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Applications

Engineering
Manual
Designing an "IAQ-Ready"
Air Handler System
by
Arthur Hal/strom, PE - Mgr, Engineered Solutions
Tom Robeson, Marketing Engineer
with
Dennis Stanke, Applications Engineer and
Brenda Bradley, Information Designer
1994, The Trane Company, a division of American Standard Inc., La Crosse, WI 54601-7599
2
Preface
Qt'le!p HVAC designers select and apply
.
..
.nsWuctlon, to solve air-handler-related
.. IAQ problems in retrofit ap;p!ications.
Particular emphasisis
ASH RAE Standard 62-1989, "Ventilation
and recently p O$HA rules.
..
airflow paths and air handler
and rement; filtration;
ntrolling humidification,
al may be of
personnel



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Table of Contents

What's It All About? ... IAQ and In the Occupied Space ....................................... 34
ASHRAE 62-1989 .................................................. 4 Humidification ........... .......... ..... ..... ..... .......... ..... 35
Why is lAO Important? ............................................ 4
Dehumidification ....... .......... .......... ............... ..... 38
Creating a "Good-lAO Building" .......................... 4
ASHRAE 62-1989 Overview .................................. 5 Energy Recovery .................................. .............. 40
A History Lesson ................................................. 5
What ASH RAE 62-1989 Entails ......................... 6
Energy-Recovery Devices ..... .......... ..... ..... .......... 40
Run-around Loops .... .......... ............... ..... ..... ..... 40
Fixed-Plate Exchangers ................................... 41
Arranging Air Handling Paths Heat Wheels . ...................... .............................. 42
and Components .................................................. 8 Heat Pipes ... ...... ....... .......... ..... .......... ....... ........ 43
Airflow Paths ........................................................... 8
Application Considerations ... ...... .......... ........ ....... 44
Single-Path Layouts ............................................ 8
Dual-Path Layouts ............................................. 10 Creating Quiet Comfort ....... ..... .......... ............... 46
Air Handler Arrangements .................................... 13
What's Entailed .................................................... 47
Stacked Units .................................................... 13
"Coupled" Units ................................................. 14
Choosing the Right Fan ....................................... 48
Fan Type .......................................................... 48
Fan Design ....................................................... 51
Managing Outdoor Air ........................................ 16 Fan Performance .............................................. 51
Controlling Outdoor Airflow ................................... 16
Direct OA Flow Measurement ........................... 16
Choosing the Right Fan Location .......... ............... 52
Unit Attenuation .................................................... 52

Avoiding Coil Freeze-Up ....................................... 18
Stratification ....................................................... 18
Coil Protection Alternatives ............................... 18
Drain the Cooling Coil .................................... 18
Choosing the Right Casing . ..... ............... .......... 52
Turning Plenums .............................................. 53
Duct Silencers ...... .... .............................. .......... 53
Assuring a Ouiet Design ........ ..... ......................... 54
Add Glycol .... .................................................. 18
Add Preheat ................................................... 19 Control Considerations ....... ..... ..... ..... .......... ..... 55
Air Blenders/High-Energy" Mixing Baffles ..... 20
High- Velocity Mixing Dampers ....................... 20
Downstream Introduction of OA ..................... 21
Required Control Functions .............................. 55
Temperature Control ..................................... 55
Pressure Control............................ ............... 55
Humidity Control.... ........................................ 56
Filtration .............................................................. 22 Ventilation Control ......................................... 56
Controlling Particulates ......................................... 22
Rating Filter Performance .............................. 22
Selecting Particulate Filters ............................ 23
Contaminant Control .. .............. ...... ............... 56
System Optimization ...................... .......... ..... 56
Monitoring and Management .......... ............... 58
Choosing Filter Location ................................ 24
Controlling Gaseous Contaminants ...................... 26 Appendix A - Glossary and Acronyms ......... A-1
Methods of Abatement ................................... 27
Why Measure CO
2
? ....................................... 28
Appendix B - Index ......................................... B-1
Combatting Microbial Contaminants ................ 29
Appendix C - List of Figures, Tables and
At the Air Handler ................................................. 30
References ........................................................ C-1
Intake and Exhaust Openings ........................... 31
Steel Liner ......................................................... 31
Antimicrobial Treatments ................................... 31
Drain Pans ......................................................... 31
Access Panels ................................................... 32

Casing ............................................................... 33
"Moisture Purge" Cycle ...................................... 33
Preventive Maintenance .................................... 34
Designing an "IAQ-Ready' Air Handler System
3
What's It All About? ...
IAQ and ASHRAE 62-1989
Just a decade ago, indoor air quality (IAQ) was a
relatively obscure subject. To suggest that there is
now "increased awareness" of lAO as a building
design issue would be a gross understatement!
When you page through a newspaper or magazine,
you're likely to see at least one article about the
effect of indoor air quality on learning, productivity or
health, or about IAQ-related litigation involving a
hospital, school or office building.
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, "Ventilation for
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality," was developed to
address IAQ in the HVAC industry. However,
applying the principles of this Standard poses new
challenges for engineers. Complying with its
ventilation air requirements, for example, generally
means more energy consumption, larger and noisier
units, and greater risk of coil freeze-ups.
Prerequisite to designing an "lAO-ready" air handling
system is a basic understanding of the indoor air
quality issue and ASH RAE Standard 62-1989; this
section attempts to provide both.
4
Why is IAQ Important?
The status of a building's indoor air quality (lAO) is of
interest to occupants and owners alike. Studies by
the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH), the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and other private and public groups
worldwide indicate that occupants of buildings with
"good lAO" are happier and more productive than
their counterparts in less pleasant surroundings.
Generally, buildings with "good" IAQ share several
characteristics: effective temperature and humidity
control, no odors, no harmful airborne chemicals,
and no microbial growth problems. Other traits often
associated with these buildings -though not directly
related to indoor air - are appropriate lighting, low
background noise levels, and energy-efficient
operation.
While such an indoor environment might sound
utopian, many of today's buildings do enjoy "good"
indoor air quality ... but providing it was no accident.
It took planning, carefully designed HVAC equipment
and systems, proper operation and conscientious
maintenance.
Why should a building owner take pains to create a
"good-lAO building"? Simply stated, "good-lAO
buildings" offer proven value. Providing occupants
with an enjoyable, productive environment that
complies with government regulations makes the
building easier to rent, easier to sell and less prone to
litigation.
The building's air handling system plays a key role in
creating this environment.
Creating a "Good-IAQ Building"
How do you create a building with good indoor air
quality? First, understand IAQ-related design
issues and how they can be addressed. A number
of good books are available on the subject. (See
page C-3 for a reference list.) Second, be aware that
most articles and books written about lAO focus
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on causes of poor IAQ and their solutions in
eXisting systems.
Design issues focus on compliance with ASHRAE
Standard 62-1989. Existing building "solutions" are
often oversimplified:
The space had a bad odor. The (system)
solution was to increase the (unit) air handler
outdoor air ventilation rate to 20 cfm per
person. This fixed the problem.
Maybe ... maybe not. Though the odor was
eliminated, other problems may have been
introduced. Any deviation from the air handling
system's original design often affects its performance
in obscure ways. Some of these effects are beneficial
- others are not.
In the preceding example, adjusting the air handier's
minimum outdoor air setting to 20 cfm per person
seems to be the obvious solution. Less obvious is the
related impact of this action on the air handler;
bringing more outdoor air into the air handler:
o Increases outdoor air/return air (OAlRA)
stratification which, in turn, increases the risk of
freezing the chilled-water cooling coil during
winter operation.
o Imposes added heating and cooling loads that the
air handler may not be able to satisfy.
o Could increase air handler operating costs,
perhaps significantly.
o Might create new lAO problems, like higher
humidity levels in the summer and drier air in the
winter.
o May only be a temporary solution. Once the "lAO
people" leave and next month's energy bill
exceeds the maintenance budget by 10 to 40%,
will maintenance staff restore the "old" OA
ventilation rate of 5 efm per person?
In short, lAO-related changes to existing-building
HVAC systems must address al/ aspects of HVAC
system design.
Designing an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
What's !tAl/About? . __ lAO and ASHRAE 62-1989
ASHRAE 62-1989 Overview
The terms "outdoor air" and "ventilation air" are often
used interchangeably. However, outdoor air is
(obviously) air from outside the building, while
ventilation air is that portion of supply air whose
purpose is maintaining acceptable indoor air quality.
Ventilation air consists entirely of outdoor air when a
single space is served by a single air handler. (See
What ASHRAE 62-1989 Entails ... "onpage 6.)
However, it may be a mixture of outdoor air and
treated recirculated air when multiple spaces are
served by a single air handler.
A History Lesson
(Figure 1) ASHRAE - the American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers - establishes minimum ventilation rate
standards for the industry based on the consensus of
the HVAC design community. Over the last century,
the amount of outdoor air deemed necessary for
acceptable ventilation changed several times.
Occupant tolerance, industry knowledge of indoor air
contaminants, HVAC system operating costs,
building envelope permeability, and the growing
number of contaminants generated within the
building prompted these changes.
Before 1930, ventilation was controlled (more or
less) by the occupant. Most buildings relied on
windows that opened for "natural" ventilation to
control "metabolic bioeffluents" (odors) and smoke.
Figure 1
Ventilation Requirements through the Years
30 '.--r-Tl I I
C' ...! I I I 1 Terminal' VAV
o 25 --- - -.,---------- -- - - ."-:-- ---------
.... I I Ii, reheat ! becomes
! 20 . ... ..
j ...1 i ! I ; l 62-89
i:: ... ,>-: -+----+'
I : of
5 -- ... ventilation begins---i--+:-----:-':c ...

1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
Year
5
What's It All About? ... lAO and ASHRAE 62-1989
When a stove, fireplace or the person next to you
made the air unbreathable, you simply opened the
window. The recommended ventilation rate was
30 cfm per person.
Mechanical HVAC systems gradually came into use
after 1930. Since they offered better indoor
environments with less manual intervention, the
minimum outdoor air requirement for acceptable
ventilation was reduced to 10 cfm per person.
The 1950's and '60's witnessed development of
superior air handling systems like terminal reheat
and dual duct. Both offered excellent temperature,
humidity and ventilation control, but were very
expensive to operate.
Enter the "oil crisis" of 1973, when oil and related
energy costs increased 200 to 400%. ASH RAE
responded by lowering the ventilation rate to 5 cfm
per person. Still, HVAC system operating costs
skyrocketed, and the OA requirement came under
attack. Building operators reset outdoor airflow as
low as possible, sometimes even eliminating it
altogether. Windows were used less for natural
ventilation. High-energy-use systems like terminal
reheat were replaced by more energy-efficient VAV
systems, and perimeter systems (some with no
outdoor air) gained popularity.
At the same time - while technological
improvements in copiers, printers, computers and
carpeting created more sources of contaminants-
building envelopes became tighter, trapping these
contaminants inside. Not surprisingly, air quality in
some buildings suffered noticeably. Media attention
to this problem heightened awareness: occupants
realized that they didn't have to breathe "bad air."
The list of buildings with "problem IAQ" grew as
existing systems were retrofitted with energy
upgrades ... nor was it limited to the United States.
With cases diagnosed in buildings worldwide, poor
indoor air quality became an internationally
recognized problem - a malady the media dubbed
"sick building syndrome" (SBS).
During the 1980's, the building industry identified
many of the causes of poor indoor air quality and
took steps to correct them. Again, ASHRAE
responded by revising a key standard: ASH RAE
Standard 62-1989, ''Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor
Air Quality." This revision increased the minimum
per-person outdoor air requirement to 15-20 cfm for
occupied spaces, and 60 cfm for smoking areas.
1& The exact ventilation rate for occupied spaces varies
by space type - e.g., operating rooms require a
6
higher outdoor airflow per person than auditoriums
(30 cfm versus 15 cfm).
In addition, the Standard defined acceptable indoor
exposure levels for several contaminants of concern.
It also recommended new humidity control limits -
not just for comfort, but to control microbial growth in
the building.
ASH RAE Standard 62-1989 was adopted by the
Southern Building Code in 1992, the Mechanical
Code of Building Officials and Code Administrators
(BOCA) in 1993, the Uniform Building Code in 1993,
and is presently applied to all types of nonindustrial
indoor environments.
1& New and retrofitted air handling systems should be
designed in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-
1989. Air handling systems designed or retrofitted in
the 1972-89 time frame should be re-evaluated and
possibly upgraded to comply with this Standard.
What ASHRAE 62-1989 Entails ...
ASH RAE Standard 62-1989 sets minimum
ventilation rates and defines acceptable indoor air
quality to "avoid adverse health effects." It is
particularly important because poor ventilation or
lack of outdoor air is generally considered the
predominant IAQ problem: studies indicate that 20
to 50% of today's buildings exhibit ventilation-related
problems.
Legally, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 is viewed as
the standard of care for designers and building
owners to assure adequate ventilation. Section 6.0 of
the Standard offers two alternative methods to help
designers satisfy this requirement - the Ventilation
Rate Procedure specifies minimum outdoor airflow
rates for adequate dilution, while the IAQ Procedure
specifies contaminant levels and subjective
evaluation for acceptable indoor air quality. Of these
two approaches, The Trane Company advocates use
of the Ventilation Rate Procedure. Why?
The Ventilation Rate Procedure ...
o provides objective compliance: for instance,
measure outdoor airflow through the air handler
and document it to show satisfaction of ASH RAE
Standard 62-1989'5 requi rements.
SYS-AM-14






o dilutes virtually all contaminants; the IAQ
Procedure, which relies heavily on filtration, may
not remove all contaminants.
o effectively handles groups of contaminants.
NIOSH (U.S.) studies indicate contaminants
typically occur in combination -not as isolated
chemicals.
o is relatively easy to design.
By contrast, the IAQ Procedure ...
o presents an incomplete list of acceptable
contaminant levels.
o involves a post-design subjective evaluation
for odors. First, the air handling system is
installed, then a survey is conducted to approve
the acceptability of the indoor air quality.
Hopefully, the system passes. What about future
tests? ... how do owners prove that they're
maintaining the initial level of filtration and air
quality over time?
o requires foreknowledge of space furnishings
and relevant contaminant emission rates.
ASH RAE Standard 62-1989 (Section 5.0) also
presents general system and equipment
requirements for:
o outdoor airflow (i.e., provide monitoring; avoid
entrainment/infiltration of OA contaminants; use
heat recovery, if feasible)
o air distribution (i.e., assure good room air
distribution; for VAV systems, maximize room air
at part load; provide local exhaust and makeup air
as needed)
o design documentation (i.e., record criteria,
assumptions and calculations)
o microbial growth control (i.e., design air
system, including ducts and plenums, for
cleaning; filter supply air for particulates,
"microbes" and gaseous contaminants; control
humidity between 30 and 60%; humidify with
steam; specify sloped, cleanable drain pans;
specify access to drain pans and coils for
cleaning)
Designing an "lAO-Ready' Air Handler System
What's It All About? ... lAO and ASHRAE 62-1989
Microorganisms can grow in the air handler, duct
system or the building structure itself. General
recommendations for controlling microbial growth are
fairly straightforward:
o Get rid of dirt ... Keep the HVAC system clean by
filtering and eliminating areas where dirt can settle
(e.g., packless silencers).
o Maintain a relative humidity (RH) of 30 to 60%
inside the building; microorganisms survive and
multiply at humidities outside this range.
D Avoid wet insulation in the air handler and
elsewhere in the air handling system. Also, avoid
standing water in the coil drain pan, and trap
the drain pan properly.
o Design for easy air system cleaning ... Since
it's impossible to eliminate all dirt, make sure the
system and its components - particularly the air
handler - can be accessed and cleaned as
needed.
Bottom line: assuring good indoor air quality begins
with the air handler providing clean air to the duct
system, VAV terminals and air diffusers. Of course,
the designer's ultimate goal is to create a
comfortable (i.e., 68to 76 F, 30 to 60% RH),
healthy indoor environment without odors, drafts or
stuffiness.
7
Arranging Air Handling
Paths and Components
There are basically two reasons for bringing outdoor
air into the building:
2 to provide natural, nonmechanical cooling-
"economizing" - when ambient conditions are
suitable; and ...
z for ventilation - i.e., to provide the minimum
outdoor airflow rate needed for adequate dilution
of indoor contaminants, per ASHRAE Standard
62-1989's Ventilation Rate Procedure. (See
"What ASHRAE 62-1989 Entails ... " on page 6.)
Of course, adequate ventilation alone isn't enough to
provide acceptable indoor air quality. Outdoor air
must be treated - filtered, humidified or
dehumidified, warmed or cooled - before it's
distributed to the building's occupied spaces. (Later
chapters discuss these topics in greater detail.)
Satisfying these requirements demands air handlers
with flexible designs and options. To better
understand the impact of "IAQ readiness" on air
handler design, this chapter reviews basic air handler
layouts in terms of airflow paths, then introduces
various physical arrangements of air handler
components.
8
Airflow Paths
When grouped according to outdoor airflow (OA)
paths, air handler layouts fall into one of two
categories: those with a single OA path and those
with two (dual) OA paths.
Single-Path Layouts
Air handlers with a single OA path use it to provide
either ventilation air only, or to supply both ventilation
air and "economizing" air for natural cooling. These
units can be further divided into one of five
categories based on their return/recirculated airflow
(RA) and exhaust airflow (EA) paths:
o no RA path, no EA path, no energy recovery
o no RA path, passive EA path includes energy
recovery
o passive RA path, no EA path
o passive RA path, powered EA path
o powered RA path, passive EA path
A schematic and brief description of each of these
single-path layouts follow.
SYS-AM-14






Figure 2
Single Path - No RA, No EA, No Recovery
Cooling

OA
Figure 3
Single Path - No RA; Passive EA with Energy Recovery
Cooling
RA

I
EA OA
Figure 4
Single Path - Passive RA, No EA
Cooling
Rlters Coil Supply
RA
OA
Figure 5
Single Path - Passive RA, Powered EA
Cooling
Filters Coil Supply
RA""""""""""''''''Dt''''''''''1f'f' - SA
il
Exhaust (c5\
FanLJ
OA
EA
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Single Path - No RA, No EA, No Recovery
(Figure 2) Airflow in this layout consists entirely of
outdoor air that's used for ventilation. Commonly
referred to as "makeup air" or "100% fresh air" units,
air handlers of this type include a series of
components that clean and temper the air before
discharging it to the occupied space. HVAC systems
using fan-coil units or water-source heat pumps often
include a makeup air unit to provide ventilation.
Single Path - No RA, Passive EA with Recovery
(Figure 3) As in the preceding layout, air handled by
the supply fan consists entirely of outdoor air, and is
used for ventilation. This time, an energy recovery
device preconditions entering outdoor air with energy
extracted from the remote exhaust air stream.
Single Path - Passive RA, No EA
(Figure 4) Characteristically, outdoor air follows a
single path into the air handler; it's then filtered,
treated and delivered to the occupied space.
Negative static pressure at the supply fan inlet
recirculates this air from the space to the air handler,
where it mixes with outdoor air entering the unit.
Small air handlers and rooftop air conditioners
typically use this layout.
Single Path - Passive RA, Powered EA
(Figure 5) Once again, outdoor air travels along a
single path into the air handler, where it's then
filtered, treated and delivered to the occupied space.
Either the supply fan ("non-economizer" mode) or
exhaust fan (economizer mode) creates the negative
pressure needed in the return duct for air
recirculation. Air returning to the unit is either
expelled from the building by the exhaust fan or
recirculated, mixing with entering outdoor air.
9
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Figure 6
Single Path - Powered RA, Passive EA
Cooling
Return Filters Coil Supply
...t .. ;.".. '.".""4't - ! S

EA OA
Dual-Path Layouts
By raising the minimum per-person outdoor air
requirement (from 5 cfm to 15-20 cfm in most
commercial office buildings), compliance with
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 increases the air
handler's design load. The magnitude of this added
load depends on ventilation airflow, outdoor design
conditions, and the timing of the sensible and latent
load peaks. Air handlers selected with low sensible
heat ratios (i.e., high latent cooling capacity) - or
units applied in climates with extreme outdoor air
conditions may be beneficially configured as dua/-
path units.
Dual OA-path units provide two outdoor airflow
paths: one path for economizer cooling (if used) and
the other for ventilating. These paths are effectively
in parallel, each with its own air treatment
components (e.g., filters, heating and cooling coils).
Equipping an air handler with two outdoor air paths
offers several benefits:
o Avoids reheat when latent and sensible load
peaks occur at different times (i.e., sensible heat
ratio is lower without reheat).
o Avoids increased supply fan static pressure due
to high-pressure-drop components in the
ventilation air stream (i.e., increases latent cooling
and filtration capacity without increasing fan size).
o Avoids higher equipment costs by decreasing the
size of the ventilation path components.
10
Single Path - Powered RA, Passive EA
(Figure 6) As in the preceding example, outdoor air
flows into the unit along a single path; it's then
filtered, treated and delivered to the occupied space.
This time, however, a return fan creates the negative
pressure needed in the return duct to induce
recirculation. Air returning to the unit is either
expelled from the building by return-fan static
pressure or recirculated, mixing with the entering
outdoor air stream.
o Enables compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62-
1989's outdoor airflow (ventilation) measurement
requirements at a minimum first-cost penalty.
o Provides a cost-effective means to increase
ventilation airflow in an existing system.
Like their single-path counterparts, units with dual-
path layouts can be classified according to their
return (RA) and exhaust (EA) airflow arrangements.
Those with an exhaust airflow path may also include
energy transfer between the exhaust and ventilation
airflows. Energy transfer can be accomplished using
coil run-around loops, air-to-air heat exchangers,
heat wheels or enthalpy wheels; for more
information, refer to the "Energy Recovery" section
that begins on page 40.
A schematic and brief description of each of these
dual-path layouts follows:
o passive RA, no EA
o passive RA, powered EA, no recovery
o passive RA, powered EA with energy recovery
o powered RA, passive EA, no recovery
o powered RA, passive EA with energy recovery
Again, since the ventilation air stream components
are in parallel with the mixed-air components, the
duai-path layout imposes no significant increase in
fan static pressu reo
SYS-AM-14






Figure 7
Dual Path - Passive RA, No EA
Cooling
RA"
Cu'
"J:- -H-r(QJ"SA
I Economizer jooo oj
Figure 8
OA COI;<OCOO
I
VVI\
I
OA
Ventilation
Dual Path - Passive RA, Powered EA, No Recovery
Exhaust (0)
Fan'U

EA
Figure 9
jo oo.j
0000000
I
VVI\
I
OA
Ventilation
Dual Path - Passive RA, Powered EA with Energy Recovery
I

Energy Recovery
EA
I
VVI\
I
OA
Ventilation
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Dual Path - Passive RA, No EA
(Figure 7) Characteristically, outdoor air enters the
unit at two points. Air used for natural cooling enters
through the economizer dampers, and is then
filtered, treated and delivered to the occupied space.
Outdoor air used for ventilation flows through a
separate series of treatment components and joins
the mixed air stream at the supply fan inlet. The
negative static pressure that exists there induces all
airflows (ventilation, economizer and return) through
the unit.
Return air recirculated from the building mixes with
economizer air. No air is exhausted at the unit since
outdoor static pressure exceeds that of the return air.
Dual Path-
Passive RA, Powered EA, No Recovery
(Figure 8) Induced by the supply fan, outdoor air for
economizer cooling and ventilation enters the unit at
different points and is treated separately. Ventilation
air joins the mixed air stream at the supply fan inlet,
where it's then delivered to the occupied space.
Either the supply fan ("non-economizer" mode) or
exhaust fan (economizer mode) creates the negative
pressure needed in the return duct. Air returning to
the unit is either expelled from the building by the
exhaust fan or recirculated, mixing with the entering
economizer air.
Dual Path-
Passive RA, Powered EA with Energy Recovery
(Figure 9) The preceding unit layout can also include
energy transfer between the exhaust and ventilation
air paths. Economically, energy transfer or "recovery"
quickly pays for itself when the ventilation and
economizer airflows are separate.
11
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Figure 10
Dual Path - Powered RA, Passive EA, No Recovery
Cooling
I-ff-
r
0S
-'
SA
I Economizer , ,
Figure 11
OA O'OGOOOO
I

I
EA OA
Ventilation
Dual Path - Powered RA, Passive EA with Energy Recovery
Cooling

I Economizer , ",
12
OA OOO'H>OO


Energy Recovery
EA
I

I
OA
Ventilation
Dual Path-
Powered RA, Passive EA, No Recovery
(Figure 10) Once again, the supply fan induces
outdoor airflow along two paths: one for economizer
cooling and the other for ventilation. These
separately treated air streams merge at the supply
fan inlet, where the combined flow is then delivered
to the occupied space. A return fan creates the
negative pressure needed in the return duct. Air
returning to the unit is either expelled from the
building by return-fan static pressure or recirculated,
mixing with the entering economizer air.
Dual Path-
Powered RA, Passive EA with Energy Recovery
(Figure 11) When practical, an energy recovery
device can be added to the preceding unit layout.
SYS-AM-14






Air Handler Arrangements
An air handler's components must be schematically
arranged to accomplish the air handling task at hand.
The previous discussion reviewed various single-
path and dual-path schematic arrangements or "unit
layouts." Once the desired schematic arrangement is
established, the air handler can be physically
arranged to meet the spatial constraints of a given
installation.
Trane offers two central station air handlers: an
indoor Modular Climate Changer (MCG) and an
outdoor Penthouse Climate Changer (PCC). See
Figure 12.
Modular Climate Changers adopt a "building block"
approach to air handler design. Each module or
"building block" contains one or two components,
and several modules compose a unit. For example, a
simple MCC air handler might consist of a fan
module, a coil module and a filter module.
Penthouse Climate Changers also consist of a
number of component sections or "modules."
Using MCC and pce units as examples, the
following discussion summarizes two basic air
handler arrangement concepts: stacked units and
"coupled" units. Both concepts give designers
greater flexibility to satisfy lAO-related requirements
within the physical limitations of a particular job site.
Figure 12
Trane Central Station Air Handlers
Penthouse
Climate Changer
Modular
Climate Changer
Designing an "lAO-Ready Air Handler System
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Stacked Units (MCC's Only)
Single OA Path
(Figure 13) For installations with limited available
floor space, consider placing unit modules (or
sections) on top of each other to minimize the air
handler's footprint. Modules can also be stacked to
create a redundant air handler that provides 100%
standby capability without occupying additional floor
space.
Application Considerations
o Weight, not height, usually constrains the size and
number of modules that can be vertically stacked.
(That's because the corner channel posts of the
bottom module bear the entire weight of all upper
modules.)
o The low-air-velocity design of Trane MCC
modules (typically about 500 fpm) makes stacking
practical. It also minimizes pressure drops
Figure 13
Typical Single-Path MCC Stacked Arrangements
l } ( ~
~
0
0 ~
~
~
~ ~
0
J
t
0
r--
\
~
I--
(Q;-
r--
r--
'--
Vertically-Stacked Armngement with
Retum Fan and Economizer with Air Blender
Redundant Stacked
Arrangement with
Passive Return
13
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Figure 14
Typical Dual-Path MCc/SDU Stacked Arrangement
o
"Coupled" Units
Like stacking, the "coupled unit" concept combines
modules of different sizes into a single or dual-path
air handler. But, instead of placing small modules
atop large ones, modules of disparate sizes are
placed side by side and connected with either a
transition panel or an adapter plate.
QSA I@" "Stacking" and "coupling" are not mutually exclusive
associated with turns, enabling a direction change
of as much as 180
0

Dual OA Paths
Stacking modules makes it easy to design a compact
dual-path air handler. In arrangements of this type,
the upper-deck modules are downsized to handle
only ventilation airflow - i.e., usually 25% of total
cfm - and include components to filter and heat,
cool, humidify or dehumidify the entering outdoor air
as needed. See Figure 14.
Application Considerations
o Stacking dissimilarly sized modules is only
practical if the "second-story" modules are smaller
than those on the bottom. Stress level checks
may be required for some combinations of module
sizes.
o Center upper-tier modules directly above those in
the bottom rank; do not allow them to overhang.
o Some applications - e.g., dual-path stacked
dehumidification units (SDU's) - require
interdeck channel spacers to provide proper water
management. The "dead air" space inside these
spacers should be insulated to prevent sweating.
14
design concepts; when dictated by the requirements
of a particular application, use a hybrid arrangement
of stacked and coupled modules.
Transition Panel (MCC's Only)
Sometimes a combination of dissimilarly sized air
handling components is needed to meet an
application's requirements. For example, it may be
necessary to match an oversized module containing
a high-efficiency filter rated at 250 fpm with a smaller
500-fpm module, as shown in Figure 15. A vertically
oriented vaneaxial fan (e.g., Trane Model Q) is
another component typically housed in an oversized
module; see Figure 160n page 15. In either case, an
insulated transition panel can be used to connect the
unlike modules.
Application Considerations
o Units with transition panels generally have flat
bottoms, can be mounted on a base rail and are
not "stackable" at the point of transition.
Figure 15
Typical "Coupled" MCC Arrangement with Horizontal
Transiton
45 angle of
transition, max.
Transition' j
Panel !
I
Blank 111 __ _
Module
45 angle of
transition, max.
I
Transftion
Panel
SYS-AM-14






Figure 16
Typical "Coupled" Mee Arrangement with Vertical Transition
- - ~ - -- -- - - -- - -------_._----------------
;
Discharge Plenum
(acoUS/icaJly lined)
-------- ._------- -----f--- --------
Transitio n
I
Panel
c:=J
1
v_ R
~
Trane QFan
0
with Inlet
Silencer
' ,
:I'
'\,
Cooling 0 Flat
Coil Filter
0
II
!
I I
0
I
)
\!i
o If necessary, flank an under- or oversized module
with one or more blank modules of sufficient
length to provide an angle of transition no greater
than 45, as shown in Figure 15. Such an
arrangement limits turbulence and static pressure
drop as the air stream expands and contracts.
Figure 17
"Coupled" Mee Arrangement with Adapter Plates
Adapter Plate
with Bell-Mouth
I
\
0
I \ I
I \ II
0
I \
\
Arranging Air Handling Paths and Components
Adapter Plate (Mee's, pee's)
(Figure 17) For applications that require a stand-
alone fan - i.e., one that should not, or physically
cannot, be placed inside an MGG or peG unit - use
adapter plates to connect the fan to the rest of the
unit. A bell-mouth is centered on each inlet adapter
plate to minimize turbulence; each outlet adapter
plate is similarly provided with a duct collar. All
adapter plates are insulated, and available with
single or double-wall construction.
An adapter plate with a flex connection can be used
to connect the inlet or outlet of an AMGA B fan (e.g.,
Trane tubular centrifugal fan, with bearings outside
the air stream) to a filter or coil module. Any properly
sized single-inlet fan can be connected to an Mee
air handler with an adapter plate.
Application Considerations
o Provide unobstructed space - at least 1/2 fan
diameter- between the inlet adapter plate's bell-
mouth and the nearest upstream component.
o If desired, the MGG base rail can be extended to
support the fan assembly.
-
-
I III I
Adapter Plate
with Duct Collar
I
r--
0
-
o
Draw-thru
Coil Module
TraneOPlus
Inlet Silencer
Super 0 /I Fan Trane o Plus
Outlet Silencer
Blow-thru
Coil Module
DeSigning an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System 15
Managing Outdoor Air
Traditionally, outdoor air was brought into a building
to reduce the cooling load, control building
pressurization and/or provide ventilation. While these
objectives must still be met when designing an "IAO-
ready" air handling system, the manner in which they
are accomplished may change.
For example, "load shedding" with an airside
economizer is a commonly used, tried-and-true
control strategy. In the context of designing an "IAO-
ready" air handling system, the designer simply:
o adds moisture eliminators to remove water (rain)
from the outdoor air before it enters the air
handler, and ...
o controls to the desired mixed air temperature by
regulating the supply and return air dampers.
A more unusual strategy is the use of outdoor air to
control building pressure; exhaust airflow is normally
used for this purpose. See Trane Applications
Engineering Manual AM-CON-17, "Building
Pressurization Control," for more information.
Ventilation is perhaps the most challenging aspect of
designing an "lAO-ready" air handling system.
Bringing more outdoor air into the building to satisfy
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 means more
stratification with greater risk of coil freeze-up, and
additional heating and cooling loads. Of course, the
amount of outdoor air brought into the building must
be measured, too.
This section presents solutions to two of these
issues: measuring outdoor airflow and protecting the
chilled-water coil from stratification. (Tempering
outdoor airflow is addressed in later chapters.)
16
Controlling Outdoor Airflow
An "lAO-ready" air handling system must bring a
prescribed minimum amount of outdoor air into the
air handler regardless of its temperature. To
accomplish this, the air handler should include a
mixing box or economizer section to control outdoor
airflow and a means of monitoring this airflow.
1& Don't forget to provide bird screens on al/ unit intake
and exhaust openings. Without them, droppings,
feathers, nesting materials, food and the like can
col/ect - becoming a paradise for microbial
contaminants, and a serious IAQ problem.
Ventilation airflow can be monitored in various ways,
including mixed-temperature or tracer-gas
calculations, fan inlet monitors, fixed-position
dampers, fixed-differential pressure plates or direct
measurement of airflow. Of these techniques, direct
measurement is the most accurate and reliable .
Direct OA Flow Measurement
Verifying that building ventilation complies with
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 is best accom'plished by
directly measuring outdoor airflow through the air
handling unit. There are basically two ways to do
this; both provide a universal output signal that can
be monitored and and recorded by a building
automation system:
o Install a duct-mounted flow-monitoring station that
employs hot-wire anemometer or pitot-tube f1ow-
sensing technology.
Or ...
o Add a TRane Air Quality, or TRAQTM, damper
assembly to the air handler.
SYS-AM-14






Figure 18
TRAQ Damper Assembly
TRAQTM Dampers (MCC's, PCC's)
(Figure 18) Designed to measure and modulate
airflow, the TRAQ damper assembly consists of one
to six butterlly-type dampers controlled by a single
electronic actuator. Each damper's bell-mouth inlet
guides air uniformly through a flow-sensing ring that
measures total and static pressure. The resulting
pneumatic signal is sent to a Ventilation Control
Module (VCM), where it is converted to a 2-to-10-
VDC signal proportional to airflow, corrected for
temperature, then passed to the air handler's DDC
controller.
~ Measured airflow is corrected for temperature by a
thermistor at the flow rings. Altitude correction from
sea level is still required.
It is important to note that this analog signal
represents measured airflow - not an implied value
calculated from damper position. As such, it is not
influenced by building pressure or internal system
changes caused by inverters, face-and-bypass
dampers, etc.
The TRAO VCM not only measures actual airflow
through the TRAQ dampers, but also conditions the
resulting output signal and autocalibrates itself.
Using the VCM output, the air handler controller
positions the outdoor air dampers to meet minimum
outdoor airflow requirements. This ventilation
requirement can be set by the air handler controller
or originate from a building automation system
(BAS).
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Managing Outdoor Air
Flow Measurement Accuracy
The TRAQ damper VCM is extremely accurate,
recalibrating itself once each minute. At 15 to 100%
of nominal airflow, measurement accuracy is within
5% of actual flow.
~ Conventional flow-monitoring stations are often
restricted to installations which allow approximately
3 duct diameters up- and downstream for accurate
flow measurement. The TRAQ dampers' ability to
accurately measure airflow immediately after a tum
reduces straightening lengths by as much as 80%,
making it possible to install a TRAQ-damper-
equipped air handler in a mechanical room with
limited space.
BAS Interface
Expanding the "lAO-ready" air handling system to
include BAS monitoring, control and reporting
capabilities simplifies outdoor airflow control. For
example, a Tracers> building management system
can:
c] dynamically calculate the amount of outdoor air
needed to adequately ventilate a multispace VAV
system; and, at the same time ...
o continuously reset the outdoor airflow set point.
This avoids the energy penalty imposed by setting
outdoor airllow only once based on constant
design ventilation conditions.
Equally important, a BAS can use the TRAQ damper
output signal in trend logs and custom reports to
document compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62-
1989. "Hard" evidence that the recommended
amount of ventilation air was actually brought into the
building minimizes the risk of litigation ... and has
already proven invaluable in resolving a number of
potential lAO problems.
If TRAO dampers are not used, substitute a duct-
mounted, hot-wire-anemometer or pitot-tube flow-
monitoring station to provide accurate airflow
measurement and an output signal for interface with
a building automation system.
17
Managing Outdoor Air
Avoiding Coil Freeze-Up
Stratification
(Figure 19) Stratification occurs in the airside mixing
box when airflows of dissimilar temperature don't mix
completely. Incomplete mixing yields distinct
temperature layers in the discharge air stream. If a
layer of freezing air moves through the air handler, it
can damage unprotected hydronic cooling and
heating coils.
In traditional air handling systems, safety controls
detect this condition and take corrective action. A
"freezestat" or "low-limit thermostaf' is usually
installed on the entering-air side of the cooling coil. It
searches for the lowest temperature in any 12-inch
section of the coil face. If the temperature at any
point falls below 35to 36F, the freezestat trips -
usually stopping the supply fan, closing the outdoor
air damper ... and degrading the building's indoor air
quality!
By increasing the minimum per-person outdoor
airflow from 5 cfm to 15-20 cfm, ASHRAE Standard
62-1989 increases the likelihood of air stratification.
To be "IAQ-ready," the air handler must be able to
treat the required amount of outdoor air- regardless
of temperature - without risking coil damage,
tripping the freezestat, triggering an alarm or
compromising indoor air quality.
Figure 19
Air Stratification
RA
OA
18
Coil Protection Alternatives
Various techniques exist for protecting hydronic coils
- and the chilled-water coil, in particular - from
freeze-up caused by stratification:
o drain the coil
Or, add any of the following ...
o glycol
o preheat
o air blenders/mixing baffles
o high-velocity mixing dampers
Or ...
o introduce ventilation air downstream of the
cooling coil
Following is a brief description of each approach, as
well its pros and cons. Choose the coil protection
technique that best fits the building design.
Drain the Cooling Coil
Provide vent and drain connections on every coil, as
well as shutoff valves to isolate the coils from the
chillers. After draining each coil, use compressed air
to remove as much water as possible; then add
glycol to prevent any remaining water from freezing.
Disconnect the freezestat to avoid nuisance trips.
ADVANTAGE(S): Low cost; no increased energy use.
DISADVANTAGE(S): High maintenance cost (Le., coils
must be drained in a timely fashion - perhaps
several times in a single season, incurring added
labor expense). Outdoor temperatures fluctuate
widely during seasonal transitions, making it difficult
to keep the chilled-water coil drained for nighttime
freeze protection and filled for daytime cooling
operation.
Add Glycol
Add glycol to the cooling system water to lower its
freezing point and an inhibitor to resist corrosion.
Reset the freezestat trip point to reflect this new
freezing point.
ADVANTAGE(S): Fairly easy to maintain; highly
effective.
DISADVANTAGE(S): Antifreeze is expensive; it also
"thins" the water - ultimately increasing both pump
SYS-AM-14






and chiller operating costs, as well as the potential
for leaks at pipe joints.
Add Preheat
(Figure 20) Raise the outdoor air temperature above
freezing by preheating it before it reaches the cooling
coil. Position the freezestat between the preheat and
cooling coils. If preheat is provided in the primary air
stream and multiple heating coils are used, add heat
only to the subfreezing air by controlling the preheat
coils individually.
ADVANTAGE(S): Very effective; can be used at any
time.
DISADVANTAGE(S): May require additional energy,
increasing air handler operating costs; also entails
freeze protection for the heating coils.
Preheat Options
o Steam Coils. Steam coils are commonly used in
applications of this type; for successful operation,
they must be properly trapped, and the traps must
function correctly. To minimize risk of freeze-up,
choose coils with a double-tube design that uses
steam pressure to blow condensate from the coil
(e.g., Trane Type NS coils). Some manufacturers
install the coil tubes vertically for greater
assurance of condensate removal. For added,
freeze protection, consider adding face-and-
bypass dampers to allow the coil to run at full flow.
o Integral Face-and-Bypass Coils (IFB). IFB coils
are very effective in preheat applications. As
shown in Figure 21, dual dampers enclose the coil
fins. If heat is needed, these dampers open;
Figure 20
Using Preheat to Prevent Cooling Coil Freeze-Up
RA
(78
0
F)

"-
OA
(OaF)
Preheat
Coils
I :

Freezestat
n
o
o 0
o 0
o 0

1 0 oj
'0 0:
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Managing Outdoor Air
Figure 21
Integral Face-and-Bypass Coils (Cross-Section)
Full Bypass
v
/ ""/
otherwise, they remain closed to prevent "coil
wiping" on the leaving side of the coil and avoid
unwanted heat pickup. Besides the traditional
horizontal configuration, vertical coil tube
arrangements are often available to promote
condensate removal and better protect the coil
from freeze-up.
o Hot Water Coils. Application requirements for
these coils are similar to those of steam coils.
While attractive for buildings without a ready
source of steam, hot water coils are also more
likely to freeze.
o Energy Recovery. Plate-and-frame heat
exchangers and other energy-recovery devices
can provide coil freeze protection, too. This option
transfers heat from the exhaust air to the cold
incoming outdoor air, raising its temperature
above freezing. See Figure 22 on page 20.
Shown there is a Trane Modular Climate
Changerw (MCC) in a stacked, dual-air-stream
configuration. A heat exchanger, placed just
downstream of the TRAQTM damper module,
tempers the minimum outdoor air stream.
Depending on ambient and exhaust air
conditions, this particular plate-and-frame heat
exchanger can raise the entering OA temperature
by as much as 50F.
19
Managing Outdoor Air
Figure 22
Air Handler with Energy-Recovery Preheat
: ' ~ - - - - - - - - . - I
Of course, opportunities for energy recovery are
not limited to coil freeze protection. Refer to
"Energy Recovery" on pages 40 to 45 for more
general application information.
o
Air Blenders/"High-Energy" Mixing Baffles
Improve mixing of the outdoor and return air streams
by installing air-mixing baffles or "blenders" inside the
mixing box, or immediately after it, as shown in
Figure 23. The configuration of the baffles adds
rotational energy to the passing air streams, boosting
their velocity for improved blending.
To illustrate the effectiveness of air "blenders" for coil
freeze protection, consider this: if the temperatures
Figure 23
Typical Air Blender
20
of the outdoor air and mixed air are -10F and 55F,
respectively, the air leaving the "blenders" will be no
colder than 35F.
Notice that at least one blender diameter of space is
provided just downstream of the blender itself; this
gives the air streams opportunity to finish mixing and
slow down before reaching the filters.
ADVANTAGE(S): Work effectively and consistently.
DISADVANTAGE(S): Increase the air handler's length
and initial cost; added pressure drop (i.e., typically
0.2 in. wg) also increases fan operating cost slightly.
High-Velocity Mixing Dampers
Like air "blenders", high-velocity Ruskin mixing
dampers enhance intermixing of the outdoor and
return air streams by increasing the design velocity
through the OA and RA dampers to 1500 fpm.
ADVANTAGE(S): Inexpensive.
DISADVANTAGE(S): Unpredictable effectiveness;
require extra space downstream of the dampers to
slow the high-velocity air before it reaches the filters.
(Failure to slow the air sufficiently can adversely
load, or even damage, the filters.) The pressure drop
through these dampers - about 0.2 in. wg - also
imposes a slight penalty on fan operating cost.
SYS-AM-14






Downstream Introduction of OA
For air handlers with split outdoor air streams,
introduce freezing - i.e., < 35F - ventilation air
into the air handler's supply fan section downstream
of the cooling coil. While similar to face-and-bypass
dampers, the ''winterizer'' arrangement shown in
Figure 24 injects the cold outdoor air farther from the
coil.
ADVANTAGE{S): Does not add to air handler length or
pressure drop.
DISADVANTAGE{S): Increases air handler's initial cost.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Managing Outdoor Air
Figure 24
Air Handler with "Winterizer" Coil Protection
Heating Coil
(optional)
< 35
0
F'7.. S ~
OA ... __ ... . . . i - - 00, --.
"" "'- 0 0
1
--- /? 00
1
>35F
" V 001
TRAQTM
Dampers
Filters Cooling
Coil
Supply Fan
21
Filtration
"Indoor air should not contain contaminants that
exceed concentrations known to impair health or
cause discomfort to occupants. Such contaminants
include various gases, vapors, microorganisms,
smoke, and other particulate matter." [ASH RAE
Standard 62-1989, Section 6.1]
Apart from the designer's moral obligation to provide
a safe, healthy building environment, this excerpt of
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 underscores the
importance of including appropriate filtration in any
"IAQ-ready" air handling system design.
Some airborne contaminants that affect indoor air
quality are particulates (e.g., smokes, dust, fibers);
others are gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, formaldehyde). Effectively controlling these
contaminants - i.e., by reducing their concentrations
to acceptable levels, or removing them from the air
stream altogether - hinges on proper filter selection,
installation, operation and maintenance.
22
Controlling Particulates
"Particulates" describe a broad class of airborne
chemical and physical contaminants that exist as
discrete grains or particles. Common particulates
include pollen, microorganisms, skin flakes and fine
dust. Under greatest attack are the respirable
particulates associated with tobacco smoke since it's
the single largest source of such contaminants,
particularly in office environments. Both the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
and the United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) advocate listing tobacco smoke as an
environmental carcinogen.
Airborne particulates vary in size, ranging from 0.01
to 100 microns; see Figure 25 for common
particulates and their sizes. (Generally, particles of
10 microns or less pose the greatest health hazard to
occupants since they are small enough to penetrate
the defenses of the body's respiratory system.) Many
types of media filters are available to address these
contaminants: some are designed to remove only
large airborne particles, while others - high-
efficiency air (HEPA) filters, for example - remove
particles with diameters less than one micron. What
distinguishes one filter type from another, apart from
the targeted particle size, is performance - i.e., how
well they clean the air.
Rating Filter Performance
ASHRAE Standard 52-1976 specifies the
internationally recognized procedure for testing
particulate filters used in HVAC systems, and defines
two measures of their performance:
o Arrestance is based on the weight of a specific
amount of atmospheric dust a filter captures over
a given period of time, and primarily applies to
low-performance filters (e.g., panel and roll-type).


o Efficiency is based on the actual amount - not
weight - of atmospheric dust a filter captures.
Depending on filter type and the test used,
performance may be measured as DOP
penetration (e.g., high-efficiency filters such as
HEPA-type) or dust spot efficiency (e.g., common
extended-surface filters such as pleated, bag and
SYS-AM-14



Figure 25
Common Particulate Contaminants and Their Characteristics
Particulate
Contaminants
i
Microns
001 005 01
!
Atmospheric Dust
05
II
Metallurgical Dust and Fumes
!
I
I
,
,
i
I
Zinc Oxide Fumes
, I
!
!
Carbon Black
Tobacco Smoke
i
Oi/Smoke
I
I
I
I
I
r
Filtration
5 5 10 50 100 500 1000
I
i
I , I
Ilf
Visible to Eye
,
I I
Floor Mill Dust
I i
I
1
II
Ground Umestone
I
l I
Cement Dust I
I
Plant Spores and Mold
i
, I
, I
Mine Dust
J
. ,
I
Bacteria i
1 r
Pollens
l
I
I
Fertilizer Plant Dust and Fumes !
Paint Pigments
1
,
Spray-Dried Mi/k
i
i
I
! Insecticide Dust
I
I
___ c _____ J
.
,
i
,
r--------
I
I Cloth Collectors

I
T
I I Common Air Rlters
I t---- Filter Types --j
:r
I :-=--=-_--=--=--=--=--=-.c '; High-EfficienCYlAirFilter: Impmgemenrseparato,rs
__ ______ ____ __________ __ L_ ____
.001
Microns
.005 .01 .05 .1
cartridge-type). Filters with dust spot efficiencies
exceeding 50% remove most microorganisms
from the passing airstream.
Other characteristics used to rate filter performance
are operating resistance (i.e., opposition to airflow
imposed on the fan) and face velocity limit.
Exceeding a filter's face velocity limit increases its
resistance -- which, in turn, increases fan energy
consumption -- and requires more frequent
maintenance or replacement. Table 1 (page 24) lists
the types of filters most commonly used in air
handling units and indicates their typical performance
characteristics.
DeSigning an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
.5 5 10 50 100 500 1000
Selecting Particulate Filters
Key factors to consider when evaluating filters for a
particular application are:
o the degree of cleanliness required. Higher filter
efficiencies mean cleaner air, less building
maintenance and better system performance.
To provide good indoor air quality, both the EPA
and ASHRAE recommend that the concentration
of particulates suspended in the air not exceed
0_05 to 0.07 mg/m3. While ASH RAE Standard 62-
1989 sets no specific particulate filtration
guidelines, other lAO manuals suggest filtration
levels of 90% arrestance and 40-60% dust spot
efficiency for new air handlers .
Building location and/or type may dictate filtration
requirements via national, state or local codes
established by government bodies or
23
Filtration
Table 1
Typical Performance Characteristics
of Frequently-Used Filters
Filter Type Efficiency (%) Arrestance (%)
2-in. Throwaway <20 82
2-in. Pleated Media 25-35 >90
4-in. Pleated Media 25-35 >90
12-in. Cartridge 60-65 100
80-85 100
90-95 100
6-in. Cartridge 60-65 100
80-85 100
90-95 100
3D-in. Bag 60-65 100
80-85 100
90-95 100
HEPA 99.97 100
99.97 100
occupational groups. New health care facilities,
for example, are regulated by the Department of
Health, Education and Welfare (HEW). The 1992
ASHRAE Handbook-Systems & Equipment
identifies typical filter types and efficiencies for
various applications; See Table 2 (page 25) for an
excerpt.
Other, more subjective, guidelines for filter
efficiency may originate from the occupants'
desire to improve health and productivity.
D operating resistance to airflow - i.e., pressure
drop. A direct correlation usually exists between a
filter's operating resistance, efficiency and first
cost: the higher the filter's efficiency, the greater
its resistance and initial expense.
D space available. Higher filter efficiencies occupy
more space and can make the air handler longer.
D maintenance. Proper filter maintenance means
frequent cleaning or replacement. While this
implies maintenance labor and expense, it's far
more difficult and costly to fix contaminant-related
problems downstream of the air handler than to
maintain an effective filtration system.
24
Resistance
Face Velocity
Initial (in.) Final (in.) Limit (fpm)
0.16 0.50 500
0.22 1.00 500
0.20 1.00 500
0.50 1.20 500
0.55 1.20 500
0.60 1.20 500
0.20 1.20 250
0.35 1.20 250
0.35 1.20 250
0.28 1.00 500
0.42 1.00 500
0.68 1.00 500
1.35 2.00 500
0.65 2.00 250
Choosing Filter Location
Filter placement varies with the origin of the
contaminants: if the particulates originate in the
occupied space, then it's logical to put filters in the
recirculated (retum) air stream. Similarly, if the
contaminants are found outdoors, put filters in the
supply air stream. Both points of origin can be
addressed from various locations in the air handler;
see Figure 26 (page 25). Be sure to follow these filter
placement guidelines when designing an "IAQ-ready"
air handling system:
:I Do not expose filters downstream of a blow-
thru cooling coil to saturated air. When
dehumidifying, blow-thru coils can emit a fog that
condenses on the filters and makes them more
susceptible to microbial growth. Too fine to be
removed by moisture eliminators, this fog can only
be eliminated by reheating the air 2 to 3F.
(Fogging is not an issue for draw-thru coils; fan
heat warms the air enough to prevent it.) If a blow-
thru coil arrangement is unavoidable, consider
adding a bypass damper or glycol-loop energy-
recovery system to reheat the air and eliminate
fogging.


Z Place all high-efficiency filters (i.e., ~ 99%
efficient) in the last section of the air handler.
When the filters are located upstream of the fan,
the air handler casing between the filters and fan
(continued on page 26)
SYS-AM-14
Filtration
Table 2

Typical Filter Applications Classified by Filter Efficiency
and Type(a)
Prefilter Prefilter "2" / Filter
Application Efficiency Type Efficiency Type Final Filter Comments
Warehouses, storage, none none 50-85% panel-type or none Reduces larger particle
shops, process areas, arrestance automatic roll settling; protects coils
mechanical equipment from dirt and lint.
rooms, coil protection
Special process areas, none none 75-90% extended surface, none Avg housecleaning.
electrical shops, paint arrestance; cartridge, bag-type Reduces lint in air
shops, avg general 35-60% or electronic stream. Reduces
offices and labs dust spot (manually cleaned or ragweed pollen> 85% at
replaceable media) 35%; removes all pollens
at 60%. Somewhat
effective on particles
causing smudges and
stains.
Analytical labs, 75-85% extended >98% bag-type, cartridge none Above-average
electronics shops, arrestance; surface, arrestance: or electronic housecleaning. No
drafting areas, 25-40% cartridge or 80-85% (semiautomatic settling of dust particles.
conference rooms, dust spot bag-type dust spot cleaning) Cartridge and bag types
above-avg general offices vel}' effective on
particles causing
smudges and stains;
particularly effective on
tobacco smoke.
Electronic types quite
effective on smoke .

Hospitals, pharmaceutical 75-85% extended >98% bag-type, cartridge 95%DOP Excellent housecleaning.
R&Dandmfg arrestance; surface, arrestance; or electronic disposable Vel}' effective on particles
(nonaseptic areas only), 25-40% cartridge or 80-85% (semiautomatic cell causing smudges and
some clean ("gray'? dust spot bag-type dust spot cleaning) stains, smoke and
rooms fumes. Highly effective on
bacteria.
Aseptic areas in hospital 75-85% extended >98% bag-type, cartridge ",99.97% Protects against
and pharmaceutical R&D arrestance; surface, arrestance; or electronic DOP bacteria, radioactive
and mfg. Clean rooms in 25-40% cartridge or 80-85% (semiautomatic disposable dusts, toxic dusts, smoke
film and electronics m'fli dust spot bag-type dust spot cleaning) cell and fumes.
radioactive areas, etc. ~
(a) Adapted from a similar table courtesy of E.I. du Pont De Nemours & Company.
(b) Electronic agglomerators and air cleaners are not usually recommended for clean room applications.
Figure 26
Possible Air Handler Locations for Particulate Filters
Best Application Good Applications Not Recommended

Designing an "IAQ-Ready' Air Handler System
25
Filtration
(continued from page 24)
inlet is negatively pressurized; casing leakage in
this area can degrade an otherwise high degree
of filtration and send particulates down the
ductwork.
3 Provide easy access to filters for maintenance
and replacement. Air handler location, limited
service clearance and access panels that are
obstructed or held in place by screws discourage
regular filter maintenance.
4 Distribute air evenly over the entire filter
surface. Higher-than-normal air velocities striking
the face of the filter can damage it.
Controlling GaSEOUS
Contaminants
Contaminants in the outdoor and recirculated air
streams are not limited to particulates. The presence
of certain undesirable gases and vapors inside the
building can be detrimental to occupants, building
Table 3
IAQ Standards Summarized from ASHRAE Standard 62-1989,
Tables 1 and 3
Long-Term
Concentration
Contaminant (l1g1fTil) (ppm)
Carbon Dioxide 1.8x 10.
6
1000
Carbon Monoxide (USA)
Chlordane (maximum) 5.0 0.0003
Lead 1.5
Nitrogen Dioxide 100.0 0.055
Oxidants (ozone, USA)
100.0 0.05
Particulates (total, USA) 50.0
Radon 4 pCilL
Sulfur Dioxide (USA) 80.0 0.030
materials and contents. Of particular concern are
carbon monoxide (GO), radon, oxidants (ozone),
nitrogen oxides (NO and N0
2
), and volatile organic
compounds such as formaldehyde (HGHO) and
toluene (CH3CSHS)'
Controlling concentrations of volatile organic
compounds - ''VOG's'' - in indoor air is particularly
challenging: hundreds of them are present, there are
many potential sources (some emitting several
VOG's), and few VOC's are unique to anyone
source. Formaldehyde, for example, is often
introduced into a building during its construction or
renovation via plywood, paneling, fiberglass,
wallboard and other building materials. About 80% of
the known VOC's are potential irritants, and more
than 25% are suspected carcinogens.
~ Any compound that contains both carbon and
hydrogen atoms - and either exists as a gas or
easily off-gases under normal room temperatures
and relative humidity - is considered a 'vac."
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 requires that
concentrations of gaseous contaminants such as
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide
and ozone be maintained below the limits specified
there. Tables 1 and 3 (further defined by Appendix C)
of the Standard indicate "acceptable" indoor
concentration levels for 10 contaminants; Table 3
summarizes these limits. The Standard is also
careful to state that the concentration limits specified
Acceptable Exposure
Short-Term
Time Concentration Time
ASHRAE
(years) (l1g1fTil) (ppm) (hours) Table(a)
continuous 3
40,000 35.0
10,000 9.00 8
continuous 3
0.25
1.00
235 0.12
continuous 3
1.00 150 24
1.00 3
1.00 365 0.14 24
(a) Consult these tables in ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 for specific provisos.
26
SYS-AM-14






do not include all of the known gaseous
contaminants that may need to be addressed. In fact,
the overwhelming number of VaG's makes individual
measurements difficult and expensive.
Methods of Abatement
When compliance with (Section 5.9) does not
provide adequate control of gaseous contaminants,
methods based on sorption with or without oxidation
or other scientifically proven technology shalf be
used."[ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Section 5.10]
This excerpt obligates the designer to use a more
sophisticated means of gaseous-contaminant
removal if particulate filtration cannot clean outdoor
and recirculated air to acceptable levels.
One way to control gaseous contaminants is to dilute
them with outdoor air. This strategy is particularly
appealing for VaG's since many of them defy
individual treatment. Of course, dilution is only a
practical solution if there is a consistent, appropriate
flow of supply air that mixes effectively with room air.
Even then, the preferred control measure is
elimination of the source of contamination whenever
possible .
Table 4
Common Gaseous Contaminants
Contaminant Chemical Type
Ammonia (NHsJ Base Gas
Filtration
Filtration for gaseous contaminants applies the
principles of adsorption, oxidation and catalysis; of
these, adsorption with granular, activated carbon is
most commonly used. Carbon filtration reliably
removes a variety of gases and odors from the air
stream, but is not without drawbacks:
o Additional pressure drop requires more fan
energy.
o Low velocity needed for effective filtration
increases air handler length, occupying more
space.
D Humidity significantly impairs filtration efficiency
o Fails to remove carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide.
D Requires frequent maintenance, and is messy.
o Initial cost is high.
Table 4 indicates the most effective type of filtration
for a number of common contaminants; notice that
no single filtration method works for all contaminants.
Also, the lack of standard performance ratings
makes it difficult to effectively evaluate and apply
Common Source(s)
Blueprints
Personal
Exposure Umit
(PEL)
50 ppm
Effective
Filtration
Oxidation
Benzene (C
6
H6l Organic Gas Diesel and automotive exhaust 10 ppm Sorption
Carbon Dioxide (COd Inorganic Gas Human exhalation
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Inorganic Gas Auto emiSSions,
combustion by-products
Chlorine (Cld Acid Gas Chlorinated cleaning/janitorial
materials
Ethyl Benzene (CSHIO) Organic Gas Diesel and automotive exhaust
Formaldehyde (HCHO) Organic Gas Building materials, glues/resins,
carpet fibers and synthetics
Hydrogen Sulfide (H
2
S) Acid Gas Petrochemicals, sewage treatment
Ozone (Os) Inorganic Gas Copy machines, electrostatic
precipitators
Sulfur Dioxide (SO:J Sulfonated Compound Combustion processes,
sewage treatment
Toluene Organic Gas Cleaning solvents, fossil fuels,
petroleum-based products
Xylene Organic Gas Cleaning solvents, fossil fuels,
petroleum-based products
DeSigning an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
1000 ppm
50 ppm
0.5 ppm
100 ppm
0.75 ppm
0.10ppm
100 ppm
100 ppm
Ventilation
Catalysis
Sorption
Sorption
Sorption or
Oxidation
Oxidation
Catalysis or
Oxidation
Sorption or
Oxidation
Sorption
Sorption
27
Filtration
gaseous air cleaners. They can be costly to operate,
too, and may prove inadequate if there's a strong
contaminant source nearby. Given these
circumstances, it's not surprising that, of the two
approaches described in ASH RAE Standard 62-
1989 for providing acceptable indoor air quality (see
page 6), the Ventilation Rate Procedure is preferred.
1& Increased ventilation doesn't necessarily mean
increased energy consumption. Combining it with an
energy recovery system (see "Energy Recovery" on
pages 40 to 45) may cost less to install, operate and
maintain than gaseous filtration in some applications.
Why Measure CO
2
?
"Human occupants produce carbon dioxide, water
vapor, particulates, biological aerosols and other
contaminants. Carbon dioxide concentration has
been widely used as an indicator of indoor air quality.
Comfort (odor) criteria are likely to be satisfied if the
ventilation rate is set so that 1,000 ppm CO
2
is not
exceeded {at steady state}." [ASHRAE Standard 62-
1989, Section 6.1.3]
CO
2
concentration indicates whether a space is
occupied and can be related to the number of people
present, but it is not related to the concentrations
of other contaminants that may be present.
Be careful to avoid using CO
2
concentration to reset
the ventilation rate below the minimum requirements
established by ASH RAE Standard 62-1989's
Ventilation Rate Procedure. Bear in mind that "C0
2
is
essentially an occupant-based measurement and
some contaminants are not occupant related. In a
room with few people, for example, the CO
2
could be
well below accepted levels while concentrations of
some VOC's could be unacceptably high. In other
28
Figure 27
Typical CO
2
or VOC-Specific Sensor
instances, CO
2
as a surrogate may indicate higher
levels of contaminants, but increased ventilation may
not be the best solution:'
(Figure 27) CO
2
sensors produce a 4-20 rnA or
0-10 VDC output signal which is proportional to CO
2
concentration. By sensing space and supply air CO
2
,
a building automation system can be programmed to
identify spaces which are occupied. High CO
2
levels
can be used to increase ventilation rates above
minimum values, or notify the building operator that
more ventilation air is needed.
When choosing a sensor, reliability is critical. Select
a sensor that will not drift more than 100 ppm
annually. VOC levels can also be sensed to indicate
inadequate dilution of contaminants not directly
related to occupancy.
SYS-AM-14






Combatting
Microbial Contaminants
While filtration effectively removes a number of
common particulate and gaseous "pollutants" from
the building environment, microbiological or
"microbial" contaminants are sometimes too small to
be filtered entirely from the air stream.
Microbial contaminants describe airborne agents
originating from dead or living organisms - e.g.,
bacteria, fungi (especially molds), viruses and
mammal/bird antigens. Inhaling these agents
(sometimes called bioaerosols) may cause
occupants to experience hypersensitivity and allergic
reactions, respiratory disorders and infectious
diseases.
Two types of lAO problems - sick building
syndrome (SBS) and building-related illness (BRI)-
have been associated with specific symptoms, and
are attributable (at least in part) to microbial
TableS
Microorganisms Affecting Indoor Air Quality and
Human Health
contamination. Unless steps are taken to improve the
building environment, prolonged exposure may
permanently damage the health of - or even prove
fatal (e.g., Legionnaire's disease) to - susceptible
occupants. Table 5 identifies a number of common
microorganisms and their effects on human health.
Research conducted by the country's leading lAO
firms underscores the importance of inhibiting
microbial agents: they've been either directly or
indirectly responsible for the SBS or BRI problems in
most of the buildings evaluated over the last five
years.
One example of microbial contamination is an all-too-
commonplace mold the HVAC industry's dubbed
"drain pan slime." As the mold dries, it becomes
airborne and is circulated throughout the air
distribution system ... eventually landing on new
breeding sites (e.g., insulation, floor and wall
Bacteria(a)
Fungi "Gram-Negative" Species "Gram-Positive" Species
ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS - mycotoxins
ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS - invasive
aspergillosis
CLADOSPORIUM, PENICILLIUM -
hypersensitivity reactions
DERMA TOPHYTES - trichophyton,
epidermophyton skin infections
STACHYBOTRYS ATRA - mycotoxins
CANDIDA ALBICANS - skin and invasive,
systemic infections
CANDIDA TROPICALIS - skin and invasive,
systemic infections
CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS - systemic
infections, respiratory
HISTOPLASMA CAPSULA TUM - systemic
infections, respiratory
COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS - respiratory
infections and meningitiS
LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILIA - respiratory
infections
PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA - eye, ear,
wound respiratory infections
PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA - respiratory
infections
KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONAE - respiratory
infections
PROTEUS MIRABILUS - urinary tract and
wound infections
ESCHERICHIA COLI - urinary tract and
intestinal infections
CLOSTRIDIUM SP. - intestinal infections!
toxins
HAEMOPHILUS - bacterial pneumonia
SHIGELLA SP. - diarrheal disease
NEISSERIA sp, - meningitis and venereal
disease
MYCOBACTERIAL TUBERCULOSIS-
respiratory and systemiC infections
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS - (especially
methicillin resistant), skin and systemic
infections
STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-
(especially methicillin reSistant), skin and
systemic infections
STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES - wound
infections
STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONAE - respiratory
infections
CORYNEBACTERIUM - diphtheria toxin,
respiratory
LiSTERIA MONOCYTOGENES - systemic
infections and meningitis
(a) "Gram-negative" bacteria prefer moist, humid conditions and are more difficult to control than "gram-positive" bacteria; the latter prefer a
dry climate and reproduce by spores.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System 29
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Figure 28
Microbial Habitats in Bui/dings
Legend
CC = Cooling Coil
F = Filter
H = Humidifier
HC = Heating Coil
RF = Relief Fan
SF = Supply Fan
lJ. Breeding Sites
Return
Return Plenum
coverings, etc.) or being inhaled by building
occupants.
(Figure 28) This example suggests that the HVAC
system impacts indoor air quality in at least two
ways:
o by providing sites for ever-present
microorganisms to colonize and breed - i.e., the
dark, moist conditions inside ductwork, on cooling
coil surfaces and in drain pans are an ideal
habitat; and ...
o by conveying bioaerosols from these colonies to
the occupied space.
Cleaning and disinfecting with nonpolluting cleaners
and antimicrobial coatings provide protection against
mold growth ... but cannot eliminate it altogether.
Moisture control, therefore, becomes an important
means of reducing microbial contaminants.
This chapter summarizes several lAO design
strategies that effectively reduce biological
contaminants in the air handler and at the occupied
space:
o At the air handler: "source control" at outdoor air
intakes and exhaust openings; steel lining for the
air handler interior; "positive-draining" condensate
pans and traps; antimicrobial treatments;
removable access panels; a "moisture purge"
cycle and preventive maintenance.
30
J - - - 4 ( ~ - + - - i - - - - Internal Insulation
Condensate Drain Pan
Suspended Ceiling
PaintsiWall Coverings
~ - + - - - Fabrics
o In the occupied space: proper dehumidification
and/or humidification.
At the Air Handler ...
'Ventilating ducts and plenums shall be constructed
and maintained to minimize the opportunity for
growth and dissemination of microorganisms through
the ventilation system." [ASH RAE Standard 62-
1989, Section 5.6]
This excerpt requires the design and specification of
cleanable duct systems, and is commonly extended
to include air handlers, VAV terminals and other air
distribution equipment. SMACNA - the Sheet Metal
and Air-Conditioning Contractors National
Association, Inc. makes a similar recommendation,
advocating that:
"Air handling units should be constructed so that
equipment maintenance personnel have easy and
direct access to both heat exchange components
and drain pans for checking drainage and cleaning.
Access panels or doors should be installed where
needed ... "
SYS-AM-14






Intake and Exhaust Openings
"'Source control" of contaminants is an important
aspect of designing an "IAQ-ready" air handling
system. Birds, for example, are a significant source
of bioaerosols, and often choose outdoor air intakes
and exhaust openings as nesting sites. To eliminate
this particular contaminant source, provide screens
on all intake and exhaust openings.
Steel Liner
Specify that the air handler include a solid steel inner
liner. Such a liner provides several benefits:
o Its smooth, slippery surface makes it tough for
microorganisms to adhere and breed.
o It's easily cleaned.
o It isolates casing insulation from the air stream
and keeps it dry. (Wet insulation is a notorious
microbial breeding ground.)
For acoustically sensitive applications, specify a
perforated inner liner. The perforated surface is still
cleanable, but provides quieter unit operation by
allowing the casing to absorb sound.
JkiF Insulation used with a perforated liner should be
matt-faced and coated to deter fibers from entering
the air stream. (Avoid using My/arTM to shield the
insulation from the air stream; as yet, its NFPA
flammability rating is unestablished.) For added
protection, specify treatment with an antimicrobial
detergent.
Figure 29
A Comparison of Drain Pan Designs
Drain Pan A Drain Pan B
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Antimicrobial Treatments
Risk of microbial contamination can be reduced by
limiting the availability of suitable breeding sites. One
way to do this is to apply an antimicrobial coating to
the interior surfaces of the air distribution system
where moisture is likely to collect - e.g., fan scrolls
and blades, drain pans, coils, filter media, baffle
plates and plenums.
Most antimicrobial treatments shorten cell life and
eliminate reproduction, but work only on contact.
Since coverage of the entire surface is critical to the
treatment's effectiveness, such coatings should be
professionally applied. However, they are not a
substitute for routine cleaning with disinfectants,
sanitizers or biocides.
~ Applying an antimicrobial coating to a coil greatly
reduces its wetting characteristics, and may cause
moisture carryover at velocities as low as 200 fpm.
Drain Pans
Stagnant water is prime habitat for microbial
contaminants; the condensate drain pan, therefore,
becomes a key element in the design of an "IAQ-
ready" air handling system.
Positive Drainage
Microorganisms need food (dirt) and moisture to
breed; take away either of these, and you hamper
their growth. Compare the three drain pan designs in
Figure 29. Obviously, Pan A does little to discourage
microbial colonization; it's flat design allows dirt and
Drain Pan C
No Slope - Poor lAO Choice Sloped in One Direction - Better lAO Choice Sloped in Two Directions - Best lAO Choice
Designing an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System 31
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Figure 30
Proper Condensate Trapping
"AHU 1"
Housekeeping
Pad
o No unit base rail
o Housekeeping
pad required to
accommodate
trap height
"AHU2"
Drain
1--___
Base 1I1111!!11111"r
o Drain connection
extends through
base rail
o Housekeeping
pad required to
accommodate
trap height
moisture to sit in the pan. Though Pan B slopes in
one plane, there's still a level seam that will collect
dirt and moisture; to discourage microbial growth,
treat drain pans of this design with an antimicrobial
coating. Pan C is the best choice for an "IAQ-ready"
air handler: sloped in two directions to eliminate
level seams, it promotes condensate flow directly to
the drain outlet.
Material
To impede corrosion and prevent condensation on
the pan exterior, specify heavy-gauge steel, insulated
drain pans. Galvanized drain pans are adequate for
most commercial applications; for caustic
environments, consider stainless steel pans.
I&' While used successfully in small blower-coil units,
plastic drain pans are not yet a viable option in
central station air handlers - i.e., they either fail to
comply with the NFPA 90 flammability/smoke
standard, or aren't strong enough for seIVice.
32
"AHU3"
o Drain connection
extends through
casing above
base rail
:::J Depending on
static pressure, a
housekeeping
pad may not be
needed for trap
installation
Condensate Traps
Trap Detail:
Module with Negative Static Pressure
"H" must be at least
1 inch PLUS casing
static pressure
H
Trap Detail:
I (-)

'X"= 112"H"
Module with Positive Static Pressure
"H" must be at least
1 inch PLUS casing
static pressure
H
'X" must be
at least 1 inch
Standing water isn't the only source of microbial
contaminants at the air handler drain pan, If
improperly trapped, bacteria and gaseous
contaminants can be drawn from the condensate
trap into the air handler and mixed air stream. To
accommodate the trap, mount the unit on a
housekeeping pad or base rail as shown in Figure
30. Notice, too, that modules under negative static
pressure require different trap dimensions than those
under positive pressure.
Access Panels
"Provision shall be made for periodic in-situ cleaning
of cooling coils and condensate pans. Air-handling
and fan-coil units shall be easily accessible for
inspection and preventive maintenance."[ASHRAE
Standard 62-1989, Section 5.12]
(Figure 31, page 33) Maintenance personnel are
more likely to inspect and clean air handler
components regularly if they're easy to access.
Removing a few screws and an access panel, for
example, requires little effort if it's not also necessary
SYS-AM-14






Figure 31
Removable Panels and Doors for Easy Access
to add braces to maintain the air handler's structural
integrity. Easily removable access panels are
especially important in small-sized air handling units
where space is naturally tight. More thorough
inspection and cleaning is encouraged if the unit's
design permits removal of aI/panels without requiring
temporary supports.
Of course, "easy access" isn't solely a function of
removable panels and doors: it also means
providing adequate space around the air handler to
facilitate regular maintenance.
Casing
When properly designed and installed, the air
handler casing guides air through the conditioning
components (e.g., filter, coil, fan) and provides
sufficient access to them for cleaning and
maintenance. From the standpoint of good indoor air
quality, however, it performs another valuable
function: it insulates the conditioned air inside the
unit from the air outside the unit.
If the air surrounding the air handler is unconditioned
or significantly warmer than the conditioned air
stream - e.g., a low-temperature (40
0
F) blow-thru
air handler installed in an unconditioned 95FOB,
78F WB space - the insulative properties of the
casing become a design issue. To prevent
condensation from forming on the air handler, the
casing must possess sufficient thermal resistance to
keep the surface temperature of the casing exterior
above the dew point of the surrounding air.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready Air Handler System
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Use the equation below to determine the thermal
resistance (TR) ratio required by a particular
application; then verify that the construction of the air
handler casing satisfies that requirement.
surrounding air dew point temp - inside air sensible temp

surrounding air sensible temp - inside air sensible temp
1& As an added precaution against moisture
accumulation, seal all penetrations of the casing and
base when the air handler is installed; if needed,
insulate piping and electrical conduit connections
external to the unit.
"Moisture Purge" Cycle
By it's very nature, any HVAC unit with a cooling coil
serves as a dehumidifier, reducing the surrounding
air's ability to hold water vapor as its temperature
falls. This normally doesn't present a problem when
the unit is running. However, when the fan stops,
water vapor condenses on the cold metal surfaces
inside the air handler and remains there until the air
warms sufficiently to re-evaporate it. This damp, dark
environment - though temporary - can encourage
the growth of mold, mildew and other microbial
contaminants.
Providing a "moisture purge" cycle 15 to 30 minutes
after shutdown disperses the cold, humid air inside
the air handling system more evenly throughout the
building. This four-step cycle:
:I closes the outdoor air dampers;
2 turns off the cooling coil;
3 opens any VAV terminals connected to the air
handler; and ...
4 operates the supply fan for 10 to 15 minutes.
Air movement discourages water condensation and
hastens re-evaporation of any condensate that does
happen to form. This simple preventive measure
effectively combats microbial growth and curbs
moisture-related deterioration of air handling
components.
33
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Preventive Maintenance
A comprehensive preventive maintenance program
should be a provision in the design of any "IAQ-
ready" air handling system. Following are several key
elements:
o Inspect and clean drain pans every three months.
o Inspect the air handler liner every three months;
thoroughly clean areas evidencing mold growth.
o Inspect filters monthly. Comply with the
manufacturer's recommendations for cleaning or
replacement. (Filters are a natural habitat for
microorganisms; timely replacement is critical to
minimize microbial growth.)
o Check the coils for "dirt" accumulation every three
to six months. (If excessively dirty, make sure the
filters are clean and positioned proper/y.) Clean
the coils at least once each year as instructed by
the manufacturer.
I@f Part of providing good indoor air quality is to isolate
building occupants from maintenance-related
contaminants. For example, coils and filters should
be cleaned with the air handler off to avoid blowing
dangerous fumes into the occupied space. Safe use
of cleaning agents requires strict adherence to
manufacturer-recommended precautions.
34
In the Occupied SpacE ...
Unless the air handling system is designed to
address ASH RAE Standard 62-1989's minimum
ventilation requirement, compliance may actually
adversely affect indoor air quality. How? In most
climates, bringing more outdoor air into a building
induces relative humidities outside the normal limits
for comfort and health - i.e., too moist during
summer months, and too dry in the winter.
"Research has clearly documented the
problems associated with air that is too dry or
too moist. The relationship of RH to the
prevalence of mites, fungi, viruses is clear.
Airbome viruses, for example, survive best at
lower, and higher, humidity levels. Influenza
virus survives much better at lower humidities
poliomyelitis virus at higher humidities. The RH
level, least hospitable to contaminants is at
about 50% . .. , 40-50% RH with !emperatures
of 68 to 70
0
F produces the most healthy
conditions for living and working areas and for
recovery from diseases of the respiratory
system."t
Maintaining space relative humidities within this
range requires humidification when outdoor air is
too dry and dehumidification when it's too wet.
Design considerations for both moisture control
strategies are explored here. Each is discussed in
terms of its application at the air handler because of
the inherent advantages - i.e., a factory-packaged
air handling system with integral controls is typically
more efficient, more cost-effective and less prone to
misapplication than a comparable "built-up" system.
1Shirley J. Hansen, Ph.D., Manaafllg Indoor Air Ouality
(Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press, 1991), p. 169.
SYS-AM-14






Humidification (MCC's, PCC's)
Low relative humidities can be undesirable for a
number of reasons; they may:
o necessitate higher temperatures for thermal
comfort, increasing heating costs;
o cause dryness of skin and hair;
o promote static electricity (i.e., which can be
unpleasant for occupants, detrimental to
computing equipment - even dangerous where
explosive gases are present);
o cause drying and shrinking of furniture, wood
floors and interior trim; and ...
o favor transmission of airborne infections such as
influenza.
Consequently, moisture must sometimes be added to
the air - usually only in winter - to provide a
comfortable, healthy indoor environment. ASH RAE
Standard 62-1989 suggests maintaining relative
humidities between 30% and 60% in habitable
spaces.
To be "IAQ ready," the air handling system must
deliver consistently appropriate humidification; that
is, water particles injected into the air stream by the
humidifier must be fully absorbed within the confines
of the air handler, and without collecting on its walls
or components. Misapplied humidifiers (particularly
water-spray type) commonly inject too much
moisture into the air; the excess water that ultimately
condenses downstream of the humidifier can soak
duct insulation, increasing the likelihood of microbial
growth. In extreme cases, water may even leak from
duct or air handler.
1& It's important to introduce no more moisture into the
air stream than can be absorbed without
condensation; otherwise, mold growth and
deterioration of building materials and fumishings
can occur. Condensate is most likely to form first on
windows since their surface temperature is usually
lowest in the building. If the humidity required for a
particular application causes condensation on the
windows, add insulative films or extra panes to
increase the thermal resistance of the glass.
Warm, dry air holds more moisture than cold or
saturated air, so humidifier placement inside the air
handler should reflect this simple fact. (One of the
worst locations is immediately downstream of an
active cooling coil, particularly a low-temperature
blow-thru coil.)
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Three types of commercial humidifiers are generally
used in central air handling systems. Ranked from
least to most effective, they are: wetted media,
atomized water and steam.
Wetted-Media Humidifiers
Humidifiers of this type evaporate water from wet
media by circulating air over or through it. Since they
rely on airflow for evaporation, their performance
varies with the air's temperature, humidity and
velocity. Ironically, the wet media lowers the sensible
temperature of the passing air stream and reduces
its ability to hold water.
Application Consideration
o The pools of standing water that dampen the
media make these humidifiers more vulnerable to
microbial contamination and, therefore,
inadvisable for IAQ-ready air handler
applications. To eliminate microorganisms from
the water, follow the manufacturer's
recommendations for periodic maintenance and
regular use of additives such as odorless
microbiocides.
Atomized-Water Humidifiers
Atomized-water humidifiers create a fine mist that's
introduced directly into the air and evaporated.
Various mist-generating techniques are used.
Ultrasonic nozzles, for example, atomize water by
combining it, under pressure, with air.
Application Considerations
o Though more effective than wetted-media, an
atomized-water humidifier generally provides less
capacity than a steam humidifier of similar size.
D Accurate psychrometric calculations are required
to assure that the duct air stream completely
absorbs water droplets.
Steam Humidifiers
"Steam is preferred as a moisture source for
humidifiers ... "[ASHRAE Standard 62-1989,
Section 5.12]
Steam is water vapor at low pressure and
temperature, so introducing it directly into the
passing air stream greatly simplifies the
humidification process. It's effective, too: complete
35
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
absorption occurs in a short distance (due to the
large temperature difference between the steam and
incoming air); and, unlike wetted media, the sensible
air temperature remains constant so higher relative
humidities can be achieved without condensate
forming in the air handler or ductwork.
A humidity controller governs operation of the
humidifier, actuating a modulating'or two-position
valve in response to system demand. Response is
almost immediate when steam is supplied from a
separate source at a constant supply pressure.
(Figure 32) Armstrong's HumidipackTM is one
example of a commercially available "dry" steam
humidifier. Its design provides quick absorption of
moisture into the air stream, typically without water
carryover; see Figure 33. Humidipacks can be
factory-installed in either of Trane's central station air
handlers (Le., MGG's or PGG's; see page 13), and
are constructed of stainless steel to resist corrosion.
Humidipack Application Considerations
o The Humidipack's short moisture impingement
distances offer greater placement flexibility than
most humidifiers. For example, it need not be
positioned upstream of a cooling coil. However,
certain location rules do apply:
(a) Turning modules used immediately upstream
and downstream of a Humidipack must be
large.
(b) Don't place the humidifier immediately
downstream of the fan discharge.
Figure 32
Humidipack Module
36
Figure 33
Airflow Pattern through Humidipack
o Inactive "baffle" tubes shape and accelerate entering air
stream.
@ Active "dispersar tubes guide high-velocity steam into
oncoming airflow. Opposing air and steam "ow patterns
provide faster, more uniform distribution and absorption
of moisture, reducing impingement distances.
(c) Avoid placing the Humidipack directly
downstream of a housed-fan, blow-thru coil
bank.
(d) If placed upstream of a final filter or electric
heat coil, extra dispersion distance may be
needed.
(e) Provide horizontal airflow through the
Humidipack.
o If airflow entering and leaving the Humidipack
module is relatively uniform (i.e., 400-700 fpm),
one blank module placed immediately
downstream will allow proper steam dispersion
and absorption.
o (Figure 34, page 37) When operating at capacity,
Humidipack raises the sensible temperature of
the passing air stream by 2
0
to 3
0
F. The average
static pressure drop through this device is
relatively low - i.e., about 0.1" wg.
o A steam-to-steam heat exchanger or separate
steam generator can supply the Humidipack; see
Figure 35 (page 37) for a simple piping schematic.
Do not use water containing biocide residues or
water treatment chemicals for humidification.
SYS-AM-14






Figure 34
Typical Humidipack Performance
A = Dry entering air
B = Moist leaving air
30 40 70
Dry Bulb Temperature (OF)
110
o The single steam header releases a small amount
of condensate, if any, at atmospheric pressure-
usually only at start-up. Return this condensate to
the boiler or pipe it to the drain system, as local
codes permit; do not discharge it into the air
handler drain pan.
o For proper HumidipackTM operation in MCC or
pce applications, use Trane-provided, field-
installed Armstrong controls. The control package
includes a pneumatic or electric steam valve,
strainer and steam trap, as well as a room
humidistat, high-limit humidistat and fan airflow-
proving switch.
o Steam humidifier control accuracy is typically
5% RH at the space.
Figure 36
Required Entries for Trane's MCCIHumidipack Selection
Program
o Air handler type (Penthouse Climate ChangefiP or Modular
Climate Changer) and size
o Required steam capacity, Ibs (if known)
o Design airflow, scfm (400 fpm minimum for VAVapplications)
o Humidifier entering-air conditions:
... dry-bulb temperature
... wet-bUlb temperature or relative humidity
o Rnal"post-humidifier" air conditions:
... relative humidity
... dry-bulb temperature
o Supply steam pressure at control valve inlet
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Figure 35
Typical Humidipack Piping
1"/12"
Slope
Drip
Leg
Control Valve
Header
1"Air\ . :.
Gap


o Use computerized selection programs to choose
an appropriate humidifier capacity and control
size for a particular application. As an example,
Figure 36 indicates the information typically
needed to select a Humidipack using Trane's
computerized selection program.
[) Desired control option (choose one):
... pneumatic, normally-closed [3-13 psi or 4-11 psi
spring range]
... electric, normally-closed [0-135 ohms, 24 VAC or
120 VAC motor supply voltage. spring return]
... electronic [2-10 VDCor4-20mA signal, 24 VACor
120 VAC motor supply voltage]
[) Steam control valve and/or trap construction:
... castiron, or
... stainless steel
o Piping arrangement for supply/drain (facing into air stream):
... right-hand side, or
... left-hand side
37
Combatting Microbial Contaminants
Dehumidification (MCC's, PCC's)
"High humidities can support the growth of .
pathogenic or allergenic organisms ... Relative
humidity in habitable spaces preferably should be
maintained between 30% and 60% ... to minimize
growth of allergenic or pathogenic organisms."
[Section 5.11, ASH RAE Standard 62-1989]
Most climates require dehumidification to keep space
relative humidities under 60%. Some building
designers go as far as specifying dehumidification
control systems to maintain space humidity at or
below this level during occupied hours. ASH RAE
Standard 62-1989's recommendation isn't the only
reason for doing so. Studies indicate that controlling
humidity between 30% and 60% (ideally, between
40% and 50%) significantly reduces respiratory
infections and absenteeism among building
occupants - improving their health, comfort and
productivity.
The Occupational Safety & Health Administration
(OSHA) provides additional incentive .to incorporate
dehumidification in HVAC system designs. It recently
proposed an lAO regulation that
humidities below 60% if mechanical refrigeration IS
used.
There are basically two ways to dehumidify air: by
condensing the entrained water vapor on cooling
coils, or by removing it with a desiccants. Of
alternatives, cooling-coil dehumidification - with
it's comparatively low first cost - is most commonly
used in commercial HVAC applications.
Figure 37
Conventional Cooling-Coil Dehumidification
Conventional
Single-Path Air Handler
Filters Cooling Reheat Supply
Coil Coil Fan
Latent and sensible load
Desiccant dehumidifiers may be practical in
applications where problems caused by
condensation, frost and high relative humidity
preclude effective use of cooling coils.
What About Reheat?
Though cooling coils can effectively control the air's
moisture content, standard air handling applications
also require reheat to control the sensible air
temperature. Why? Latent and sensible peak loads
at the air handler seldom occur at the same time-
i.e., latent loads reflect ambient conditions, peaking
when the outdoor air is wettest (usually in the
morning); sensible loads, on the other hand,
generally peak in the afternoon. See Figure 37.
Cooling coils can overcool the space when
dehumidifying at sensible part-load conditions.
Adding a reheat device downstream of the cooling
coil solves this problem.
Traditionally, "new energy" hot water or electric coils
provided the necessary reheat, but this solution is
now so expensive that it's been outlawed by a
number of state and local energy codes. Another,
less costly means of reheating the air stream uses an
energy-recovery device such as a heat pipe or glycol
run-around loop.
Though economically more appealing than providing
reheat, ignoring dehumidification altogether isn't the
answer either. Without reheat, the occupied space
can become too cold or too humid for comfort.
Dehumidification without reheat can also lead to
health problems and accelerate structural
deterioration.
Reheat needed to
control space temperature
I I I
I I, Sensible
1/ I "" i Temperature
"J.<
% Relative
Humidity
I
peaks seldom coincide. Li --i-----+---+---t-----t--
Midnight 6 ANI Noon 6 PM. Midnight
38
SYS-AM-14






Figure 38
Dual-Path Stacked Dehumidification Unit (SOU)
"Secondary Unit"
RA
Filters
Sensible
Cooling
Coil
Combatting Microbia! Contaminants
I
"Primary Unit"

Ventilation . Note:
A Dual-Path Solution
A more practical way to provide controlled
dehumidification is to apply a dual-path air handler
that pretreats entering outdoor air before mixing it
with the building's return air stream. Figure 38
illustrates an example of such an arrangement;
referred to as a Stacked Dehumidification Unit or
SOU, it consists of a Trane Modular Climate
Changer in a stacked configuration with two distinct
outdoor air paths:
o The air handler's upper deck - or "secondary
unit," which contains the dehumidification (DH)
module - controls space humidity, treating only
ventilation outdoor airflow using a cooling coil with
special water management features. A small
steam, hot water, electric or heat-recovery coil
can be added if reheat requirements exceed the
free reheat available in the return air stream.
o The lower deck of the unit (Le., the "primary unit")
maintains the sensible temperature in the space,
handling return airflow as well as any economizer
outdoor airflow.
Figure 39 indicates typical SOU psychrometric
performance.
Successfully used in the southeastern United States
and other humid climates, the dual-path solution to
dehumidification control applies equally well to new
and existing central-station air handler installations .
Designing an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
TRAOTM
Damper
Filters Latent
Cooling
Coil
See Figure 39 for
SOU psychrometric
performance.
SDU Application Considerations
o A good design "rule of thumb" is to size the
dehumidification module at 25% of the "primary
unit's" capacity.
o Relative humidities in an unoccupied space rise
as the space cools; for example, a space at 75F,
50% RH need only cool to 65F to reach 70% RH
- a level that promotes microbial growth. The
stacked dehumidification unit provides a practical,
economical method for providing critical
dehumidification during unoccupied hours.
Figure 39
Typical SDU Performance
0= Outdoor air (OA)
@ = Cool/dehumidify OA
@} = Space return air (RAJ
O=CooIRA
0= Mixed supply air, OA + RA
(anywhere along dotted line)
30 80 90
Dry Bulb Temperalure (OF)
39
Energy Recovery
" ... The use of energy recovery ventilation systems
should be considered for energy conservation
purposes in meeting ventilation requirements. "
[ASHRAE 62-1989, Section 5.1] .
Bringing more outdoor air into the building to satisfy
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 can be a costly way to
improve indoor air quality. The air handler must
condition more air - and that means higher utility
bills. Energy costs aren't likely to fall any time soon,
either, so it's important to recognize available
opportunities for savings. Air-to-air energy
recovery offers one such opportunity. Treating air
destined for the occupied space requires a
considerable investment of energy; it's logical to
recover some of that energy, where practical, rather
than discard it with the building exhaust.
ASH RAE predicts that the use of energy recovery
can reduce a building's total energy consumption by
40% to 50%. For example, an air-to-air heat
exchanger can recover 50% to 80% of the energy
(heat) contained in the exhaust air stream, and use it
to warm the entering outdoor air during the heating
season. A similar savings opportunity exists during
the cooling season, when energy (sensible and latent
heat) can be transferred from entering outdoor air to
the cooler, drier exhaust air stream. In both
instances, reducing energy use with recovery can
offset the increased first cost of the heat exchanger.
1& Using energy recovery to pretreat the entering
outdoor air stream also minimizes coil stratification
problems, permits downsizing of coils and
compressors, and may be eligible for utility rebates.
40
Energy-Recovery Devices
Adding energy recovery to the design of a central-
station air handling system can be achieved using
various types of air-to-air recovery devices, airflow
arrangements and installation configurations.
Attributes of four commonly-used sensible heat
recovery devices - run-around loops, fixed-plate
exchangers, heat wheels and heat pipes - are
summarized below.
Run-around Loops
(Figure 40) A typical run-around loop consists of two
finned-tube coils - one in the outdoor air stream and
one the exhaust air stream - piped together serially
in a closed loop. An expansion tank, pump, three-
way temperature control valve and working fluid
(usually an inhibited solution of ethylene glycol and
water) complete the recovery system.
IJ:iJf The three-way control valve prevents the exhaust
coil from freezing, and can also be used to avoid
Figure 40
Typical Run-around Energy Recovery Loop
Outdoor Air
Coil 0
3-Way Valve
EA
to Building
Exhaust Air
... (7001
. j ~
Expansion Tank
Pump Ii
to Outdoors
SYS-AM-14






Figure 41
Typical Run-around Loop Psychrometric Performance
(Summer)
Humidity Ratio
30 40 50
Dry Bulb Temperature (oF)
exceeding the outdoor coil's prescribed leaving air
temperature.
(Figure 41) Run-around loops are sensible heat
recovery devices with a typical effectiveness ranging
from 60% to 65% when airflow rates are equal and
there's no condensation. They add another 0.4 to
1.0 in. wg to the static pressure requirements of the
air handling system.
Advantages
o Outdoor air and exhaust air streams need not be
adjacent.
o Complete separation of supply and exhaust
airflows eliminates cross-contamination.
o Highly flexible; well-suited to renovation.
o Less expensive than other energy recovery
devices.
o Can be turned off if energy recovery isn't needed.
o Bypass dampers can put the run-around loop
coils out of the air stream as part of a defrost
system.
o Simple, straightforward control.
Limitations
o Creates additional static pressure requirements
on both the supply and exhaust sides of the air
handling system.
Designing an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
Energy Recovery
o Effectiveness may be limited by pressure drop.
o Requires an expansion tank to allow fluid
expansion and contraction.
o Recovers only sensible heat.
Fixed-Plate Exchangers
Fixed-plate energy exchangers consist of alternate
layers of plates separated and sealed to form
passages for the exhaust and outdoor air streams.
They have no moving parts, and are available in
many configurations, materials, sizes and flow
patterns. Figure 42 illustrates application of a fixed-
plate energy exchanger in a three-tier Trane Modular
Climate Changers' (MCC). This arrangement
exchanges sensible heat between the exhaust air
and entering outdoor ventilation air within the air
handler's second and third decks.
(Figure 43, page 42) MCC energy recovery
applications typically use counterflow, aluminum
plate-and-frame exchangers designed by Hoval.
Like other fixed-plate exchangers, they rely on
conduction induced by the temperature difference
Figure 42
Typical Fixed-Plate Energy Exchanger Application
(Trane Stacked MCC Air Handler with Hoval Exchanger)
TRAO
Damper Filters
o ~ ~
OA- / ' - ~
Ventilation
Filters
Cross-Flow
Fixed-Plate
Energy Exchanger
Exhaust
Fan
OA
Economizer
Note:
See Figure 43 for corresponding
psychrometric performance.
41
Energy Recovery
Figure 43
Typical Fixed-Plate Energy Exchanger Psychrometric
Performance (Summer).
o = Entering ventilation outdoor air (OA)
@ = Ventilation OA after exchanger
= Space exhaust/return air (EA/RA)
o = EA after exchanger
o = Mixed supply air, OA + RA
(anywhere along dotted line)
Humidity Ratio
, r Ib,IIb.
<D = Supply air (SA) after cooling coil .; " , .", .025
: '"-1tj, .020

. 015
.010
30 40
between the two air streams for heat transfer.
Sensible heat - and to a limited extent, the latent
heat of condensation, but no moisture - are
conducted through the plates. Since there's no
intermediate transfer medium (e.g., a circulated fluid,
or alternately evaporated and condensed gas), fixed-
plate exchangers are highly effective, recovering
50% to 80% of the "waste" heat available in the
exhaust air stream. They also add little to the air
handling system's static pressure requirements,
approximately 0.6 to 1.4 in. wg.
An open, squared pattern of ribs on the exchanger
plates shapes the outdoor air stream to delay frosting
and provide part-load effectiveness by allowing cold
outdoor air to flow back through the exchanger
during low ambient operation. If additional frost
protection is needed, MCC/Hovai exchanger
modules can be equipped with an integral "frost-
avoidance" damper that diverts air away from the
coldest spot in the energy exchanger. (Frost is most
likely to develop at this location when the outdoor
temperature is below freezing.) A thermostat
continually measures the temperature at this "cold
spot" and modulates the frost damper accordingly to
keep the temperature above freezing.
42
With the frost damper, the energy exchanger can
operate at outdoor ambients as low as -20
0
F. (The
exact low-limit temperature is a function of the
amount of humidity in the exhaust air and the air
velocity across the exchanger.) Bypass dampers or a
preheat coil should be added if colder outdoor air
temperatures are expected.
Advantages
D Easy to clean and service.
D Defrost system is mechanical and consumes little
energy .
o No cross contamination between exhaust and
supply air streams, suitable for lab and hospital
applications.
o Generally eliminates the need for air blenders.
Limitations
o Metal fixed-plate energy exchangers recover only
sensible heat. (Paper exchangers recover both
sensible and latent heat.)
o MCC/HovaJ applications: Requires an
adjacent cross-deck arrangement of outdoor and
exhaust airflows.
Heat Wheels
Heat wheels - "rotary air-to-air energy exchangers"
- are composed of a revolving cylinder filled with an
exchange medium suited for sensible or total heat
transfer, depending on application requirements.
Commonly used media for sensible heat recovery
include aluminum, copper and stainless steel; total
heat recovery is accomplished with various
desiccant-treated materials.
Adjacent supply and exhaust air streams pass
through the wheel in a counterflow arrangement; see
Figure 44 (page 43). The medium transfers sensible
heat as it picks up and stores heat from the hot air
stream and releases it to the cold one. Latent heat
transfer occurs as the medium condenses moisture
from the more humid air stream and releases it,
through evaporation, to the drier air stream.
(Figure 45, page 43) With a minimal pressure drop
(Le., typically 0.4 to 0.7 in. wg) - and effectiveness
ratings of 50% to 80% sensible, 45% to 55% latent -
SYS-AM-14






Figure 44
Typical "Heat Wheel" Energy Exchanger
from Occupied
Space
heat wheels are commonly used in dehumidification
cooling applications with low sensible heat ratios
(SHR's).
Climates in which heat pumps are economically
effective are likely candidates for successful heat
wheel application.
Advantages
o Recovers latent (as well as sensible) heat.
o Low pressure drop.
o Reliable, mature technology.
o Compact size; can be installed in MCC stacked,
dual-path units.
Figure 45
Typical Heat Wheel Psychrometric Performance (Summer)
Humidity Ratio
, Ib.jIb.
,
.010
30 40 50 60 110
Dry Bulb Temperature (oF)
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Energy Recovery
Lim;tation
o Cross-contamination between air streams is
possible. (Critical applications require the addition
of an effective purge to minimize carryover. Fan
placement in relation to the exchanger should
promote leakage from the outdoor air stream to
the exhaust air stream rather than the reverse.)
Heat Pipes
(Figure 46) Though outwardly similar to an ordinary
plate-finned coil, a heat pipe energy exchanger
consists of separate, sealed tubes filled with a heat
transfer fluid. A partition divides the exchanger into
an "evaporator" and a "condenser." Energy transfer is
accomplished without a pump or other moving parts.
Instead, hot exhaust air flowing over the "evaporator"
end of each tube vaporizes the fluid inside. Vapor
pressure drives the vapor to the "condenser" end of
the tube where it condenses, releasing the latent
energy (heat) of vaporization. The condensed fluid
''wicks" or flows back to the "evaporator" end of the
tube and revaporizes, completing the cycle.
Figure 46
Typical Heat Pipe Energy Exchanger
Cool
Exhaust
Air
Partition
Hot
;IIf Exhaust Air
Supply Air
,wann
Supply Air
Cold Pipers)

Heat Out
Jl
I
Condensation
Section
Vapor
Liquid
Heat In
I
Evaporation
Section
Reprinted from 1992 ASHRAE Handbook-5ystems & Equipment.
43
Energy Recovery
Figure 47
Typical Heat Pipe Psychrometric Performance (Summer)
Humi<jijy Ralio
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Dry Bulb Temperature (oF)
(Figure 47) Typically, heat pipes recover only
sensible heat (dry-bulb temperature), and are 45% to
65% effective. However, recent advances in heat
pipe technology make latent heat transfer possible,
and afford greater application flexibility by allowing
the "evaporator" and "condenser" sections to be
separated and positioned at 1 BOO-angles from each
other.
Advantages
o No cross-contamination between the exhaust and
supply air streams.
o No moving parts.
o Fan location isn't critical.
o Simple, straightforward control; often used for
dehumidification reheat.
o Can be applied in a longer, single-deck air handler
for applications with height restrictions.
Limitations
o Expensive; few suppliers.
o Usually requires some type of defrost system to
sustain effective heat transfer.
o Higher pressure drop than fixed-plate or heat
wheel energy exchangers of comparable size.
(Typical heat pipe pressure drops range from 0.4
to 2.0 in. wg.)
44
o Passive nature means it can't be turned off when
no recovery is desired (e.g., when the
temperature of the outdoor air is warmer than the
required supply air temperature, but cooler than
the exhaust air).
o Comparatively new technology and application.
Application Considerations
As ASH RAE observes in its 1992 Systems &
Equipment Handbook, "An analysis of energy
recovery should consider the application over its
lifetime. Neither the most efficient nor the least
expensive energy recovery device may be the most
economical." Various software tools are available to
aid this analysis. Many manufacturers and suppliers
provide computerized selection programs that select
appropriate equipment and simulate its performance
based on user-entered design parameters (e.g., flow
rate, temperature and relative humidity of each flow
stream); see Figure 48 (page 45).
The following observations and suggestions are
offered to further aid evaluation and proper
application of energy recovery in a central-station air
handling system. For more information on this topic,
see Chapter 44, "Air-to-Air Energy Recovery," in the
1992 ASHRAE HandbOOk-Systems & Equipment
Handbook.
Economic Considerations
o All energy recovery devices are practical.
Tempering only minimum ventilation (outdoor)
airflow permits selection of a smaller energy
exchanger and shortens the payback period.
Energy recovery devices ranging from 300 to
6,000 cfm, for example, typically pay for
themselves within one or two years.
o Energy recovery is most economical when the
supply of "waste" heat coincides with demand,
and both are relatively constant year-round.
o Select the energy recovery device before sizing
the rest of the HVAC equipment; energy recovery
means smaller heating and cooling loads (Le.,
coils and compressors), and larger static pressure
losses (i.e., fans and fan motors).
SYS-AM-14






Figure 48
Example Selection Program Output (American Energy
Exchange Calculation of HovafIP Plate Heat Exchangers)
Energy Recovery
Project: MCC Size 30 I'R' spacing I with bypass
File C:\ TRANE505\ 30\30'R'BYP.PWT Version: 1994005010505
Date ; 1994/06/14 1-1-0-0
Ambient air pressure [inH20] 438.92
User Entries
Program Output
Fan data
Volume flow
at temperature
at relative humidity
Mass flow
Data at exchanger entry:
Volume flow
1emperature
Relative humidity
Bypass position
Solutions;
Exchanger type
Var. 1 NV-170/R-221.0 BM 43.0
Price
weight
Characteristics at fan data:
Dry efficiency
Pressure drop warm air
Pressure drop cold air
[cfm]
[oF]
[%]
nbs/h]
[cfm]
[oF]
[1'10]
2
K
G
Phi2 t
p1V
p2V
Warm air (1)
Vi 15000
t1 70
rF1 0
m1 67386
Vii
t11
rF11
15109
72
35
(Measured in inches)
H x W x L
66.93 x 87.00 x 66.93
Var.1
[5Fr] 0
nbs] 878
[%] 70
[inH20] 1.098
[inH20] 1.098
Cold air (2)
V2 15000
t2 70
rF2 0
m2 67386
V21
t21
rF21
Var.2
13021
o
50
Var.3
Operating data (regardless of the frost limit):
Efficiency
Heat output
Dehumidification of warm air
Amount of condensate warm air
Exit temperature warm air
Exit humidity warm air
Pressure drop warm air
Exit temperature cold air
Exit humidity cold air
Pressure drop cold air
Trane MCC/Energy Recovery Considerations
o The Modular Climate Changer's stackable,
"building block" design readily accommodates the
addition of an energy-recovery module.
o Making the energy exchanger an integral part of
the air handler avoids the need for a separate
outdoor air energy recovery installation - and
saves the cost of installing a second fan and
separate duct system.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Phi 2 [%] 75
Q [MBH] 870.4
xi [g/kg] 2.2
KM1 nbS/h] 150.0
t12
[OF]
28.6
rF12 I%] 98
pi [inH20] 1.191
t22
[OF]
53.7
rF22 I%] 5
p2 [inH20] 1.024
o Hoval fixed-plate energy exchangers are tested in
accordance with ASHRAE Standard 84-1991,
"Method of Testing Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers."
Their performance in MCC applications can be
predicted with a selection program; see Figure 48.
Trane PCClEnergy Recovery Considerations
o Though feasible, adding energy recovery to a
Penthouse Climate Changer can be difficult, and
requires factory assistance .
45
Creating Quiet Comfort
Air handling systems designed for IAQ-related
cleaning usually employ hard (metal) surfaces, so
fan and air noise are not attenuated at the source.
Consequently, no discussion of "IAQ-ready" air
handling systems would be complete without
addressing acoustics: appropriate sound control is
a key ingredient for comfortable, productive,
marketable buildings. Surveys conducted by BOMA
indicate that tension and absenteeism increase with
noise levels. Related studies suggest that sound
control may also play an important role in creating a
healthy indoor environment.
Like inadequate ventilation and the accumulation of
contaminants, noise that exceeds "acceptable" levels
can adversely affect the health of a building's
occupants.
"Several ... studies have found a relationship
between health and vibrations. The causative
link is believed to be the characteristic
resonance frequencies (1-20 Hz) of certain
body parts, especially the eye, and extemal
vibrations. A significant correlation was found
between office worker irritability and dizziness
and the level of vibrations ... measured at their
desks.,{;!
Some regulatory agencies now write ordinances and
codes that include acoustical provisions specifically
intended to prevent hearing loss and reduce
annoying property line noise. Similarly, building
codes for schools have begun to establish noise
levels (i.e., NC 35 to 40, maximum) to create more
effective learning environments.
Sound attributable to HVAC systems is usually
considered part of the background "noise" of the
environment. As noted in the 1993 ASHRAE
Handbook-Fundamentals, "(the) primary acoustical
design goal for air-conditioning systems is the
achievement of a level of background sound that is
unobtrusive in quality and low enough in level that it
does not interfere with the occupancy requirements
of the space being served."
It's important for the building owner, architect and
HVAC designer to establish - early in the design
46
2Shirley J. Hansen, PhD, Managing Indoor Air Quality
(Lilburn, GA: The Fairm ont Press, 1991), p. 72.
process - the desired sound level and its relative
importance as a design constraint (i.e., how much
efforVexpense will be invested to achieve it). Ideally,
the HVAC system designer and acoustical consultant
(if there is one) should be empowered to choose
quiet equipment and the attenuating architectural
features necessary to achieve this sound level.
!&' Remedying an acoustically unacceptable air
handling system once it's in place is much more
expensive and time-consuming than designing and
installing a quiet HVAC system in the first place.
Of course, the "appropriate" sound level will vary
from building to building - and room to room -
depending on the degree of privacy required and the
types of activities occurring there. Table 6,
reproduced from the 1991 ASHRAE Handbook-
HVAC Applications, indicates "acceptable" HVAC
sound levels for various types of unoccupied spaces.
Table 6
Acceptable HVAC Noise Levels in Unoccupied Rooms
Acceptable
"Noise"
Type of Occupancy (RCor NC)
private residences 25-30
apartments 30-35
hotels/motels individual rooms, suites 30-35
meeting/banquet rooms 30-35
halls, corridors, lobbies 35-40
service/support areas 40-45
offices executive 25-30
conference rooms 25-30
private 30-35
open-plan areas 35-40
business equip/computers 40-45
public circulation 40-45
hospitals, clinics private rooms 25-30
wards 30-35
operating rooms 25-30
laboratories 35-40
corridors 30-35
public areas 35-40
churches 30-35
schools ... lecture and classrooms 25-30
open-plan classrooms 35-40
libraries 35-40
courtrooms 35-40
legitimate theaters 20-25
movie theaters 30-35
restaurants 40-45
concert, recital halls 15-20
recording studios 15-20
television studios 20-25
SYS-AM-14






What's Entailed ...
Prerequisite to designing a quiet air handling system
is understanding this simple relationship:
Sound Heard = Fan Noise - Ductwork, Room Muffling
(Sound Pressure = Source Sound Power - Path Attenuation)
In other words, the quieter the source of the noise,
the less attenuation is needed along the sound
transmission paths. See Figure 50.
While installing a quieter fan - source attenuation
- usually increases the initial cost of the air handler,
it's a cost-effective system solution: it diminishes the
sound level in the occupied space along al/
transmission paths; reduces energy consumption
(i.e., a fan is normally quietest when running at the
most efficient point in its operating range); and,
provides operating cost savings to offset the quiet
fan's first-cost premium.
!&' Critical-path fan sound is usually concentrated in the
low frequencies. Since low-frequency sound is
difficult (and expensive) to "path-attenuate," fans
become ideal candidates for source attenuation.
Path attenuation, on the other hand, is usually
performed on the job site, involves the use of special
construction practices and materials (e.g., sound
traps, extra duct insulation, heavier-gauge ductwork,
thicker ceilings), and must address multiple sound
transmission paths. Obviously, this approach is
expensive to implement and likely to increase system
operating costs (i.e., path attenuation increases
Figure 49
"Source Attenuation" Relationship
Sound Pressure = Source Sound Power - Path Attenuation
Loud Source, "Heavily" Attenuated Path:
60dB Lp = 99dB Lw -39dB
Quiet Source, Less-Attenuated Path:
60 dB Lp = 90 dB Lw - 30 dB
Designing an "lAO-Ready" Air Handler System
Creating Ouiet Comfort
static pressure losses - and may warrant a larger
fan). But there are other, less obvious problems with
path attenuation when designing an "IAQ-ready" air
handling system. Consider the fiber glass
insulation dilemma ...
o "IAQ-ready" air handling systems typically require
more attenuation than conventional air handling
systems. Increased filtration and energy recovery,
for example, mean higher static pressure losses
-and operating at higher static pressures makes
the fan noisier, sometimes significantly so.
o Dry, clean fiber glass is an effective, inexpensive
attenuation material. However, concern about
inadvertently providing a habitat for microbial
growth - as well as ASH RAE Standard 62-
1989'srequirement for "cleanable" surfaces -
prompts some designers to eliminate it from all
interior surfaces of the air handler and ductwork.
o Eliminating fiber glass from the air handler and
ductwork - without otherwise attenuating the
sound source - increases noise levels in the
space. In effect, mitigating one problem (possible
microbial contamination) fosters another
(objectionable noise).
Designing a cost-effective air handling system that
promotes good indoor air quality and provides a
comfortable, acoustically-appropriate environment
can prove challenging. The concept is simple:
Determine the system static pressure and airflow
requirements. Hint: Minimize static pressure
wherever possible - e.g., use a dual-path air
handler arrangement. (See "Dual-Path Layouts"
on page 10.)
z Determine the transfer function from the source to
the receiver by path. Said another way, determine
how much fan-generated sound won't reach the
listener in the occupied space due to the
attenuating characteristics of each "noise path."
:J (Figure 50, page 48) Select the air handler so that
all three fan-generated sound power levels (Le.,
inlet, discharge and casing-radiated) are less than
the target value.
To select the air handler, the designer must decide
what fan to use based on its type, design and
performance; where the fan should be placed in
relation to the rest of the air handler; and whether
other unit attenuation (a lined casing, turning
47
Creating Quiet Comfort
Figure 50
Fan-Generated Sound
Fan-Generated
Sounds:
A = discharge airborne
B = duct breakout
C=retum
o = casing radiated
plenum or duct silencer) is needed. The rest of this
chapter offers guidance for each of these decisions_
Choosing the Right Fan
Acoustical tests conducted at The Trane Company
indicate that the sound power relationship between
various fan sizes and operating speeds depends on
fan type and design, the operating point on the fan
curve, and application considerations (e_g., critical
octave band frequency)_ Since these same factors
determine a fan's efficiency, either "rules of thumb"-
for tip speed, outlet velocity, fan rpm and static
efficiency - or generalized fan sound power
projection formulas have traditionally been used to
predict its acoustical performance. Both methods
oversimplify sound generation: they look at only a
few variables and acoustically "lump together" fans of
the same type but differing designs.
Choosing the right fan for an application based on its
acoustical performance requires an accurate sound-
power octave-band analysis for each fan when all are
producing the required airflow and pressure. Figure
51 and Figure 52 (page 49), for example, compare
inlet and outlet sound generated by four different
fans - a housed FC centrifugal, a housed AF
centrifugal, an unhoused AF centrifugal and an AF
48
vaneaxial - precisely tested under identical
conditions. The data collected debunks the old myth
that fan inlet sound equals fan discharge sound_ It
also underscores the importance of obtaining
accurate sound data from the manufacturer so that
appropriate path attenuation can be applied.
Fan Type
Designers can choose between four types of fans
when selecting a Trane Modular Climate Changer
(MCC) or Penthouse Climate Changer (PCC):
o a double-wheel forward-curved (DWFC)
centrifugal fan with housing;
o a double-wheel airfoil (DWAF) centrifugal fan with
housing;
o a single-wheel airfoil (SWAF) centrifugal fan
without housing - Le., a "plenum" or "plug" fan;
and ...
o an AF vaneaxial or "mixed-flow" fan.
Figure 51
Comparison of Inlet + Casing Sound Power by Fan Type
CD
"0
.J
iii
:t
a
a.
"0
"
:>
a
en
110
I
100
90
80
70
60
63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Frequency. Hz
Fan Type
mm6_
m
27-in. FC centrifugal fan w/housing (699 rpm)
.. ,,(p- 27-in. AF centrifugal fan w/housing (1340 rpm)
-0- 39-in. AF centrifugal ''plug'' fan wlo housing (980 rpm)
-tr- 36-in. "Q' AFvaneaxialfan (1441 rpm)
Note:
Sound power data is based on a No. 40 Modular Climate Changer
with front discharge plenum and 2-in. double-wall casing; fan
delivery is 20,000 cfm at 4 in. wg TSP, 2.5 in. wg ESP.
SYS-AM-14






Figure 52
Comparison of Discharge Sound Power by Fan Type
100
90
CIl
"0
J
80
c5
~
0
n.
"0
c
::l
0
en
70
60
50
63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Frequency, Hz
Fan Type
NWfr'_' 27-in. FC centrifugal fan w/housing (699 rpm)
--0- 27-in. AF centrifugal fan w/housing (1340 rpm)
-0- 39-in. AF centrifugal "plug" fan wlo housing (980 rpm)
~ - 36-in. "0" AF vaneaxialfan (1441 rpm)
Note:
Sound power data is based on a No. 40 Modular Climate Changer
with front discharge plenum and 2-in. double-wall casing; fan
delivery is 20,000 cfm at 4 in. wg TSP, 2.5 in. wg ESP.
Application notes for each of these fan types follow;
for a more general discussion of fans, refer to
Chapter 18, "Fans," in the 1992 ASHRAE
Handbook-Systems & Equipment.
DWFC (Forward-Curved) Centrifugal Fan
with Housing
o Generates significant turbulence, but little blade-
tone noise; turbulence in the 31-to-125-Hz range
abates quickly as the air moves down the duct.
o Often used in low-static (less-than-4-in. wg) air
handlers since it emits little noise in the speaking
range of 250 to 2000 Hz.
o Lab tests in which all fiber glass lining was
removed from an FC air handler and duct system
operating at 10,000 cfm and 0.8 in. wg ESP
produced sound levels of NC 35 to NC 40 at the
space.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Creating Quiet Comfort
Figure 53
Trane Q ("Quiet") AF Vaneaxial Fan
DWAF (Airfoil) Centrifugal Fan with Housing
o Produces significant turbulence and a strong
blade tone in the 250-Hz octave band. Adding
inlet vanes increases its tonal nature - usually to
high (therefore unattractive) levels.
SWAF Centrifugal (Plenum or Plug) Fan
without Housing
o Air flowing through the unhoused fan disperses
radially inside the fan module; the module's
casing serves as the fan housing, directing air
through a blow-thru coil.
o A blank module is normally used downstream of
the fan in axial-flow MCC arrangements.
o Discharge sound levels are low, comparable to
those of the basic Q fan. Though its inlet noise is
considerably higher, it is readily attenuated with
silencers, Z-traps, active silencers and other
architectural sound control methods.
o Efficiency is similar to that of DWFC centrifugal
fans. (Both are less efficient than Q fans.)
AF Vaneaxial Fan - Q (Quiet) Fan
Basic Q Fan (Figure 53)
o Airfoil-shaped blades and straight-through axial
design provide "mixed" flow.
o Close tolerance - 30 to 40 mils - between blade
tips and fan housing reduces inlet turbulence and
tip "roll-over" (vortex shedding) .
o Post-impeller straightening vanes and an integral
diffuser recover part of the air stream's "spin"
49
Creating Quiet Comfort
Figure 54
Enhanced Trane Q Fan Cross Section
External Shell
Attenuator
l
I
ThyBar /I Vertical
Inlet Silencer
energy, making it the quietest fan - of the four
types considered here - at low frequencies.
(Since these octave bands are hardest to
attenuate with lined or unlined ductwork, 0 fans
become an excellent choice for "lAO-ready" air
handlers in 6,000-to-50,000 cfm applications.)
Enhanced Q Fan (Figure 54)
o Adds sound attenuators to the 0 fan's external
shell and inner hub, reducing its sound power
approximately 4 dB at 250 Hz, 8 dB at 1000 Hz.
o Perforated metal protects the sound-deadening
materials used in the external-shell and inner-hub
attenuators from the passing air stream.
Super Q /I (Figure 17, page 15)
o Consists of a Q fan internally isolated with an
acoustically-lined enclosure; flex connections link
the fan inlet and outlet to duct collars, minimizing
noise transmission from the fan to the enclosure.
Enclosure size is suited for low-height ceiling
installations.
o Capable of Class 2 operation up to 36,000 cfm at
6 in. wg of static pressure.
Trane MQH (Figure 55)
o Consists of a Q fan mounted horizontally and
spring-isolated inside a Mec or pce fan module;
an inlet bell reduces turbulence.
50
Figure 55
Stacked Modular Climate Changeii' with Horizontal Q Fan
Mixing
Box
o Use a blank module upstream of the fan to reduce
turbulence and static pressure loss; see page 15.
Trane MQV (Figure 56)
o Consists of a Q fan mounted vertically and
centered inside a custom-sized Mee enclosure.
o Vertical configuration is best when low vibration is
critical (Le., produces only 10% of the vibration
generated by the horizontal arrangement), or for
small-footprint applications when stacking isn't
feasible.
Figure 56
Stacked Modular Climate Changer with Vertical Q Fan
Discharge Plenum
with 2-in. or 4-in.
Acoustical Wa((s
C
Cooling
Coif 0
c
o
SYS-AM-14






Figure 57
Comparison of Wheel-Only Inlet Sound Power for
Similar Plenum Fans
100
90
III
80
u
.J


70 0
a.
u
c
::l
0
(f)
60

"'.


c--.


___
--"
I
I I
,
i
I
50
! ,
!
i
40
32 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Frequency, Hz
Wheel Dia (in.) RPM CFM SP(in. wg) %WO
, .." ..",.,,-
24.50SWAF 1592 7000 4.50 51
24.00SWAF 1772 7000 4.50 63
--0-- 24.5OSWAF 1573 7000 4.50 54
-c,- 24.5OSWAF 1645 7000 4.50 55
Fan Design
I
#of
Blades
9
12
9
8
The process of choosing an "acoustically correct" fan
for a particular application doesn't end with selection
of the fan type and size. Some designers erroneously
believe that fans with roughly the same speed,
diameter, depth, brake horsepower and operating
point generate equal sound levels. Not true ...
Figure 57 and Figure 58 illustrate the effect of
another important determinant of fan noise: blade
passage frequency - i.e., fan speed (rps) x no. of
blades. Fans generate a tone at this frequency; the
fewer the blades, the more unequal the flow across
the blades ... and the louder the fan. The graphs
illustrated above compare sound power levels
recorded in a test of four similar plenum fan wheels
distinguished, primarily, by their number of blades;
one has 12, the others have eight or nine blades. The
wheel with the most blades yielded the quietest
operation.
!&' While fewer blades reduce the cost of the fan, it also
requires increased blade attack angles which, in tum,
means more turbulence at the blade tips ... and
noisier operation.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Creating Quiet Comfort
Figure 58
Comparison of Wheel-Only Discharge Sound Power for
Similar Plenum Fans
100
I
II
I
I
90
III
80
u
.J
of

70 0
D.-
I
(>




.
..
......

"0
C
::l
0
(f)
60
I
!
i
I
,
50
40
32 63 125 250 500 1k 2k 4k 8k
Frequency, Hz
#of
Wheel Dia (in.) RPM CFM SP(in. wg) %WO Blades
n 24.5OSWAF 1592 7000 4.50 51 9
-0-
24.00SWAF 1772 7000 4.50 63 12
--0-- 24.5OSWAF 1573 7000 4.50 54 9
-c,- 24.5OSWAF 1645 7000 4.50 55 8
Fan Performance
Pressure Requirements
Operating efficiency and power consumption
influence fan selection, and can become critical
factors when designing an "lAO-ready" air handling
system. Why? Numerous energy standards, even
some building codes, now place limits on the amount
of energy an HVAC system can use. Multiple filters,
air blenders, energy recovery and other
enhancements incorporated in "lAO-ready" designs
often result in higher-than-normal pressure drops.
They also place a greater burden on the fan,
increasing energy consumption and making it
tougher to comply with these limits.
Table 7 (page 52) indicates the pressure-producing
capabilities of fans available in Modular and
Penthouse Climate Changers, and characterizes
their acoustical performance. Remember: maximum
energy conservation and quietest operation are
obtained when system design conditions coincide
with the peak efficiency pOint on a fan's performance
curve. If, for any reason, the fan is not or cannot be
51
Creating Quiet Comfort
Table 7
Suggested Fan Applications
Fan Type Arrangement Acoustics FanTSP
FC draw-thru, good under 4"
blow-thru
81 (housed) draw-thru, poor under 10"
blow-thru
AF/81 (housed) draw-thru, mediocre under 10"
b/ow-thru
Q (quiet) draw-thru excellent underB"
plenum (plug) blow-thru good under 6"
selected optimally, the noise it produces - and
energy it consumes - will increase.
Many manufacturers provide software tools to help
designers quickly determine the most efficient
operating point of various fans. Trane's fan selection
program, for example, simultaneously compares as
many as 48 fans for a given set of design conditions,
predicts full and part-load performance, and
accounts for elevation, temperature, system effects,
modulation method and sound attenuation.
Modulation Method
Many HVAC applications require the air handler to
treat a varying amount of air - either because it
serves a VAV system, or to compensate for the
gradually increasing pressure drop that develops
between scheduled filter maintenance. Figure 59
compares three common modulation methods:
discharge dampers, inlet vanes and frequency
inverters. Two factors ultimately determine the
"right" control technique for a particular application:
o the frequency with which changes must be made;
and ...
o the balance between reduced power consumption
and first cost.
Inlet vanes are the most common means of flow
control, while discharge dampers are usually the
least expensive. Variable AC frequency drives, or
"inverters," provide the greatest operating efficiency
and generate appreciably less noise than inlet-vane
or discharge-damper control - but also cost more
than either of these alternatives.
1& Inlet vanes can produce significant low-frequency
noise as they shut down, requiring additional
attenuation (and an added pressure drop). Inverters,
on the other hand, are actually quieter at part-load
conditions than when delivering full airflow.
52
Figure 59
Comparison of VAV Modulation Methods
100'--'-1-'-1-'-1-'-1-'1 --'--'-1-'1--
81 Fans with 1 ! I/T ,Q
I---DI."SChairg,e Dampe I ,if!
: I !, / kf
""
20
Frfque1cy Inverte
!
o 20 40 60 80 100
% DesignCFM
Choosing the Right Fan location
The noise level of any fan - but particularly a
vaneaxial or plenum fan - is influenced by its
location within the air handler. Centering tlhe fan
inside the unit for uniform airflow at the inlet cone or
bell helps make a quiet fan even quieter.
Unit Attenuation
Choosing the Right Casing
Extensive tests conducted in Trane's acoustical lab
indicate that casing attenuation impacts air handler
noise less than selection and placement of the fan.
However, for those Modular Climate Changer
applications where it becomes a critical determinant
of the final sound level at the space, the designer can
choose between several inner linings. Figure 60
(page 53) compares the noise emitted from an air
handler with solid double walls, the same unit with
perforated double walls and various thicknesses of
SYS-AM-14






Figure 60
Comparison of Air Handler Casing Attenuation Methods
110
!
100
III 90
u
J
~
~
80 0
IL
U
c:
"
0
en
70
60
50
63 125 250 500 1k 2k
Frequency, Hz
MyiarTM (a thin, strong polyester film), and with
fibrous lining only. Mylar is sometimes specified as
an inner liner for the air handler casing; as Figure 60
demonstrates, its use degrades the attenuating
properties of the fiber glass insulation. Perforated
lining without Mylar provides the greatest
attenuation.
Both Trane Climate Changer selection programs
enable the user to select a lining, and will accurately
predict the resulting sound levels at the boundary of
the unit.
Turning Plenums
Though seldom considered in this light, turning
plenums are actually great low-cost sound
attenuators. The rapid expansion of air as it passes
into the plenum reduces turbulence and creates an
end reflection that dampens low-frequency sound,
while an acoustical lining absorbs the higher
frequencies. When compared to a standard
rectangular duct silencer, the turning plenum
provides more predictable performance at a lower
installed cost and similar pressure drop.
Designing an uIAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
4k 8k
Creating Quiet Comfort
Legend
Y ~ " , , " . . . . . Solid double-wall lining
(1513 rpm, 76% wide-open)
0 2-inch perforated lining
(1516 rpm, 75% wide-open)
-<>- 2-inch perforated with thin Myiar layer
(1543 rpm, 74% wide-open)
-0- 2-inch perforated lining with thick Mylar layer
(1543 rpm, 74% wide-open)
~ 1-inch lining
(1510 rpm, 76% wide-open)
Duct Silencers
There are two basic types of duct silencers:
o Rectangular silencers rely on the absorption
and turbulence reduction properties of an
acoustical lining to attenuate noise, so it's
important to avoid placing this type of silencer too
close to the fan. Why? Air in proximity to the fan
discharge is quite turbulent and will magnify
pressure loss through the silencer if it's positioned
too close. More fan energy will then be needed to
overcome the added pressure drop; that means
noisier fan operation - and the silencer may be
unable to adequately attenuate it.
o Circular silencers, if properly sized, contribute
little additional pressure loss. For example, the
circular silencers used with the round Q fan -
see Figure 17 (page 15) and (Figure 54, page 50)
- add less than 0.05 in. wg pressure drop
because the cross-sectional areas of the silencer
and fan openings are essentially the same. These
silencers also provide significant attenuation -
20 to 35 dB - within just a few feet, minimizing
the overall footprint of the air handler.
53
Creating Quiet Comfort
Assuring a Quiet DEsign
Once the acoustical requirements of an application
are established, the designer is challenged with
choosing equipment that assures these requirements
(as well as those related to providing a comfortable,
healthy indoor environment) are met. How can this
be accomplished with any degree of certainty?
Z Obtain accurate sound power data from the
prospective air handler manufacturers. Sound
power generated by a fan performing at a given
duty is best obtained from manufacturer test data
taken under approved test conditions. Trane, for
example, tests its entire line of Modular Climate
Changers in reverberant rooms per AMCA
Standard 300-1986. Sound data is recorded for
the inlet and outlet of the air handler, as well as for
the casing-radiated noise of Q-fan units.
IfW Sound data can be derived from actual tests or from
generic sound projection equations published by
ASHRAE. Data based on actual tests is always
preferred, and is needed for acoustically sensitive
applications. While generic estimates can often be
used to approximate space NC levels, there can be
substantial differences between these generic
industry "averages" and actual test data.
54
% When available, use software tools to obtain
accurate projections of NC sound pressures
at the space. Selection programs and Trane's
sound path prediction programs help designers
arrive at accurate sound projections for selected
Modular and Penthouse Climate Changer air
handling units.
3 Specify a full-scale architectural mock-Up for
large jobs: it permits validation of the sound path
projections to help assure the intended acoustical
environment, can accelerate job completion, and
may also save the installing contractor a
considerable amount of money.
IfW While precisely measured path attenuation or
transfer functions of mock-ups are job-site- and
manufacturer-specific, they are extremely accurate
and repeatable. Trane maintains a large database of
transfer functions derived from architectural mock-
ups that is available to system designers on request.
4 Visit an existing installation with similar
acoustical demands. Though arguably more
subjective than mathematical projections, it can
be helpful to discover, first hand, the effectiveness
of various attenuation techniques.
5 Do not compromise! Specify the needed air
handler/fan and make sure it is purchased.
(Remember: ifs much easier to make a noisy fan
than a quiet one.)
SYS-AM-14






Control Considerations
The control system might be thought of as the glue
that holds a building's mechanical system together.
To make sure that the "pieces fit," many building
owners, consulting engineers and project managers
now ask equipment manufacturers to factory-mount
controls on their units. This provision not only
minimizes field installation labor and risk, but may
also shorten the project schedule and dramatically
increase the quality of the application.
Factory-packaged air handler controls play an
important role in maintaining good indoor air quality.
Used in conjunction with a building automation
system (BAS), air handler controls regulate
temperature, pressure, humidity, ventilation and
contaminant levels, while providing monitoring
and logging capability for maintenance records and
operating trend reports. Coupling equipment controls
with a BAS also provides many powerful system-
level optimization opportunities. (A brief overview of
the general requirements associated with each of
these functions follows.)
DDC
Direct digital controls (DOC) have become
increasingly popular in HVAC applications over the
last 15 years; controlling air handlers is no exception.
The physical hardware is easy to apply, and relatively
inexpensive when compared to pneumatic controls
with the same features.
DOC systems consist of input devices, software logic
and output devices. The unit controller includes a
small onboard digital computer that uses
preprogrammed control algorithms and logic to
interpret input information and directly control the
action of output devices - i.e., sensors and switches
(inputs) provide information to the controller, while
actuators, valves and relays (outputs) carry out its
requested actions. Software routines replace
discrete hardware logic devices such as relays,
timers and receiver-controllers.
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Required Control Functions
Single-duct air systems commonly include air
handlers which deliver either constant or variable air
volume to multiple occupied spaces. In general ...
o Air handler controllers for constant-volume
systems maintain space temperature and,
indirectly, space humidity; duct and building
pressures, along with minimum ventilation
airflows, are typically set at start-up and remain
relatively constant during operation.
o Air handler controllers for VAV systems maintain
supply air temperature, duct pressure, building
pressure, space or system humidity, and both
space and system ventilation airflow.
Air handlers servicing multiple-duct air systems-
e.g., multizone and dual-duct - may include
increasingly complex control requirements.
Temperature Control
Cooling or heating provided by the air handler must
be modulated to maintain the controlled temperature
(space or supply air) at set point. Cooling capacity
can be controlled by modulating a chilled water
valve, cycling a refrigeration system, or modulating
an economizer damper position. In similar fashion,
the air handler's heating capacity can be controlled
by modulating a hot water or steam valve, cycling a
gas-fired heat exchanger, or cycling/modulating
electric heating elements.
Pressure Control
Duct pressure and airflow delivered to the space vary
with time in VAV systems, so air handler controllers in
applications of this type must be capable of
modulating the supply fan's capacity (airflow) to
maintain adequate supply duct pressure. "Adequate"
duct pressure can be determined either ...
o indirectly by sensing duct pressure at an arbitrary
location and maintaining it at a conservatively
high set point; or ...
o directly by sensing VAV terminal unit damper
position - i.e., duct pressure is adequate when
one terminal damper is nearly wide open.
55
Control Considerations
Supply fan capacity can be controlled by modulating
inlet guide vanes or fan speed.
Whether the air handling system is constant volume
or VAV, proper building pressurization must be
maintained to assure good air distribution and
comfort. During economizer cooling, for example,
outdoor airflow varies so exhaust/relief airflow must
also change to maintain building pressure. Constant
volume systems usually vary exhaust airflow via
outdoor/exhaust damper linkages without additional
controls. VAV systems use either modulating return
fans or modulating exhaust fans: return fan capacity
usually tracks supply fan airflow, while exhaust fans
sense and control building pressure directly.
Humidity Control
Humidity control includes both humidification and
dehumidification control schemes to maintain space
or return air humidity within an acceptable range (i.e.,
30% to 60% RH).
Humidification can be accomplished using various
techniques, as discussed on pages 35 through 37.
Such systems control space or return air humidity by
modulating the addition of water vapor to the supply
air stream. To prevent overhumidification and "rain"
inside the duct, a humidity sensor in the supply duct
monitors the air stream's moisture content.
Dehumidification control schemes rely on
refrigeration (cooling coils) or adsorption techniques
to remove moisture from the supply air stream. When
cooling coils are used, the controller usually
maintains the humidity set point by modulating the
cooling valve - i.e., in turn, regulating coil
temperature and rate of moisture removal.
Dehumidifying with a cooling coil often results in
uncomfortably cool supply or space temperatures. As
a result, dehumidified air must often be "reheated."
Reheat methods include energy recovery (see pages
40 through 45), as well as face-and-bypass dampers
and "new energy" reheat.
Ventilation Control
Assuring proper ventilation airflow in constant
volume systems is straightforward: the balancer
simply adjusts the position of the outdoor air damper
at a fixed percentage of supply airflow; no other
controls are needed.
VAV systems, however, pose a more difficult
challenge: since supply airflow varies, the outdoor
56
air damper position must also change to maintain
constant outdoor airflow. The VAV control system
must sense outdoor airflow and modulate the
outdoor air damper accordingly to maintain
ventilation airflow at set point.
Outdoor airflow can be sensed indirectly or directly.
Indirect methods - such as mixed-C0
2
calculations,
mixed-temperature calculations, damper or orifice
positions, and injection-fan airflow - sense one or
more related variables and calculate airflow,
assuming that the relationships remain constant.
Direct methods using pitot-tube pressure or hot-wire-
anemometer sensing techniques detect outdoor
airflow velocity, which is directly proportional to the
rate of volumetric outdoor airflow. Designers usually
prefer direct methods for accurate, reliable flow
measurement.
I&' Factory-installed direct outdoor airflow sensing can
be accomplished using the TRAQTM damper
discussed on page 17.
Contaminant Control
Some contaminant levels can be monitored with
appropriate sensors, as discussed in "Filtration"
(pages 26 through 28). When the level of a particular
contaminant exceeds the acceptable limit, the control
system can register an alarm condition. Corrective
action may also be possible - i.e., increasing the air
handler's outdoor airflow above the minimum
required level - depending on the control system's
capabilities. Of course, the air handler must be
designed to accommodate the added airflow -
especially in winter, or during periods of high
humidity; see "Managing Outdoor Air" (pages 16
through 21).
System Optimization
System optimization reduces building energy
consumption through effective operation of the entire
HVAC system at part-load conditions. In concept, it
simply means that each subsystem operates in the
most efficient manner possible while continuing to
satisfy the current building load. System-level control
- with information-sharing throughout the system -
is key to successful optimization.
"System-level control" implies that unit controllers
(like those at the VAV terminals and air handlers) can
exchange information with a central building
automation system (BAS). The unit controllers collect
local operating data and pass it to the BAS which, in
SYS-AM-14






turn, analyzes this information and instructs other
unit controllers to take appropriate action .
Fan Capacity Reset
An example of system optimization is fan capacity
reset. Traditional VAV fan capacity control schemes
maintain duct static pressure to set point at some
convenient location. Unfortunately, the best location
for the static pressure sensor changes from hour to
hour and season to season.
Using system-level controls, however, the system
can be operated to consistently deliver proper airflow
at the lowest possible pressure. Each VAV terminal
controls primary airflow to satisfy its thermostat and
senses its damper position. The building automation
system polls every VAV terminal controller, and
compares their damper positions. If one damper is
wide open, the BAS increases the duct pressure set
point; similarly, if all dampers are somewhat closed, it
decreases the duct pressure set pOint. The BAS then
sends this new set point to the air handler controller,
which modulates (resets) fan capacity accordingly to
maintain the new setting.
In effect, fan capacity reset results in proper airflow
(to serve all thermostats) at minimum static pressure;
at the same time, both fan horsepower and energy
usage drop.
Figure 61
VAV Integrated Comfort System
Outdoor Air T",rnn<l,r",t,
Measured Outdoor
Control Considerations
Ventilation Reset
(Figure 61) Ventilation reset is another example of a
system-level optimization strategy. To size the coil for
an adequately ventilated VAV system, the highest
required outdoor airflow value must be found. This
value changes as system loads and occupancy
fluctuate. Simple outdoor airflow control schemes
maintain outdoor airflow at the highest required
setting. At part load, however, outdoor airflow below
the design value can be used to meet ASHRAE
Standard 62-1989's ventilation requirement.
With system-level control, proper (rather than
excess) outdoor airflow can be assured, minimizing
"preconditioning" energy usage. Each VAV terminal's
controller senses primary airflow and calculates the
ventilation fraction - i.e., required ventilation airflow
divided by primary airflow. The building automation
system collects this value from each VAV terminal
and solves the "multiple spaces" equation from
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 to determine the
currently needed outdoor airflow. The BAS then
issues this new outdoor airflow set point to the air
handler controller, which modulates (resets) the
outdoor air damper accordingly to maintain the new
setting.
In effect, ventilation reset results in delivery of proper
ventilation airflow to all spaces at all loads while
Fan Modulation Control
Supply Air Temperature

o DCNAV
Terminals
Temperature Total Supply
Airflow
"DeSign Ventilation
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Calculated Minimum
Outdoor Airflow Setpoint
Calculated Critical Space
for System
'\ "\ Required
Actual Airflow
to Space _
Calculated Space
Ventilation Fraction
57
Control Considerations
minimizing preheating or precooling energy
consumption.
Monitoring and Management
Much of the information available to the BAS is also
accessible to the building owner and operator in the
form of reports and logs. Energy, demand limiting
and timed override usage, for example, can prove
invaluable for asset management.
Building automation systems can also serve as
schedulers for preventive maintenance. They provide
a cost-effective means for tracking equipment run-
times, and can remind operators to perform such
58
tasks at appropriate intervals (i.e., based on run time,
lapsed time or calendar dates).
As noted at the beginning of this manual, assuring
good indoor air quality begins with the air handler
providing clean air to the duct system, VAV terminals
and air diffusers. Combining factory-mounted
equipment controls with a building automation
system can help you, the HVAC system designer,
achieve your ultimate goal: creating a comfortable,
healthy indoor environment that's affordable to own
and operate.
SYS-AM-14






Appendix A -
Glossary and Acronyms
acceptable indoor air quality
air in which there are no known contaminants at
harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant
authorities and with which a substantial majority
(80% or more) of the people exposed do not express
dissatisfaction
adsorption
retention of gas, vapor or dissolved matter by the
surface of a substance, without that substance being
altered either chemically or physically
ASHRAE
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
Conditioning Engineers
bioaerosols
airborne biological agents, including allergens and
pathogens such as fungi (Le., yeasts, molds),
dander, spores, pollen, insect parts and feces,
bacteria and viruses
blade passage frequency
contributes to fan noise generation; calculated by
multiplying fan speed (in revolutions per second, rps)
by the number of blades
BOCA
Building Officials and Code Administrators
BOMA
Building Owners and Managers Association
Building-Related Illness (BRI)
a building-associated, clinically verifiable disease ...
condensation
forms when water vapor liquefies, especially on any
interior surface; occurs when the air's dew-point
temperature exceeds the temperature of the surface
dehumidification
removal of water vapor from the atmosphere
desiccant
a substance, such as calcium oxide, that has a high
affinity for water and is used as a drying agent
DOP penetration efficiency
performance measurement for high-efficiency filters
("DOP" is di-octyl phthalate, an oily liquid used in
filter rating tests of this type)
dust spot efficiency
another measurement of air cleaner (filter) efficiency
characterized by particulate carry-over through the
filter
economizing
natural, non mechanical cooling accomplished by
bringing outdoor air into the building when ambient
conditions are suitable
enthalpy
the total amount of heat (sensible and latent) present
in a given substance
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency
often an advanced stage of Sick Building Syndrome ESP
catalysis
modification of the rate of a chemical reaction by a
catalyst
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
external static pressure
exfiltration
air leakage outward through cracks, crevices, doors,
windows or other openings caused by wind pressure
or temperature difference
A-1
Appendix A - Glossary and Acronyms
exhaust air (EA)
air removed from the building and not recirculated
heatofcondensafion
latent heat energy liberated in the transition from a
gaseous to a liquid state
heat of vaporizafion
latent heat energy required to change a substance
from a liquid to a gas
heat pipe
an energy exchanger capable of transferring heat
energy over a relatively long distance at a low
temperature differential
HEPA
"high-efficiency particulate arrestance" ... describes
filters capable of removing respirable (submicron)
particles from the air; frequently used in clean room
and nuclear applications
HEW
Department of Health, Education and Welfare
humidification
addition of water vapor to the atmosphere
HVAe
heating, ventilating, air conditioning
lAO
refers to the makeup of indoor air, mainly the level of
impurities or pollutants
IFB
"integral face-and-bypass" ... describes a hydronic
coil assembly that includes protective dampers
infiltration
air leakage inward through cracks, crevices, doors,
windows or other openings caused by wind pressure
or temperature difference
A-2
latent heat
heat which, when added to or taken from a
substance, does not change its dry-bulb temperature
but, instead, enables a change of state
makeup air
outdoor air supplied to replace exhaust air and
exfiltration
MGG
Modular Climate ChangefID ... Trane's central station
air handler designed for indoor applications
MyiarTM
trademark for a thin, strong polyester film
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
outdoor air (OA)
air taken from the external atmosphere - i.e., not
previously circulated through the air handling system
particulates
a state of matter in which solid or liquid substances
exist in the form of aggregated molecules or particles
... airborne particulate matter is typically in the size
range of 0.01 to 100 micrometers
pee
Penthouse Climate Changer ... Trane's central
station air handler designed for outdoor applications
plenum fan
an unhoused centrifugal fan in which the impeller is
located in a plenum chamber, the fan inlet is
connected to an inlet duct from the system, and the
outlet duct(s) are connected to the plenum chamber
SYS-AM-14






plug fan
an unhoused centrifugal fan similar to a plenum
chamber, except that there are no duct connections
to the fan
primary airflow
in the context of VAV terminal units, describes air
from the central fan (i.e., air handler)
relative humidity
the ratio of the water-vapor pressure of air compared
to the vapor pressure it would have if saturated at its
dry-bulb temperature ... very nearly the ratio of the
amount of moisture contained in air compared to
what it could hold at the existing temperature
respirable particles
respirable particles are those that penetrate into and
are deposited in the nonciliated portion of the lung ...
particles greater than 10 micrometers aerodynamic
diameter are not respirable
return air (RA)
air removed from the space that's "returned" to the air
handler, then recirculated or exhausted
reverberant room
acoustical test facility with hard walls and ceiling;
used to measure and rate equipment sound power
levels
sensible heat
that heat which, when added to or taken away from a
substance, causes a rise or fall in its dry bulb
temperature
sensible heat ratio (SHR)
proportion of the sensible heat cooling load to the
total heat load
Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
a building is said to be "sick" of 20% or more of its
occupants exhibit respiratory symptoms and/or
headaches, dizziness, nausea, lethargy and fatigue
- and if these symptoms persist for more than two
weeks, particularly if they disappear when the
sufferers leave the building for the weekend
Designing an "IAQ-Ready" Air Handler System
Appendix A - Glossary and Acronyms
SMACNA
Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Contractors
National Association, Incorporated
sound power (Lw)
a measure - in decibels (dB) - of the total airborne
acoustical power radiated by a source (e.g., a fan)
supply air (SA)
air delivered to the conditioned space and used for
ventilation, heating, cooling, humidification or
dehumidification
total heat
see "enthalpy"
TracefW
Trane building management system; monitors and
coordinates control of Trane HVAC equipment, as
well as other manufacturers' HVAC equipment and
related building systems
VCM
Ventilation Control Module ... controls the TRAQTM
damper assembly
ventilation
the process of supplying and removing air by natural
or mechanical means to and from any space ... such
air mayor may not be conditioned
ventilation air
that portion of supply air that is outdoor air plus any
recirculated air that has been treated for the purpose
of maintaining acceptable indoor air quality
ventilation fraction
fraction of ventilation air needed in the supply air to
an occupied space - i.e., required ventilation airflow
divided by primary airflow
vaG's
volatile organic compounds ... organic compounds
that exist as a gas or can easily "off-gas" under
normal room temperatures and relative humidity;
examples include formaldehyde, benzene and
phenols
A-3
AppendixB-
Index
a
access panels 32-33
acoustical design goal for HVAC systems 46
adapter plate 14, 15
adsorption 27,56, A-1
AF fan. See fan, centrifugal
air blenders 13,42,51
as coil protection 18, 20
see also coil protection techniques
air handler arrangement, "coupled" 13
with a transition panel 14-15
with an adapter plate 15
air handler arrangement, ''winterizer'' 21
see a/so outdoor air, downstream intro """
air handler arrangement, stacked 13
dual OA paths 14, 39
single OA path 13-14
vibration-critical applications 50
air handler casing 24, 31, 33, 52-53
comparison of attenuation methods 53
thermal resistance of 33
air handler controls
benefits of factory mounting 55, 58
required functions 55-58
requirements for constant-volume systems 55
requirements for VAV systems 55
air handler layout, dual-path 8, 10-12
as "quiet comfort" design concept 47
benefits of 10
passive return, no exhaust 11
passive return, powered exhaust with energy
recovery 11
passive return, powered exhaust, no recovery 11
powered return, passive exhaust with energy
recovery 12
powered return, passive exhaust, no recovery 12
suggested applications 10
air handler layout, single-path 8-10
no return, exhaust or recovery 9
passive exhaust with recovery, no return 9
passive return, no exhaust 9
passive return, powered exhaust 9
powered return, passive exhaust 10
air handler selection for source attenuation 47-54
air handling system
advantages of factory packaging 34
effects of deviating from original design 5
airside economizer 11, 16, 39, 55
8-1
air-to-air heat exchanger 10
see a/so energy recovery
AMCA Standard 300-1986 54
anemometer, hot wire 16, 56
see also measuring outdoor airflow
angle of transition 15
antimicrobial coating 30
effect on coil performance 31
how they work 31
in drain pans 32
where to apply 31
architectural mock-up 54
arrestance 22
see also particulate filters
ASH RAE 5, 6, 23, 40, 44, 54, A-1
1991 ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Applications 46
1992 ASHRAE Handbook-Systems &
Equipment 24, 44
1993 ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals 46
ASHRAE Standard 52-1976 22
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 2,22,23,26,27,28,
30,32,35,38,40,47,57
documenting compliance with 16,17
general system and equipment requirements 7
history of 5-6
implications of compliance 4, 10, 16, 18, 34, 51
purpose of 4,6
requirements for gaseous contaminants 26
using ventilation reset to meet 57
see also IAQ Procedure and Ventilation Rate
Procedure
ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 45
attenuation, path. See path attenuation
attenuation, source. See source attenuation
b
bacteria 25, 29
see also microbial contaminants
bag filter 22,24,25
see also particulate filters
BAS. See building automation system
bioaerosols 29, 30, 31, A-1
see also microbial contaminants
bird screens 16, 31
blade passage frequency 51, A-1
blow-thru coil arrangement 24, 49
SYSAM-14






BOCA 6, A-1
BOMA A-1
survey on effect of noise 46
BRI. See building-related illness
building automation system 16
as origin of ventilation requirement 17,28
as preventive maintenance scheduler 28, 58
documenting compliance with ASHRAE Standard
62-1989 17
for asset management 58
for system-level optimization 56-58
role in maintaining good IAQ 55
building codes for schools 46
building pressurization 56
building-related illness 29, A-1
c
carbon dioxide measurement, shortcomings of 28
carbon dioxide sensor 28
carbon filtration 27
carbon monoxide 22, 26, 28
see also gaseous contaminants
carcinogen 22, 26
cartridge filter 23, 24, 25
see also particulate filters
casing attenuation 52-53
casing, air handler. See air handler casing
catalysis 27, A-1
centrifugal fan. See fan, centrifugal
cleaning agents, safe use of 34
coil 10, 13, 15, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39
fogging 24
maintenance 7, 32, 34
stratification. See stratification
coil protection techniques 18-21
coil run-around loop 10,40-41
see also energy recovery
coil, draining to protect 18
see also coil protection techniques
computerized selection programs 37,44,52,53,54
condensate drain pan. See drain pan
condensate traps, properly mounting 32
condensation 32,33,35,38,41, A-1
detrimental effects of 35
Designing an "IAQ-Ready Air Handler System
Appendix B - Index
contaminants 5,6, 7, 8, 22,26,27,28,29,31,34,46
control of 56
exposure levels for 6
see also gaseous contaminants, microbial
contaminants and particulates
controls. See air handler controls
cross-contamination of airflows 41,43, 44
d
dampers, face-and-bypass. See face-and-bypass
dampers
DOC controller 17
DOC. See direct digital controls
dehumidification 34,38-39, A-1
control schemes for 56
dehumidification module 39
dehumidifier
cooling-coil 38
desiccant 38
desiccant 38, 42, A-1
see also dehumidification
dew point 33
dilution of gaseous contaminants 27
direct digital controls 55
discharge dampers 52
drain pan
design for positive drainage 31-32
maintenance 30,34
properly trapping 7, 32
recommended materials 32
drain pan slime 29
dual OA path. See air handler layout, dual-path
dual-duct system 6, 55
duct silencers 53
duct systems, cleanable 30
e
economizer, airside. See airside economizer
economizing 8, 10, 12, 56, A-1
effiCiency, DOP penetration 22, 25, A-1
see also particulate filters
efficiency, dust spot 22, 23, 25, A-1
see also particulate filters
end reflection 53
energy conservation 40, 51
B-2
Appendix B -Index
energy recovery 28,47
as preheat for coil protection 19-20
economic considerations 44
economic feasibility of 11
effect on building energy consumption 40
for reheat 38, 56
glycol-loop to eliminate fogging 24
Mee considerations 45
pee considerations 45
to precondition outdoor air 9
energy transfer. See energy recovery
enthalpy A-1
enthalpy wheel 10
see also energy recovery and heat wheel
EPA 4,22,23, A-1
ESP 49, A-1
ethylene glycol 40
exfiltration A-1
exhaust air 8,9, 10, 16, 19,40,41, 42,43,44,56, A-2
exhaust openings 31
expansion tank 40
f
face-and-bypass dampers 17, 19, 21, 56
fan acoustical performance
effect of blade passage frequency on 51
effect of fan design on 51
effect of fan position on 52
effect of system design conditions on 51
methods of predicting 48
fan capacity reset 57
fan modulation methods 52
fan types, suggested applications for 52
fan, AMeA B 15
fan, centrifugal
acoustical performance 48
AF, housed double-wheel 49
Fe, housed double-wheel 49
fan, Model Q. See fan, vaneaxial
fan, plenum 48, A-2
AF single-wheel without housing 49
effect of location on noise 52
fan, plug 48, 49, 52, A-3
fan, vaneaxial 14, 48
8-3
basic Model Q 49-50
effect of location on noise 52
enhanced Model Q 50
see also Modular Climate Changer and
Penthouse Climate Changer
SuperQ" 50
fan-generated sound power levels 47
Fe fan. See fan, centrifugal
fiber glass insulation 49
lAO and acoustics impact 47
filter 10,13,14,15,20,33,34,36
applications by efficiency and type 25
face velocity limit 23
final 25
maintenance 24, 26, 34, 52
operating resistance 23
placement guidelines 24-26
prefilter 25
rating performance 22-23
typical performance characteristics 24
filtration 47
for contaminant control 22
final filter 25
fixed-plate exchanger 40,41-42
see also energy recovery
flex connection 15
flow-monitoring station 16, 17
formaldehyde 22, 26, 27
see also gaseous contaminants
freezestat 18, 19
frequency inverters 17,52
"frost-avoidance" damper 42
fungi 29,34
see also microbial contaminants
g
gaseous contaminants 22,29
common 27
described 26
methods of abatement 27
glycol for coil protection 18, 18-19
see also coil protection techniques
glycol run-around loop 38
see also energy recovery
h
heat of condensation 42, A-2
transfer of 42
heat of vaporization 43, A-2
heat pipe 38, 40, 43-44, A-2



SYS-AM-14



heat pipe 38, 40, 43-44, A-2
see also energy recovery
heat wheel 10, 40, 42-43
see also energy recovery
HEPA A-2
HEPA filter 22,24
placement inside air handler 24
see also particulate filters
HEW 24, A-2
hot water coil 19
see also preheat as coil protection and coil
humidification 34, 35-37, A-2
common misapplication of 35
control schemes for 56
humidifier
atomized-water 35
steam 35-36
water treatment in 36
wetted-media 35
worst location for 35
HumidipackTM 36
application considerations 36-37
computerized selection 37
control accuracy 37
control package 37
see also humidifier, steam
humidity control 56
limits 6,7
see also humidification and dehumidification
humidity controller 36
HVAC 4,5,6, 7,22, 29, 33,38,44, 56,A-2
lAO Procedure 6, 7
shortcomings of 7
-----------
see also ASHRAE Standard 62-1989
IAQ. See indoor air quality
IFB 2
see also integral face-and-bypass coil
indoor air quality A-2
acceptable A-1
characteristics of 4
effect of relative humidity on 34
impact of HVAC system on 30
infiltration 7, A-2
inhibitor 18
Designing an "IAQ-Ready Air Handler System
inlet guide vanes 52, 56
insulation 29, 31, 35
Appendix B - Index
insulation used with perforated liners 31
intake openings 31
integral face-and-bypass coil 19
see also preheat as coil protection
------------------------------
latent heat 40,42,43,44, A-2
latent load 10, 38
Legionnaire's disease 29
liner
benefits of solid steel 31
perforated inner 31
see also Myiar
load shedding 16
low-limit thermostat 18
m
makeup air 7, A-2
makeup air unit 9
MCC. See Modular Climate Changer
measuring outdoor airflow 16, 56
see also TRAQTM damper
microbial contaminants 16,29,30,31,32,33,47
microbial growth control 7
at intake and exhaust openings 31
at the air handler 30
duct construction for 30
in the occupied space 30
moisture control 24, 30
recommendations for 7, 16
see also dehumidification and humidification
microorganisms 7,22,23
affecting indoor air quality and human health 29
breeding sites 30,31,34, 47
requirements to breed 31
see also microbial contaminants
minimum ventilation rate 5,6,8,10,17,18,34
mixing baffles. See air blenders
mixing box 16,18,20
mixing dampers, high-velocity 18, 20
see also coil protection techniques
Model Q fan. See fan, vaneaxial
8-4
Appendix 8 - Index
Modular Climate Changer 2, 13, A-2
casing linings for 52-53
energy recovery considerations 45
fan types available in 48-50
HumidipackTM installation in 36
reverberant-room testing of 54
stacked dehumidification unit 39
TRAOTM dampers in 17
vertical stacking constraint 13
with energy recovery 19
with fixed-plate energy exchanger 41
with horizontal Model Q fan 50
with vertical Model Q fan 50
moisture control 30
see also dehumidification and humidification
moisture eliminators 16,24
"moistu re pu rge" cycle 33
mold 29, 33, 34, 35
multizone system 55
MyiarTM 31,53, A-2
n
natural ventilation 5, 6, 8, 11
NFPA 32, A-2
NIOSH 4,7,22, A-2
nitrogen dioxide 22
see also gaseous contaminants
nitrogen oxide 26
noise
o
acceptable levels in unoccupied rooms 46
control in school building codes 46
effect on occupant health 46
path 47
OSHA 2, 38, A-2
proposed lAO regulation 38
outdoor air 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 19, 20, 21, 27, 34,
8-5
38,39,40,41,42,43,44, 45,A-2
advantages of two paths 10
assuring proper flow 57
controlling 17
downstream introduction for coil protection 18,
21
see also coil protection techniques
measuring 16, 56
minimum requirement 5,6,8,10,17,18,34
to control building pressure 16
why bring into a building 16
oxidants 26
oxidation 27
ozone 26,27
p
panel filter 22, 25
see also particulate filters
particulate filters
placement guidelines 24-26
rating per ASHRAE Standard 52-1976 22
selection considerations 23-24
suggested performance for new air handlers 23
typical applications 25
typical types and performance 24
particulates 7,22,29, A-2
ASHRAE-recommended concentration limit 23,
26
common types 22
defined 22
filter placement to control 24
path attenuation 47,48,54
PCC. See Penthouse Climate Changer
Penthouse Climate Changer 2, 13, A-2
energy recovery considerations 45
fan types available in 48-50
HumidipackTM installation in 36
TRAOTM dampers in 17
with horizontal Model Q fan 50
perimeter system 6
pitot-tube flow sensing 16, 17,56
plate-and-frame heat exchanger 19, 41
see also energy recovery
pleated filter 22,24
see also particulate filters
plenum fan. See fan, plenum
plug fan. See fan, plug
pollen 22,25
prefilter 25
preheat as coil protection 18, 19
see also coil protection techniques
pressure control 55-56
preventive maintenance 34
primary airflow 19,57, A-3
SYS-AM-14






q.r
Q (Quiet) fan. See fan, vaneaxial
quiet air handler design, steps to assuring a 54
radon 26
reheat in dehumidification applications 38, 39
relative humidity A-3
ASHRAE Standard 62-1989
recommendation 35, 38
effect on respiratory infections and
absenteeism 38
effects of high RH 38
effects of low RH 35
relationship to indoor air quality 34
respirable particles 22, A-3
return air 5, 11, 16, 20, 39, 56, A-3
reverberant room 54, A-3
roll-type filter 22,25
see also particulate filters
rotary air-to-air energy exchanger. See heat wheel
run-around loop 10,38,40,40-41
see also energy recovery
5
SBS. See sick building syndrome
SDU. See stacked dehumidification unit 14
sensible heat 41, 42, 43, 44, A-3
recovery devices 40,41
sensible heat ratio (SHR) 43, A-3
transfer of 40, 42
sensible load 10, 38
sick building syndrome 6, 29, A-3
single OA path. See air handler layout, single-path
Designing an "lAO-Ready Air Handler System
Appendix 8 -Index
SMACNA 30, A-3
recommendations for cleanable duct systems 30
sound data, origins of 54
sound path prediction programs 54
sound power 47,48, 51, 54, A-3
comparison of discharge by fan type 49
comparison of inlet and casing by fan type 48
comparison of plenum wheel-only discharge 51
comparison of plenum wheel-only inlet 51
of enhanced Model Q fan 50
sound-power octave-band analysis 48
source attenuation 47
source noise-path attenuation relationship 47
Southern Building Code 6
stacked dehumidification unit 14, 39
steam coil 19
see also preheat as coil protection and coil
stratification 5, 16
described 18
minimized with energy recovery 40
supply air 5, 7, 24,27, 42, 44, 55, 56, A-3
system-level optimization 55, 56-58
fan capacity reset 57
ventilation reset 57-58
t
temperature control 55
three-way valve 40
terminal-reheat system 6
thermal resistance of casing 33
tobacco smoke 22
toluene 26,27
total heat 42, A-3
Tracer A-3
documenting compliance with ASHRAE
Standard 62-1989 17
outdoor airflow control 17
transfer function 47,54
transition panel 14-15
TRAQTM damper 16,19,56
alternatives to 17
described 17
turning module 36
turning plenums 53
8-6
Appendix B -Index
u,v.w
Uniform Building Code 6
unit attenuation 47,52-53
see also turning plenums and duct silencers
vaneaxial fan. See fan, vaneaxial
VAV system 6,7,17,52
requirements for air handler controls 55, 56
VAV terminal controller 57
VA V terminals 7, 30, 33, 55, 56, 57, 58
VCM. See Ventilation Control Module
ventilating, reasons for 8
ventilation A-3
ventilation air 5,8, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18,39,41,57, A-3
ways to monitor 16
8-7
ventilation control 55, 56
see also TRAQTM damper
Ventilation Control Module 17, A-3
ventilation fraction 57, A-3
Ventilation Rate Procedure 6, 8
why Trane advocates use of 6-7, 28
see also ASHRAE Standard 62-1989
ventilation reset 57-58
vibration-critical applications, recommended
arrangement for 50
VOC. See volatile organic compound
volatile organic compound 26, A-3
water treatment in humidifiers 36
SYS-AM-14






AppendixC-
List of Figures, Tables and References
FigurEs
- - - - ~ - ~ - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~ - ~ - - - ~ - - - .
Figure 1 - Ventilation Requirements through
the Years, 5
Figure 2- Single Path - No RA, No EA,
No Recovery, 9
Figure 3- Single Path - No RA; Passive EA with
Energy Recovery, 9
Figure 4 - Single Path - Passive RA, No EA, 9
Figure 5- Single Path - Passive RA,
Powered EA, 9
Figure 6- Single Path - Powered RA,
Passive EA, 10
Figure 7 - Dual Path - Passive RA, No EA, 11
Figure 8 - Dual Path - Passive RA, Powered EA,
No Recovery, 11
Figure 9- Dual Path - Passive RA, Powered EA with
Energy Recovery, 11
Figure 10 - Dual Path - Powered RA, Passive EA,
No Recovery, 12
Figure 11 _. Dual Path - Powered RA, Passive EA
with Energy Recovery, 12
Figure 12- Trane Central Station Air Handlers, 13
Figure 13- Typical Single-Path MCC Stacked
Arrangements, 13
Figure 14 - Typical Dual-Path MCC/SDU Stacked
Arrangement, 14
Figure 15- Typical "Coupled" MCC Arrangement with
Horizontal Transiton, 14
Figure 16- Typical "Coupled" MCC Arrangement with
Vertical Transition, 15
Figure 17- "Coupled" MCC Arrangement with
Adapter Plates, 15
Figure 18- TRAQTM Damper Assembly, 17
Designing an ''/AO-Ready' Air Handler System
Figure 19 - Air Stratification, 18
Figure 20- Using Preheat to Prevent Cooling Coil
Freeze-Up, 19
Figure 21-lntegral Face-and-Bypass Coils (Cross-
Section), 19
Figure 22 - Air Handler with Energy-Recovery
Preheat, 20
Figure 23 - Typical Air Blender, 20
Figure 24 - Air Handler with 'Winterizer" Coil
Protection, 21
Figure 25 - Common Particulate Contaminants and
Their Characteristics, 23
Figure 26 - Possible Air Handler Locations for
Particulate Filters, 25
Figure 27 - Typical CO
2
or VaC-Specific Sensor, 28
Figure 28 - Microbial Habitats in Buildings, 30
Figure 29 - A Comparison of Drain Pan Designs, 31
Figure 30 - Proper Condensate Trapping, 32
Figure 31 - Removable Panels and Doors for
Easy Access, 33
Figure 32 - Humidipack Module, 35
Figure 33 - Airflow Pattern through Humidipack, 36
Figure 34 - Typical Humidipack Performance, 36
Figure 35 - Typical Humidipack Piping, 36
Figure 36 - Required Entries for Trane's MCC/
Humidipack Selection Program, 37
Figure 37 - Conventional Cooling-Coil
Dehumidification, 38
Figure 38- Dual-Path Stacked Dehumidification Unit
(SOU), 39
Figure 39 - Typical SOU Performance, 39
Figure 40 - Typical Run-around Energy Recovery
Loop, 40
Figure 41- Typical Run-around Loop Psychrometric
Performance (Summer), 41
Figure 42- Typical Fixed-Plate Energy Exchanger
Application (Trane Stacked MCC Air Handler with
Hoval Exchanger), 41
C-1