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Singapore Polytechnic School of Chemical and Life Sciences

Diploma in Food Science & Technology

CP6013: Food Packaging & Design Market Research on Food Packaging (Bread) Presented By:
Koh Huann Rong (1027312) Radyiatul Mardyiah Binte Othman (1026874) Amira Huda Ammirul Haroun (1027060) Jeevithra Gunasegaran (1065149) Class: DFST/FT/3A/22 Date of Submission: 30 January 2013 AY 2012/2013 (Semester 2)

1) What are the packaging materials used? There are several types of packaging materials that are being used for bread products. The most common materials that are being used are such as Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), Polypropylene (PP) and Biaxial Oriental Polypropylene. LDPE is being used due to its excellent barrier to water, water vapor and moisture. Thus it prevents the bread product from being easily spoilt. It has lowest softening and melting point which is good for heat sealing for bun-like breads. Its films are soft and clear that make the words on the packaging to be easily read by consumer. Not only that, it has very high elongation which has a good impact resistance and tear strength. Since LDPE films are easy to processed, it is cheaper to purchase it as well. However, it is classified as a semi-permeable material due to its permeability to volatile chemicals that have moderate to high vapour pressure such as adhesives, varnishes, inks or solvent. LLDPE is more crystalline, resulting in being stiffer than LDPE. In some packaging, LLDPE is being used as packaging as it gives a better heat sealing property which gives the bread a longer shelf life. It also has higher chemical resistance and it can withstand a higher range of low or high temperatures. Not only that, it has a higher strength when compare d to LDPE. As for PP, it has similar properties with LDPE and LDPE but it has more advantages in which it has a good chemical compatibility and better moisture barrier. Furthermore, it has a higher softening point compare to LLDE. Hence, it has a better heat sealing property. Some of the bread packaging also used BOPP instead of PP because BOPP films have excellent clarity, transparency and gloss. This property provides the packaging for bread to have a good optical properties and printability. Hence, enhance the products sales appeal on the shelf and also give all the statutory information for customer needs. It provides a very low moisture transmission rate compare to other packaging materials. With this, the shelf life of the product would be extended while retaining the softness of the bread from being hardened after a period of time. Hence, BOPP gave a better and sufficient barrier to moisture, gas and light. As compare to PP, it has a better resistance to cold temperature and narrow range for heat sealing. Also, BOPP is recyclable and biodegradable. Therefore, it does not emit hazardous gas while reprocessing. For the closure of breads packaging, some are closed with heat sealing while some use a plastic clip. This clip, known as kwik lok tag, is used to seal the bread packaging without the use of heat. The air tight condition will then prevent the bread product from being easily spoilt due to chemical or microbial spoilage. The clip is made from mediumimpact polystyrene which is also called rubber-modified polystyrene. This material is made by copolymerization of styrene.

With the used of this material, it gives the resistance to allow it to return to its original shape after being reuse several times. This closure is produced with different aperture sized to accommodate the different polyethylene widths and thickness. The proper selection of aperture size can result in an almost air-tight package. The clips are also available in different colours for colour coding purposes. 2) How the packaging is design (in terms of shape, size and decoration)? Any relation between the packaging design and consumer behavior and target audience of the product.

The common packaging of bread loaf is designed in such a way that a squared and long bread loaf can be fitted inside vertically. The packaging also allows sufficient space for closure by using kwik lok tag. While for filled bun, the packaging is designed in such a way that the bun can be fitted inside. Sufficient space is provided for modified atmosphere to be flushed in order to retain the freshness of the product and for closure by heat sealing to prevent damage to the product. For bread loaf products, the packaging is available in various sizes. For example, Gardenia bread loaves are packed in three different sizes, namely jumbo, original (300g-400g) and junior size. The purpose of jumbo-sized (600g) packaging is to provide consumers more number of breads at a lower cost. Junior-sized breads are thicker than original breads and are packed horizontally instead. It is mainly targeted for young children to be at their convenient, whereby one piece of bread provides the similar amount of nutrient gained in two pieces of the original bread. As for individuals, they can opt for small individual packaging such as buns (60g 120g). In terms of decoration, different colours were being used for different type of the product to allow consumers to readily recognize and pick their choices easily. For example, green packaging is used for wholemeal bread while yellow packaging sweetcorn-filled bun. The design on the packaging is greatly emphasized as it acts as the primary mode of marketing to the consumers. As such, bread loaf packagings are commonly pictured with bread and milk. Meanwhile, vanilla pods or chocolate bars are illustrated respectively if the bun is a vanilla or chocolate-flavoured. For the convenience of the consumer, general requirements were provided on the packaging such as manufacture information, nutritional information, net weight, brand name, country of origin and ingredients while for closure, information such as the 'used by date' is

provided. In addition, low fat or fortified bread with calcium and vitamins are highlighted with bright and large-sized fonts in order to attract health-conscious consumers.

3) What are the packaging technique (i.e aseptic packaging, MAP, vacuum packaging, intelligent packaging or active packaging) used? The purpose in packaging of bread is to maintain its fresh condition by preventing mould growth on soggy crust of bread due to the presence of moisture yet preventing rapid drying out. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) technology is most commonly used to enhance the performance of bread packaging. A modified atmosphere (MA) can be achieved by gas flushing. Gas flushing is a method in which the package containing the product is usually first evacuated then backflushed with the gas or gas mixture. The key factors in food preservation by MAP include gas atmosphere, storage temperature, moisture and pressure. Of these, the gas atmosphere is the paramount factor that greatly influences the shelf life of a food product. The nature of the gas mixture will depend on the characteristics of the food being packed. As each gas will interact with different foods in different ways; levels and combinations have to be carefully calculated. The three gases that make up the vast majority of modified atmosphere mixtures are nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. Other gases, notably argon, have also been investigated, but their use is not widespread on the bread packaging technology. For bread loaf products, the packaging retards moisture loss but it promotes mould growth. Therefore, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are commonly being used in MAP technology. Hence, elevated concentration of CO2 inhibits the growth of most aerobic bacteria and mould under such conditions. Additionally, it is effective in going against gram negative, aerobic spoilage bacteria such as pseudomonas. The inhibition of mould growth also requires exceptionally low levels of dissolved oxygen in the food. Nitrogen is effectively inert, tasteless, odourless, and has a low solubility in both water and fat. In MAP, nitrogen is used primarily to displace oxygen in order to retard aerobic spoilage and oxidative deterioration. It also acts as a filler gas to prevent pack collapse. Argon by itself was able to inhibit mould growth, but had no effect on anaerobes which continued to grow and produce CO2 and other metabolites, which led to swelling of package. As such, CO2 inhibited mould growth but it took a minimum of 30% CO2 to retard other microbial activity and delay swelling of the package. However, the optimum gas atmospheres for each product may differ and so must be determined through a series of storage trials. This can be accomplished by monitoring microbial growth and changes in colour, odour, and texture of the bakery product. As such, organoleptic changes are often caused by microbial spoilage. Nonetheless, the technique can also be applied to other situations, such as preventing chemical changes in food to slow down the loss of crispness in this type of product. The choice of the gas combination to be used will depend on the nature of the food, and of the micro-organisms associated with that

food which will limit the shelf-life. For bread products, 50% of carbon dioxide and 50% nitrogen gases are being used to give a longer, achievable shelf-life. The main requirements of MAP are non-toxic, tasteless and odourless, as well as being compatible with the bread products. Furthermore, it has to handle distribution stresses, prevent physical damage, withstand packaging process, control moisture loss or gain and prevent microbial, chemical and physical contamination.

REFERENCE Photographs: Gardenia, 2012. Sandwich Breads [photograph]. Available from: [Accessed 25 January 2013] Sunshine Bakeries, 2012. Flavoured Bread [photograph]. Available from: [Accessed 25 January 2013] Books: Yam. K. L., 2009. Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. 3rd ed. USA: John Wiley & Sons. Hutton. T., 2003. Food Packaging: An Introduction. UK: Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association Group. Internet: Plastemart, 2003. BOPP Films in food packaging [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2013]. Gardenia, 2013. Sandwich Bread [online]. Available from: [Accessed 26 January 2013].