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VIDEO 1 (VINNIE) ! The video focuses on Vinnie, a 14 year old boy who was once a star pupil at school.

Described by the principle as a smart, sporty, and somewhat cheeky boy when he started attending the school in Year 7, Vinnie excelled in all areas of schooling. Not only did he represent the school in football and rugby matches, he had also devoted extra hours after school to work with his History teacher. However, Vinnies behaviour has since deteriorated badly. Although he remains in the top set for most subjects, Vinnie has been truanting his lessons and disregarding the school rules. Members of the school staff have mainly attributed this change in behaviour to the breakup of his parents marriage. This particularly difcult personal circumstance, coupled with other factors such as Vinnies general rapport with his teachers and the principals resolve not to expel any student from the school, has assisted Vinnie in manipulating the school behavioural management plan to his own ends. His contrary actions often went unpunished and were largely viewed as bad behaviour due to his lack of trust in adults or as a way to push adults into leaving him alone. While these may be plausible explanations for Vinnies behaviour, his actions in this footage also suggests that he could have been otherwise motivated. ! One alternative explanation for Vinnies change in behaviour could be that he has

an emotional or behaviour disorder. Although not the most likely reason, this possibility should be explored. Vinnie was not diagnosed with a psychopathology, but there is also no evidence suggesting that Vinnie had seen a psychologist or any other trained medical professional. His mother communicated that Vinnie displays a different personality at home. Even if everyone who knows him thinks he is lovely but he can just switch. She suggests that Vinnie has violent tendencies as exemplied by arguments ending with Vinnies door hanging off the hinge. He was also kicked out of his home for getting into a ght with his little brother where Vinnie slapped his brother. It should, however, be noted that Vinnie did not display any particularly violent behaviour in the video which focused only on his actions at school. While Vinnie did admit that he hit his brother during the argument there was nothing to suggest that he lost control or turned violent. There was an instance during the footage which showed Vinnie running in hall and picking his friend up. This may allude to Vinnie having a tendency for sensation seeking, another symptom of a psychopathology. However, there is insufcient evidence to conclusively state whether or not Vinnie has a psychopathology. It is also important to note that Vinnies mother was aware that the video was being made and may have felt an extra burden to justify turning

him out of the house.

On balance, it may be advisable for Vinnie to see the school

psychologist or to seek consultation with a trained professional as it may provide more insight to the change in his behaviour. Additionally, should Vinnie have a psychopathology, the schools treatment of his behaviour may also need to be modied as focusing on talks about his future and the importance of doing well academically may not have any signicance to him. ! ! Another more likely motivation for Vinnies behaviour is that he is seeking a Individuals seeking a reputation display three categories of motivational reputation.

behavior, namely initiating their reputation of choice, then actively promoting it through the visibility of their actions, and nally maintaining it through related activities. Although the dissolvement of his parents marriage may have been the catalyst for Vinnie initiating a disagreeable reputation, the schools management of Vinnies behaviour has allowed him to promote and maintain his reputation seeking activities. Similar to other adolescents in a study on the importance of reputation in their daily lives, Vinnie made a deliberate choice in initiating a nonconforming reputation. When interviewed, Vinnie stated that when he started year 7 he was good and thought that teachers were scary but now he is not. This shows that Vinnie is aware of his actions and is deliberately choosing to behave contrarily. Additionally, Vinnies statement also conrms that he wants his nonconforming reputation to be recognised by others. This recognition is usually experienced through feelings of being strong, powerful, and cool. The school, through their use of very public disciplinary measures, have enabled Vinnie to promote this nonconforming reputation. Vinnie does not only visibly promote his reputation through nonconforming actions but has further manipulated the schools behaviour management plan such that he suffers no consequence for these actions. ! As noted by in the same study, the visibility of actions and feedback received from

the audience are necessary to assist the individual in further developing and maintaining their reputation of choice. This is evident in Vinnies actions throughout the video. For example, during a technology lesson where an extra teacher was present Vinnie asked the teacher if the teacher was there for him. Despite the teachers negative reply, his classmate openly stated that the extra staff member was obviously there because of Vinnie. This shows an acceptance of Vinnies reputation as a bad or difcult to manage student. Vinnie then proceeded to noisily slurp his drink in class, once again making it visible that he is opposing the school rules. When asked to stop drinking in class, Vinnie

walks out of class and refuses to return to class despite being given options by the teacher. During his talk to the extra support teacher, Vinnie does not admit to any wrongdoing. Instead, he paints the technology teacher as unreasonable for wanting and offers other excuses such as lunchtime being too short. His actions also prompted his classmate, Charlotte, to misbehave and get sent out of class. As a result, Vinnie is sent to the on-call teacher, which escalates the matter to the deputy, who nally sends Vinnie to the principal. Clearly, Vinnie is successfully promoting his reputation before his peers and receiving the desired feedback. ! Despite this, Vinnies actions and frequent disregard of the school rules often goes Although nally sent to see the principal after the incident during his

unpunished.

technology lesson, the principal took no action other than reasoning with him and trying to push the importance of school. Vinnie seemed remorseful during the conversation but has ultimately manipulated the situation so he can do what he wants. A similar pattern is also witnessed during Vinnies conversations with the student support staff and his mentor teacher, Miss Conway. Teachers often only try talking to him and eventually allow him to walk away without consequent. For example, when Vinnie walked into school without his proper uniform on he was not stopped by members of the staff in the hallway. Additionally, Vinnie has also been seen answering his phone in the school hallway, truanting his class and deliberately running away from teachers in the hallway, visiting social media sites on the school computers, and walking out of a lesson. He is treated more like a friend by the principal and is usually given excuses for his behaviour in conversations. Evidently, the schools management of Vinnies behaviour have supported the promotion and maintenance of his reputation. ! In conclusion, it is believed that the school management plan has strongly impacted

Vinnies behaviour. Although his parents breakup and the lack of a father gure in his life after his parents separated may have inuenced his actions, the school largely enabled his reputation seeking behaviour. This is primarily because discipline is dealt with very publicly in the school. The deputy was seen calling out to individuals about their uniform in public, boys with games on their school drive were punished publicly, and even more serious offenses such as possessing cigarettes in school was dealt with in a common area. Additionally, the principals resolve that no student should be expelled from the school also meant that extra resources had to be allocated to provide Vinnie with support. These include extra hours in the student support centre, additional staff member in his

lessons, and a personal mentor teacher dedicated to supporting him. into voluntary care.

The principle

himself was very emotionally invested as seen by his reaction when Vinnie was nally put However, rather than help manage his behaviour, these measures Additionally, Vinnie was constantly told that he would may have further encouraged Vinnies reputation seeking as it made visible to other students that he was special. continue to be given chances despite his actions and their impact on the other students in school. The principal and Miss Conway also seemed more focused on getting Vinnie back on track academically and neglected to address his behaviour itself. As such, Vinnie was often able to manipulate the situation to suit his own end. The principal, through poor management and a lack of rmness, has strongly impacted Vinnies behaviour by repeated allowing him to continue nonconforming activities without consequents.

VIDEO 2 (ROBERT) ! Robert Oliver is a 7 year old boy. He has been diagnosed with a variety of

personality and behavioural disorders. He was put on medications and regularly visited a therapist. Robert is primarily cared for by his grandmother, Anna, who is also raising his younger brother, Benji. The boys mother, Robanna, conceived Robert after being raped when she was only 15. According to Anna, Robanna hated Roberts biological father for raping her and has tried to kill Robert. Although Robanna has made no mention of this, she had stated that she did not want Robert when she was pregnant and she hated him because he was taking away her dreams and messing up her life. claims that Robert is violent and suicidal. Additionally, Anna According to Anna, Robert used to get so

depressed he tied a rope around his neck and jumped out of a tree. Although Robert did not display any suicidal or self-harming tendencies in the video footage, he did verbalise that he needs a weapon to shoot himself. Robert had also killed three or four dogs and cats. FAMILY LIFE ! While living with their grandmother, Robert and Benji seemed to have a very

disorganised home life. The boys were seen jumping around noisily and playing rather roughly with each other. Robert was also given a gun and allowed to play with it around his little brother. In fact, Anna repeated taunted Robert about his inability to re the weapon. There also seems to be a pattern of Anna taunting Robert and trying to get him to react. For example, she suggested a race between the two brothers and then declared Benji as the winner despite the fact that Robert was actually faster and clearly wanted that acknowledged. She also did not allow Robert back into the house when he asked to go to the toilet and persisted until Robert threw a tantrum. Once, when Robert was watching a program on television, Anna dragged him outside and held him down while he screamed continuously. She claimed that it was part of his therapy and that he needed to let it out. Anna seemed particular pleased in being able draw out a reaction from Robert while Robert looked very uncomfortable being around his grandmother, particularly when she was touching him. At times, he also displayed an awareness of Anna manipulating his emotions. This was evident when he stated that dont work on me anymore after she tried to get him to come to her by threatening him with a punishment.

Robannas relationship with Anna has also had a signicant impact on Robert and This dream could no longer be realised because Robanna

Benjis home life. Anna used to have very high expectations for her daughter, enrolling her in many beauty pageants. conceived Robert and later fell with a bad crowd and started taking drugs. According to Robanna, there were constant ghts with her mum about who would take care of Robert. This tension is still present as seen by Annas hostile reaction to hearing that Robert was well behaved while under Robannas care. There is a likelihood that Anna was actively discouraging a bond between Robert and his mother. This may be because Anna wants to be the centre of Roberts world or because she believes that Robanna had previously abused Robert. After a visit by Robanna, Anna cuddled Robert and repeatedly told him that its okay, she wont hurt you anymore. Robert reacted strongly to this and did not want his grandmother to talk about it anymore, indicating that similar incidences have previously occurred. negativity at home. ! Apart from a negative environment at home, the boys also lived in unsanitary In addition to rotting food on the table, there was also animal feces in the It is evident that Robert and Benji are constantly surrounded by

conditions.

house. During a visit by the therapist to Annas house, Robert stepped on some dog feces and was told that he should know what to do. This demonstrates having dog feces in the house as not uncommon and his actions may be interpreted as a call for attention. Although their living conditions were much improved when they lived temporarily with Robanna, the boys had a very unhealthy diet. Their meals consisted mainly of readymade food and soda. In fact, Robert was seen asking his mum if the meal served was fat. However, apart from the poor dietary plan Robanna provided the boys with a very structured home environment. There were established rules which were clearly written down, stuck on the wall, and Robanna explained why the rule about their sleeping time was necessary. Robert was much calmer and could be seen happily playing with Robanna and Benji. The therapist also commented that she was surprised at the sense of pride that Robanna displayed when given responsibility for the boys. ! Towards the end of the video, Annas health had seriously deteriorated. She is

depressed and felt useless.

During Roberts eighth birthday, Anna vocalized her

unhappiness at being unable to play with the boys. She talks about how her feelings were hurt by the fact that they did not acknowledge her when she went to the kitchen. Robert appeared to be really happy, he was laughing and excitedly guessing what his presents

could be. He seemed really uncomfortable when his grandmother started hugging him in the kitchen and had to be prompted many times to acknowledge her. When Anna is nally bedridden, she tells Robert that she will be waiting for him in heaven. At present, Robert has been taken off all his medication and seems to be coping well.

SCHOOL LIFE ! Robert seems to really enjoy his time at school. He was seen singing songs at

school and was well behaved at all times. Robert appears to be an enthusiastic student who is doing well in both reading and math. He could count in ves very quickly and was eager to participate. His teacher remarks that his behaviour is that of a typical rst grader. When it was time to receive their progress reports at school, Robert was eager and anxious to be called upon. honour roll. He seems to value school and really wanted to be on the The teachers and the principle at his school all believe that Robert is

progressing well and that he does not display any behavioural or emotional issues. During a staff meeting with the therapist one of his teachers comments that she believes Anna wants to be the centre of Roberts world. symptoms in Robert. They speculate that Anna may be inducing During Annas visit to the school, Robert displayed a lot of

discomfort. A similar reaction was seen when the principal visited their home. Although Robert was extremely polite, he was more reluctant to answer questions and was very aware of Annas presence. Anna disagrees with the schools assessment of Robert and asserts that he cannot behave because of his mood swings.

DIAGNOSIS ! Whilst Robert had been diagnosed with several personality and behaviour Not only did Robert

disorders, this diagnosis is questionable due to several factors. From the video footage, it is evident that Robert is able to discern past and present time. verbalise that it is all in the past when Anna spoke of Robanna abusing him, but Robert was also able to recall back to the time when he went to a building with his grandmother and could tell the principal how he would have acted had he been with a teacher instead. Besides this, Roberts diagnosis is also disputable since he did not display any symptoms at school. He was able to inhibit his responses while waiting for names on the honour roll to be called out and could count backwards easily. This is signicant as symptoms for disorders such as ADHD should be present in multiple settings. However, it is also

plausible that Roberts symptoms were effectively suppressed by his medication. Robert was probably not taking his medication at home since he was seen spitting out a pill that Anna tried to feed him. Alternatively, the difference in Roberts behaviour could also be attributed to the structured setting at school. It is important to note however, that when Robert was taken off all his medication at the end of the video, his behaviour remained normal but he ran with a slight gait. This symptom may signify a pervasive developmental disorder and should be monitored.

BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ! ! Due to the various factors and stakeholders inuencing Roberts behaviour, a

multisystemic therapy approach is recommended. Multisystemic therapy is an intensive family and community-based treatment program that focuses on addressing all environmental systems that impacts the individual. In this case, in addition to Robert himself, the management program should also focus on Roberts family members and his school namely, Anna, Robanna, Benji, and the school principal or teachers. His therapist should also be informed and included in the process. - ROBERT ! Robert seems to be coping well after being taken off his medication, but his

progress should be monitored. Since he is no longer displaying any of his behavioural symptoms now that he is being cared for by Robanna, it is plausible that his condition was due to environmental factors. However, it appears that he is running with a gait during his baseball games. This is a symptom of a perversive developmental disorder which should be noted and carefully monitored. Overall, Robert seems to be developing well and adjusting better to his new home life. Certicates and acknowledgement that Robert is consistently on the honour roll is also put on display in the room. ! As Robert had previously vocalized suicidal thoughts and had remarked to the

therapist that he believes his grandmother might die because of him, it may also be recommended that he attend counseling. His drawings in the therapists ofce showed strong feelings, featuring mainly red and black for blood and death. Since Anna has been his primary caregiver for many years, this belief that he would cause her death coupled with Annas hospitalisation and deteriorating health would undoubtably affect Robert. Furthermore, Robert has also been living in a constantly negative environment for many

years and was later told by his grandmother that she would wait for him in heaven, something he was clearly uncomfortable with. These issues may need to be addressed by a counsellor to ensure that Roberts emotional development is not compromised.

- ANNA ! It is highly likely that Anna suffers from Munchausen by proxy syndrome and should She contended that

attend therapy. Although it is difcult to prove that Anna suffers the condition, her actions throughout the video strongly suggests some psychopathology. Robert tried to kill himself with a knife and got violent when she tried to stop him. Anna claims that Robert attacked her by continuously kicking her but the bruises on her legs looked quite old. As such, there is a high probability that she was lying to get attention. According to the therapist, it is hard to believe that the events unfolded as Anna described. The headmistress also believes that Anna was lying and Robert says that he does not remember saying such a thing. In addition, Anna was also seen reacting in a very hostile manner when Robanna suggested that the boys faired well under her care. She appears to want control over Robert and talks about how she has a lot of clout and that there are many things she can do. Furthermore, Anna looked pleased whenever she was able to provoke an extreme reaction from Robert. She was constantly taunting him and even when she was bedridden, she continued to talk about how she would be waiting on them in heaven. Her actions suggests that Anna wants to feel important in Roberts life.

- ROBANNA ! Although Robanna was able to provide the boys with a better home environment,

she may still require support in many aspects. The therapist had previously commented on Robannas damaged self-esteem. Even though Robanna displayed a sense of pride when given responsibility of the boys, things seemed to change when Anna returned home. Additionally, Robanna was also raped at a very young age and it is uncertain if Benji shares the same biological father as Robert. Since there was also no mention of Robannas biological father, the lack of male inuence coupled with the violence committed upon her person may be causing Robanna signicant emotional distress. It is recommended that Robanna attend counseling so she can properly reconcile her relationship with Anna and gain more condence about her role as a mother to both Robert and Benji.

Furthermore, Robanna should also be offered proper dietary and nutritional advice.

She may be encouraged to attend cooking lessons or nding other means of providing the boys healthy meals. Robanna could also benet from nancial counseling as she now has two additional children under her care. This change in circumstances means that she would now have to start budgeting and preparing for their future, a responsibility that she probably has no experience with and would require assistance with. - BENJI ! Little has been said or seen of Benji in the video footage. However, it is known that

he grew up in the same constantly negative environment as Robert. As such, it may be advisable for Benji to attend counseling or to be monitored. It should also be noted that many personality and behavioural disorders have a genetic component. Since Robert was previously diagnosed with a disorder, it is plausible that Benji would develop the same condition. Therefore, it is important that Benjis progress be monitored so early interventions can be introduced should they be required. - SCHOOL ! Lastly, the school is clearly an important environment which strongly inuences

Roberts development. He appears to be doing well in school and is enjoying his time there. The school should be kept updated with his progress and teachers should be given positive feedback for the work they are doing with him. This may be done through reports to the headmistress or his form teacher. Additionally, the school was also seen to have built a strong relationship with Robert and Anna, who was his primary caregiver. responsibility of caring for Robert. This relationship should be encouraged and extended to Robanna who has now taken over the