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Module 1: Fundamentals of Power System Protection Lecture 1: Introduction


Overview of Electrical Energy Systems

An electrical energy system consists of various equipments connected together. Typically, power is generated at lower voltages (a few kV) (3-phase ac voltage source), which is stepped up by a transformer and fed into a transmission grid. Thermal power should be generated at pitheads and hydropower at reservoirs. A transmission grid is a meshed network of high voltage lines and transformers. It can have multiple voltage levels like 400 kV, 220 kV, etc. The power is delivered to load centers, which may be far off (even thousands of km's apart). Fig 1.1 shows the western region grid of India. It can be seen that large amount of generation is concentrated in the eastern end while large load centers are concentrated in the western end. The power is transferred through the ac network and HVDC lines. At load centers, voltage levels are stepped down by step down transformers in multiple stages and finally power is delivered to the end user by a distribution system, which is mostly radial (no loops) in nature.

A unique feature of electrical energy systems is its natural mode of synchronous operation. It implies that during steady state the electrical frequency is same all through the system irrespective of the geographical location. This closely knits the system together. We can perceive all generators acting in tandem like the ballet dancers in a dance They may occupy different angular positions, but all machines rotate at the same electrical speed. This close knitting implies an embedded interaction of generators through the transmission network which is governed by the differential and algebraic equations of the apparatus and interconnects. This aspect is referred to as the system behavior. This system has to be protected from abnormalities, which is the task of protection system. 1.2 Why do we need Protection? Electrical power system operates at various voltage levels from 415 V to 400 kV or even more. Electrical apparatus used may be enclosed (e.g., motors) or placed in open (e.g., transmission lines). All such equipment undergoes abnormalities in their lifetime due to various reasons. For example, a worn out bearing may cause overloading of a motor. A tree falling or touching an overhead line may cause a fault. A lightning strike (classified as an act of God!) can cause insulation failure. Pollution may result in degradation in

performance of insulators, which may lead to breakdown. Under frequency or over frequency of a generator may result in mechanical damage to it's turbine requiring tripping of an alternator. Even otherwise, low frequency operation will reduce the life of a turbine and hence it should be avoided. It is necessary to avoid these abnormal operating regions for safety of the equipment. Even more important is safety of the human personnel, which may be endangered due to exposure to live parts under fault or abnormal operating conditions. Small current of the order of 50 mA is sufficient to be fatal! Whenever human security is sacrificed or there exists possibility of equipment damage, it is necessary to isolate and de-energize the equipment. Designing electrical equipment from safety perspective is also a crucial design issue, which will not be addressed here. To conclude, every electrical equipment has to be monitored to protect it and provide human safety under abnormal operating conditions. This job is assigned to electrical protection systems. It encompasses apparatus protection and system protection. 1.3 Types of Protection Protection systems can be classified into apparatus protection and system protection 1.3.1 Apparatus Protection Apparatus protection deals with detection of a fault in the apparatus and consequent protection. Apparatus protection can be further classified into following: a) Transmission Line Protection and feeder protection b) Transformer Protection c) Generator Protection d) Motor Protection e) Busbar Protection 1.3.2 System Protection System protection deals with detection of proximity of system to unstable operating region and consequent control actions to restore stable operating point and/or prevent damage to equipments. Loss of system stability can lead to partial or complete system blackouts. Under-frequency relays, out-of-step protection, islanding systems, rate of change of frequency relays, reverse power flow relays, voltage surge relays etc are used for system protection. Wide Area Measurement (WAM) systems are also being deployed for system protection. Control actions associated with system protection may be classified into preventive or emergency control actions. Analogy with Functioning of a Human being

A human being is a complex system that performs through various apparatus like legs, hands, eyes, ears, heart, bones, blood vessels etc. The heart is analogous to an electrical generator and stomach to the boiler. The eating process provides raw material to generate calories. The power generated is pumped by heart through a complex network of blood vessels. The primary transmission is through arteries and veins. Furthermore, distribution is through fine capillaries. The system operator is the brain, which works on inputs of eyes, ears, skin etc. Diagnosing abnormality in any of these organs and taking remedial measures can be thought of as job of "apparatus protection". However, does this cover the complete gambit of anomalies? Are fever, infection etc, a specific apparatus problem? Why does it cause overall deterioration in functioning of the human being? The answer lies in the fact that the system, which encompasses body, has also abstraction like the mind. Overall health is not just an aggregation of apparatus. It is something much more complex. It involves complex process and associated dynamics (biological, chemical, mechanical etc.) and control. Thus, protecting a system is not just apparatus protection but something much more. Since we cannot define this "much more" clearly, it is complex and challenging. Monitoring of system behavior, taking corrective measures to maintain synchronous operation and protecting the power system apparatus from harmful operating states is referred as system protection.


What is a Relay? Formally, a relay is a logical element which processes the inputs (mostly voltages and currents) from the system/apparatus and issues a trip decision if a fault within the relay's jurisdiction is detected. A conceptual diagram of relay is shown in fig 1.2.

In fig 1.3, a relay R1 is used to protect the transmission line under fault F 1. An identical system is connected at the other end of the transmission line relay R3 to open circuit from the other ends as well. To monitor the health of the apparatus, relay senses current through a current transformer (CT), voltage through a voltage transformer (VT). VT is also known as Potential Transformer (PT). The relay element analyzes these inputs and decides whether (a) there is a abnormality or a fault and (b) if yes, whether it is within jurisdiction of the relay. The jurisdiction of relay R1 is restricted to bus B where the transmission line terminates. If the fault is in it's jurisdiction, relay sends a tripping signal to circuit breaker (CB) which opens the circuit. A real life analogy of the jurisdiction of the relay can be thought by considering transmission lines as highways on which traffic (current/power) flows.

If there is an obstruction to the regular flow due to fault F 1 or F2, the traffic police (relay R1) can sense both F1 and F2 obstructions because of resulting abnormality in traffic (power flow). If the obstruction is on road AB, it is in the jurisdiction of traffic police at R1; else if it is at F 2, it is in the jurisdiction of R2. R1 should act for fault F2, if and only if, R2 fails to act. We say that relay R1 backs up relay R2. Standard way to obtain backup action is to use time discrimination i.e., delay operation of relay R 1 in case of doubt to provide R2 first chance to clear the fault.

1.5 Evolution of Relays If we zoom into a relay, we see three different types of realizations: a) Electromechanical Relays b) Solid State Relays c) Numerical Relays 1.5.1 Electromechanical Relays When the principle of electromechanical energy conversion is used for decision making, the relay is referred as an electromechanical relay. These relays represent the first generation of relays. Let us consider a simple example of an over current relay, which issues a trip signal if current in the apparatus is above a reference value. By proper geometrical placement of current carrying conductor in the magnetic field, Lorentz force F=Bilsin is produced in the operating coil. This force is used to create the operating torque. If constant 'B' is used (for example by a permanent magnet), then the instantaneous torque produced is proportional to instantaneous value of the current. Since the instantaneous current is sinusoidal, the instantaneous torque is also sinusoidal which has a zero average value. Thus, no net deflection of operating coil is perceived. On the other hand, if the B is also made proportional to the instantaneous value of the current, then the instantaneous torque will be proportional to square of the instantaneous current (non-negative quantity). The average torque will be proportional to square of the RMS current. Movement of the relay contact caused by the operating torque may be restrained by a spring in the over current relay. If the spring has a spring constant 'k', then the deflection is proportional to the operating torque (in this case proportional to I 2rms). When the deflection exceeds a preset value, the relay contacts closes and a trip decision is issued. Electromechanical relays are known for their ruggedness and immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).

1.5.2 Solid State Relays With the advent of transistors, operational amplifiers etc, solid state relays were developed. They realize the functionality through various operations like comparators etc. They provide more flexibility and have less power consumption than their electromechanical counterpart. A major advantage with the solid state relays is their ability to provide self checking facility i.e. the relays can monitor their own health and raise a flag or alarm if its own component fails. Some of the advantages of solid state relays are low burden, improved dynamic performance characteristics, high seismic withstand capacity and reduced panel space. Relay burden refers to the amount of volt amperes (VA) consumed by the relay. Higher is this value, more is the corresponding loading on the current and voltage sensors i.e. current transformers (CT) and voltage transformers (VT) which energizes these relays. Higher loading of the sensors lead to deterioration in their performance. A performance of CT or VT is gauged by the quality of the replication of the corresponding primary waveform signal. Higher burden leads to problem of CT saturation and inaccuracies in measurements. Thus it is desirable to keep CT/VT burdens as low as possible. These relays have been now superseded by the microprocessor based relays or numerical relays. 1.5.3 Numerical Relays The block diagram of a numerical relay is shown in fig 1.5. It involves analog to digital (A/D) conversion of analog voltage and currents obtained from secondary of CTs and VTs. These current and voltage samples are fed to the microprocessor or Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) where the protection algorithms or programs process the signals and decide whether a fault exists in the apparatus under consideration or not. In case, a fault is diagnosed, a trip decision is issued. Numerical relays provide maximum flexibility in defining relaying logic

The hardware comprising of numerical relay can be made scalable i.e., the maximum number of v and i input signals can be scaled up easily. A generic hardware board can be developed to provide multiple functionality. Changing the relaying functionality is achieved by simply changing the relaying program or software. Also, various relaying functionalities can be multiplexed in a single relay. It has all the advantages of solid state relays like self checking etc. Enabled with communication facility, it can be treated as an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) which can perform both control and protection functionality. Also, a relay which can communicate can be made adaptive i.e. it can adjust to changing apparatus or system conditions. For example, a differential protection scheme can adapt to transformer tap changes. A over current relay can adapt to different loading conditions. Numerical relays are both "the present and the future". Hence, in this course, our presentation is biased towards numerical relaying. This also gives an algorithmic flavor to the course.

1.6 What is a Circuit Breaker? A Circuit Breaker (CB) is basically a switch used to interrupt the flow of current. It opens on relay command. The relay command initiates mechanical separation of the contacts. It is a complex element because it has to handle large voltages (few to hundreds of kV's) and currents (in kA's). Interrupting capacity of the circuit breaker is therefore expressed in MVA. Power systems under fault behave more like inductive circuits. X/R ratio of lines is usually much greater than unity. For 400 kV lines, it can be higher than 10 and it increases with voltage rating. From the fundamentals of circuit analysis, we know that current in an inductive circuit (with finite resistance) cannot change instantaneously. The abrupt change in current, if it happens due to switch opening, will result in infinite di/dt and hence will induce infinite voltage. Even with finite di/dt, the induced voltages will be quite high. The high induced voltage developed across the CB will ionize the dielectric between its terminals. This results in arcing. When the current in CB goes through the natural zero, the arc can be extinguished (quenched). However, if the interrupting medium has not regained its dielectric properties then the arc can be restruck. The arcing currents reduce with passage of time and after a few cycles the current is finally interrupted. Usually CB opening time lies in the 2-6 cycles range. CBs are categorized by the interrupting medium used. Minimum oil, air blast, vacuum arc and SF6 CBs are some of the common examples. CB opening mechanism requires
much larger power input than what logical element relay can provide. Hence, when relay issues a trip command, it closes a switch that energizes the CB opening mechanism powered by a separate dc source (station battery). The arc struck in a CB produces large amount of heat which also has to be dissipated.

Lecture 2: Protection Paradigms - Apparatus Protection


Overcurrent Protection This scheme is based on the intuition that, faults typically short circuits, lead to currents much above the load current. We can call them as overcurrents. Over current relaying and fuse protection uses the principle that when the current exceeds a predetermined value, it indicates presence of a fault (short circuit). This protection scheme finds usage in radial distribution systems with a single source. It is quite simple to implement Fig 2.1 shows a radial distribution system with a single source. The fault current is fed from only one end of the feeder. For this system it can be observed that:

a) To relay R1, both downstream faults F1 and F2 are visible i.e. IF1 as well as IF2 pass through CT of R1. b) To relay R2, fault F1, an upstream fault is not seen, only F 2 is seen. This is because no component of I F1 passes through CT of R2. Thus, selectivity is achieved naturally. Relaying decision is based solely on the magnitude of fault current. Such a protection scheme is said to be non-directional.

Directional Over current Protection

In contrast, there can be situations where for the purpose of selectivity, phase angle information (always relative to a reference phasor) may be required. Fig 2.2 shows such a case for a radial system with source at both ends. Consequently, fault is fed from both the ends of the feeder. To interrupt the fault current, relays at both ends of the feeder are required. In this case, from the magnitude of the current seen by the relay R 2, it is not possible to distinguish whether the fault is in the section AB or BC. Since faults in section AB are not in its jurisdiction, it should not trip. To obtain selectivity, a directional over current relay is required. It uses both magnitude of current and phase angle information for decision making. It is commonly used in sub-transmission networks where ring mains are used.

Distance Protection

Consider a simple radial system, which is fed from a single source. Let us measure the apparent impedance (V/I) at the sending end. For the unloaded system, I = 0, and the apparent impedance seen by the relay is infinite. As the system is loaded, the apparent impedance reduces to some finite value (ZL+Zline) where ZL is the load impedance and Zline is the line impedance. In presence of a fault at a per-unit distance m', the impedance seen by the relay drops to a mZline as shown in fig 2.3. The basic principle of distance relay is that the apparent impedance seen by the relay, which is defined as the ratio of phase voltage to line current of a transmission line (Z app), reduces drastically in the presence of a line fault. A distance relay compares this ratio with the positive sequence impedance (Z1) of the transmission line. If the fraction Z app/Z1 is less than unity, it indicates a fault. This ratio also indicates the

distance of the fault from the relay. Because, impedance is a complex number, the distance protection is inherently directional. The first quadrant is the forward direction i.e. impedance of the transmission line to be protected lies in this quadrant. However, if only magnitude information is used, non-directional impedance relay results. Fig 2.4 and 2.5 shows a characteristic of an impedance relay and mho relay' both belonging to this class. The impedance relay trips if the magnitude of the impedance is within the circular region. Since, the circle spans all the quadrants, it leads to non-directional protection scheme. In contrast, the mho relay which covers primarily the first quadrant is directional in nature.

Thus, the trip law for the impedance relay can be written as follows: |VR| |Zapp|= < |Zset|, then trip; else restrain. |IR| While impedance relay has only one design parameter, Zset; 'mho relay' has two design parameters Zn, . The trip law for mho relay is given by if |Zapp|< |Zn|cos( - ), then trip; else restrain.

As shown in the fig 2.5 '' is the angle of transmission line. Based upon legacy of electromechanical relays '' is also called 'torque angle' 2.3.1 Example 1. (a) Find out the value of Zn for a mho relay with torque angle 0 75 which has to give 100% protection to a 50 km long110kV transmission line with impedance 0.8 per km and angle 800. Ans: The two design parameters of a mho relay are Zn and . Here the torque angle, of the relay has been selected as 75 0. The transmission line impedance ZLine as on primary

where, Rc, CT ratio = 200 Rv, VT ratio = 1000 200 ZLine (Secondary) = 40 x = 8 1000 |ZLine|= Zn cos( - ) where = angle of transmission line ZLine 8 Zn = = = 8.03, this value is to be set on Cos ( - ) Cos (80 -75) the mho relay. 2. (b) If the maximum load on this line is 1000A at 30 0 lagging, is there any possibility of relay tripping on load? CT ratio is1000: 5 Ans: Maximum Load current Iload = 1000A Vline = 110 x 103 Vs Vline 110 x 103 Zload = = = 63.5 3 x Iload 3 x 1000 Rc 200 Zload Secondary = 63.5 x = 63.5 x = 12.7 Rv 1000

Since this value will not fall within the operating circle, the mho relay will not trip for this load.

Principle of Differential Protection Differential protection is based on the fact that any fault within electrical equipment would cause the current entering it, to be different, from the current leaving it. Thus by comparing the two currents either in magnitude or in phase or both we can determine a fault and issue a trip decision if the difference exceeds a predetermined set value. 2.4.1 Differential Protection for Transmission Line Fig 2.6 shows a short transmission line in which shunt charging can be neglected. Then under no fault condition, phasor sum of currents entering the device is zero i.e. Thus, we can say that differential current under no fault condition is zero. However in case of fault in the line segment AB, we get i.e. differential current in presence of fault is non-zero.

This principle of checking the differential current is known as a differential protection scheme. In case of transmission line, implementation of differential protection requires a communication channel to transmit current values to the other end. It can be used for short feeders and a specific implementation is known as pilot wire protection. Differential protection tends to be extremely accurate. Its zone is clearly demarcated by the CTs, which provide the boundary. Differential Protection for Transmission Line Differential protection can be used for tapped lines (multiterminal lines) where boundary conditions are defined as follows: Under no fault condition: Faulted condition:

Differential protection for detecting faults is an attractive option when both ends of the apparatus are physically located near each other. e.g. on a transformer, a generator or a bus bar.

2.4.2 Differential Protection for Transformer Consider an ideal transformer with the CT connections, as shown in fig 2.8. To illustrate the principle let us consider that current rating of primary winding is 100A and secondary winding is 1000A. Then if we use 100:5 and 1000:5 CT on the primary and secondary winding, then under normal (no fault) operating conditions the scaled CT currents will match in magnitudes. By connections the primary and secondary CTs with due care to the dots (polarity markings), a circulating current can be set up as shown by dotted line.

No current will flow through the branch having over current relay because it will result in violation of KCL. Now if an internal fault occurs within the device like interturn short etc., then the normal mmf balance is upset i.e. N 1I1 N2I2. Under this condition, the CT secondary currents of primary and secondary side CTs will not match. The resulting differential current will flow through over current relay. If the pick up setting of over current relay is close to zero, it will immediately pick up and initiate the trip decision. In practice, the transformer is not ideal. Consequently, even if I 2 = 0, I1 0, it is the magnetization current or (no load) current. Thus, a differential current always flows through the over current relay. Therefore over current relay pick up is adjusted above the no load

current value. Consequently, minute faults below no load current value cannot be detected. This compromises sensitivity.

2.4.3 Differential Protection for Busbar

Ideally, differential protection is the solution for the bus-bar protection

Figure 2.8 illustrates the basic idea. If the fault is external to the bus, it can be seen that algebraic sum of the currents entering the bus is zero. IA + IB + IC + ID + IE = 0 On the other hand, if fault is on the bus (internal fault), this sum is not zero. IA + IB + IC + ID + IE = IF Thus, differential protection can be used to protect a bus.

Lecture 3: Protection Paradigms - System Protection 3.1 Overview of Power System Dynamics Usually, system protection requires study of the system dynamics and control. To understand issues in system protection, lets overview dynamical nature of the power system. Power system behavior can be described in terms of differential and algebraic system of equations. Differential equations can be written to describe behavior of generators, transmission lines, motors, transformers etc. The detailing depends upon the time scale of investigation

Figure 3.1 shows the various time scales involved in modeling system dynamics. The dynamics involved in switching, lightening, load rejection etc have a high frequency component, which dies down quickly. In analysis of such dynamics, differential equations associated with inductances and capacitances of transmission lines have to be modeled. Such analysis is restricted to a few cycles. It is done by Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). At a larger time scale (order of seconds), response of the electromechanical elements is perceived. These transients are typically excited by faults, which disturb the system equilibrium by upsetting the generator-load balance in the system. As a consequence of fault, electrical power output reduces instantaneously while the mechanical input does not change instantaneously. The resulting imbalance in power (and torque) excites the electromechanical transients, which are essentially slow because of the inertia of the mechanical elements (rotor etc).

Detection and removal of fault is the task of the protection system (apparatus protection). Post-fault, the system may or may not return to an equilibrium position. Transient stability studies are required to determine the post fault system stability. In practice, out-of-step relaying, under frequency load shedding, islanding etc are the measures used to enhance system stability and prevent blackouts. The distinction between system protection and control (e.g. damping of power swings) is a finer one. In the today's world of Integrated Control and Protection Systems (ICPS), this distinction does not make much sense. In this lecture, we discuss these issues from distribution system perspective. In the next lecture, a transmission system perspective will be discussed. 3.2 System Protection Relays Consider a medium voltage distribution system having local generation (e.g., captive power generation) as shown in fig 3.2 which is also synchronized with the grid. During grid disturbance, if plant generators are not successfully isolated from the grid, they also sink with the grid, resulting in significant loss in production and damage to process equipments. The following relays are used to detect such disturbances, its severity and isolate the inplant system from the grid.

Under frequency and over frequency relays Rate of change of frequency relays. Under voltage relays. Reverse power flow relays.

Vector shift relays.

3.2.1 Underfrequency Relay and Rate of Change of Frequency Relay In case of a grid failure (fig. 3.3), captive generators tend to supply power to other consumers connected to the substation. The loadgeneration imbalance leads to fall in frequency. The under f frequency relay R detects this drop and isolates local generation from the grid by tripping breaker at the point of common coupling. After disconnection from the grid, it has to be ascertained that there is load-generation balance in the islanded system. Because of the inertia of the machines, frequency drops gradually. To speed up the islanding decision, rate of change of frequency relays are used.

3.2.1 Under voltage Relay Whenever there is an uncleared fault on the grid close to the plant, the plant generators tend to feed the fault and the voltages at the supply point drops. This can be used as a signal for isolating from the grid.

3.2.1 Reverse Power Relay Distribution systems are radial in nature. This holds true for both utility and plant distribution systems. If there is a fault on the utility's distribution system, it may trip a breaker thereby isolating plant from the grid. This plant may still remain connected with downstream loads as shown in fig 3.4 and 3.5. Consequently, power will flow from the plant generator to these loads.

If in the prefault state, power was being fed to the plant, then this reversal of power flow can be used to island the plant generation and load from the remaining system. This approach is useful to detect loss of grid supply whenever the difference between load and available generation is not sufficient to obtain an appreciable rate of change of frequency but the active power continues to flow into the grid to feed the external loads. Example In fig 3.4, consider that the plant imports at all times a minimum power of 5 MW. Studies indicate that for various faults in utility side, minimum power export from the plant generator is 0.5 MW. Deduce the setting of reverse power relay. If the plant generator is of 50 MW capacity, what is likelihood of under frequency or rate of change of frequency relay picking up on such faults?

Ans: Reverse power flow relay can be set to 0.4 MW. Since minimum reverse power flow is 1% of plant capacity, it is quite likely, that utility disconnection may not be noticed by under frequency or the rate of change of frequency relays. Vector shift relays and system protection schemes in transmission systems will be discussed in more details in later lectures. 3.3 Lightning Protection Many line outages result from lightning strokes that hit overhead transmission lines. Lightning discharges normally produce overvoltage surges which may last for a fraction of second and are extremely harmful. The line outages can be reduced to an acceptable level by protection schemes like installation of earth wires and earthing of the towers.

Lightning over voltages can be classified as follows: a) Induced over voltages which occur when lightning strokes reach the ground near the line. b) Over voltages due to shielding failures that occur when lightning strokes reach the phase conductors. c) Over voltages by back flashovers that occur when lightning stroke reaches the tower or the shield wire.

The most commonly used devices for protection against lightning surges are the following: Shielding by earth wires: Normally, transmission lines are equipped with earth wires to shield against lightning discharges. The earthwires are placed above the line conductor at such a position that the lightning strokes are intercepted by them. In addition to this, earthing of tower is also essential. Lightning Arrestors: An alternative to the use of earthwire for protection of conductors against direct lightning strokes is to use lightning arrestors in parallel to insulator strings. Use of lightning arrestors is more economical also. ZnO varistor is commonly used as lightning arrestor because of its peculiar resistance characteristic. Its resistance varies with applied voltage, i.e, its resistance is a nonlinear inverse function of applied voltage. At normal voltage its resistance is high. But when high voltage surges like lightning strokes appear across the varistor, its resistance decreases drastically to a very low value and the energy is dissipated in it, giving protection against lightning

Lecture 4: Desirable Attributes of Protection A protection system is characterized by following two important parameters: 4.1 Dependability A relay is said to be dependable if it trips only when it is expected to trip. This happens either when the fault is in it's primary jurisdiction or when it is called upon to provide the back-up protection. However, false tripping of relays or tripping for faults that is either not within it's jurisdiction, or within it's purview, compromises system operation. Power system may get unnecessarily stressed or else there can be loss of service. Dependability is the degree of certainty that the relay will operate correctly: Dependability Security

Dependability can be improved by increasing the sensitivity of the relaying system. 4.1.1 Sensitivity For simplicity, consider the case of overcurrent protection. The protective system must have ability to detect the smallest possible fault current. The smaller the current that it can detect, the more sensitive it is. One way to improve sensitivity is to determine characteristic signature of a fault. It is unique to the fault type and it does not occur in the normal operation. For example, earth faults involve zero sequence current. This provides a very sensitive method to detect earth faults. Once this signature is seen, abnormality is rightly classified and hence appropriate action is initialized. 4.2 Security On the other hand, security is a property used to characterize false tripping on the relays. A relay is said to be secure if it does not trip when it is not expected to trip. It is the degree of certainty that the relay will not operate incorrectly:

False trips do not just create nuisance. They can even compromise

system security. For example, tripping of a tie-line in a two area system can result in load-generation imbalance in each area which can be dangerous. Even when multiple paths for power flow are available, under peak load conditions, overloads or congestion in the system may result. Dependability and security are contrasting requirements. Typically, a relay engineer biases his setting towards dependability. This may cause some nuisance tripping, which can in the worst case, trigger partial or complete blackout! Security of the relaying system can be improved by improving selectivity of the relaying system. 4.2.1 Selectivity Like sensitivity, selectivity also implies an ability to discriminate. A relay should not confuse some peculiarities of an apparatus with a fault. For example, transformer when energized can draw up to 20 times rated current (inrush current) which can confuse, both overcurrent and transformer differential protection. Typically, inrush currents are characterized by large second harmonic content.

This discriminant is used to inhibit relay operation during inrush, there by, improving selectivity in transformer protection. Also, a relay should be smart enough, not just to identify a fault but also be able to decide whether fault is in it's jurisdiction or not. For example, a relay for a feeder should be able to discriminate a fault on it's own feeder from faults on adjacent feeders. This implies that it should detect first existence of fault in it's vicinity in the system and then take a decision whether it is in it's jurisdiction. Recall that directional overcurrent relay was introduced to improve selectivity of overcurrent relay.

This jurisdiction of a relay is also called as zone of protection. Typically, protection zones are classified into primary and backup zones. In detecting a fault and isolating the faulty element, the protective system must be very selective. Ideally, the protective system should zero-in on the faulty element and only isolate it, thus causing a minimum disruption to the system. Selectivity is usually provided by (1) using time discrimination and (2) applying differential protection principle. With overcurrent and distance relays, such boundaries are not properly demarcated (see fig 4.1). This is a very important consideration in operation of power systems.

However with a differential protection the CT location provides 'crisp' demarcation of zone of protection of CT (see fig 4.2). The fault F1 is in the relay's zone of protection, but fault F 2 is not in its jurisdiction. Because differential protection scheme do not require time discrimination to improve selectivity, they are essentially fast. These aspects will be discussed in more detail in the later lectures. 4.3 Reliability A relaying system has to be reliable. Reliability can be achieved by redundancy i.e. duplicating the relaying system. Obviously redundancy can be a costly proposition. Another way to improve reliability is to ask an existing relay say, protecting an apparatus A to backup protection of apparatus B. Both the approaches are used (simultaneously) in practice. However, it is important to realize that back-up protection must be provided for safe operation of relaying system. Redundancy in protection also depends upon the criticality of the power apparatus. For example, a 400 kV transmission line will have independent (duplicated) protection using same or a different philosophy; on the other hand, a distribution system will not have such local back-up. A quantitative measure for reliability is defined as follows:

4.3.1 Example The performance of an overcurrent relay was monitored over a period of one year. It was found that the relay operated 14 times, out of which 12 were correct trips. If the relay failed to issue trip decision on 3 occasions, compute dependability, security and reliability of the relay. Number of correct trips = 12 Number of desired trips = 12 + 3 = 15

Note that even though dependability and security are individually above 80%, overall reliability much poor (only 70.55%).

Note that number of desired trips can be greater than or equal to number of correct trips. A desired trip may not happen for various reasons like, the fault level being below the relaying sensitivity, stuck circuit breaker, incorrect setting of relays poor maintenance of circuit breaker etc. Zone of Protection A relay's zone of protection is a region defined by relay's jurisdiction (see fig 4.3). It is shown by demarcating the boundary. This demarcation for differential protection is quite crisp and is

defined by CT's location. On the other hand, such boundaries for overcurrent and distance relays are not very crisp. It is essential that primary zones of protection should always overlap to ascertain that no position of the system ever remains unprotected. It can be seen in fig 4.3. This overlap also accounts for faults in the circuit breakers. To provide this overlap additional CTs are required. 4.4 Necessity of Speed in Relaying To maximize safety, and minimize equipment damage and system instability, a fault should be cleared as quickly as possible. This implies that relay should quickly arrive at a decision and circuit breaker operation should be fast enough. Typically, a fast circuit breaker would operate in about two cycles. A reasonable time estimate for ascertaining presence of fault is one cycle. This implies approximately three cycle fault clearing time for primary protection. On the other hand, if five cycle circuit breaker is used, fault clearing time increases to six cycles. So long as short circuit fault exist in a transmission system, the electrical output of generator remains below the mechanical input. If a bolted three phase fault occurs close to generator terminal (fig 4.4), P e = 0. Thus, as per equation (1) with input Pm; the generator accelerates.

--- (1) Fig 4.5 shows the pre and post fault characteristics for the single machine infinite bus system shown in fig 4.4. Initial operating point A is on the pre fault characteristic. Occurrence of fault reduces P e to 0. The power generation imbalance accelerates generator and hence its (power angle) increases. At point C the fault is cleared by tripping the faulted line and the system moves to post fault characteristics. The power output jumps to point D. Now P e > Pm and the machine decelerates

At point E, is equal to zero and the extreme point of swing is reached. As Pe > Pm, the deceleration continues and hence the rotor starts retarding. At point O, Pe = Pm the acceleration is zero, but machine speed is lower than nominal speed . Consequently, the angle continues to fall back. However, as reduces further, Pe also reduces, therefore Pm - Pe > 0 and the generator starts accelerating. This arrests the drop in at point F and the swing reverses, again a consequence of acceleration. In absence of damping, these oscillations will recur just like oscillation of a simple pendulum. However, because of damping provided by generator, the oscillations reduce in magnitude and finally system settles to equilibrium at point O.

It should be obvious that interval BC is dependent on fault clearing time of the protection system. The shaded area ABCC 1 is the acceleration area and area C1DEE1 the deceleration area. As per equal area criteria, the post fault system reaches stable equilibrium if accelerating area equals to the decelerating area. The limit point for deceleration is defined by point G the intersection point of P m0 and the post fault characteristic.

If the swing of generator exceeds beyond point G, the generator moves from deceleration to acceleration region. Then, its angle continues to rise indefinitely, and the machine is said to go out-of-step. If any machine goes out-of-step with rest of system it has to be islanded. Outof-step condition in a multi machine system can be simulated by transient stability program. Detection in real-time is a much more challenging task and it is dealt by out-of-step relaying' schemes. When a multi machine system is islanded in to different sub-systems, then for stable operation of each sub-system, it is necessary that each subsystem should have generation load balance. Fig 4.6, however it should be obvious by now that from the stability perspective, transmission system protection should be made as fast as possible. As the fault clearing time increases, the stability margin (area EE 1G) reduces. The fault clearing time at which the stability margin reduces to zero is called the critical clearing time. 4.4.1 Speed Vs. Accuracy Conflict Intuition tells us that quickness is an invitation to disaster. The possible consequences of quick tripping decisions are: Nuisance Tripping Tripping for faults outside the relay jurisdiction. Nuisance tripping is the tripping when there is no fault, e.g. an overcurrent relay tripping on load. It compromises faith in the relaying system due to unnecessary loss of service. On the other hand, tripping on faults that are outside the relay's jurisdiction also cause an unwarranted loss of service in the healthy parts of the system.

It has to be mentioned that speed and accuracy bear an inverse relationship. The high-speed systems tend to be less accurate for the simple reason that a high speed system has lesser amount of information available at it's disposal for making decision. Thus, the protection engineer has to strike a balance between these two incompatible requirements. Innovations in protection are essentially driven by such requirements. The ways to tackle this conflict will become clear as we proceed into future lectures.

Lecture 5: Introduction to CT 5.1 Introduction Practically all electrical measurements and relaying decisions are derived from current and voltage signals. Since relaying hardware works with smaller range of current (in amperes and not kA) and voltage (volts and not kV), real life signals (feeder or transmission line currents) and bus voltages have to be scaled to lower levels and then fed to the relays. This job is done by current and voltage transformers (CTs and VTs). CTs and VTs also electrically isolate the relaying system from the actual power apparatus. The electrical isolation from the primary voltage also provides safety of both human personnel and the equipment. Thus, 1) CT and VTs are the sensors for the relay. 2) CT and VT function like ears' and the eyes' of the protection system. They listen to and observe all happening in the external world. Relay itself is the brain which processes these signals and issues decision commands implemented by circuit breakers, alarms etc Clearly, quality of the relaying decision depends upon faithful' reproduction on the secondary side of the transformer. In this module, we will learn a lot more about these devices. In particular, we will answer the following questions: 1) How is a CT different from the normal transformer? 2) How to decide the CT specifications? 3) How to ascertain that CT is functioning as desired i.e., performance analysis? 5.2 Equivalent Circuit of CT To begin with, equivalent circuit of a CT is not much different from that of a regular transformer (fig 5.1). However, a fundamental difference is that while regular power transformers are excited by a voltage source, a current transformer has current source excitation. Primary winding of the CT is connected in series with the transmission line. The load on the secondary side is the relaying burden and the lead wire resistance.

Total load in ohms that is introduced by CT in series with the transmission line is insignificant and hence, the connection of the CT does not alter current in the feeder or the power apparatus at all. Hence from modeling perspectives it is reasonable to assume that CT primary is connected to a current source. Therefore, the CT equivalent circuit will look as shown in fig 5.2.

The remaining steps in modeling are as follows: As impedance in series with the current source can be neglected, we can neglect the primary winding resistance and leakage reactance in CT modeling. For the convenience in analysis, we can shift the magnetizing impedance from the primary side to the secondary side of the ideal transformer.

After application of the above steps, the CT equivalent circuit is as shown in the fig 5.3. Note that the secondary winding resistance and leakage reactance is not neglected as it will affect the performance of CT. The total impedance on the secondary side is the sum of relay burden, lead wire resistance and leakage impedance of secondary winding. Therefore, the voltage developed in the secondary winding depends upon these parameters directly.

The secondary voltage developed by the CT has to be monitored because as per the transformer emf equation, the flux level in the core depends upon it. The transformer emf equation is given by, E2 = 4.44 f N2 m Where m is the peak sinusoidal flux developed in the core. If Bm corresponding to this flux is above the knee point, it is more or less obvious that the CT will saturate. During saturation, CT secondary winding cannot replicate the primary current accurately and hence, the performance of the CT deteriorates. Thus, we conclude that in practice, while selecting a CT we should ascertain that it should not saturate on the sinusoidal currents that it would be subjected to. Use of numerical relays due to their very small burden vis-a-vis solid state and electromechanical relays, improves the CT performance. CT is to be operated always in closed condition. If the CT is open circuited, all the current Ip/N, would flow through Xm. This will lead to the development of dangerously high level of voltage in secondary winding which can even burn out the CT.

We can further, simplify the equivalent circuit of a CT by transferring the current source (through the ideal transformer) to the secondary side. Thus, the equivalent circuit of the CT is as shown in fig 5.4.

5.2.1 Equivalent circuit of saturated CT One of the major problems faced by the protection systems engineer is the saturation of CT on large ac currents and dc offset current present during the transient. When the CT is saturated, primary current source cannot be faithfully reflected to the secondary side. In other words, we can open circuit the current source in fig 5.4. Also, the magnetizing impedance falls down during saturation. Then the transformer behaves more like an air core device, with negligible coupling between the primary and secondary winding. The high reluctance due to the air path implies that the magnetizing impedance (inductance) falls down. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in fig 5.5.

One of the major problems faced by the protection systems engineer is the saturation of CT on large ac currents and dc offset current present during the transient. When the CT is saturated, primary current source cannot be faithfully reflected to the secondary side. In other words, we can open circuit the current source in fig 5.4. Also, the magnetizing impedance falls down during saturation. Then the transformer behaves more like an air core device, with negligible coupling between the primary and secondary winding. The high reluctance due to the air path implies that the magnetizing impedance (inductance) falls down. The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in fig 5.5.


Classification of CTs The CTs can be classified into following types: Measurement CTs Protection CTs A measurement grade CT has much lower VA capacity than a protection grade CT. A measurement CT has to be accurate over its complete range e.g. from 5% to 125% of normal current. In other words, its magnetizing impedance at low current levels. (and hence low flux levels) should be very high. Note that due to non-linear nature of B-H curve, magnetizing impedance is not constant but varies over the CT's operating range. It is not expected to give linear response (secondary current a scaled replica of the primary current) during large fault currents. In contrast, for a protection grade CT, linear response is expected up to 20 times the rated current. Its performance has to be accurate in the range of normal currents and upto fault currents. Specifically, for protection grade CT's magnetizing impedance should be maintained to a large value in the range of the currents of the order of fault currents.

When a CT is used for both the purposes, it has to be of required accuracy class to satisfy both accuracy conditions of measurement CTs and protection CTs. In other words, it has to be accurate for both very small and very large values of current. Typically, CT secondary rated current is standardized to 1A or 5A (more common). However, it would be unreasonable to assume that the linear response will be independent of the net burden on the CT secondary. For simplicity, we refer to the net impedance on the secondary side (neglecting magnetizing impedance) as the CT burden. It is quite obvious that the driving force ( E2) required to drive the primary current replica will increase as this burden increases. If this voltage exceeds the designer's set limits, then the CT core will saturate and hence linear response will be lost. Hence, when we say that a CT will give linear response up to 20 times the rated current, there is also an implicit constraint that the CT burden will be kept to a low value. In general, nameplate rating specifies a voltage limit on the secondary (e.g., 100 V) up to which linear response is expected. If the CT burden causes this voltage to be exceeded, CT saturation results. 5.3.1 ANSI / IEEE classification ANSI/IEEE standards classify CTs into two types: Class T CT Class C CT Class T CTs Typically, a class T CT is a wound type CT with one or more primary turns wound on a core. It is associated with high leakage flux in the core. Because of this, the only way to determine it's performance is by test. In other words, standardized performance curves cannot be used with this types of CTs. Figure 5.6 shows one such experimentally calibrated curve for a CT. The letter B' indicates the burden in ohms to which the CT is subjected. It is seen that when burden is less than say 0.1 ohms, CT meets the linear performance criterion. However, as the burden increases to 0.5 ohms, the corresponding linearity criteria is not met till the end. At 4 ohms burden, there is significant deviation from the linear response. A general rule of thumb is that, one should try to keep the CT burden as low as possible.

Ratio Error: CT performance is usually gauged from the ratio error. The ratio error is the percentage deviation in the current magnitude in the secondary from the desired value. In other words, if the current measured in the secondary is I s, true or actual value is Ip/N, where N is nominal ratio (e.g. N for a 100:5 CT is 20) and Ip is the primary current then ratio error is given by

When the CT is not saturated ratio error is a consequence of magnetizing current IE since IP ( ) - Is = IE N Therefore, IE % ratio error = ( ) X 100 IS When the CT is saturated, coupling between primary and secondary is reduced. Hence large ratio errors are expected in saturation. The current in the secondary is also phase shifted. For measurement grade CTs, there are strict performance requirements on phase angle errors also. Error in phase angle measurement affects power factor calculation and ultimately real and reactive power measurements. It is expected that the ratio error for protection grade CTs will be maintained within 10%.

5.3.2 Class C CT

Letter designation 'C' indicates that the leakeage flux is negligible. Class C CTs are the more accurate bar type CTs. In such CTs, the leakage flux from the core is kept very small. For such CTs, the performance can be evaluated from the standard exciting curves. Also, the ratio error is maintained within 10% for standard operating conditions. For such CTs, voltage rating on the secondary is specified up to which linear response is guaranteed. For example, a class C CT specification could be as follows: 200:5 C 100. The labeling scheme indicates that we are dealing with a 200:5 class C CT which will provide linear response up to 20 times rated current provided the burden on the secondary is kept below (100/ (5X20) = 1) ohm. Similarly, a corresponding class T CT may be labeled as 200:5 T 100. For class C CTs, standard chart for E2 versus excitation current (Ie) on the secondary side is available. This provides the protection engineer data to do more exact calculations (refer fig 5.7). e.g., in determining relaying sensitivity.

Lecture 6: CT Tutorial Example 1: A 1200/5, C400 CT with excitation curves shown on above fig 5.7, is connected to a 2.0 burden. Based on the accuracy classification, what is the maximum symmetrical fault current that may be applied to this CT without exceeding a 10% ratio error? Answer: CT ratio = 1200/5 Secondary resistance = 0.61 Relay burden = 2 For 20 times rated secondary current, i.e., 100A Secondary voltage = 100 x (2 + 0.61) = 261 Volts which is less than knee point of the CT. Since this voltage is less than 400V, from electrical perspective, linearity will not be lost at even higher currents. Approximate limit on secondary current is given by 400 Imax = = 153 A 2.61 Hence maximum symmetrical fault current = 1200 = x 153 = 36720 A 5 More exact calculation requires usage of fig 5.7. This would involve 'cut and try' approach. Example 2: A 1200/5, C400 CT is connected on the 1000/5 tap. What is the maximum secondary burden that can be used and we can maintain rated accuracy at 20 times rated symmetrical secondary current? Answer: The secondary voltage VS corresponding to the tap 1000/5, 1000 VS = x 400 = 333 V 1200 Secondary current IS = 20 X 5 = 100A VS = IS (RS + RB)

RS = 0.51 from calibration curve. VS = 333 = 100(0.51+RB) Secondary burden = 3.33 - 0.51 = 2.72 Example 3: Assume that secondary burden of a 300:5 class C CT is 5 . The relay setting is 2A and the CT ratio is 300/5. Using fig 5.7, calculate the primary current required to operate the relay? Answer: Secondary burden = 5 Secondary resistance for 300/5 CT = 0.15 Relay setting, IS = 2A Vs = 2 x (5 + 0.15) = 10.3V Corresponding exciting current = 0.04A Total secondary current = 2 + 0.04 = 2.04A Note that, strictly, phasor addition of currents has to be done. However, algebraic addition simplifies work and usually leads to conservative estimate of voltages. Hence, this practice is considered acceptable. 300 Primary current to operate the relay = X 2.04 = 122 A 5 Example 4: A relay is expected to operate for 7000A primary current. The class C CT ratio is 600/5 (see fig 5.7). Secondary burden is 3.5 . Will the CT saturate at this burden? Also, comment on the ratio error. Answer: 7000 Secondary current Is = x 5 = 58.33 A 600 Vs = 58.33 (3.5 + 0.31) = 222.25V

From the excitation curve (fig. 5.7) of 600/5 CT, we can see that the CT will be in deep saturation and % ratio error will exceed the limits.

Example 5: What will be the approximate % error if a 500:5 class C CT is connected to a secondary burden of 2.5 and the secondary current is 68A. Answer: For a 500/5 CT, secondary resistance Rs = 0.25 Secondary burden RB = 2.5 VS = Is (RB + RS) VS = 68 (2.5 + 0.25) = 187 V Corresponding exciting current IE = 6A (fig 5.7) (approximate) IE 6 % ratio error = x 100 = x 100 = 8.82% IS 68 Example 6: If a 300:5 class C CT (fig 6.1) is connected to a meter with resistance Rf = 1 and secondary current in the CT is 4.5A find out the primary current, voltage developed across the meter and % ratio error. Lead wire resistance RL = 0.02 secondary resistance Rs of a 300:5 CT = 0.15 Answer: , Total secondary resistance RT = Rf + RL + RS = 1.17 Secondary voltage = IS x RT = 4.5 x 1.17= 5.0265 V

From Fig 5.7, Exciting current IE for 5.265V = 0.03A (approximate) Turns ratio N = 300/5 = 60 IP = N(IS + IE) = 60(4.5 + 0.03) = 271.8 A Voltage across meter = IS x Rf = 4.5 x 1 = 4.5 v IE 0.03 Ratio error = x 100 = x 100 = 0.67%



Lecture 7: CT Saturation and DC Offset Current 7.1 Origin of DC Off-set Current Typically, fault current consists of symmetrical ac component and a dc offset current. To understand this issue, consider an unloaded transmission line excited by a voltage source. The fault strikes at time t = t0. This can be simulated by closing the switch at t = t0 in fig 7.1

If or models the line impedance, then the fault current in the line is given by the following expressions.

where is the time constant of the line = L line/R line. Fig 7.2 shows a typical wave form of fault current containing DC offset current. The fault current can be decomposed into two components. The first component models the steady state sinusoidal ac response while the second component is the dc offset current due to the presence of inductance in the circuit. Recall that current in an inductance can not change instantaneously. DC offset current is a consequence of maintaining initial condition . While the dc offset current in theory, would persist till infinity, its trace in the actual wave form would not be seen beyond a few time constants. Table - 1 illustrates the values of 10 time constants. up to

Table 1 Time t=0 1 t= 0.3678 t=2 0.1353 t=4 0.0183 t=6 0.0024 t=8 t = 10

0.0003 0.00004

It is more or less obvious that, dc offset is not seen in the waveform after 5 time constants. The peak value of dc offset current I 0 can be worked out by setting the current i(t0) to zero. This implies that



Clearly, the peak value of dc offset current depends upon the following parameters:

Time at which fault strikes Phase angle of ac voltage and |Z | and of transmission line.

Voltage V

It can be seen that severity of dc offset component in fault current is maximum when from equation (1) a) and b) For example, if angle of transmission line is 80 0, then with = 800 and = sec = 5msec,

the severity of dc offset current would equal , which is also the peak value of symmetrical ac component of the current. This leads us to an important conclusion. viz.,

Peak value of dc offset current can be as high as the symmetrical ac peak. Polarity wise the dc offset current can be positive or negative. DC offset current may be totally absent eg. If , .

While, in above analysis, we have considered a single phase current, a 3 phase fault on a 3 phase transmission line would always induce dc offset current in at least two phases. DC offset has adverse impact on the CT performance