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Guided By:Prof. V. B. Patel Assistant Professor Electrical Engineering Dept, UVPCE.

Prepared By :Dhaval D. Mer M.Tech (EE) Student (3rd Semester) Enroll No : 12014071004 UVPCE, Ganpat University, Kherva.

Introduction Literature review Limitations and research scope Work plan Reference

Regulation: Regulation means that the Government has set down laws and rules that put limits on and define how a particular industry or company can operate[2]. Deregulation: Deregulation in power industry is a restructuring of the rules and economic incentives that government set up to control and drive the electric power industry[2].





Ancillary services
Ancillary services are defined as all those activities on the interconnected grid, that are necessary to support the transmission of power while maintaining reliable operation and ensuring the required degree of quality and safety[1]. Ancillary services would thus include Regulation of frequency and tie-line power flows Reactive power and voltage control Ensuring system stability Maintenance of generation and transmission reserves and many others.

Reactive power and voltage control

Reactive power support is essential for the maintenance of a uniform voltage profile on the system during normal and emergency conditions. This is accomplished by coordinating the various reactive power resources available to the operator. Among others, load power factor correction, reactive power compensation through capacitors, reactors, etc., reactive power support from generators are some accepted methods for voltage control[1].

Literature review
Maxwell Muchayi, El-Hawary is present reactive power rates which is based on marginal cost pricing implemented using a modification of the optimal power flow (OPF) algorithms[3]. R. Ghazi, M. B. Asadi is present method for calculation of marginal prices of buses. A Reactive Optimal Power Flow developed to calculate reactive power generations and marginal prices of buses. In addition to the operation costs, Capital costs of generators and costs of reactive power losses are considered[4]. Archana Singh, D.S.Chauhan, K.G.Upadhyay is present reactive power procurement, to be done on (few months ahead)advance basis from real time operation with an objective of minimization of reactive generation cost followed by maximization of its Societal Advantage Function(SAF) while considering[5].

Literature review
Hamed Ahmadi, Asghar Akbari is presented a new modified nodal pricing method to calculate reactive power price. This article tries to solve the problems of traditional nodal pricing methods to be able to consider opportunity and availability costs for the generators[6]. Jin Zhong, Anjan Bose, Kankar Bhattacharya, is demonstrate The concept of electrical distance has been used to identify the different voltage-control areas within a power system. The proposed reactive power market is settled on uniform price auction, using a modified optimal power-flow model[7].

Limitations and research scope

In the calculation of cost of reactive power not considering generator operating costs, and the costs of reactive power losses [3]. The cost of reactive power is based on the active power market[4]. They are not considering availability cost for the calculation of cost of reactive power[5]. They are not present reactive power ancillary services at the level of individual voltage-control areas[6]. Just consider reactive power procurement not reactive power dispatch[7].

Fig 3. Reactive Power Procurement Process Diagram

Reactive Capability Curve

Day Ahead Energy Market


Reactive Cost Curve Construction Reactive Cost Curve Reactive Procurement Optimization


Reactive Schedule


Real-time Operation

Work plan
Phase I Literature Survey Analysis of Existing systems Improvement in the Existing Systems Mathematical Foundation of Proposed Method Implementation & Simulation of Proposed Method Documentation Review Paper Study/Presentation Presentation/ Publication of Research work Phase II Phase III Phase IV

Table :1 WORK PLAN

Operation of Restructured Power Systems, by K. Bhattacharya, MHT Bollen and J.C Doolder, Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA, 2001. 2. Introduction to Deregulation in Power Industry by A.R.Abhyankar, Prof. S.A.Khaparde, IITB. 3. A Summary Of Algorithms In Reactive Power Pricing by Maxwell Muchayi , El-Hawary, IEEE, 1995. 4. Reactive Power Pricing Using Marginal Cost Theory In Competitive Electricity Markets by R. Ghazi, M. B. Asadi, IEEE, 2010. 1.

5. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market by Archana Singh, D.S.Chauhan, K.G.Upadhyay, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 2011. A stochastic framework for reactive power procurement market, based on nodal price model by Hamed Ahmadi, Asghar Akbari Foroud, 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Localized Reactive Power Markets Using the Concept of Voltage Control Areas by Jin Zhong, Anjan Bose, Kankar Bhattacharya, IEEE transactions on power systems, vol. 19, no. 3, august 2004.



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