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Demings 14 Principle points

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For the production of quality software products, a disciplined interaction among people involved in a project is warranted. This can best be achieved through a process framework like the CMM which, too, addresses all the Demings 14 quality principles

Demings principles are directly applicable to any industry, including software. However, the implementation framework for the software industry needs to be designed with special attention because software products are unique and complex in many respects, when compared to other manufacturing products/services. They involve substantial intelligence, skills, creativity, engineering work behind their creation. The people who create software products are themselves unique by many factors such as logical thinking, viewing real-world problems at the required level of abstraction, providing automated solutions to complex environments, etc. It is managements responsibility to bring discipline in the interaction between these intelligent people to facilitate the production of quality software products. This discipline is best achieved through a process framework like the CMM. The evolutionary nature of CMM reinforces the fact that improvements in a system should occur gradually, in manageable parts, rather than all at once. Deming and CMM together Let us see how Demings principles are adopted by and implemented with CMM. Before directly mapping Demings principles to the CMM, it is wise to see some interfaces and relationships between the two.

Demings principles are requirement specifications for building a TQM culture. Where as, CMM framework provides the required design, construction and implementation support Deming has listed 14 principles, which when followed concurrently will establish the TQM culture. On the other hand, CMM is incremental in nature, that is, it prioritizes the improvement actions based on their complexity and interdependencies and guides in orderly progression CMM also follows the popular Demings PDCA cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act) in the form of its commitment to perform, ability to perform, activities, verifying implementation, measurements and analysis common features.

The mapping Let us see how each of Demings principle is addressed by the CMM framework Deming's principle 1 Create constancy of purpose focused on improvement of product and service How CMM addresses it...? This principle says that quality should be the cornerstone of the organization and every individuals and group's responsibilities should be focused on achieving quality. All units within the organization should work towards common goals and purposes. This translates into CMM as follows:

SQA people assure quality of products by checking their compliance to applicable processes and standards Software configuration management group establishes and maintains the integrity of the software products that are produced by the software engineering group and thus assures quality of those products Defect Prevention Board for a project works on preventing defects from reoccurring and thus assures quality of the products System test group tests the products produced by the software engineering group for compliance to respective requirements and thus assures quality of products.

Demings principle 2 Adopt the new philosophy How CMM addresses it...?

Demings 14 Principle points

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This principle states that we should neither live with acceptable levels of quality nor allow our clients to do so. Acceptance of defective systems and poor workmanship as a way of life is one of the most effective roadblocks to better quality and productivity. Overcoming this requires having mature processes, which have the ability to produce predictable results. CMM framework as a whole improves the process maturity in the evolutionary way (in 5 levels which are reasonably placed one after the other). Demings principle 3 Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality and build quality into the product in the first place How CMM addresses it...? This is one of the important principles of all. Performing this requires high maturity in the processes we follow. The keyword here is: prevention. Prevention is something that we undertake to avoid known or unknown defects. CMM supports prevention activity in a big way. The first prevention activity in CMM starts at the Defined Level by defining processes (Just experience doing things without having a disciplined process!!!). All activities carried out at CMM Level 4 and Level 5 are preventive activities. Demings principle 4 End the practice on awarding business solely on price. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, developing a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust How CMM addresses it...? This principle states that the only criteria for selecting contractors should be the Quality of products they can guarantee. CMM requires organizations to achieve this objectivity by following a documented procedure to select qualified subcontractors and to subcontract the work to them (refer to the KPA Software Subcontract Management). Demings principle 5 Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decreasing costs How CMM addresses it...? CMM directly covers this point in one of its Level 5 Key Process Areas (KPAs) called process change management. Demings principle 6 Institute on-the-job training to make use of all employees How CMM addresses it...? This principle states that training needs to be given to all employees to enhance their skills and help them contribute to the success of the organization. CMM addresses this issue throughout its framework by mentioning the specific training to be given under the Ability to Perform common feature for almost all of the KPAs. Demings principle 7 Institute leadership. The aim of leadership should be to help people and machines do a better job How CMM addresses it...? The word leadership is directly related to process improvement for software industry. When defects occur, leaders first try to correct the underlying process which produced that product, that is, they recognize the fact that 95 per cent of the problems are due to defective processes and the rest are due to human mistakes. This makes them assume responsibility for the defective products and correct the processes involved in their production. CMM actually facilitates (automates to be precise) the creation of this kind of leadership behavior by mandating the improvement of every process at the optimizing level with the process change management KPA. The KPA, Defect Prevention, supports this activity. Demings principle 8 Drive out fear, so everyone may work effectively for the company

Demings 14 Principle points

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How CMM addresses it...? Driving out fear among employees requires providing them with understandable and reasonable processes and setting their goals which are achievable by those processes. This objectivity is achieved only when there is a shared vision between management and employees of what to do and how to do. CMM addresses this by requiring all the plans and commitments to be reviewed by all affected groups before actually carrying them out. Another dimension to this principle is clearly visible during reviews. If review results are used for evaluation of individuals performance, reviews dont reveal any defects. The purpose of reviews should be to detect and correct defects early and efficiently and not to punish the producer for those defects. This is the reason why CMM calls reviews as peer reviews, where the producers peers review the product not their managers. CMM also says explicitly that the review results should never be used for evaluating individuals performance. Demings principle 9 Breakdown barriers between departments How CMM addresses it...? Breaking down barriers between various departments means, giving people an opportunity to look beyond their departmental activities, understand other departments problems and thus facilitating the formation of a shared vision of what needs to be done for effective problem solving. This concern is directly addressed by the CMM KPA called Intergroup Co-ordination. Demings principle 10 Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce that ask for zero defects or new levels of productivity without providing methods How CMM addresses it...? This principle says that, it is managements responsibility to provide employees with the necessary procedures which guide them in performing their work. Doing this also brings in, the required discipline, and reduces the risk of unpredictable results coming out. SW-CMM views this as a fundamental issue to be addressed and hence process definition occurs at the Defined Level (Level 3) in a formal way. Demings principle 11

Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers or numerical goals. Substitute leadership

How CMM addresses it...? Please see the explanation given for the principle 7. The same applies here. Demings principle 12 Remove barriers that rob hourly workers of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality How CMM addresses it...? This principle says that management should never divert their attention from making products that meet customers needs and requirements. This is covered by the policies & procedures of the Requirements Management & Software Quality Management KPAs in the CMM. Demings principle 13 Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement How CMM addresses it...? This principle says that, besides training employees to perform their duties (as stated in the 6 th principle), there is also a need to educate them to make them more productive and self-contained. This includes training in statistical methods, communication

Demings 14 Principle points

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skills improvement, etc. Interestingly, this aspect of training is not covered by the SW-CMM due to the reason that it goes beyond the scope of a particular projects training needs. However, SEIs Personal Software Process (PSP) provides methods to make individuals more productive in their work and SEIs P-CMM (People CMM) addresses the area of employee self-improvement in a few of its KPAs namely performance management, competency development and Career Development.

Demings principle 14 Clearly define top management's permanent commitment to quality and productivity and its obligation to implement these principles How CMM addresses it...? This is probably the most important principle of all. This principle states that it is managements responsibility to establish, implement and maintain the commitment to quality and productivity in the organization. The establishment of commitment is covered by the CMM in all its KPAs through one of its common feature called Commitment to Perform, which mandates the establishment of a policy for every KPA. Implementation of these commitments is done by their associated defined processes. Maintenance of these commitments is addresses by all the Level 5 KPAs. Conclusion There are many organizations in US (possibly other countries as well) which have a negative impression on the usefulness of CMM. Many criticisms have come up on the purpose and usefulness of CMM and one such can be found at www.satisfice.com/articles/cmm.htm This URL leads to an excellent criticism on CMM written by an independent SQA consultant, called James. His view is that CMM doesnt have any theoretical basis behind its development and use. The main purpose of this Deming and the CMM mapping article is to discuss the theoretical basis for CMM. Of course, James addressed many other areas in his article where, he feels CMM is weak. Those areas are not discussed in this article.