Anda di halaman 1dari 31

PRACTICAL NO 1

AIM
To share folders among users.

THEORY
We can share folders on a Windows XP-based computer among both local and remote users. Local users log on to your computer directly through their own accounts or through a Guest account. Remote users connect to your computer over the network and access the files that are shared on our computer. These permissions apply to the folder, all the files in that folder, subfolders and all the files in the subfolders. Files and folders that are created in or copied to a folder inherit the permissions that are defined for their parent folder. Before we can share a folder, we need to set security on it.

Step 1
Locate the folder you want to share, in this example, the "documents" folder. Right click on the folder and select "sharing". A window should appear, looking very similar to the one below.

Step 2
The sharing default will be set to "Do not share this folder". Click on the radio button to the left of "Share this folder", and give your share another name(if you do not wish to use the default). In this case, the share name is "documents" The folder will now look like this.

Step 3
Next, click on the "Permissions" button. This is CRITICAL! If you do not set permissions, your files will be available to everyone, thus leaving your computer vulnerable to virus and worm attacks. If you must have shares, set the permissions!

Step 4
Share permissions in Windows 2000 defaults to the group "Everyone" with full control, which means that everyone has access to your files and also can write into your shared folder. If you want to remove the everyone group select everyone and click remove.

Step 5
To select who can have permissions, click on the "Add" button. Type in the Yale\NetId or first.last@yale.edu. Highlight the user you want to give access to and then click on "Add". When finished selecting users, click on "OK". The users you have selected will then appear in the window to the right alphabetically. After you have added users, remove the group "everyone" so that access is limited to only the users you have selected. When finished, click "ok" and your files will be safely protected from unwelcome users and viruses

Result
The folder has been shared among users.

PRACTICAL NO 2
AIM
To share and connect printer among users.

THEORY
Users who have multiple computers in their home or work environment may wish to share a printer with the other computers to help save on cost and for convenience. Below are some of the ways you can share a printer on a network for different setups. Network printer Some printers, often high-end printers have the capability to connect directly to a network or have hardware installed into them that enables the printer to be connected to the Network. If your printer supports this option and has the necessary hardware you should be able to connect the printer directly to the Network and have it detected by the computers. When these printers are connected to a network you'll often be required to enter the network information such as the networks gateway, printer IP, etc.

Step 1
Click the Start Button, click settings, click printers.

Step 2
Right click the printer you want to share.

Step 3
3. Select "Sharing" and then select shared this printer also give the printer a name that it will be know on the network as.

Step 4
The default security is Everyone Print. That should be adequate security since all anyone can do is print and not change printer parameters.

Step 5
Click the Start Button, click Settings, and click Printers. Double click Add Printer in the file tab to open the Add Printer Wizard.

Step 6
Click Next

Step 7
Click the "Local Printer" radio button.

Step 8
ClickNext.

Step 9
Click "Create a new port" and choose "Local Port" from the drop down menu.

Step 10
In the "Enter a Port Name" box type \\hostname\printersharename.

Step 11
Choose the Manufacturer and Printer from the list.

Step 12
Create a name for the printer in the "Printer Name" box.

Step 13
Leave the default "Do not share this Printer".

Step 14
Finish

Result
The printer has been shared among users.

PRACTICAL NO 3
AIM
To perform remote assistance in window XP

THEORY
Computer users, particularly users without much technical expertise, often have configuration problems or usage questions that are difficult for a support professional or even just a friend or family member to diagnose and fix over the phone. Remote Assistance provides a way for users to get the help they need and makes it easier and less costly for corporate helpdesks to assist their users. Plus, experienced users can tap Remote Assistance to directly help their friends and family members. The fastest way to use Remote Assistance is via Windows Messenger using the MSN Messenger Service, described in the first scenario below. You can also initiate Remote Assistance sessions via e-mail, described in the second scenario below. Alternatively, you can fill out a form and save it as a file. After receiving a request for Remote Assistance, the helper (expert) can remotely connect to a problem-PC and view the screen directly to fix the problem. When you initiate a request for help, the Remote Assistance client sends an XML-based encrypted ticket to the helper who is prompted to accept the invitation. Remote Assistance: How it Works Remote assistance uses Terminal Services technology, allowing a helper to assist you via a remote Terminal Services session. As shown in Figure 1 below, Remote Assistance uses a simple, secure process in establishing a connection between you and a helper. The request is encrypted in a public key and sent using XML.

Figure 1: A high level view of Remote Assistance Using Remote Assistance This guide describes the following scenarios using Remote Assistance:

Using Remote Assistance via Windows Messenger. This section shows how a home user initiates Remote Assistance via Windows Messenger to a trusted friend. Using Remote Assistance via saving a file. This section shows how to initiate a Remote Assistance invitation by saving the request as a file. This allows you to use Remote Assistance via Web-based e-mail such as Hotmail or other similar services. Using Remote Assistance via e-mail. This section explains initiating Remote Assistance via e-mail to a corporate Helpdesk. Home users can also follow this procedure to send a Remote Assistance request via e-mail. Offering Remote Assistance to a user. This section explains how to initiate a request to perform Remote Assistance on a user's computer in a corporate IT environment. Administering Remote Assistance in Corporate Environments. This section briefly addresses notes for administrators in order to manage Remote Assistance in a corporate environment.

Configuration Requirements You can duplicate these procedures in your own environment or lab by following the steps explained below. You will need the following configuration:

Two computers running Microsoft Windows XP Professional or Windows XP Home Edition. Both computers must be connected to the Internet.

Using Remote Assistance via Windows Messenger This section shows how a home user initiates Remote Assistance via Windows Messenger to a trusted friend. User Paul West has just installed Windows XP Professional on his home computer and wants his My Documents folder to appear on his desktop. Paul already has a Hotmail e-mail account and uses Windows Messenger to stay in touch with friends. He turns to his friend and trusted computer expert, Cynthia Randall, whom Paul has listed as one of his Windows Messenger contacts. Cynthia is also running Windows XP and Paul can see she's online. Paul decides to use Remote Assistance.

Step 1
Paul clicks Tools, clicks Asks for Remote Assistance, and chooses Cynthia's email address, as shown in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Starting Remote Assistance with Windows Messenger The Windows Messenger window opens on Paul's computer as shown in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3: Inviting a friend for Remote Assistance

Step 2
Cynthia receives the invitation as an Instant Message. She clicks Accept.

Step 3
On Paul's computer, a dialog box appears indicating that Cynthia has accepted the invitation for Remote Assistance. To initiate a Remote Assistance chat session, Paul clicks Yes.

Step 4
Cynthia's computer attempts to connect to Paul's computer. When the remote connection is established, the Remote Assistance session begins on Cynthia's computer as shown in Figure 4 below.

Figure 4: The expert's view of Remote Assistance Step 5

At the same time, on Paul's computer, the Remote Assistance page opens. Paul explains his request in the message entry box and clicks Send.

Step 6
Cynthia enters her response on the text window as shown in Figure 5 below.

Step 7
Cynthia clicks the Take Control button located in the top left corner of the screen, as shown in Figure 6 below.

Step 8
Paul receives a notification dialog box asking him if he wants to allow Cynthia to take control. Paul clicks Yes. Note that although Paul can allow Cynthia to temporarily use his machine, he remains in full control over the Remote Assistance session itself. Paul can end the session immediately by clicking the Stop Control button (or pressing the ESC key) in his Remote Assistance session. In this scenario, however, Paul wants Cynthia to fix his problem and continues to let her control his computer. Cynthia can now use Paul's computer as if she were sitting in front of his computer.

Step 9
Cynthia right-clicks the desktop, chooses New from the context menu and clicks Shortcut. The Create Shortcut wizard appears. Cynthia clicks Browse,

navigates to My Documents and then clicks OK. The wizard enters the correct path. Cynthia clicks Finish to create the shortcut. Sending a file Cynthia decides she would like Paul to be able to do this task on his own next time.

Step 1
Cynthia opens Notepad, writes the procedure, names the file RAsupport.txt and saves it in her My Documents folder. She clicks the Send a File button at the top of the screen, clicks Browse and then clicks Send File.

Step 2
Paul receives notification that Cynthia is sending him a file. He clicks Save as and the My Documents folder opens as the default location for saved files. Paul clicks Save. Note that Paul can also decline to receive the file by clicking Cancel.

Step 3
A dialog box asks if Paul wants to open the file. Paul clicks Yes. The text file opens.

Step 4
Paul writes a message thanking Cynthia, clicks Send, then clicks Disconnect. A dialog box appears on Cynthia's computer informing her that the session has been disconnected.

Result
Remote Desktop Assistance has been performed.

PRACTICAL NO 4
AIM
To perform the command- ping.

THEORY
PING Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer. Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP response. In the process it measures the time from transmission to reception (round-trip time)[1] and records any packet loss. The results of the test are printed in the form of a statistical summary of the response packets received, including the minimum, maximum, and the mean round-trip times, and sometimes the standard deviation of the mean. PING Step 1 In Windows, select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt

Step 2 Enter the word ping, followed by a space, then the domain name.

If the results show a series of replies, the connection is working. The time shows you how fast the connection is. If you see a "timed out" error instead of a reply, there is a breakdown somewhere between your computer and the domain.

Result The command ping has been performed.

PRACTICAL NO 5
AIM
To perform the command- tracert

THEORY
Tracert Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to the destination with incrementally increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values. The path displayed is the list of nearside router interfaces of the routers in the path between a source host and a destination. The near-side interface is the interface of the router that is closest to the sending host in the path. Used without parameters, tracert displays help. Syntax tracert [-d] [-h MaximumHops] [-j HostList] [-w Timeout] [TargetName] Parameters -d : Prevents tracert from attempting to resolve the IP addresses of intermediate routers to their names. This can speed up the display of tracert results. -h MaximumHops : Specifies the maximum number of hops in the path to search for the target (destination). The default is 30 hops. -j HostList : Specifies that Echo Request messages use the Loose Source Route option in the IP header with the set of intermediate destinations specified in HostList. With loose source routing, successive intermediate destinations can be separated by one or multiple routers. The maximum number of addresses or names in the host list is 9. The HostList is a series of IP addresses (in dotted decimal notation) separated by spaces.

-w Timeout : Specifies the amount of time in milliseconds to wait for the ICMP Time Exceeded or Echo Reply message corresponding to a given Echo Request message to be received. If not received within the time-out, an asterisk (*) is displayed. The default time-out is 4000 (4 seconds). TargetName : Specifies the destination, identified either by IP address or host name. -? : Displays help at the command prompt. This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as a component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections Examples To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com, type: tracert corp7.microsoft.com To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com and prevent the resolution of each IP address to its name, type: tracert -d corp7.microsoft.com To trace the path to the host named corp7.microsoft.com and use the loose source route 10.12.0.1-10.29.3.1-10.1.44.1, type: tracert -j 10.12.0.1 10.29.3.1 10.1.44.1 corp7.microsoft.com

Remarks This diagnostic tool determines the path taken to a destination by sending ICMP Echo Request messages with varying Time to Live (TTL) values to the destination. Each router along the path is required to decrement the TTL in an IP packet by at least 1 before forwarding it. Effectively, the TTL is a maximum link counter. When the TTL on a packet reaches 0, the router is expected to return an ICMP Time Exceeded message to the source computer. Tracert determines the path by sending the first Echo Request message with a TTL of 1 and incrementing the TTL by 1 on each subsequent transmission until the target responds or the maximum number of hops is reached. The maximum number of hops is 30 by default and can be specified using the -h parameter. The path is determined by examining the ICMP Time Exceeded messages returned by intermediate routers and the Echo Reply message returned by the destination. However, some routers do not return Time Exceeded messages for packets with expired TTL values and are invisible to the tracert command. In this case, a row

of asterisks (*) is displayed for that hop. To trace a path and provide network latency and packet loss for each router and link in the path, use the pathping command. Tracert Step 1 In Windows, select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt

Step 2 Enter the following, and press <enter> on your keyboard. tracert www.google.com

Result The command tracert has been performed.

PRACTICAL NO 6
AIM
To perform the command- Arp

THEORY
Arp Displays and modifies entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache, which contains one or more tables that are used to store IP addresses and their resolved Ethernet or Token Ring physical addresses. There is a separate table for each Ethernet or Token Ring network adapter installed on your computer. Used without parameters, arp displays help. Syntax arp [-a [InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr]] [-g [InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr]] d InetAddr[IfaceAddr]] [-s InetAddr EtherAddr [IfaceAddr]]

[-

Parameters -a [InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr] : Displays current ARP cache tables for all interfaces. To display the ARP cache entry for a specific IP address, use arp a with the InetAddrparameter, where InetAddr is an IP address. To display the ARP cache table for a specific interface, use the -N IfaceAddr parameter where IfaceAddr is the IP address assigned to the interface. The -N parameter is case-sensitive. -g [InetAddr] [-N IfaceAddr] : Identical to -a. -d InetAddr [IfaceAddr] : Deletes an entry with a specific IP address, where InetAddr is the IP address. To delete an entry in a table for a specific interface, use the IfaceAddrparameter where IfaceAddr is the IP address assigned to the interface. To delete all entries, use the asterisk (*) wildcard character in place of InetAddr. -s InetAddr EtherAddr [IfaceAddr] : Adds a static entry to the ARP cache that resolves the IP address InetAddr to the physical address EtherAddr. To add a static ARP cache entry to the table for a specific interface, use the IfaceAddr parameter where IfaceAddr is an IP address assigned to the interface. /? : Displays help at the command prompt.

Remarks The IP addresses for InetAddr and IfaceAddr are expressed in dotted decimal notation. The physical address for EtherAddr consists of six bytes expressed in hexadecimal notation and separated by hyphens (for example, 00-AA-00-4F-2A9C). Entries added with the -s parameter are static and do not time out of the ARP cache. The entries are removed if the TCP/IP protocol is stopped and started. To create permanent static ARP cache entries, place the appropriate arp commands in a batch file and useScheduled Tasks to run the batch file at startup. This command is available only if the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is installed as a component in the properties of a network adapter in Network Connections Examples To display the ARP cache tables for all interfaces, type: arp -a To display the ARP cache table for the interface that is assigned the IP address 10.0.0.99, type: arp-a -N 10.0.0.99 To add a static ARP cache entry that resolves the IP address 10.0.0.80 to the physical address 00-AA-00-4F-2A-9C, type: arp -s 10.0.0.80 00-AA-00-4F-2A-9C Arp Step 1 In Windows, select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt

Step 2 Type arp a

Result The command arp has been performed.

PRACTICAL NO 7
AIM
To perform Remote Desktop Connection Theory Remote Desktop Connection (RDC, also called Remote Desktop, formerly known as Microsoft Terminal Service Client, or mstsc) is called application for Remote Desktop Services. It allows a user to remotely log in to a networked computer running the terminal services server. RDC presents the desktop interface of the remote system, as if it were accessed locally. With version 6.0, if Desktop Experience components is plugged into the remote server, the chrome of the applications that resemble the local applications, rather than the remote one. In this scenario, the remote applications will use the Aero theme if a Windows Vista machine running Aero is connected to the server. Later versions of the protocol also support rendering the UI in full 24 bit color, as well as resources redirection for printers, COM ports, disk drives, mice and keyboards. With resource redirection, Remote applications are able to use the resources of the local computer. Audio is also redirected, so that any sounds generated by a remote application are played back at the client server. In addition to regular username/password for authorizing for the remote session, RDC also supports using smart cards for authorization. With RDC 6.0, the resolution of a remote session can be set independently of the setting At the remote computer. In addition, a remote session can also span multiple monitors at the client system, independent of the multi-monitor settings at the server. It also prioritizes UI data as well as keyboard and mouse inputs over print jobs or file transfers so as to make the applications more responsive.

RDC can also be used to connect to WMC remote sessions; however, since WMC does not stream video using Remote Desktop Protocol, only the applications can be viewed this way, not any media. RDC can be used to connect to computers, which are exposed via Windows Home Server RDP Gateway over the internet.
Main Window

Insert IP Adress

Connect through operator

Remote Connection Window

EXPERIMENT 8
AIM
To configure Basic Router Configuration

THEORY
A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. A router has two or more network interfaces, which may be different physical types of network (such as copper cables, fibers or wireless) or different network standards. Each network interface is a specialized device that converts electric signals from one form to another. Routers connect two or more logical subnets, each having a different network address. The subnets in the router do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. The term layer 3 switching is often used interchangeably with the term routing. The term switching is generally used to refer to data forwarding between two network devices with the same network address. This is also called layer 2 switching or LAN switching. Conceptually, a router operates in two operational planes(or sub-systems): Control plane: where a router builds a table (called routing table) as how a packet should be forwarded through which interface, by using either statically configured statements (called static routes) or by exchanging information with other routers in the network through a dynamical routing protocol. Forwarding plane: where the router actually forwards traffic (called packets in IP) from ingress (incoming) interfaces to an egress (outing) interface that is appropriate for the destination address that the packet carries with it, following rules derived from the routing table that has been built in the control plane.

Basic steps of router configuration