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Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha jasmani ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.

Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.

Cetakan April 2013 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia


Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.

MODUL PEMBELAJARAN INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU (PPG) IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN. MODUL PEMBELAJARAN INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.

Cetakan April 2013 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

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CONTENT

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Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Notis Hak Kerajaan Content Page Learners Guide Introduction Allocation of Topics

i i ii iii-vii viii-x xi xiii-xiv

SESSION 1: TOPIC 1 INTRODUCTION TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 1.0 Synopsis 1.1 Learning Outcomes 1.2 Framework of Topics 1.2.1 The Concept of Classroom Management 1.2.1.1 The Function and Nature of Classrooms 1.2.1.2 The Role of Instruction as a Central Classroom Activity 1.2.1.3 Classroom Instruction and Management Practices 1 1 2 4 6

7 14

1.2.2 Teacher and Learner Roles in Effective Classroom Management 1.2.2.1 Responsibility 1.2.2.2 Accountability 1.2.2.3 Expectation 1.2.2.4 Consistency 1.2.2.3 Objectivity

13 14 15 16 20 21

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CONTENT

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SESSION 2: TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES, THEORIES AND MODELS 2.0 Synopsis 2.1 Learning Outcomes 2.2 Framework of Topics 2.2.1 Approaches 2.2.1.1 Authoritarian Classroom Management 2.2.1.2 Behaviour Modification 2.2.1.3 Group Processes/A Social-Psychological View 2.2.1.4 Socio-Cultural 24 24 24 25 26

27 28 36

SESSION 3 and 4: TOPIC 2 CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT: APPROACHES, THEORIES AND MODELS 2.2.2 Theories and Models 2.2.2.1 Building the Foundation 2.2.2.2 Theories of Assertive Tactics 2.2.2.3 Theories of Democratic Teaching 2.2.2.4 Theories of Instructional Management 2.2.2.5 Theories of Congruent Communication

38 38 48 50 52 53

SESSION 5: TOPIC 3 MANAGING RESOURCES AND FACILITIES: RULES, EXPECTATIONS AND PROCEDURES 3.0 Synopsis 3.1 Learning Outcomes 3.2 Framework of Topics

55 55 55

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CONTENT

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3.2.1 Physical Classroom Environment 3.2.1.1 Organising Physical Space 3.2.1.2 Locating Instructional Space 3.2.2 Social Cultural Environment 3.2.2.1 Safe Environment 3.2.2.2 Creating Positive Environment 3.2.3 Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time 3.2.3.1 Begining and Ending the Day or Period 3.2.3.2 Classwork / Homework 3.2.3.4 Monitoring 3.3.3.5 Feedback 3.2.3.6 Managing Pupil Location and Grouping

56 56 58 59 59 61

62 63 65 68 69 69

SESSION 6: TOPIC 4 COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 4.0 Synopsis 4.1 Learning Outcomes 4.2 Framework of Topics 4.2.1 Communication Skills 4.2.2 Effective Communication 4.2.2.1 Effective Communication 4.2.3 Personal Characteristics of a Good Communicator 4.2.4 How Effective Communication Skills Help Build Good ESL Lessons 4.2.5 Managing Verbal Communication in the Classroom 4.2.6 Non-Verbal Communication 4.2.7 Managing Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom v

72 72 72 73 73 74 76 77 78 81 82

CONTENT

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SESSION 7: TOPIC 5 OBSERVING AND RECOGNISING PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOUR 5.0 Synopsis 5.1 Learning Outcomes 5.2 Framework of Topics 5.2.1 Patterns of Observable Behaviour 5.2.2 Desruptive Behaviour 5.2.1.1 Violent Behaviour 5.2.1.2 Non-Violent Behaviour 5.2.1.3 Effects of Disruptive Behaviours on ESL Classroom 5.2.1.4 Reasons for Disruptive Behaviour 5.2.1.5 Managing Disruptive Behaviour 5.2.3 Non-Desruptive Behaviour 86 86 86 87 90

92 93 94 95 100 103

SESSION 8: TOPIC 6 DEVELOPING, MONITORING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCTIVE PUPIL BEHAVIOUR 6.0 Synopsis 6.1 Learning Outcomes 6.2 Framework of Topics 6.2.1 Productive Behaviour 6.2.2 Patterns of Procuctive Behaviour 6.2.3 Develop, Monitor and Maintain Productive Behaviours 6.2.4 Motivation 6.2.5 Encouragement 6.2.6 Criticism

105 105 105 106 107 109 110 113 114

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CONTENT

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SESSION 9 and 10: TOPIC 7 DEVELOPING A PERSONAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT PLAN 7.0 Synopsis 7.1 Learning Outcomes 7.2 Framework of Topics 7.2.1 Reflective Sessions 7.2.2 Approaches, Theories and Models 7.2.2.1 Teacher-Directed Approach 7.2.2.2 Collaborative Approach 7.2.2.3 Pupil-Directed Approach 7.2.3 Expectations 7.2.4 Rules and Procedures 7.2.5 Consequences 7.2.6 Communication Skills 117 117 117 118 120

121 123 124 127 130 131 133

REFERENCES APPENDICES PANEL PENULIS MODUL IKON

135 142 152 154

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LEARNERS GUIDE

INTRODUCTION This module has been prepared to assist you in organising your own learning so that you may learn more effectively. You may be returning to study after many years fr om formal education or you may possibly be unfamiliar with a self-directed learning mode. This module gives you an opportunity to manage your own learning and to manage the way in which you use your resource and time. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Self-directed learning requires that you make decisions about your own learning. You must recognise your own pattern and style of learning. It might be useful if you were to set your own personal study goals and standard of achievement. In this way you will be able to proceed through the course quite easily. Asking for help when you need it, ought to be viewed as creating new opportunities for learning rather than as a sign of weakness.

TARGET GROUP Bachelor of Education (TESL) Primary Education with Credit students registered with Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG).

STUDENT INTERACTION HOURS

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated learning hours are as in Table 1.

Bachelor of Education (TESL) Primary Education with Credit students registered with Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG).

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Learning Activities

Allocated Learning Hour According to Course Credit 3 credit Without Practical (3+0) With Practical (2+1) (1+2) (0+3) 2 credit Without Practical (2+0) With Practical (1+1) (0+2) I credit Without Practical (1+0) With Practical (0+1)

Reading learning module and completing exercises / self directed tasks / practical Attending face-toface interaction (5 times) Practical Online Discussion Coursework Revision Practical/ Examination

70

60

70

62

70

65

10 7 20 10 2

10 10 7 20 10 2

5 5 20 10 2

5 8 5 20 10 2

5 5 15 5 2 40

5 5 5 15 5 2

Total Learning hours 120 80 * Practical will be carried out on Sunday or during an intensive course.

SEQUENCE OF SESSIONS/TOPICS IN MODULE The module is written in Sessions. Each session will cover a few topics. How long you take to go through a Session or a topic clearly depends on your own learning style and your personal study goals. There are tasks set within a topic to help you recall what you have learnt or to make you think about what you have read. Some of these tasks will have answers and/or suggested answers. For tasks without answers provided, you might find it helpful to discuss them with someone like a colleague or make notes of your answers and take them along to the next Tutorial Session. You may discuss with your lecturer, tutor or colleague via email if you face problems with the module. Tasks that have been set for Tutorial discussion or to be handed in during Tutorial Sessions will need to be completed before the tutorial takes place. Assignments that have to be handed in must be handed in according to schedule. This will be a means for you (and your Tutor) to know how much progress you have made in your course. You should bear in mind that the process of learning that you go through is as important as any assignment you hand in or any task that you have completed. So, instead of racing through the tasks and the reading, do take time to reflect on them.

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ICON

You will find that icons have been used to capture your attention so that at a glance you will know what you have to do. Appendix A gives you an explanation of what the icons mean.

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated learning hours areAND as in ASSESSMENT Table 1. EXAMINATION

Another important component of this course is the project for School-based Assignment for the Major course only. This component recognises the fact that teaching in the classroom is an important of learning to Primary become a teacher. Hence, the assignments that you do for Bachelor of aspect Education (TESL) Education with Credit students registered with this component will form part of the overall of assessment your performance. is therefore Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry EducationofMalaysia who are It following the important that you approach this(Program assignment and all other Guru/PPG). coursework assignment with the Graduating Teacher Programme Pensiswazahan right attitude. The School-based Assignment will be given in a separate document.

There is an end of course examination that you will be required to do. The date and time will be made known you when you sign up for the course. The written is expected You will find thatto icons have been used to capture your attention so examination that at a glance you will to take place in an examination venue to be identified. know what you have to do. Appendix A gives you an explanation of what the icons mean.

Based on Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia (IPG KPM) standard, students are required to complete 40 interaction hours for each credit hour. Estimated allocated Here are some useful hints for you to get you going. learning hours are as in Table 1. 1. Find a quiet study corner so that you may set down your books and yourself to study. Do the same when you visit a library. 2. Set a time every day to begin and to end your study. Once you have committed a set time, keep to When you have finished module, continue read other prescribed Bachelor ofit!Education (TESL) Primary your Education with Credit to students registered with reference books or internet materials. Institute of Teacher Education, Ministry of Education Malaysia who are following the Graduating Teacher Programme (Program Pensiswazahan Guru/PPG). 3. Spend as much time as you possibly can on each task without compromising your study goal. 4. Revise and review what you read. Take time to recollect what you have read. 5. Consult sources other than what has been given to you. Do not accept information at face value. 6. Start a filing system so that you know where you have kept that insightful article! 7. Find a friend who could help you study.

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to Managing the Primary ESL Classroom session.

Graduating Teacher Programme or Program Pensiswazahan Guru (PPG) Distance Learning Mode (PPJ) English Language (Major) for Primary Schools, is one of the major subjects offered by the Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia (IPGM). It is offered to English language teachers who want to upgrade and enhance themselves in teaching English Language as a subject. There are fourteen modules offered for English Language (Major) for Primary Schools. This Module TSL3109 Managing The Primary ESL Classroom covers 45 hours. It has seven main topics which are spread across ten interaction sessions.

Session 1 covers Topic 1 Introduction To Classroom Management. It focuses on the concept of Classroom Management and the Role of teachers and pupils in effective classroom management.

Session 2 covers the first part Topic 2 Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models. It focuses on the Approaches to Classroom Management.

Session 3 and 4 cover the second part of Topic 2 Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models. This part of the topic focuses on the theories and models of Classroom Management. Session 5 covers the topic Managing Resources and Facilities: Rules, Expectations and Procedures. It focuses on the Classroom Environment, and Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time. Session 6 covers the topic Communication Skills For Classroom Management. It focuses on Communication skills, Skills for effective communication, Personal characteristics of good communicators, Verbal Communication and Non-Verbal Communication, and Managing verbal and non-verbal communication.

Session 7 covers the topic Observing and Recognizing Patterns of Behaviour. It focuses on the Patterns of Observable Behaviour which includes Non-Desruptive Behaviour & Disruptive Behaviour. Session 8 covers the topic Developing, Monitoring and Maintaining Productive Learner Behaviour. It focuses on Student behaviours: Destructive and Non-destructive behaviours; Productive Behaviours group and individual; and Motivation, Encouragement & Criticism.

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Session 9 and 10 cover the topic Developing a Classroom Management Plan. It focuses on Reflective practice; Approaches, theories and models; Expectations; Rules and Consequences, and Communication Skills.

By going through all the sessions diligently and doing the tasks given, you will be able to enhance your knowledge in Managing the Primary ESL Classroom. You will also know your own strategies in developing a Personal CMP.

There are no prescribed course books and the sessions are designed to be self-contained. Before you begin working on the content of these sessions, we recommend that you should have access to certain reference books.

We are sure that you are looking forward to begin this module with excitement. It is interesting to refresh your memory and obtain new ideas and knowledge. You should read the input notes carefully. You should also do all the exercises and then check your answers with the notes in the module, reference books or your tutor. When you have checked your answers (and revised if necessary), go on to do the tutorial questions. Good Luck and Happy Working! Remember, Practice Makes Perfect!

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ALLOCATION OF TOPICS

Code & Name of Course: TSL3109 Managing the Primary ESL Classroom There are 7 topics in this module and are divided into ten sessions. The table below shows the allocation of topics through the modular learning or/and during face interaction.
Int. Hrs. Total no. of hours

Session

Topic Introduction to Classroom Management

Sub-Topic The Concept of Classroom Management - The function and nature of classrooms - The role of teaching as a central classroom activity - Classroom instructions and management practice Teacher and Learner Roles in Effective Classroom Management

3 6

Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models

3 and 4

Classroom Management: Approaches, Theories and Models

Approaches - Authoritarian classroom management (Power Types and Power Bases) - Behaviour modification - Group process /sociopsychological - Instructional classroom management - Socio-cultural Theories and Models of Classroom Management - Building the Foundation (Skinner, Glasser and Gordon) - Theories of Assertive Tactics (Lee and Marlene Canter) - Theories of Democratic Teaching (Rudolf Dreikurs) - Theories of Instructional Management (Jacob Kounin) - Theories of Congruent Communication (Haim Ginott)

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Managing resources and facilities: rules, expectations and procedures Communication Skills for Classroom Management

Physical classroom environment Social cultural environment Conventions and Routines for Organising Instructional Time

Observing and recognizing patterns of behavior Developing, monitoring and maintaining productive student behaviour both individual and group behaviour

Communication skills Skills for effective communication Personal characteristics of good communicators Verbal and non - verbal communication Managing verbal and non verbal communication Patterns of Observable Behaviour Non-Disruptive Behaviour Disruptive Behaviour (Violent and Non-violent) Student behaviours: Patterns - Disruptive and non-disruptive behaviours - Productive Behaviours group and individual Student behaviours: Developing, monitoring and maintaining productive student behaviours - Motivation - Encouragement vs criticism reflective approaches, theories, models expectations rules and consequences communication skills procedures Total

3 6 3

3 3

6 3

9 & 10

Developing a Personal Classroom Management Plan

45 hours

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