information previously learned to create an answer or to support an answer with logically reasoned evidence. Higher cognitive questions are also called open-ended, interprative, evaluative, inquiry, inferential and synthesis questions.

On the average, during classroom recitations, approximately 60 percent of the questions asked are lower cognitive questions, 20 percent are are higher cognitive questions, and 20 percent are precedual. Higher cognitive questions are not categorically better than lower cognitive questions in elicting higher level responses or in or in promoting learning gains. lower cognitive questions are more effective than higher level questions with young (primary level) children, particularly the disadvantaged. lower cognitive questions are more effective when the teachers purpose is To impart factual knowledge and assist students in committing this knowledge to memory In setting where a high incidence of lower level questions is appropriate, greater frequency of questions is positively related to student achievement. When predominantly lower level questions are used , their level of difficulty should be such that most will elicit correct responses. In most classes above the primary grades, a combination of higher and lower cognitive questions is superior to exclusive use of one or the other.

Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are asked fewer higher cognitive questions than students perceived as more capable learners. Increasing the use of higher cognitive questions (to considerably above the 20 percent incidence noted in most classes) produces superior learning gains For students above the primary grades and particularly for secondary students. Simply asking higher cognitive questions does not necessarily lead students to produce higher cognitive responses. Teaching students to draw inferences and giving them practice in doing so result in higher cognitive responses and greater learning gains. Increases in the use of higher cognitive questions in recitations does not reduce student performance on lower cognitive questions on tests.

For other students, increases in the use of higher cognitive questions (to 50 percent or more) are positively related to increases in: 1. On-task behaviour 2. Length of student responses 3. The number of relevant contributions volunteered by students 4. The numbers of student-to-student interactions 5. Student use of complete sentences 6. Speculative thinking on the part of students 7. Relevant questions posed by students

For other students, increases in the use of higher cognitive questions (to 50 percent or more) are positively related to increased teacher expectations about childrens abilities-particularly the abilities of those students whom teachers have habitually regarded as slow or poor learners.

Researches on questioning strategies speak of two kinds of wait-time: wait-time 1 refers to the amount of time the teacher allows to elapse after he/she has posed a question and before a student begins to speak; and wait-time 2 refers to the amount of time a teacher waits after a student has stopped speaking before saying anything. The research has focused more on wait-time 1 than wait-time 2, but the following findings apply to both.
Because research has established a positive relationship between the amount of instructional content covered and student achievement, researches and other educators have recommended that teachers keep up brisk instructional pacing. In this way, the reasoning goes, classes will cover more material, student interest will be maintained, and achievement levels will be higher. As with the research on the cognitive level of teachers questions, this wisdom turns out to have limited application. Findings include.

The average wait-time teachers allow after posing a questions is one second or less. Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are given less wait-time than those teachers view as more capable. For lower cognitive questions, a wait-time of three seconds is most positively related to achievement, with less success resulting from shorter or longer wait-times. These seems to be no wait-time threshold for higher cognitive questions; students seem to become more and more engaged and perform better and better the longer the teacher is willing to wait.

Increasing wait-time beyond three seconds is positively related to the following student outcomes: 1. Improvements in the student achievement 2. Improvement in student retention, as measured by delayed tests 3. Increases in the number of higher cognitive responses generated by students 4. Increases in the length of student responses 5. Increases in the number of unsolicited responses 6. Decreases in students failure to respond

(7) Increases in the amount and quality of evidence students offer to

support their inferences


(8) Increases in contributions by students who do not participate much

when wait-time is under three seconds


(9) Expansion of the variety of responses offered by students (10) Decreases in student interruptions

(11) Increases in student-student interactions


(12) Increases in the number of questions posed by students

Redirection

and probing (often researched together) are positively related to achievement when they are explicitly focused, e.g., on the clarity, accuracy, plausibility, etc. of student responses. Redirection and probing are unrelated to achievement when they are vague or critical, e.g., Thats not right; try again; Where did you get an idea like that? Im sure Suzanne has through more carefully and can help us. Acknowledging correct responses as such is positively related to achievement. Praise is positively related to achievement when it is used sparingly, is directly related to the students response, and is sincere and credible.

The cognitive level of questions posed is unrelated to students attitudes toward the subject matter. *Those students who prefer lower cognitive questions perform better in recitations and on tests where lower cognitive questions are posed. *Those students who prefer higher cognitive questions perform equally well with higher or lower cognitive questions in recitations and on tests.

What

happens when teachers participate In training designed to help them improve their questioning skills? Research indicates that : * Training teachers in asking higher cognitive questions is positively related to the achievement of students above the primary grades. * Training teachers in increased wait-time is positively related to student achievement. * Training teacher to vary their questioning behaviors and to use approaches other than questioning during classroom discussions (e.g.,silence, making statements) are positively related to student achievement.

Incorporate questioning into classroom teaching/learning practices. Ask questions which focus on the salient elements in the lesson; avoid questioning students about extraneous matters. When teaching students factual material, keep up a brisk instructional pace, frequently posing lower cognitive questions. With older ang higher ability students, ask questions before (as well as after) material is read and studied. Question younger and lower ability students only after material has been read and studied. Ask a majority of lower cognitive questions when instructing younger ang lower ability students. Structure these questions so that most of them will elicit corret responses.

Ask a majority of higher cognitive questions when instructing older and higher ability students. In settings where higher cognitive questions are appropriate, teach students strategies for drawing inferences. Keep wait-time to about three seconds when conducting recitations involving a majority of lower cognitive questions. Increase wait-time beyond three seconds when asking higher cognitive questions. Be particularly careful to allow generous amounts of waittime to students perceived as lower ability. Use redirections and probing as part of classroom questioning and keep these focused on salient elements of students responses. Avoid vague or critical responses to student answers during recitations. During recitations, use praise sparingly and make certain it is sincere, credible, and directly connected to students responses.

Detailed instructions for teaching students to draw inferences is outside the scope of this paper. However, the model offered by Pearson (1985) does provide some basic steps which can help students make connections between what they know and what they are seeking to learn. Pearson suggests that teachers complete all the steps in this process by way of demonstration, then gradually shift responsibility for all but the first step to the students. 1. Ask the inference question. 2. Answer it. 3. Find clues in the text to support the inference. 4. Tell how to get from the clues to the answer (i.e., give a line of reasoning).

Generating Good Discussions

Is discussion the right pedagogy? What makes discussions effective? Setting rules of engagement How to grade discussions Designing a discussion

Fits your learning outcomes Goals of the pedagogy fit Instructor owns a board range of skills ( people management ) Instructor comfort with unpredictability Physical space/online skills

Cognitive goals : - Exploring and brainstorming - Defending a position - Considering multiple perspective - Evaluating evidence - Problem-solving Social/ emotional goals : - Democratic and collaboration skills - Crossing cultural boundaries

Reaches all three levels of interactionstudent-content, student-instructor, studentstudent Higher level of reflective thinking and creative problem solving Higher retention Students often prefer active engagement with content

Addressing views diverdent from your own Challenging factual errors Drawing in students Managing emotions Dealing with disruptive, belliegerent, or domineering students

Question has only one correct answer and one right way to get there Convey or clarify information Insufficient time, space, technological skills Path exists that you dont want to take Disruptive students are problem No time to design

WHAT

MAKES DISCUSSIONS EFFECTIVE?

Students

do not know enough about the subject Students do not know the purpose of the discussion (e.g., learn from one another vs. demonstrate their knowledge) Students do not know how they are expected to interact (e.g.,answer a question, ask questions, build on others comments, challenge other, etc) Inequitable participation (student who talks too much, or not at all; only 4 out of 50 students talk) Students are inhibited; e.g. fear of being evaluated, fear of looking foolish, not able to keep up with the discussion, fear of conflict, uneasy talking about topic with strangers, etc.

Set ground rules to govern interactions Clarify your expectations Establish the purpose Prepare the groundwork Group students to fit goals Ask discussable questions Give student time to think Involve students equitably

Part of the grondwork Identify the necessary skills - Reading in a discipline - Evaluation - Collaboration Consider using a student self-evaluation (see handout)

SETTING DISCUSSION GROUND RULES

Your actions seem less arbitrary Can deal with disruptive students Helps class stay on task Teach students democratic and collaboration skills (self-policing, consensusbuilding, civility) Safety (not the same as comfort)

GRADING

DISCUSSIONS

Not an attendance grade Do you need to grade everything? Be clear about what you are grading - What constitutes class participation? - Why are you grading on class participation? Individual or whole-group, or both? - Tie this decision to your goals - Include a divorce clause for long-term groups Consider grading product, not discussion

DESINGING A DISCUSSION

Identify the learning outcomes Identify your pedagogical goals What set students up to discuss? -Out of class -In class Draft your questions :

Analyze a specific problem Start with controversy Show video clip, slide, current event, etc.for focus Assign sides/role-play Collectively create a chart or resource Compare and contrast Give new ideas and examples Explain opinions backed by research Share research findings and reactions Give questions ahead of time Break a large issue into smaller parts

Guess what Im thinking (you have a spesific answer in mind; results in guessing) Yes/No and Leading questions (one response, at best) Info retrieval (look up the answer; one response at best) Rhetorical (own your beliefs; if you believe based on evidence, back your argument)

Beyond factual recall Open-ended Use question prompts Types of questions Factual, Convergent, Divergent, Evaluative, and Combination

Learn student names 10-second rule (wait time) Seat students facing one another Avoid jargon Be able to say I dont know Promote students helping students Deal with over-talkers Summarize, summarize, summarize