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# LECTURE:2

## Chapter:1 Network FormulatioN

AdvAnced Power SyStem AnAlySiS And dynAmicS By l. p. singh

## NETWORK MATRICES BY SINGULAR TRANSFORMATIONS

Network matrices can be formed by two methods: (a) Singular transformation and (b) Direct method The network matrices that are used commonly in power system analysis that can be obtained by singular transformation are : (i) Bus Admittance Matrix (Ii) Bus Impedance Matrix (Iii) Branch Admittance Matrix (Iv) Branch Impedance Matrix (V) Loop Impedance Matrix (Vi) Loop Admittance Matrix

## BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRIX

The bus admittance matrix Y BUS can be obtained by determining the relation between the variables and parameters of the primitive network to bus quantities of the network using bus incidence matrix. 1.9 Pre multiplying by [At], the transpose of the bus incidence matrix 1.10 Matrix A shows the connections of elements to buses. [At] i thus is a vector, wherein, each element is the algebraic sum of the currents that terminate at any of the buses. Following Kirchhoff's current law, the algebraic sum of currents at any node or bus must be zero. Hence 1.11

## BUS ADMITTANCE MATRIX AND IMPEDANCE MATRIX

Again [At] j term indicates the algebraic sum of source currents at each of the buses and must equal the vector of impressed bus currents. 1.11 1.12 In the bus frame, power in the network is given by 1.13 Power in the primitive network is given by 1.14 Power must be invariant, for transformation of variables to be invariant. As the bus frame of referee corresponds to the given primitive network in performance. Power consumed in both the circuits is the same. 1.15

## BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRIX

Conjugate transpose of eqn. 1.11 However, as A is real matrix A = A *, Substituting eqn. 1.17 into 1.15 Substituting eqn 1.18 into 1.12 From the network matrices in admittance form

## 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21

Once [Y BUS] is evaluated from the above transformation, (ZBUS) can be determined from the relation.

1.22

## BRANCH ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

The branch admittance matrix YBR can be obtained with the help of basic cut set incidence matrix C which relates the variables and parameters of the primitive network to branch quantities of the network. 1.23 Pre multiplying by [At], the transpose of the bus incidence matrix 1.24 Following Kirchhoff's current law, the algebraic sum of currents at the boundary of the cut set is zero. Hence, and is equal to IBR

1.25

## BRANCH ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

In the branch frame, power in the network is equal to the power in primitive network performance. 1.26 1.27 1.28 as C is real matrix C = C *, Then, i.e. 1.29 Substituting eqn. 1.29 into 1.26, 1.30 i.e. 1.31 Substituting the equation 1.30 in the equation 1.26, we get,

But as

## BRANCH ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

[C]i=0, according to Kirchhoff's law, Again form eqn. 1.31,

Partitioning the equation for branches and links we get, 1.34 From above we get,

## LOOP IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE MATRICES

The loop impedance matrix Zloop can be obtained with the help of basic loop incidence matrix B which relates the variables and parameters of the loop quantities with the primitive network matrix. 1.36 Pre multiplying equation 1.33 by [B], 1.37 According to Kirchhoff's voltage law, the algebraic sum of voltage in the loop is zero.

And Be is the algebraic sum of the source voltages around each basic loop= Eloop.

## With this substitution, equation 1.34 becomes,

1.38 Power must be invariant, for transformation of variables to be invariant. So, power in the primitive network is equal to the power in the loop frame of reference.

1.39 As the equation 1.36 is true for all values of e, we get 1.40 Taking conjugate transpose, 1.41

## LOOP IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE MATRICES

Since B is real matrix B = B *, Then, i.e. Substituting eqn. 1.39 into 1.35,

1.42 1.43

But since, i.e. 1.44 Since, B is singular, B[Z]Bt is a singular transformation of [Z] and also, 1.45

## BRANCH ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

[B]v=0, according to Kirchhoff's law, Again form eqn. 1.42,

Partitioning the equation for branches and links we get, 1.46 From above we get,

## AUGMENTED CUT-SET INCIDENCE MATRIX

Fictitious cutsets called tie cutsets can be introduced to make total no. of cutsets are equal to the number of elements of the connected graph. Each tie cutset contains only one link and is oriented in same direction as that of the link.

## AUGMENTED CUT-SET INCIDENCE MATRIX

The augmented cutset incidence matrix can be formed by adding to the basic cutset incidence matrix, an additional rows corresponding to these tie cutset. This matrix can be partition for branches and links,

## AUGMENTED LOOP INCIDENCE MATRIX

Fictitious loops called open loops which are equal to the no. of branches can be introduced to have total no. of loops equal to the number of elements of the connected graph An open loop is defined as a path between adjacent nodes connected by a branch and is oriented in the same direction as that of the associated branch.

## AUGMENTED LOOP INCIDENCE MATRIX

The augmented loop incidence matrix can be formed by adding to the basic loop incidence matrix B, an additional rows corresponding to the open loops. This matrix can be partition for branches and links,

## The matrix B is a square non-singular matrix of the dimension e x e.

EXAMPLE

Draw oriented graph, tree, co-tree, cut-set, loop etc. diagram for the given power system network. And derive all type of matrices.