Anda di halaman 1dari 148

jrefrmEdik if zH +@HG zKd ;wd;k wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT FOR BURMA

toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;twGuv
f ufiif;wm0efrsm;
Priorities in Transition

trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk/
jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJGŒcsKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) ESifh
trsdK;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;tpDtpOfESifh 'uf[rfrm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;tzJGŒwdkŒrS
OD;aqmifusif;ycJhaom ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG. tpD&ifcHpm

Report on a seminar organised by


NDF and UNLD–LA in collaboration with
the National Reconciliation Programme, and
the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation,

Chiang Mai, 2004


Available from:

UNLD-LA
P. O. Box - 49
Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai, 50202
Thailand

and

Dag Hammarskjold Foundation


Ovre Slottsgatan 2
SE-753 10 UPPSALA, Sweden
Fax: +46-18-12 20 72
Email: secretariat@dhf.uu.se
Web site: www.dhf.uu.se

Layout & design: Sai Mawn


Cover: Mattias Lasson

Published by: NDF, UNLD-LA and


the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation

ISBN: 91-85214-41-8

Printed by: UNLD Press, Chiang Mai, 2004


rmwdum
contents
trSmpum; .............................................................................................. 5
ed'ge;f ....................................................................................................... 9
“'uf[rfrm;&_d;azmifa';&Sif;ESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf
tjcm;enf;vrf; a[majymwifjycsurf sm;.tusO;f csKyf” ......................... 13
“toGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifh
toGiful;ajymif;jyD;aemuf awG@}uHK&rnfh jy\empdrfac:csufrsm;” ......... 17
“EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ EdkifiHabmifausmfaumfydka&;&Sif;}uD;rsm;ESifh
*vdkb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;/ tem*wfjy\empdefac:csufrsm;ESifh
tjcm;tjrif&a_ 'girhf sm;” ......................................................................... 33
“'Drdkua&pDwdkufyGJwGif; rD'D,m.tcef;u¾/
toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGif; rD'D,m. tcef;u¾ESifh
jynfov l x k owif;rsm;&&Syd ikd cf iG ”hf ...................................................... 55
l .
“zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&; r[mAsL[mrsm;/ ta&S@waD rmtawG@t}uHK”................ 75
“Edik if wH umrS zdw=f um;a[majymapaomynm&Sirf sm;” ............................ 05

Preface ............................................................................................... 95
Introduction ..................................................................................... 97
The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation and Another
Development" ................................................................................ 99
Kjell-Ake Nordquist: "Priorities in Transition and
Post-Transitional Challenges" ..................................................... 130
Walden Bello: "International Institutions, Transnational
Corporations and Globalisation: Future Challenges and
Alternative Perspectives" ............................................................. 130
Sheila Coronel: "The Role of Media in the Struggle for
Democracy, the Role of Media during Transition and
the Right to Know" ..................................................................... 130
Emilia Pires: "Strategies for Development-
Experiences from East Timor" ............................................... 137
International Resource Persons ................................................ 149
trSmpum;

“'Dru kd a&pDjrefrmEdik if aH y:xGe;f a&;” T&nfreS ;f csujf zifyh if usaemfw@kd vy_ &f mS ;
awmfveS af e=uygonf? usaemfw@kd taejzifh 'Dru kd a&pDvckd siyf gonf? +idr;f
csrf;a&;vdkcsifygonf? usaemfwdk@EdkifiHtwGif;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;udk
av;pm;vdu k ef m apmifx h ed ;f aomtajctaeudk vdck siyf gonf? od@k aomf ar#mf
rSe;f awmifw h csurf sm;tm;vH;k udk ydwq f @kd [ef@wm;aeonfum;/ jrefrmEdik if &H dS
ppftm%m&Siftpdk;& jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHudk ppftm%m&Sifpepfjzifh
tkycf sKyaf ecJo
h nfrmS ESpaf ygi;f (40) ausm=f umjrifv h m+yD jzpfygonf? TtESpf
(40) rSm &ufpuf =urf;=uKwfaom/ vltrsm;qif;&JEckH sm&aom 'kuw Q iG ;f &Sd
tESpf (40) jzpfygonf?
jrefrmEdik if H 'Dru
kd a&pD&&Sad &;twGuf v_y&f mS ;ae=uaom awmfveS af &;
v_y&f mS ;r_rmS tiftm;t&}uD;rm;rsm;jym;+yD;/ trsK;d tpm;t&vnf; rwl
uGjJ ym;jcm;em;r_ rsm;pGm&Sad eygonf? od@k aomfvnf; 'Dru kd a&pDtajymif;tvJ
rsm;jzpfay:vmapa&;[laomtjrifay: Y wnDw!Gww f nf;&S=d uygonf?
ppftm%m&Sipf epfonf rvGrJ aoGwae@wiG f rkcsusq;kH &rnfjzpfonf? jynf
olw@kd .tm%monf jynfow l @kd .vufwiG ;f od@k rvGrJ aoGoufqif;ap&
rnfjzpfonf? Ttdyrf ufrsK;d jzpf&efvnf; ESpt f awmfwef=umEdik af o;onf?
od@k aomf rsm;r=umrD umvwGiv f nf; jzpfvmEdik pf &mta=umif;vnf;&Sd
aeygonf? TtajctaersKd;jzpfvmyguay;tyfvmaom tcGifhta&;
tay: toH;k csI rdrw d @kd ar#mrf eS ;f xm;aom rdrw d @kd ,=kH unfxm;aom vl@
abmifopfw&yfwnfaxmif&ef jyifqifrr_ sm;jyKvyk x f m;=u&rnf jzpfygonf?
TtajctaeopfwiG f rdrw d @kd taejzifph ed af c:r_topfrsm;jzif}h uHKawG@
=u&rnfjzpf+y;D / rdrw
d @kd wdik ;f jynfay:od@k usa&mufvmrnfh zdp;D r_topfrsK;d pHu k kd
vnf; }uKH =u&rnfjzpfonf? TtajctaeopftwGuf rjyifqifxm;ygu/
TtajctaewGif jzpfay:wd;k wufvmrnfh zG@H +zKd ;r_topfrsm;twGuf ,ae@
tajctaeupI rjyifqifxm;ygu/ vlxt k rsm;pk}uD;taejzifh ajymif;vJ
aeaomacwfopfajymif;rnfh Edik if aH &;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;rS wzef aemufcsex f m;
&pfapaom tajctaersK;d xyfr}H uKH awG@=u&vdrOhf ;D rnf jzpfonf? ESpu f mv
aygi;f rsm;pGm tywfwukwt f m;xkwcf =hJ u&aom awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_}u;D

5
jrefrmEdik if zH ŒGH _zKd ;wd;k wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

taejzifh tv[\jzpf&aom tajctaersK;d vnf; }uHKaumif; }uHKEdik yf g


onf? tajctaeopfwiG f Edik if jH cm;&Su d rk %
` }D uD;rsm;u rdrw d @kd wikd ;f jynf&dS
obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk vma&mufcs,v f , S af eaomtaetxm;rsK;d /
rdrw d @kd . jynfyyd@k uek rf sm;udk xde;f csKyfcaH e&aom taetxm;rsK;d udv k nf;
tHt H m;oifzh , G }f uHK&aumif; }uHK&Edik yf gonf? rdrw d @kd taejzifh Edik if w
H um
aiGa=u;tzGJ@tpnf;}uD;rsm;. aºuG;yifv,ftwGif;epfae&aom tajc
taersK;d vnf; }uHKawG&aumif; }uHK&Edik yf gonf? TtaºuG;rsm;a=umifh
olw@kd Oya'vdu k ef mae&onfrsK;d / rdrw d @kd . tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk olrsm;
v$aJ y;vku d &f onfrsK;d vnf; jzpfvmEdik yf gonf?
Todk@ rjzpfap&ef jyifqifr_rsm;udk ,ckyifp&ygvdrfhrnf? zGH@+zdK;a&;
pDru H ed ;f rsm;csrw S &f mwGif vltrsm;yg0ifaqmif&u G Ef ikd cf iG &hf rdS nfh vkyif ef;pOfukd
ysK;d axmif=u&ygvrd rhf nf? rdrw d @kd wikd ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm;. &d;k &mpOfvmawG;
ac:r_rsm;udk xif[yfrnfh rdrw d @kd qENvv kd m;csurf sm;udk azmfaqmifEikd rf nfh
rdrdwdk@ar#mfrSef;csufrsm; vdkvm;awmifhwcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnf
azmfay;rnfh zG@H +zdK;r_ pDru H ed ;f rsK;d jzpfap&ygvrd rhf nf? taemufEikd if }H uD;rsm;u
oGwo f iG ;f vmonf/h Edik if w H umtzG@J tpnf;}uD;rsm;u vdu k ef map&ef csay;
rnfh zG@H +zKd ;r_ypkH rH sK;d rjzpfapoifyh g? rdrw d @kd taejzifh “t=uw H al emufvo l mp+r”J
qdak om pum;yHt k wdik ;f aemufusraS qmif&u G cf iG &hf aoma=umifh tusK;d
tjrwfvnf; rsm;pGm&Syd gonf? rdrw d @kd taejzifh tjcm;a&S@uoGm;aomEdik if H
rsm;. trSm;rsK;d udk xyfrrH jzpfygG ;ap&ef oifcef;pm,ljyKjyifEikd =f urnf aumif;
aomtwk,El ikd =f uvdrrhf nf jzpfonf? rlvpwifpOfumvuyif rdrw d @kd vrf;udk
rdrw d @kd owfrw S &f mS zGEikd =f uvdrrhf nf jzpfonf?
Tvkyfief;pOftwGuf rsKd;aphudkysKd;rd=u+yD? }uD;xGm;vmap&ef a&
avmif;aygi;f oifz@kd om &Sad wmhonf? TtpD&ifcpH monf “jrefrmEdik if zH @HG +zKd ;
wd;k wufrt _ wGut f jcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;” "Another Development
for Burma" [laom acgi;f pOfatmufrS aqmif&u G af ompDrcH surf S rdrw d @kd &nf
rSe;f csurf sm;ESihf rdrwd @kd Eikd if t
H wGutf a&;}u;D aom tjcm;a&G;vrf;rsm;ponfh
aqG;aEG;csurf sm;udk pkpnf;wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? rdrw d @kd a&G; cs,rf o_ nf
rdrdwdk@EdkifiH a&&Snftem*gwftwGuf tusKd;oufa&mufapvdrfhrnf
jzpfygonf? TudprP sm;onf rdrw d @kd vufiif;aqmif&uG af eaom 'Dru kd a&pD

6
trSmpum;

jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;/ tm%m&Sipf epf ed*;kH csKyfapa&; paom vkyif ef;pOfrsm;


uJo h @kd yif/ vwfwavmuyif }udKpOf;pm;xm;&awmhrnfh ta&;}uD;aom
udprP sm; jzpfygonf?
TpDrcH suu f kd aqmif&u G &f mwGif jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDvy_ &f mS ;r_twGi;f rS
tiftm;pkrsm;tus,t f jyef@ yg0ifc=hJ uygonf? trsK;d om;'Dru kd a&pDwyf
aygi;f pk (r'w) ESihf jynfaxmifpw k ikd ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d rsm; 'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf
(,lteJ t f ,fv'f )D vGwaf jrmufe,fajr — wd@k u uruxjyK+y;D / trsK;d om;
jyefvifhoifhjrwfa&;tpDtpOf National Reconciliation Program
atmufwiG af qmif&u G cf =hJ u jcif;jzpfygonf? Tvkyif ef;pOfwiG f yg0ify;l aygi;f
ulncD =hJ uaom 'uf[rfrm;&_;d azmifa';&Si;f udk rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf?
xd@k tjyif yg0ify;l aygi;f ulncD =hJ uaom urBmt&yf&yfrS jrefrmwdik ;f &if;om;
rdwfaqGrsm;udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif;azmfjyvdkygonf? TtpD&ifcHpmrS
tajccHI tjcm;aomaqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;jzpfvmapa&;twGuf pdw0f ifpm;r_ay;
vmEdik rf nf/ v_@H aqmfay;vdrrhf nf[k ,lqygonf? jynfwiG ;f jynfy&Sd jrefrm
jynforl sm;t=um; TuJo h @kd aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm; jyef@E@HS vmaprnf[k ar#mv f ifyh g
onf?
rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkifav#mufvSrf;=u&rnfhvrf;udk a&G;cs,f&eftvkyfrSm
vG,fulaomwm0efr[kwfyg? toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvaemufydkif;
tcuftcJ pdefac:r_rsm;onf vuf&Sdppftm%m&Sifpepfed*Hk;csKyfapa&;
twGuf aqmif&u G af eaom awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_umvuJo
h @kd yif yifyef;
cufcJvdrfhOD;rnf jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDtppftrSefpepfjzpfapa&;twGuf/
a&&Snw f nfwef@cikd +f rJapa&;twGuf Tvkyif ef;pOfwiG f wwfEikd o
f avmuf
jynfoltrsm;yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=u&ef vdktyfygonf? vlxkvlwef;pm
tv$mtoD;oD;rS jynfolrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk vdktyfygonf?
TtcuftcJpdefac:r_rsm;udk jynfoltrsm;tm;jzifh &ifqdkif=u&rnf
jzpfygonf?

apma';Apfaxm
OuUX/ qDreD mndE‡ i_d ;f aqmif&u
G rf a_ umfrwD

7
ed'gef;

ed'gef;
TtpD&ifcpH mwGif jrefrmh'rD u kd a&pDa&;v_y&f mS ;r_ acgi;f aqmifrsm;twGuf
pDpOfjyKvkyaf om tqifjh rifah qG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGw J iG f a[majymonfh wifjycsuf
rsm;udk tusO;f csKyfrw S wf rf;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? ,if;
aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGu
J kd 2003 ckEpS f ZEM0g&v D (8) &ufae@rS (12) &ufae@txd
xdkif;EdkifiH rJaqmuf+rdK@wGif 'uf[rfrm;&_d;azgifa';&Sif;u trsdK;om;jyef
vnfoifjh rwfa&;tpDtpOftzG@J EiS hf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G v f #uf jynfaxmifpk
wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf (vGwaf jrmufe,fajr) trsKd ;om;
'Drukd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (r'w) wd@k EiS t hf wl pDpOfusi;f ycJjh cif; jzpfygonf?
Ttpnf;ta0;onf “jrefrmEdik if H zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;twGuf tjcm;
enf;vrf;” acgif;pOfjzifh qufvufusif;yoGm;rnfh tpnf;ta0;rsm;.
yxrqkH;aomtpnf;ta0;vnf;jzpfygonf? Ttpnf;ta0;rsm;.
&nf&, G cf surf mS zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;qdik &f mrlrsm;ESihf ygwof ufaom tjcm;
tjrif&_a'gifhrsm; tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;udkod&SdvmEdkifap&efESifh yg0ifwuf
a&muf=uolrsm;taejzifv h nf; vwfwavmaqmif&u G af eonfh awmfveS f
a&;v_y&f mS ;r_. jyifyudp&P yfjzpfaomfvnf;/ ta&;}uD;onfh zG@+H zdK;wd;k wufr_
qdik &f mjy\emrsm;udk pOf;pm;aqGaEG;Edik &f ef tcGit hf vrf;&&d=S uap&ef jzpfyg
onf?
TaqG;aEGyo GJ @kd 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azgiaf ';&Si;f rS OD;aqmifo0l efxrf;rsm;
tygt0if Edik if w H um OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;ol ynm&Sirf sm;/ trsKd ;om;jyef
vnfoifjh rwfa&;tpDtpOftzG@J rS aqmf=oa&;rSL;rsm;/ pnf;&k;H a&;aumfrwD
tzG@J 0ifrsm;tygt0if acgi;f aqmif pkpak ygi;f (30) ausmw f ufa&mufc=hJ u
ygonf? aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGo J @kd atmufyg OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;olynm&Sirf sm;
udk zdw=f um;cJyh gonf?
Dr. Kjell-Ake Nordquist -
tkyq
f mvm wuUov
kd /f +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqikd &f mokawoeXme?
Dr. Walden Bello -
Focus on the Global South tzGJ@/ befaumuf+rdK@ESifh reDvm+rdK@?
Sheila Coronel -
zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if H pkpH rf;ppfaq;a&; owif;pmynm A[dXk me/ reDvm+rdK@?

9
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

Ms. Emilia Pires -


ta&S@waD rmEdik if /H pDru
H ed ;f ESihf b¾ma&;0ef}uD;Xme?
aqG;aEG;yGJudk 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;oabmobm0 'Drdku
a&pDEiS hf jynfov l x l yk g0ifaqmif&u G rf u
_ kd cdik rf matmifwnfaqmuf&mwGif
owif;rD', D mrsm;.tcef;u¾ *vkb d ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f (urBmvk;H qdik &f m
,SuEf , G rf )_ ESihf pD;yGm;a&;zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufrw _ @kd qufpyfaeyHk paom acgi;f pOfrsm;
jzifh pDpOfcyhJ gonf? toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvESihf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;t+y;D
ta&S@waD rmEdik if . H awG@}uKH &aom pdw0f ifpm;zG,t f jzpftysurf sm; (txl;
ojzifh EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufqH&mwGif}uHKawG@=u&onfh
tcuftcJrsm;udk) vnf; aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;/ wufa&mufol acgif;aqmif
trsm;utxl;pdw0f ifwpm; aqG;aEG;cJ=h uygonf?
aqG;aEG;yGu J kd a'guw
f m p0fZef@a,mifa[G/ cGe;f 'uf'b D ;l &D ESihf apm
a';Apfawm wd@k uobmywdrsm;tjzpf uruxjyK aqmif&u G af y;cJ=h u+yD;
a[majymcsufrsm;udk a'gufwmEdkifatmif/ OD;ndKtkef;jrifhESifh a'gufwm
qvdik ;f vserf e_ ;f qmacgi;f wd@k u jrefrmbmom jyefqakd y;=uygonf?f
tpnf;ta0;wGif a[majymwifjycsurf sm;rSm —
Kjell-Ake Nordquist: "Priorities in Transition" and "Post-
Transitional Challenge"
toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u
G &f rnft
h csurf sm;ESihf toGif
ul;ajymif;+yD;aemuf awG@}uHK&rnfh jy\empdraf c:csurf sm;?
Walden Bello: "International Institutions, Transnational Cor-
porations and Globalization - Future Challenges and Alter-
native Perpectives"
Edik if w
H umtzG@J tpnf;rsm;/ Edik if pH aHk umfyakd &;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb
k ,fvu
kd f
aZ;&Sif;/ ‚if;wdk@ESifhygwfoufaom tem*wfjy\em pdefac:csufrsm;ESifh
tjcm;tjrif&_a'gifhrsm;?
Sheila Coronel: " The Role of Media in the Struggle for
Democracy", The Role of Media During Transition" and "The
Right to Know"
'Dru
kd a&pDwukd yf w
JG iG ;f rD',
D m. tcef;u¾/ toGiuf ;l ajymif;a&;umv
twGi;f rD',
D m. tcef;u¾ESihf jynfov l x
l .
k owif;rsm;&&Syd ikd cf iG ?hf
10
ed'gef;

Emilia Pires: "Strategies for Develpment - Experiences from


East Timor"
zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&; r[mAsL[mrsm;/ ta&S@waD rmtawG@t}uHK?
aqG;aEG;wifjycsurf sm;ygtjrifrsm;rSm oufqikd &f mOD;aqmifaqG;aEG;ol
ynm&Sirf sm;.tjrifrsm;omjzpf+yD;/ 'uf [rf;rm;&d;_ azgiaf ';&Si;f . tjrif
rsm;udk xif[yfazmfjyjcif;r[kwaf y? Twifjycsuf tusO;f csKyfrsm;rSm aqG;
aEG;yGt
J wGi;f zrf;,lxm;aom toHoiG ;f wdwaf cGrsm;rSaeI 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_
azmifa';&Si;f rS qDqv D ,
D m AGef tdw
k m (Cecilia von Otter) u jyefvnf
rSwwf rf;jyKpkxm;jcif; jzpfygonf?

11
'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;

'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;ESifh zGH_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;
'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azgiaf ';&Si;f udk OD;oef@t&ifa&S@uwm0ef,cl ahJ omukvor*~
. 'kw, d ajrmuf twGi;f a&rSL;csKyf 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ uG,v f eG +f y;D onfh aemuf
ol@u*kd %k jf yKonft h aejzifh 1961 ckEpS w f iG f zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifcyhJ gonf?
TtzG@J taejzif/h zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrq _ ikd &f me,fy,fY tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;
vrf;rsm;ESihf ygwo f ufI tESpf (30) ausm=f um wpdu k rf wfrwfvyk u f ikd f
aqmif&u G cf yhJ gonf? tzG@J .&nf&, G cf surf mS ,ae@acwfw;kd wufz@HG +zdK;r_ypHk H
rsm;. yifra&pD;a=umif;udk tuJjzwfppfaq;ae&efEiS hf txl;ojzifh awmif
urBmbufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm; (zGH@+zdK;qJESifh qif;&JaomEdkifiHrsm; — jyefqdkol)
.tjrifukd tav;ay;wifjy&efjzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif wwd,pepf (vlxk
tajcjyKvlxktzGJ@tpnf;) rsm;ESifh cGJjcm;ab;z,fxm;jcif;cHxm;&aom
tiftm;pkrsm;xHrS &_axmift h jrifrsm;/ ajz&Si;f &efenf;vrf;rsm;udk t"du
rD;armif;xdk;jy&efvnf; jzpfygonf? aemufa=umif; tajccHtrsdK;rdsK;rS
vm=uaom wd;k wufaomtiftm;pkrsm;udk pkpnf;+yD; azgiaf ';&Si;f tzG@J u
us,jf yef@aomjy\emrsm;tay: tjcm;aomtjrif&a_ xmifrh S a0zefqef;
ppfjcif;/ qef;opfonfh pOf;pm;awG;ac:r_rsm;ESihf tajz&Smjcif;paomvkyif ef;
rsm;udk aphaqmfay;&efvnf; &nf&, G yf gonf?
“zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrt
_ wGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;rsm;” qdo k nfh
t,ltqudk 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ azmifa';&Si;f u pkpnf;cJ+h yD;/ ,ae@bmvkyf
=urnfenf; — zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrt _ wGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;rsm;
[kacgi;f pOfay;xm;aom tpD&ifcpH mwapmif yHEk ydS x f w
k af 0cJ+h yD;jzpfygonf?
Tpmwrf;onf xdyw f ef;ay:vpDcsrw
S o f rl sm;ESihf ynm&Sirf sm; (120) ausmf
yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=uonfh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_ESifh EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif
&Gurf q
_ ikd &f m 1975 'uf[rf;rm;&d;_ pDrcH su. f t"duoD;yGiv hf maom&vm'f
vnf;jzpfygonf? TtpD&ifcpH mudk ukvor*~taxGaxGnv D mcH owWr
t}udrt f pnf;ta0;wGif oD;jcm;vGwv f yfaomtpD&ifcpH mw&yf taejzifh
wifoiG ;f cJyh gonf? Tpmwrf;udk urBmt h "dubmom}uD; (6) bmomjzifh
vnf; bmomjyef xkwaf 0xm;+yD; jzpfygonf?
pDrcH suw f iG f t"duyg0ifygwo
f ufc=hJ uaomyk*Kd~ vfrsm;. ok;H oyfcsuf
t& “zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuftjcm;a&G;cs,fp&menf;vrf;rsm;” qdk

13
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

onfrmS “jynfov l x l u k kd t"duA[dck surf tjzpf xm;&rnfjzpf+y;D vlom;


wd@k . &kyyf ikd ;f / pdwyf ikd ;f ESpcf vk ;Hk twGuf tajccHvt kd yfrr_ sm;udk auseyfjynf0h
pGmcHpm;&&Sad p&rnf jzpfonf? ydI k us,jf yef@onft"dyg` ,t f & ajym& v#if
Edik if aH &;t& ajyvnfauseyfr_ &&daS p&rnfjzpfonf? xd@k tjyif TzG@H +zdK;r_
pDrHudef;rsm;onf udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;aom tajccH&Sd&rnfhtjyif/ a&ajr
a'otajccHEiS hf udu k n f aD om jynfwiG ;f jzpfvnf; jzpfap&rnf? a*[aA'
pepf (tyifEiS o hf wW0g obm0ygw0f ef;usif qufE, G rf q_ ikd &f mpepf) t&
vnf; vdkufavsmnDaxG jzpf&ygrnf? xdk@jyif 'Drdkua&pDenf;usaom
Edik if aH &;/ vlra_ &;ESihf pD;yGm;a&; jyKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm;tay:wGit f ajcjyKI/
tjcm;aom &nfreS ;f csurf sm;udk &&SEd ikd af tmifzefw;D ay;Edik af om enf;vrf;
vnf; jzpf&rnf”? Tod@k jzpfay:ap&efrmS zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrt _ wGuf tjcm;
a&G;cs,pf &m enf;vrf;jzifo h m jzpfEikd b
f ,G &f m&So
d nf[k xdyk nm&Sirf sm;u
cH,=l uygonf? zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrt _ wGut f jcm;enf;vrf; onf vlra_ &;t&/
vdit f &/ vlrsK;d t&/ od@k r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;tajctaet& cGjJ cm;qufqzH Ed ydS rf _
rsm;udk ausmv f m$ ;Edik rf nfh vl@tzG@J tpnf;ud&k mS azG wnfaqmufjcif;Yvnf;/
ta&;yg aomudpw P &yftjzpf tusK;H 0ifygonf? xd@k tjyif vltrsm;yg0if
yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf E_ iS hf A[k0g' (vlrsK;d pHt
k ,l0g'aygi;f pHt k wl&iS o f efaexdik f
a&;0g') oabmaqmifonfh jzpfpOfvnf;jzpfygonf?
Tazgiaf ';&Si;f tzG@J onf “,ae@bmvky=f urnfenf;” [laom tpD
&ifcpH mudk 1975 ckEpS Yf azmfxw k wf ifjy+yD;cJo h nfh tcsed rf pS I ,if;tpD&ifcH
pmwGit f qdðk yxm;cJah om zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrt _ wGuf tjcm;enf;vrf;qdik &f m
r[mAsL[mrsm;udk u¾tvdu k f zufpakH xmifph t kH jrifrsm;jzpfay:wd;k wuf
vmapa&;twGuf wpdu k rf wfrwftm&Hx k m; }udK;yrf;vkyaf qmifcyhJ gonf?
,if;tjrifrsm;udv k nf; vuf&zdS @HG +zdK;wd;k wufrq _ ikd &f mrl0g'rsm;ESihf aygi;f pyf
ay;Edik af &;twGuf }udK;yrf;cJyh gonf? azmifa';&Si;f tzG@J }uD;. T r[mAsL
[mtjrifrsm;udk use;f rma&;qdik &f m/ ynma&;qdik &f m/ odyEH` iS hf enf;ynm
qdkif&m/ rsdK;&dk;ADZ&if;jrpfrsm;udpP/ ZD0enf;ynmqdkif&m/ owif;tcsuf
tvufEiS hf qufo, G af &;qdik &f m/ Edik if w
H umaiGa=u;ay:vpDEiS hf vufeuf
zsufodrf;a&;rlrsm;ponfh u¾toD;oD;twGuf aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif
qufvuf tao;pdwaf qG;aEG;azmfjycJ=h u+yD;jzpfygonf?

14
'uf[rf;rm;&d+;azgifa';&Sif;

azmifa';&Si;f . vwfwavmt"duvkyaf qmifaeaomvkyif ef;rsm;


vwfwavmtaejzifh atmufygprD cH suf e,fy,fo;Hk ckEiS hf oufqikd af om
vkyif ef;rsm;tay: t"duaZmif;ay; vkyaf qmifaeygonf?
• Nanotechnology uJo
h @kd aom enf;ynmopfrsm;ay:ayguv
f m
aoma=umif/h vlra_ &;e,fyg,Ef iS hf obm0ygw0f ef;usiw f iG f rnfo@kd
rnfyHkxdcdkuf tusdK;oufa&mufr_&Sdaprnfudk pl;prf;&SmazGaom
aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm; aqmif&u
G af eygonf? (2001 ckEpS w
f iG f yxrt}udrf
EdkifiHwumaqG;aEG;yGJwck usif;ycJh+yD;/ 2001-2003 ckESpftwGif;
a'oqdik &f maqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;udk qufvufusi;f y ðyvkycf yhJ gonf)?
• jynfya&muf jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;olrsm;ESifh “jrefrmEdkifiH
zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;rsm;” acgi;f
pOfjzifh ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJrsm; usif;yaompDrHcsufw&yf aqmif&Guf
aeygonf? ,if;aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;. &nf&, G cf surf mS tem*wf 'Dru kd
a&pDjrefrmEdik if aH wmfjzpfay:vmaomtcg aqmif&u G =f u&rnfh zG@H +zdK;
wd;k wufa&;pDrcH surf sm;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &m enf;vrf;rsm;/
r[mAsL[mrsm;udk a0zefyikd ;f jcm;aqG;aEG;vm=uap&ef/ v_@H aqmfr_
w&yftaejzifh aqmif&u G jf cif;jzpfygonf?
• “tem*gwrf mS rnfo@kd qufvufaqmif&u G =f urnfenf;” (What
Next) qdo
k nfh pDrcH suu
f v
kd nf; aqmif&uG af eygonf? TpDrcH suf
opfu “'Dae@bmvky=f urnfenf;” pDrcH supf wifcchJ sed rf pS I vGecf hJ
aom (25) ESpw f mumvtwGi;f jzpfay:cJah om zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrr_ sm;
. todow k rsm;udk tajccH+yD;/ ydI k ta&;}uD;onfh tjcm;tajr‡mf
tjrifopfrsm;/ tem*gwfwGif óuHvm&EdkifzG,f&Sdaom pdefac:r_
topf/ jy\emtopfrsm;udk &SmazGp;l prf;&ef &nf&, G v
f yk af qmif
aeaom pDrcH sujf zpfygonf? tem*wfrmS rnfo@kd qufvuf aqmif
&Gu=f urnfenf; qdo k nfph rD cH sujf zifh vmrnfEh pS u
f mvrsm;twGi;f
urBm}uD;tm;trSefwu,f tusKd;oufa&muf/ &dkufcwfr_&Sdvm
Edik o
f nfh tjcm;awG;ac:ajrmfjrifrr_ sm;udk az:xkwjf cif;/ pkpnf;rGr;f rH
jcif;ESifh jyefvnfjzef@jzL;jcif;qdkif&mudpPrsm;udk jznfhpGrf;ay;&ef
&nf&, G yf gonf?

15
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

xd@k tjyif azgi;f a';&Si;f tzG@J }u;D taejzifh rsm;pGmus,jf yef@aomjy\em


rsm;udk ulnDajz&Sif;Edkifa&;twGuf/ aqmif&Gufaeaom pDrHcsuftrsm;
tjym;udv k nf; qufvufaqmif&u G v
f #uf &Syd gonf?

16
toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G &f rnft h csurf sm;ESihf
toGiu f al jymif;a&;umv_yD;aemuf}uHKawGŒ&rnfph rd af c:csurf sm;

&SvJ =f atmfum aemh'u f pG f


tkyq
f mvm wuUov
kd _f idrcf sr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqikd &f mokawoeXme
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G &f rnft h csurf sm;ESihf
toGiu f al jymif;a&;umv_yD;aemuf}uHKawGŒ&rnfph rd af c:csurf sm;

&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u f pG f
tkyq
f mvmwuUov
kd f _idrcf sr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqikd &f mokawoeXme
wifjycsuf yxrydik ;f wGif Edik if aH &;pepftoGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;umv twGi;f Y
OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhtcsufrsm;ESifh }uHKawG@&Edkifaom jy\em
pdrfac:csufrsm;udk a,bl,sokH;oyfwifjyxm;ygonf? 'kwd,ydkif;rSmrl
toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv+yD;aemufydkif; umvrsm;wGif trsm;tm;jzifh
}uHKawG@&avh&Sdaom jy\emrsm;udkaqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? txl;ojzifh
wm0efcaJG 0r_/ wm0ef,rl _ ydik ;f qdik &f mjy\emrsm;/ ppfav#maf =u;ESihf jyef
vnfxal xmifa&;qdik &f m jy\emrsm; jzpfygonf? aemufq;Hk tydik ;f wGirf l
tpkvu kd f aqG;aEG;r_rsm;. &vm'ftESpcf sKyfukd azmfjyxm;ygonf?

toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;umvwGiOf ;D pm;ay;aqmif&u
G &f rnft
h csurf sm;
yÉdyuQrSefor#wdk@wGif a,bl,stm;jzifh tydkif;okH;ydkif;yg0ifygonf?
,if;wd@k rmS yÉdyuQjzpfapaomjy\emrsm;/ yÉdyuQwiG ;f aqmif&u G =f uyHk
vlw@kd .tjyKtrlrsm;ESihf yÉdyuQqikd &f mvlw@kd .oabmxm; wd@k jzpfygonf?
,if;wdk@onf wcktay:wck tjyeftvSef=oZmoufa&mufr_rsm; &SdEdkif
ygonf? Oyrm — usaemfw@kd ppfqifa&;wck (yÉdyuQ tjyKtrl) vkyo f nfh
tcg ,if;ppfqifa&;u usefonfhtpdwftydkif;rsm;tay: =oZmouf
a&muf apygonf? Oyrm — jyif;xefaomoabmxm;rsm;jzifh wke@f jyefjcif;/
xdt
k wGuaf =umifyh if trke;f oHo&mvnfae&jcif;rsm; qufvufjzpfay:ap
ygonf? Ttqd;k oHo&mudk zsuq f ;D ypf&efqv kd #if usaemfw@kd onf yÉdyuQ
. tpdwftydkif;wckckudk ajymif;vJypf&ef vdktyfygonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf
toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;udpw
P &yfukd aqmif&u G &f eftwGuq f v
kd #if usaemfw@kd
taejzifh yÉdyuQ. tpdwt f ydik ;f ok;H ckv;Hk udak jymif;vJypfvu kd &f ef vdt k yf
ygonf? Tae&mwGif Edik if aH &;pepftoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umv[kqo kd nfh
teuft"dy`g,frSm xdkyÉdyuQwGif yg0ifygwfoufaeaom t"duZmwf
aumifrsm;u ajymif;vJawmhrnf[k pdwyf ikd ;f jzwfxm;+yD;aemuf/ ajymif;

19
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

vJrt_ pDtpOfrsm; pwif tajcwnfrad omumvESihf tkycf sKyfa&;tm%m


opfw&yfukd pwifcsrw S tf aumiftxnfaz:Edik o f nfh tcsed u
f q
kd v
kd jkd cif;
jzpfonf? Oyrm tm;jzifh — zG@J pnf;ykt
H yk cf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'opf w&yfukd
a&;qGjJ cif;rsKd ; jzpfonf?
toGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm;
ta=umif; usaemfw@kd ajym=uonft
h cg/ OD;pm;ay;aqmif&uG pf &m vkyif ef;
rsm;udk tajccHta=umif;&if; (3) ckjzifh cGJjcm;owfrSwfygonf? T
ta=umif;t&if; (3) ckrmS —
• ‚if;vkyif ef;rsm;onf vkyaf qmif&efvt
kd yfonf[k rdru
d ,lq+yD;/
rdrq
d ifajcjzifh usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmo
f nf[,
k q
l aom vkyif ef;rsm;?
• 'kwd,ta=umif;&if;rSm OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm;rSm
orkwod abmqef+yD;/ rdrt
d uJjzwfcsut
f & (od@k r[kw)f rdrcd ,
H l
xm;aom tawG;tac:t& tajccHvkyfaqmifaomvkyfief;rsKd;
jzpfonf?
• wwd,tm;jzifh OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufp&mvkyfief;rsm;udk rdrdwGif
&Sad om vltm;aiGtm;tuef@towftay: tajccHI (Oyrm —
vlOD;a&rvkHavmufjcif;/ u|rf;usifr_t&tuef@towf&Sdjcif;/
odk@r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;&kyfb0t&tuef@towf&Sdjcif;) OD;pm;ay;
aqmif&Gufjcif;jzpfonf?

toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvudk zGJ@pnf;ykHoabmt&&_jrifjcif;
vl@tzG@J tpnf;trsm;pkukd zG@J pnf;r_qikd &f mt& tv$mok;H cktjzpfcjJG cm; &_jrif
Edik o
f nf? txufyikd ;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ tv,ftvwfyikd ;f ESihf atmufajc
vlxrk sm;tydik ;f wd@k jzpfonf? Ttv$mtoD;oD;wd@k wiG f olw@kd . oufqikd &f m
acgif;aqmifrsm; &Sdygonf? tv,ftvwfydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
r[mAsL[mt& ta&;}uD;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm olw@kd onf xdyyf ikd ;f acgi;f
aqmifrsm;jzpfzdk@tcGifhtvrf;&Sd+yD;/ atmufajcvlxktydkif;ESifh xdyfydkif;
acgif;aqmifrsm;udk qufpyfay;Edkifaoma=umifhvnf;jzpfonf? tv,f
tvwfyikd ;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf obm0t&udu k yif xdyyf ikd ;f ESihf atmuf
ajcudkqufoG,fay;olrsm;jzpfonf? atmufajcacgif;aqmifrsm;onf
20
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

jynfolvlxktrsm;pkudk xdawG@qufqHI rdrdrl0g'rsm;udkcsjy&ef tpGrf;


aqmifEikd q f ;kH aom tcGit hf vrf;&Sod nfh ta&;}uD;onfh tiftm;pkrsm;jzpf
=uonf? 'Drdkua&pDvl@tzGJ@tpnf;w&yf vnfywfa&;twGuf ta&;
tygqHk;aom tiftm;pkrsm;vnf;jzpf=uonf? Ttv$mokH;ckvkH;onf
EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;r_jzpfvmaomtcg tusdK;oufa&muf
r_c=H u&+yD;/ ,if; jzpfpOf. tpdyt f ydik ;f rsm;tjzpfyg0ifvy_ &f mS ;=u&ygonf?
od@k a=umifyh if jrefrmh'rD u
kd a&pDvy_ &f mS ;r_ uJo h @kd aom awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_
rsm;onf tv$m (3) v$mvk;H udk tajymif;tvJEiS yhf gwo f ufI owif;ay;
&ef/ od&adS eap&ef vdt k yfygonf? xd@k tjyif tv$m (3) ckpvH;k wGif jynfwiG ;f
jynfy qufpyfra_ umif;aumif;&Sad e&efvnf; ta&;}uD;ygonf? od@k ro S m
Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;r_jzpfvmaomtcg jrefrmEdik if v H rl t
_ odik ;f
t0dik ;f wckv;kH t&Sed tf [kejf zifh ajymif;vJrE_ iS thf nD vduk yf gaqmif&u G Ef ikd rf nf
jzpfonf?
tjcm;jy\emwckrmS tv$m (3) ckv;kH =um;wGif &Sad eaom yl;aygi;f
aqmif&u G rf u
_ pd rP sm; jzpfonf? atmufajctv$mrsm;ESihf tv,ftvwf
tv$mrsm;taejzifh txufydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm;t=um; oabmwlnDr_
&&Sdcsufrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;tajctae jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;ESifhygwfouf+yD;
owif;tcsut f vufrsm; tqufrjywf&&Sad e&ef vdt k yfygonf? od@k ro S m
EdkifiHa&;tajctae taxGaxGjzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;ESifh ygwfoufI
pdwt f m;xufoefpmG / taumif;jrifxm;um v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G Ef ikd =f urnf
jzpfonf? rdrw d @kd awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_twGuf ta&;ygaom r[mAsL[m
t& qk;H jzwfa&G;cs,rf o _ nf “atmufajcrS txufo@kd ” oGm;onfyh pkH rH sK;d jzifh
tajymif;tvJukd o,faqmifomG ;rvm; (od@k r[kw)f txufyikd ;f acgi;f
aqmifrsm;twGi;f oabmwlncD suu f kd t&if&atmif,rl vm;qdo k nfukd
a&G;cs,&f ef jzpfygonf? (od@k r[kw)f csO;f uyfry_ pkH H ESpcf v k ;Hk jzifv
h nf; aygi;f pyf
vkyu f ikd af om enf;vrf;udv k nf;a&G;cs,Ef ikd yf gonf?

21
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

rdrd.qef@usifzuftiftm;pkrsm; (aqG;aEG;bufrsm;)
rnfonfhtcsdefwGif tav#mhay;rnfenf;
yÉdyuQtajctaewGif &efzufjzpfae=uaom tiftm;pkrsm; aphpyfaqG;
aEG;yGJpm;yGJ0dkif;odk@ wufvmEdkifaom tajctaeudk &Sif;vif;jy&ef t,l
tqw&yf &Syd gonf? Ttajctaeudk “ESpzf uftxdemaeaom r#ajc
taetxm;” (Hurting stalemate) [kac:ygonf? oabmrSm ydak e+rJ
usm;ae+rJtaetxm;udk qufvufxed ;f odr;f xm;Edik &f eftwGuf ay;qyf
&rnfh wefb;kd rsm; rsm;onfxufrsm;vmaom tajctaejzpfonf? wcsed f
wnf;wGiyf if rdrt d ompD;&atmif tajctaeudk rvkyEf ikd /f wd;k wufajymif;
vJr,lEikd af wmhaom tajctaejzpfonf? xdt k aetxm;wGif taumif;
qHk;tajzrSm tajctaeudk vufawG@usus&_jrifwwfaom tiftm;pk
vufxYJ wnf&o dS nf? rdrad qG;aEG;buf (,cif&efzuf tiftm;pkrsm;xJr)S
aqG;aEG;ajyvnfEikd af om tiftm;pkuckd sO;f uyfI ol.t=urf;zufajz&Si;f
vdak omtjyKtrlukd ajymif;apI aqG;aEG;yGpJ um;0dik ;f qDo@kd wufvmap
a&;yif jzpfonf?

a&&Snfjzpfaeaom jynfwGif;ppfyGJudk tqkH;owfjcif;


(ausmif;oifcef;pm Oyrm)
EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvwckwGif ta&;;t}uD;qkH;
aom tydik ;f rSm xdv k rl t
_ odik ;f t0dik ;f u vk+H cKH a&;ESihf Edik if aH &; tajctaersm;
udk &_jrifyykH ifjzpfonf? T&_jrifyrkH sm;ESi, hf OS v f #uf tjcm;aomtoGiu f ;l
ajymif;a&;umvjzpfpOfrsm;onf oabmw&m;t&ajym&v#if tpDtpOf
wusjzpfay:wwfonfh oabm&Sdonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;
a&;wGif yxrOD;qHk; jzpfay:vmonfh tydkif;u¾rSm tajccHqdkif&m
oabmwlnDcsufrsm; &&Sdjcif;jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tjrifzuftydkif;t&
ajym&v#if yÉdyuQwiG f t"duyg0ifygwo f ufaeaom Edik if aH &;Zmwfaumif
rsm;u tajymif;tvJ}uD;}uD;rm;rm;vky&f ef oabmwlvu kd jf cif; jzpfonf?
tajccHusonfh oabmwlncD surf sm; jzpfay:vmaponfh ueOD;aqG;aEG;yGJ
pum;0dik ;f rsm;pwifEikd jf cif;onfyif tvGet f a&;ygvo S nfh atmifjrifrr_ sm;
jzpfonf? TaqG;aEG;yGrJ sm; jzpfxeG ;f atmifjrifz@kd qykd gu t"dupOf;pm;=u&

22
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

rnft h csurf mS oabmwlncD surf sm;&&ef rnfoal wGu t"duaqG;aEG;zuf


Zmwfaumifrsm;jzpfonfukd &SmazGowfrw S &f efjzpfonf? a,bl,s udik pf JG
oifah omenf;vrf;wckrmS oabmwlncD su&f +yD;ygu jyefvnfazguzf suf
Edik o
f ql ykd gu ToabmwlncD sucf srw S &f m aqG;aEG;0dik ;f Y ab;z,fxm;&ef
yifjzpfonf? vk+H cHKa&;buftydik ;f tjrifzufuajym&v#if tajccHoabm
wlncD su&f &ef qdo k nfrmS ae&ma'otm;vk;H Y typftcwfrsm;&yfpx J m;
a&;yifjzpfonf? vk+H cHKa&;r&Svd #if vltrsm;u qufvufp;kd &draf =umif=h u
ae=urnf jzpf+yD; xdo k o
H ,rsm;a=umifyh if aqG;aEG;yGrJ S xGucf gG omG ;=uonf
vnf; &SEd ikd yf gonf?
Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyif ef;wGif 'kw, d ta&;t}uD;qH;k
u¾rSm tpd;k &opfw&yfz@JG pnf;Edik &f eftwGuf jyifqif=ujcif; jzpfonf?
Edik if aH &;t&qdv k #if toGiuf al jymif;a&;umv =um;jzwftpd;k & trsKd ;tpm;
wckcu k kd zG@J pnf;avh&=dS uygonf? vk+H cHKa&;tydik ;f t&qkyd gu wyfrawmfopf
ESihf &Jwyfz@JG opftwGuf wyfom;opfrsm;pkaqmif;jcif;ESihf avhusiahf y;jcif;
wd@k yg0ifavh&dS ygonf?
Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyif ef;wGif wwd,ta&;t}u;D qH;k
tydik ;f u¾rSm Edik if aH &;taqmufttkw H &yfukd zG@J pnf;qif,ifjcif; jzpfyg
onf? EdkifiHa&;tydkif;t&qdkv#if a&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;yjcif; zGJ@pnf;
tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'opfw&yfukd twnfjyKjcif; ponfw@kd yg0ifonf?
vk+H cHKa&;tydik ;f t&qdv k #if wyfrawmfopfEiS hf &Jwyfz@JG rsm;jyefvnfz@JG pnf;
ay;jcif;udprP sm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfonf?
Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyif ef;wGif pwkw?ta&;}uD;aom
tydik ;f u¾rSm Edik if aH &;qdik &f m taqmufttko H pfrsm;udk owfowfrw S f
rSwf zGJ@pnf;ae&mcsjcif;ESifh oufqdfkifygonf? EdkifiHa&;tydkif;t&qdkv#if
tpd;k &Xmersm;/ at*sipf rD sm;udk vdt k yfovdk xyfrzH @JG pnf;ae&mcsxm;jcif;
rsm;yg0if+yD; vk+H cHKa&;tydik ;f t&qdv k #if vk+H cHKa&;wyfz@JG opfrsm;udk avhusihf
oifwef;ay;jcif;/ ynmay;jcif;jzifh t&nftaoG;jynf0h onf/h rdrv d yk if ef;
udok m u|r;f usiv f yk af qmifonft h iftm;pkrsm; jzpfvmap&ef aqmif&u G f
jcif; wd@k yg0ifonf?

23
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;vkyif ef;. ta&;}u;D aomyÌrtydik ;f


u¾rSm vlra_ &;t&/ Edik if aH &;t& ,k=H unfr&_ &Sv d map&ef wnfaqmuf
jcif; jzpfonf? Edik if aH &;tydik ;f t&ajymv#if tpd;k &opfonf t*wdvu dk pf m;
jcif;rsm;&Sd - r&Sd ? Edik if oH m;rsm;tay: w&m;r#r#wwESihf wef;wl&nfwl
qufqjH cif;&Sd - r&Sd qdo k nft hf csurf sm;ESio hf ufqikd yf gonf? vk+H cHKa&;tydik ;f
t&qdkv#if vkH+cHKa&;wyfzGJ@rsm;u vl@tcGifhta&;udk av;pm;vdkufemr_
&S&d efEiS hf w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfonf vGwv f yfpmG / Edik if aH &;=oZmESihf oD;jcm;
uif;vGwpf mG aqmif&u G cf iG &hf &dS ef jzpfonf? vl@tzG@J tpnf;w&yfwiG f ,kH
=unfr_wnfaqmuf=u&eftwGuf aemufqkH;jy\emrSm twdwfudk
rnfodk@em;vnfoabmaygufEdkif =urnfenf; [laomudpPjzpfonf?
tm;vkH;aumif;arGqdk;arGcHjzwfoef;cJh=uaom twdwfordkif;udk rnfodk@
rnfyt kH "dyg` ,jf zifh jyefvnfazmfjyrnfenf;[laom jy\emyifjzpfonf?

toGiful;ajymif;a&;udk a&S;&_onfhjzpfpOftwGif;}uHKawG@&rnfh
jy\em (3) ck —
• 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;pepftajymif;tvJ
twGuf v_y&f mS ;cJ=h uaom tzG@J tpnf;tm;vk;H taejzifh 'Dru kd a&pD
toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvjzpfaomtcg/ trSew f u,fajymif;vJr_
rsm; pwifaomtcg twlwuGvu kd yf gEikd f - rvduk yf gEikd q
f akd om
jy\emjzpfonf? olw@kd twGuf tusKd ;tjrwfwpkw H &m=unfI h
useaf eEdik of nf? od@k r[kwf a&omcdk avS}uHKvdu k of rl sm;&Sad eEdik f
onf? xdo k rl sm;udk rnfuo
hJ @kd uikd w
f , G qf ufqH =urnfenf;?
• awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;aepOfumvu awmfvSefa&;twGif;twl
&yfwnf &ke;f uefaejcif;uyif tcsi;f csi;f nD!w G rf E_ iS hf cGet
f m;udk
jzpfapygonf? TawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_taejzifh (txl;ojzifh
wyfaygi;f pkjzifh pkz@JG vy_ &f mS ;r_rsK;d tajctaewGi)f &nfreS ;f csuyf ef;wdik f
udka&muf&Sd&ef eD;uyfvmonfhtcsdefY oabmxm;uGJvGJr_rsm;
}uHK&Edik yf gonf? tcsi;f csi;f wyfaygi;f pk pkz@JG vy_ &f mS ;&mrS vrf;cG=J u
&rnfh tajctaersK;d vnf; &SEd ikd yf gonf? xdo k @kd vrf;rcGrJ t D ajctae
rsK;d Y rnfo@kd aom atmifjrifr&_ onftxd twlwuG aqmif&u G f

24
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

oifo
h nf paomtcsuu f kd wif}uKd I oabmwlxm;&ef vdyk gonf?
Ttcsut f ay: pG+J rJpmG &yfwnfI wdu k yf .
JG aemufq;Hk tcsed t
f xd
v_y&f mS ;r_ukd tpGr;f uket f m;jznfo h mG ;=u&ef vdtk yfygonf?
• Edik if w
H ckwiG f rdrjd zwfoef;cJ&h aomtwdwu
f jkd yefvnf ok;H oyfEikd f
&eftwGuf Edik if aH &;ESiw
hf ukd &f u
kd rf oufqikd af om ae&mwck &S&d ef
vdktyfygonf? EdkifiHa&;pepf toGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOfwGif rdrd
qkyfudkif&yfwnfxm;csufrsm;udk vG,fvG,fpGef@ypfwwf/ wefzdk;
rxm;cH&aom tajctae}uHK&onfvnf;&Sd+yD; tjcm;aom
tiftm;pkrsm;. tjrifrsm;udv k nf; tav;xm;azmfjy&ef arhavsmh
aewwf=uygonf? od@k aomf tcsK@d aomjy\emrsm;onf tkypf k
wck. tusKd ;pD;yGm;/ vlrsK;d wrsK;d .tusKd ;pD;yGm;xufyI kd trsKd ;om;
w&yfvHk;tusdK;pD;yGm;ESifh oufqdkifaeaomudpPrsm; jzpfwwfyg
onf? ,if;jy\emrsKd;udk qufvufaqG;aEG; oifh=uygonf?
aemufaemifwiG f rD;yGg;rSr;D avmifonfEh , S f }uD;rm;onfh Edik if aH &;
jy\emrsm; jzpfrvmrD xdjk y\emrsm;.tajzud&k mS Edik &f eftwGuf
aqG;aEG; ES;D aESmtjrifzvS,Ef ikd af om “awG@qkaH qG;aEG;a&;pifjrif”h
wck zefw;D xm;ay;oifh ygonf?

toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv+yD;aemuf }uHKawG@&rnfh jy\em


pdrfac:csufrsm;
jrefrmjynfwGif tajymif;tvJudkjrifawG@vdkaom rdrdwdk@tiftm;pkrsm;
taejzifh jrefrmEdik if w H iG f Edik if aH &;pepftoGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&; jzpfay:vmygu
rnfonft h ajctaersm;}uHK&Edik rf nfukd ar#mrf eS ;f xm;oifo h nfh jy\em
wck jzpfygonf? Tod@k awG;qxm;csuo f nf jy\emtwGi;f ud, k w f ikd f
ud, k u f s yg0ifae&aom olrsm;.twGi;f ydik ;f tjrif&a_ 'gihf jzpfygvrd o hf nf?
odk@aomf jyifyu avhvmapmifh=unfhae=uaomolrsm;. tjrifwGifrl
Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvqdo k nfrmS raocsm ra&&maom
tvGeo f wd xm;+y;D apmif=h unfah e=u&rnfh umvwcktjzpf jrif=urnfjzpf
ygonf? toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvonf Edi_ ;f ,SOcf sut f & odwrf =umoifh
yg? ,if;umvonf “ykrH eS ”f tajctaersKd ;uJo h @kd vnf; rjzpfapoifah y?

25
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

,ckqufvuf aqG;aEG;r_wiG f toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvaemufyikd ;f wGif


rnfodk@ qufvufjzpfysufEdkifonf/ wufvmaom tpdk;&opftaejzifh
rnfonfjh y\emrsm; t"du&ifqikd =f u&rnfukd qufvufaqG;aEG; wifjy
rnfjzpfonf?

- ykHrSeftajctaejyefvnf jzpfay:apjcif;
EdkifiHa&;pepftoGiful;ajymif;a&;umvjzwfoef;+yD;onfESifh EdkifiHwum
todkif;t0dkif;taejzifh rdrdwdk@.ta&;udpPudkwajz;ajz; aemufwef;odk@
ydk@vdkuf=urnfjzpfonf? OD;pm;ay;tjzpf qufvufpOf;pm;=uawmhrnf
r[kwaf y? Tod@k jzifh rdrw d @kd uakd xmufcH yHyh ;kd aeaom t&if;tjrpfrsm; avsmh
enf;usqif;vmEdik af omtajctaewGif a&enf;enf;udk olaomufrnf
igaomufrnf qdo k nfh yÉdyuQrsK;d udk a&Smif&mS ;&eftwGuf wwfEikd o f I
apmpGm OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Guf&rnfhvkyfief;udpPrsm;udk }udKwifoabmwl
owfrw S x f m;Edik yf gu taumif;qH;k jzpfygonf? tvm;wlaumif;rGeo f nfh
enf;vrf;wckrSm rdrd.zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf udk,fydkifr[mAsL[m
csrSwfxm;jcif;ESifh EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;rsm; tvSL&SifEdkifiHrsm;/ tzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;ESihf qufqaH &;aumif;rGeaf tmif xde;f xm;&efjzpfonf? od@k rS
om ykrH eS af xmufyu hH nl rD r_ sm;qufvuf&&Sad eatmif jyifqifxm; Edik rf nf
jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&opftzdk@ rdrd.b¾ma&;tajccHay:wGifyif
&yfwnf&Sifoef&rnfjzpfonf? xdktwGufa=umifh ,cktcsdefrSpI rdrd.
b¾ma&;tajccHukd pl;prf;avhvmxm;oifo h nfh tcsed jf zpfonf? toGif
ul;ajymif;a&;+y;D csed u f mvonf jrefrmEdik if t H zd@k Edik if wH umrdom;pk tv,f
wGif Edik if wH umtzG@J tpnf;rsm;t=um;wGif wifw h ifw
h ,fw,f &yfwnf
oifah omtcsed t f cgvnf; jzpfoifyh gonf? Edik if w H umtzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf
quf qH&mwGif rdrd&yfwnfcsufudk rdrdzmomjyXmef;Edkifaom rdrd.
tqifah e&mudk owfrw S jf yXmef;Edik af om Edik if w
H cktjzpf zefw;D ,l=u&rnf
jzpfonf?

26
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

- ppfavsmaf =u;ESihf ppfa=umifyh supf ;D &r_rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;udprP sm;


acwfopfjrefrmjynfordik ;f opfEiS hf ygwo f ufIvnf;aumif;/ ordik ;f qd;k arG
aumif;arGrsm;u vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tay: &dkufcwfcsufrsm;ESifh ygwfouf
Ivnf;aumif; rjzpfraeajz&Si;f =u&rnf jzpfygonf? TudprP mS toGiu f ;l
ajymif;a&;jzpfpOftwGi;f Yom oufqikd af om udpw P ckr[kwaf y? ESpaf ygi;f
rsm;pGm csI
D =umjrifah tmifajz&Si;f =u&rnfh pdraf c:csujf zpfygonf? xdt
k wGuf
a=umifhyif toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv aemufydkif;pdrfac:csuf jy\em
wcktjzpfxnfo h iG ;f azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? ,cktcsed u f wnf; upI
Tpdrfac:csufrsm;udkajz&Sif;Edkif&eftwGuf }udKwifjyifqifxm;=u&rnf
jzpfygonf? Tjy\emrsm;rSm —
• 'kuo
Q nfrsm;ESihf Edik if w
H iG ;f t"rRajymif;a&$@ae&mcsxm;jcif; cH=u&
aom olrsm;udk jyefvnfae&mcsxm;ay;jcif;?
• tajccHtaqmuftODrsm;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufjcif;?
• t=urf;zufrE_ iS hf vufeufuikd yf ÉdyuQrsm;a=umifh jzpfay:cJ&h aom
pdwaf omuESihf vlr'_ u
k rQ sm;udk udik w
f ,
G af jz&Si;f ay;jcif;?
• &efzufjzpfcahJ om ppfom;rsm;udk jyefvnfaygi;f pnf;apjcif; ponf
wd@k jzpfonf?
awmfveS af &;wyfrawmfrsm;xJwiG f ESp&f n S v f rsm; aexdik cf =hJ u&aom
&Jabmfa[mif;rsm;taejzifh ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGm td;k tdrrf S cGcJ mG cJ=h u&olrsm;
jzpfovd/k b0twGuu f pd rP sm;pGmudk pGe@f vw
$ cf =hJ u&olrsm;jzpfonf? yk*Kd~ vf
wOD;csi;f taejzifh Twdu k yf t JG wGuf rsm;pGmqif;&J'u k aQ &mufco hJ rl sm;/ b0
tcGit hf a&;rsm;pGmudk qH;k &_;H cJ=h uolrsm;jzpfonf? ynma&;&yfqikd ;f cJ=h u&
onf? vkyif ef;cGio f ifwef;rsm;/ vkyif ef;cGiu f |r;f usirf r_ sm; vpf[if;cJ=h u
onf? T&Jabmfrsm;wGif pdwf"mwf}uHhcdkifr_jrifhrm;aomfvnf; yHkrSefb0
twGi;f jyef0ifa&;twGuf jyifqifre_ nf;olrsm;jzpfae=uonf? usiv f nf
aomvkyo f m;rsm; r[kw=f u? yHrk eS b f 0ESihf rpyfr[yf jzpfaeEdik o f nf? T
tiftm;pkrsm;onf ulnaD xmufyrhH _ r&&dyS gu jy\emjzpfvmEdik o f nf?
olw@kd tzd@k aemufxyfwzef jyefvnfvufeufpu JG ikd &f ef 0efav;rnf r[kwf
=uay?

27
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

- wm0ef,rl /_ wm0efcrH q
_ ikd &f mjy\em
txufuazmfjycsurf sm;Y yÉdyuQ. a,bl,stpdyt f ydik ;f (3) ck jzpfaom
yÉdyuQjzpfapaomjy\emrsm;/ yÉdyuQqikd &f m vlrsm;.tjyKtrlrsm;ESihf
yÉdyuQqikd &f mvlw@kd . oabmxm;rsm;ta=umif;udk azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpf onf?
Tt&mud p P r sm;ud k ajz&S i f ; &mY yÉd y uQ a jz&S i f ; enf ; trsd K ;rd s K;jzif h
vnf;aumif;/ vl@tzG@J tpnf;.tpdyt f ydik ;f rsm;tm;vk;H twGi;f Y wnf+idrf
vk+H cKH r_&apatmif pDru H ikd w
f ,
G jf cif;jzifv
h nf;aumif;/ vlra_ &;t& ,k=H unfr_
&&Sdap&ef wnfaqmufay;jcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ajz&Sif;oGm;=u&rnf
jzpfygonf? Edik if aH &;pepf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvtwGi;f ESihf toGiu f ;l
ajymif;a&;umv+yD;onfh aemufyikd ;f wGif vlra_ &;t&,k=H unfr_ &ap&ef
twGuf rdrdwdk@ rjzpfraeajzqdk=u&rnfh ar;cGef;rSm “rnfonfhudpPrsm;
jzpfco hJ enf;” qdak omudpP jzpfonf? “jrefrmEdik if . H ordik ;f opfukd rnfol
awGua&;om;rnfenf;/ jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd jynfolrsm;tm;vHk;twGuf
(od@k r[kw)f tjcm; jynfe,frsm;rS jynfot l oD;oD;twGuf tm;vk;H u
vufcHEdkifaom ordkif;pmtkyfwtkyf jzpfay:vmEdkifrnfvm;” qdkonfh
ar;cGe;f rsm;yif jzpfonf?
ay:ayguv f mEdik af om tcufcqJ ;Hk jy\emrSm wm0efcrH /_ wm0ef,rl _
ydkif;qdkif&mjy\emyifjzpfawmhonf? jzpfysufcJh&onfh udpPjy\emrsm;
twGuf wpkw H OD;ay:rSmom wm0ef&ydS govm; [laomar;cGe;f rsK;d jzpfonf?
wm0ef&rdS E_ iS yhf wfoufI Edik if w
H um tjyifzufu jrifaomtjrifrsm; &SEd ikd f
ovd/k jynfwiG ;f vlxrk sm;u jrifaomtjrifrsm;vnf;&SEd ikd yf gonf? Tod@k
aom wm0efcrH /_ wm0ef,rl E_ iS yhf gwo f ufaomudp/P vlra_ &;t& ,k=H unfr_
wnfaqmufjcif;aomudpPESifh trsKd;om;tcsif;csif; jyefvnfoifhjrwf
a&;udprP sm;ESiyhf gwo f ufI ajz&Si;f ykH ajz&Si;f enf; trsm;tjym;&Syd gonf?
vl@usi0hf wftajcjyKr_p/H tedrhf - tjrifh tay:rlwnfIvnf;aumif;/ w&m;
Oya'tajcjyKr_pt H & tedrhf - tjrifh tay:rlwnfIvnf;aumif;/ rwl
uGjJ ym;aomudprP sm;udk csO;f uyfykH csO;f uyfenf; (4) rsK;d jzifh oH;k oyfq;kH jzwf
Edkifygonf?

28
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

vl@usifh0wf w&m;Oya'tajcjyKyHkpH
tajcjyK
edrhf jrifh

edrhf vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh (Oyrm- vlr_a&;t&n‡mwmcsrf;om


vufwiftar&duEdkifiHrsm;) cGifhay;jcif; (Oyrm-rdkZrfbpf)

jrihf ppf&mZ0wfc&kH ;kH rsm; trSew


f &m;ay:ayguaf &;
(Oyrm-,l*dkqvm;AD;,m; aumfr&Sif (Oyrm-
EdkifiHa[mif;) awmiftmz&du)

- vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh
vufwiftar&duEdkifiHrsm;wGif vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhrsm; azmazm
oDoaD y;cJ=h uonf? tpd;k &a[mif;u tm%mrv$t J yfrt D csed Yf wm0ef&dS
cJo
h rl sm; rnfo@l urkd # w&m;pGq
J t
kd a&;,ljcif;rjyK&ef qk;H jzwfcsucf sxm;um
aqmif&u G cf =hJ uonf?

- vlr_a&;t& n‡mwmcsrf;omcGifhay;jcif;
tmz&duwdu k &f dS Edik if t
H csK@d wiG f (Oyrmtm;jzifh - rdZk efbpfEikd if w
H iG )f
Tenf;vrf;udk a&G;cs,fcJh=uonf? ta=umif;rSm ppfom;tjzpft"rR
pkaqmif;odr;f oGi;f jcif;cHc&hJ aom uav;oli,frsm;udk tjypf,I l r&/ olw@kd
. aus;&Gmrsm;wGio f mrmeft&yfom;rsm;tjzpf jyefvnfaygi;f pnf; aexdik f
Edkifap&ef TuJhodk@aqmif&GufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? Tuav;ppfom;rsm;udk
vlra_ &;t&n‡mwm vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;vdu k o
f nf? olw@kd . vlrt _ odik ;f
t0dik ;f tajctaet& w&m;Oya'pHrsm;twdik ;f aqmif&u G &f ef rjzpfEikd af y?

- ppf&mZ0wfr_ckH&kH;
,l*pkd vm;AD;,m;Edik if aH [mif;. ppfyrJG sm;twGi;f jzpfymG ;cJah om tr_rsm;
twGuf ppf&mZ0wfc&Hk ;Hk rsm;udk Oa&mywGif ,cktcgusio hf ;Hk ppfaq;aqmif
&Guaf eqJjzpfonf? TcH&k ;kH rsm;onf w&m;Oya'pHt& aqmif&u G jf cif;om

29
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

jzpf+yD;/ vlru
_ si0hf wfyikd ;f qdik &f mpHt& aqmif&u G jf cif;rsK;d r[kwaf y? vlra_ &;
t& vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGirhf sKd ;/ cGiv hf w
$ jf cif;rsKd ; vnf;r&Sad y?
- trSefw&m;ay:aygufa&;aumfr&Sif
awmiftmz&duEdik if w H iG f zG@J pnf;cJo
h nfh ykpH w
H rsKd ;jzpfonf? vlru _ sihf
0wfptH & ajz&Si;f vdrk E_ iS hf w&m;Oya'a=umif;t& ajz&Si;f vdrk y_ pkH u H kd aygi;f pyf
xm;jcif;jzpfonf? “trSeu f zkd iG [
hf 0efcyH gu/ tjypfrS vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGijhf yK
rnfjzpf+yD;/ jzpfygG ;cJah om jy\emrsm;tay:wm0efcyH gu w&m;pGt J jypf
ay;jcif;rS oufomuif;vGwcf iG jhf yKrnfyh pkH jH zpfonf”?
txufazmfjyygyHkpHrsm;teuf twdwfumvujzpfysufcJhaom
aumif;usK;d qd;k jypfrsm;twGuf rnfonfeh nf;vrf;jzifh ajz&Si;f rnfqo kd nf
rSm xdEk ikd if H .a&G;cs,rf _ Edik if o
H m;wd@k . oabmqENEiS hf "avhx;kH wrf;pOfvm
tay: Yom rlwnfayonf? Edik if w H um Oya'rsm;taejzifrh l urBmw0Sr;f
vHk;wrl wnf; jzpfap&ef tm;xkwf}udK;pm;tm;xkwfaeaomfvnf;/
wm0ef&rdS E_ iS hf ygwo f ufI &Si;f vif;aom oabmxm;rsK;d csrw S af y;Edik &f ef
aqmif&u G af e aomfjim;vnf; a&G;cs,&f rnfeh nf;vrf;onf um,uH&iS f
Edik if o
H m;rsm;ESio hf m ydIk oufqikd yf gonf? wm0ef&rdS j_ y\emudk rnfonfh
enf;jzifh&Sif;&Sif;/ EdkifiHa&;pepftoGiful;ajymif;a&;jzpfpOf wpHkvkH;udk
rxdcdkufap&ef udkifwG,f ajz&Sif;oGm;&efrSm ydkIta&;}uD;aomudpPjzpf
ygonf? rnfonfu h pd rP qdk ajz&Si;f =u&mY tay;t,l&&dS dS aphpyfaqG;aEG;
=u&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? TudpPrsm;twGuf rdrdwdk@oHk;pGJae=uaom
pum;w&yf&ydS gonf? ‚if;rSm toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;qdik &f m w&m;r#wr_
(Transitional justice) yifjzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDonf yifrtajccH
jy\em jzpfygonf? xkt d wGuaf =umifh rnfo@kd aom tjcm;jy\emrsm;
urS 'Dru kd a&pDtaumiftxnfaz:aqmifa&; vkyif ef;pOfukd rxdcu kd af p
oifhay?

30
&Sv
J =f atmfum aemh'u
f pG f

tkyfpkaqG;aEG;yGJ&vm'frsm;. tESpfcsKyf
twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vkH;u vufcHEdkifaom ppftm%m&Sif
qef@usiaf &; bkrH [mAsL[mwckukd a&;qG&J efvt kd yfa=umif;/ tpkwpku
aqG;aEG;cJyh gonf? xdrk [mAsL[mt& vkyif ef;pOfwiG f Edik if w H umzdtm;
wd;k jr‡iahf p&ef aqmif&u G af &;vnf; vdt k yfygonf? xd@k tjyif jrefrmjynf
wGi;f &Sd Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;taejzifh ydI k vGwv f yfpmG v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G f Edik cf iG hf
&ap&ef/ ydI k ae&m&vmap&ef tm&kpH u kd zf efw;D oifah =umif;vnf; yg0ifyg
onf? Edik if w H umtodik ;f t0kid ;f od@k wdu k w f eG ;f ajymqd&k mY vuf&pdS pftpd;k &
onf Edik if u H t kd yk cf sKyfEikd pf rG ;f &Sad om tpd;k &wckr[kwaf =umif; oabmayguf
vmap&ef wdu k wf eG ;f pnf;&H;k oGm;&ef vdyk gonf? ppftpd;k & udk pD;yGm;a&;t&/
oHwrmefa&;t& ydwq f @kd ta&;,lrr_ sm;jzifh tiftm;enf;csed @J ap+yD;/ w+ydKif
eufwiG f vufeufuidk t f iftm;pkrsm;rS ppfa&;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm; t&Sed t f [kef
wd;k wufaqmifjcif;&Guo f mG ;&ef vdt k yfygonf? ukvor*~wiG f csO;f uyf
pnf;&k;H &mY jrefrmEdik if t H a&;udk vk+H cKH a&;aumifpt D qift h xd a&mufatmif
&nfreS ;f csux f m;I wd;k jr‡iahf qmif&u G o f mG ;oifyh gonf?
tjcm;aqG;aEG;csufwckwGif jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; ydkrdkus,fjyef@onfh
vkyyf ikd cf iG ahf e&mrsm; &&Sv
d mapa&;twGuf zefw;D =u&mY/ twduk t f cHacgi;f
aqmif (a':atmifqef;pk=unf — bmomjyefo)l taejzifh awG@qaHk qG;aEG;
a&;twGuf wdusaom rlupd rP sm; jyXmef;I aqG;aEG;yGpJ m;yGaJ y:od@k pwif
wifjya&;jzpfygonf? xdt k cg e0w (etz) ppftpd;k &taejzifh rjzpfrae
olr. tqdjk yKcsurf sm;udk wke@f jyefvm&awmhrnfjzpfonf?
jrefrmEdik if q
H ikd &f m ukvor*~txl;oHu, kd pf m;vS,rf S tqdjk yKaom
“trsdK;om;nDvmcH” wckusif;y&efqdkonfh tqdkjyKcsufrSmvnf;
pdw0f ifpm;zG,f jzpfygonf? Tudpu P kd Edik if aH &;xd;k ppfwckqifEikd &f ef tcGihf
tvrf;w&yftjzpf jrifoifhygonf? ratmifjrifonfh ,cif trsdKom;
nDvmcHuo kd m jrifIpOf;pm;ae=urnft h pm;/ rdrw d @kd twdu
k t
f cHtiftm;pk
rsm;taejzifh tjcm;nDvmcHwcktwGuf }udKwifjyifqifrr_ sm;/ tpDtpOf
rsm;udk jyifqifoifah yonf? rnfonft h a=umif;a=umifh rdrw d @kd wek @f qikd ;f
ae=u&rnfenf;? Todk@ rdrdwdk@upwifjcif;tm;jzifhvnf; abmvHk;u
rdrw
d @kd ajcxJ uefciG &hf onfh tajctaeudak y;vmrnfjzpfonf?

31
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

'Drukd &ufwpfjrefrmEdik if aH wmfopfwiG f pD;yGm;a&;b0tajctae ykrH eS f


jyefjzpfvma&;twGuf tajz&SmpOfpm;=uaomtcg trsm;pku jrefrmEdik if H
. pD;yGm;a&;tajccHonf v,f,mpdu k yf sKd ;a&;udo k m tajccHI a&S@quf
oGm;&efvdktyfonf[k jrif=uygonf? obm0ygwf0ef;usif rysufpD;ap
aom c&D;oGm;vkyif ef;udv k nf; zGiahf y;oif+h yD;/ Edik if jH cm;&if;ES;D jrKwfErHS r_ sm;udk
vnf; zdwaf c:&ef vdt k yfrnf[k oH;k oyfaqG;aEG;=uygonf? jrefrmjynfonf
obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;ºuG,f0qJjzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHawmfESifh jynfe,frsm;.
0ifaiGonfvnf; TtajccHay:u &&SdEdkifao;onf[k jrif=uygonf?
jrefrmEdik if t
H zd@k Edik if tH csi;f csi;f tjyeftvSeaf cs;aiGEiS hf axmufyahH iGrsm;udk
&&Sad p&ef qGaJ qmifEikd zf , G &f m&Syd gonf? vuf&dS taumufceG q f ikd &f mOya'
rsm;udk jyefvnfokH;oyf+yD;/ jyifqifcsJ@xGif&efvnf; vdktyfygvdrfhrnff?
jrefrmEdkifiHtaumufcGefpepf/ Oya'rsm;udk jyefvnfjyifqifa&;qGJEdkif&ef
twGuf Edik if jH cm;rS u|r;f usio f yl *k Kd~ vfrsm;/ Edik if jH cm;tpd;k &t&m&Srd sm;udk
vnf; zdw=f um;tultnDawmif;oifo h nf[k jrif=uygonf?

32
Edik if w
H umtzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;/
Edik if aH bmifausmaf umfyakd &;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb
k ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f ?
tem*gwfprd af c:r+rsm;ESit hf jcm;tjrif&a+ 'gifrh sm;
a'gufwm a0:vf'ef bJvv
f kd
Focus on Global South
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

Edik if w
H umtzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;/
Edik if aH bmifausmaf umfyakd &;&Si;f }uD;rsm;ESihf *vdb
k ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f ?
tem*gwfprd af c:r+rsm;ESit hf jcm;tjrif&a+ 'gifrh sm;
a'gufwm a0:vf'ef bJvv
f kd
Focus on Global South
wifjycsuyf xrydik ;f wGif urBmvk;H qdik &f mpD;yGm;a&;pepfEiS fh urBmw0Sr;f quf
pyfaeaompD;yGm;a&;ta=umif;wd@k ukd wifjyxm;ygonf? 'kw, d ydik ;f wGif
t"duEdkifiHwumaiGa=u;b¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom EdkifiH
wumaiGa=u;&HyaHk iGtzG@J / urBm@b%f ESihf urBm@uek o f , G af &;tzG@J / ta&S@
awmiftm&SEikd if rH sm;toif; (tmqD,)H wd@k . jzpfay:vmyHo k rdik ;f tusO;f
ESihf zG@J pnf;yHw
k @kd ukd wifjycJyh gonf? wwd,tydik ;f rSm jrefrmEdik if w H ;kd wuf
zGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf jzpfEdkifzG,f&m&Sdaom tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&menf;vrf;udk
t=urf;zsO;f wifjyxm;ygonf? aemufq;Hk tydik ;f wGirf l tkypf v k u
kd af qGaEG;r_
&vm'frsm; tESpcf sKyfukd az: jyxm;ygonf?

urBmvk;H qdik &f mpD;yGm;a&;pepf - t"du xl;jcm;csuv


f uQ%mrsm;ESihf
tm;enf;csufrsm;?
Edik if w
H umEdik if aH &;tcif;tusi;f . vGecf ahJ omtESpif g;q,fukd a,bl,s
tm;jzifh ppfat;acwfEiS hf 1989 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f rSpI ppfat;vGeaf cwf
[lIcGjJ cm;owfrw S =f uygonf? rnfo@kd qakd pumrl urBmvk;H qdik &f m pD;yGm;a&;
tjrift&qdv k #if ,if;umvudyk if vGecf ahJ om 1940 ckEpS rf sm; rS 1980
0ef;usit f xd “*vkb d ,fvukd af Z;&Si;f t}udKacwf” ESihf 1980 rS ,ae@
umvtxdukd “*vdb k ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f acwf” [lI t=urf;zsO;f tm;jzifh
cGjJ cm;owfrwS Ef ikd yf gonf? *vkyb f ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f t}udKacwf. a,bl,s
az: jycsufrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpk. v$rf;rdk;cs,fvS,fr_atmuf&Sd
trsdK;om;t&if;&Sifpepfacwf jzpfygonf? urBmhajrmufjcrf;&Sd EdkifiHrsm;
(odk@r[kwf) zGH@+zdK;+yD;EdkifiHrsm;. *vkdb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;t}udKacwf
pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeudk jyefavhvm=unfhygu atmufygxljcm;csuf
vuQ%mrsm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfonf?

35
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

• vuf0g;}uD;tkyt
f &if;. v$r;f rd;k r_/
• A[dktpdk;&. cdkifrmaomaps;uGuftay: xdef;csKyfxm;onfh
pnf;rsO;f rsm;ESihf aps;uGut
f ay:tpd;k &rS 0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufvyk u
f ikd f
aer_/
• vkyt
f m;ESihf t&if;t=um;&Sd vlra_ &;t&tjyeftvSef tay;t,l
jyKr_ ponft
h csurf sm;jzpfonf?
zG@H +zdK;qJEikd if rH sm;ud=k unfyh gu xdEk ikd if rH sm;udk wDxiG x
f m;aom a0g[m&
t& “EdkifiHawmfu taxmuftyH@jyKxm;aom t&if;&Siftpdk;&rsm;”
owfrw S af z: jyavh&=dS uygonf? TEdik if rH sm;. t"duxljcm;csuv f uQ%m
rsm;rSm -
• vltzG@J tpnf;wGif t"duv$r;f rd;k xm;aom vlwef;pm;rSm ajrydik f
&Sif}uD;rsm;/ urBmhajrmufjcrf; (zGH@+zdK;+yD;) EdkifiHrsm;. t&if;ESifh
r[mrdwf zG@J xm;=uaom b¾mt&if;&Si/f ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;
vkyif ef;&Sif vlwef;pm;rsm;omjzpfonf?
• ,if;pD;yGm;a&;rsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;rSoGif;ukefudktpm;xdk;Edkif&ef
twGuf pufrx _ al xmifa&;udvk yk af qmif=uonf? jynfwiG ;f 0,fvkd
tm; (aps;uGu)f udk jznfq h nf;ay;&ef&nf&, G o
f nfh xkwvf yk af &;
pepfrsK;d jzpfonf? oGi;f uket
f ay: tcGet f aumufukd tqrwef
jr‡ifhxm;um oGif;ukefyrm% (udkwm) uef@owfaompepfudk
toHk;jyKavh&Sd=uonf?
• Edik if aH &; ta&miftaoG;rnfo@kd yif&o
dS nfjzpfap/ Edik if aH wmf (tpd;k &)
. tcef;u¾onf pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif tvGefta&;ygcJh
onf? ukex f wk vf yk jf cif;rSonf ukepf nfzvS,jf cif;/ ukepf nfjzef@jzL;
jcif;txd pD;yGm;a&;b0. e,fy,freS o f r#wiG f tpd;k &u0ifa&muf
pGufzufonf?
1980 0ef;usirf pS I aemufyikd ;f *vdb
k ,fvu
kd af Z;&Si;f acwfukd ajymif;
vmaomtcg t"duusaom xl;jcm;csuv f uQ%mrsm;ajymif;vmonf
udk awG@=u&onf? ‚if;wd@k rmS —

36
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

• Edik if w
H umukeo
f ,
G rf t
_ wGuf t}uD;tus,cf sKyfuikd rf r_ sm; avsmh
csay;jcif; (wHcg;zGiahf y;jcif;) 1 ESihf trdsK;om;pufrv _ yk if ef;rsm;udk
umuG,af y;onfh ud, k uf sKd ;pD;yGm;umuG,af &;eH&rH sm; +ydKusomG ;
jcif;/
• b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_ t}u;D tus,cf sKyfuikd rf r_ sm;avsmch sI vGwv
f yf
vmjcif;2/ b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_ukd tuef@towfjzpfapaom twm;
tqD;rsm;udk z,f&mS ;ypfvmjcif;f /
• Edik if w
H um wdu
k &f u
kd &f ifE;DS jrKwfErHS r_ sm; vGwv
f yfpmG pD;qif;cGi&fh
vmjcif;/
• odk@aomfvnf; vkyftm;rsm;a&G@ajymif;r_tay: wif;=uyfonfh
uef@owfcsurf sm; qufvufwnf&adS ejcif; wd@k jzpfygonf?
txl;ojzifh zGH@+zdK;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&m
(EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGg;a&;/ Oya'a&;&m) jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpD
tpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) [kac:onfh tpDtpOf
rsm;atmufwiG f ,if;ok@d aom ukeo f ,G af &;vGwv f yfr/_ b¾ma&;pD;qif;r_
vGwv f yfvmjcif;ESihf &if;ES;D jrKwfErHS _ vGwv f yfvmjcif;rsm; jzpfay:vm=u
jcif;jzpfonf? “tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f mjyefvnf zG@J pnf;wnfaqmuf
a&;tpDtpOf” udk ajrmufurBmjcrf;Edik if rH sm;rSma&m/ awmifurBmjcrf;Edik if H
rsm;rSmyg aqmif&u G cf =hJ uonf? ajrmufurBmjcrf;Edik if rH sm;wGif Tjyefvnf
zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufr_ tpDtpOfudk (a&*if0g'§oufcsm0g') [kac:=u
onf? Tt,ltqt& tpd;k &uvlrz_ v l akH &; udprP sm;wGif aqmif&u
G af y;
aer_ &yfqdkif;ap&efjzpf+yD;/ aps;uGuftwGif; tpdk;&u0ifa&mufpGufzuf
aer_ukd z,f&mS ;&efjzpfonf? xd@k tjyif vkyt f m;ESihf t&if;t=um; tjyef
tvSef ndE‡ i_d ;f r_utkd qk;H owfap&efEiS hf t&if;&So d zl ufu tompD;&ap&ef
jzpfonf?
awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl EdkifiHawmfuaxmufyHhxm;aom
pDru
H ed ;f vkyif ef;rsm; 1980 ckEpS rf sm;tapmydik ;f umvwGif aºuG;+rDtusyf
wnf; ESihf &ifqikd v f m&aomtcg acs;aiGEiS hf taxmuftyHrh sm;&&eftwGuf
“tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf”
(Structural Adjustment Program) udk vdu k ef mvkyaf qmifc=hJ ujcif;
37
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

jzpfEikd zf , G &f ydS gonf? ,if;Edik if tH awmfrsm;rsm;onf 1980 ckEpS f apmapm


ydik ;f rwdik cf ifu tqrwefacs;,lxm;cJ=h uaom olw@kd . aºuG;+rDrsm;udk jyef
ray;qyfEdkif=uawmhay? xdktcg +rD&Sifb¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk
jyefvnfay;qyfEdkif&eftwGuf wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm EdkifiHwum
b¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS &vrf;omjzpfawmhonf? acs;aiGopfrsm;
&&SEd ikd zf @kd qvkd #if ,if;Edik if rH sm;wGif xda&mufonfh pD;yGm;a&;jyKjyifajymif;vJr_
rsm;vkyf=u&ef EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;&HykHaiGtzGJ@/ urBmhb%frsm;rSaeI
awmif;qdkcJhonf? jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;rvkyfygu aiGacs;&efrjzpfEdkif? T
urBmhb%fESifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;&HyHkaiGtzGJ@wdk@.wGef;tm;aemufwGif
tar&duefjynfaxmifp. k oabmxm;ygonf? Tod@k awmif;qdck ahJ om
“tajccHtaqmuftODqikd f &mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf”
(Structural Adjustment Program) wGif tydik ;f (3) ydik ;f yg&o dS nf?
• ukeo
f ,
G af &;pepfukd xda&mufpmG xde;f csKyfrr_ sm; avsmch say;jcif;ESihf
wHcg;zGifhvGwfvyfr_ay;jcif;/
• ukex f wk vf yk rf /_ ukepf nfzvS,rf E_ iS hf ukepf nfjzef@jzL;r_w@kd wiG f Edik if H
awmf. yg0ifpu G zf ufaer_tcef;u¾udk odoo d mom av#mch sEikd f
apjcif;/ xdef;csKyfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk y,fzsuf
ay;jcif;/
• Edik if aH wmfyikd f pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk zsuo f rd ;f +yD;/ ,cifu Edik if H
awmfyikd u f ¾rsm;udk yk*v ~ u
d ydik t
f jzpfvaJ$ jymif;ay;tyfjcif;/ Edik if yH ikd f
pDyGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk zsufodrf;apjcif; paomudpPrsm;
yg0ifonf?
xdktcsdefu tm;tenf;qkH;a'orsm;rSm awmifurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiH
rsm;jzpfonf? tmz&duwdu k &f EdS ikd if rH sm;ESihf vufwiftar&duEdik if rH sm;wGif
“tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f mjyefvnfz@JG pnf; wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf”
(Structural Adjustment Program) udk vdu k ef maqmif&u G cf =hJ u&+yD;/
T'%fukd tqd;k qk;H cHc=hJ u&onf? tmz&duwdu k Ef iS hf vufwiftar&duwd@k
wGif ,cktcsdeftxd pD;yGm;a&;xdkif;rd_if;aejcif;/ pD;yGm;a&; (vlwef;pm;)
rnDr#r_ tvsit f jref}uD;xGm;vmjcif;/ qif;&JcsKd @wrhJ o _ wfrw S rf sO;f atmuf
usa&mufonfh vlOD;a&tcsdK;tpm;}uD;rm;vmaejcif;wdk@u xdkjyKjyif
ajymif;vJa&; tpDtpOfrsm;. qd;kf arGa=umif[ h k owfrw S af zmfjycJ=h uonf?
38
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

TjzpfpOfY urBmay:wGif c|i;f csux f m;&rnfh a'owckawmh&cdS o hJ nf?


‚if;rSm ta&S@tm&SEiS hf ta&S@awmiftm&SEikd if rH sm; jzpf=u+yD;/ “pD;yGm;a&;
usm;Edik if rH sm;” [kwifpm; ac:qdck =hJ uonf? ,if;a'oEdik if rH sm;. pD;yGg;a&;
pepf zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufxm;ykrH mS vufwiftar&duESihf cyfqifqifw+l yD;/
tpd;k &. yg0ifpu G zf ufra_ &m/ ud, k uf sKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf umuG,af y;xm;r_
oabmvuQ%mrsm;yg qifw=l uonf? od@k aomfvnf; usm;Edik if rH sm;u
yd@k uek w f ify@kd a&;udk wGe;f tm;ay;vkyaf qmif=u+yD;/ tpd;k &rsm;u Tyd@k uek f
wify@kd a&;twGuf pufrv _ yk if ef;rsm;udk axmufyu hH sm;uefyyhH ;kd ay;=uonf?
usm;Edik if rH sm;onf vkyt f m;aps;aygayg& aoma=umifh vkyt f m;tajcjyK
xkwfvkyf&aom xkwfukefrsm;udkxkwfum wifydk@a&;udk xufxufoef
oefvyk af qmif=uonf? aemufyikd ;f wGif vkyt f m;tajcjyKpepfrS tqifjh rifh
onfh t&if;tESD;tajcjyKxkwfvkyfaom ukefpnfrsm;udkxkwfvkyfvm
Edik o
f nf? xdx k u
G u f ek rf sm;udk ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;aps;uGurf sm;od@k wify@kd
=uonf? ajrmufurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;u ta&S@ESifh ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiH
rsm;rS wifoiG ;f ukerf sm;tay:uef@owfrr_ sm; wke@f jyefc=hJ uaomtcg usm;
Edik if rH sm;tcuf}uHK&awmhonf? usm;Edik if rH sm;u (1980) ckEpS u f mvrsm;
twGi;f u vGwv f yfaomaps;uGujf yKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm;vky&f ef Edik if w H um
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS ay;vm onfh zdtm;rsm;udk tmcHEikd cf o hJ nft h a=umif;rSm
*syefEikd if rH S t&if;tES;D rsm;pD;0ifvmaejcif;a=umifh jzpfonf?
tar&duefESifh Oa&myukefoG,fzufrsm;u (*syefEdkifiHrSukefoG,fr_
&Si;f wrf; tqrwefyakd iGjyaeonft h ay: zdtm;ay;&eftwGu)f ,ef;aiG
wefb;dk jyefvnfowfrw S &f ef zdtm;ay;cJ=h uonf? Tod@k jzifh 1985 ckEpS f
wGif wd;k jrifv h maom *syef,ef;aiG.wefb;kd u *syefurk % ` rD sm;twGuf
jynfwGif;Yukefxkwfvkyf&ef tukeftusrsm;apcJhonf? *syefukr`%Drsm;
taejzifh Edi_ ;f ,SOcf sut f &qdv k #if vkyt f m;coufomaom w&kwjf ynf/
wdik 0f rfEiS hf awmifu&kd ;D ,m;Edik if rH sm;od@k xkwu f ek v
f yk if ef;rsm; oGm;a&muf
xkwv f yk &f ef ta=umif;jzpfapcJo h nf?
1990 ckESpfwGif *syefwdk@.&if;ESD;jrKwfESHr_twdkif;twm wajz;ajz;
avsmeh nf;usqif;vmcJoh nf? od@k aomfvnf; xdt k csed w
f iG f a&*if§oufcsm
acwftwGif;jzpfay:ajymif;vJr_rsm;a=umifh ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiH
rsm;wGif tjcm;ae&mrsm;od@k p;D qif;&ef aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm; apmifq h ikd ;f
39
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

aecJ=h uonf? xdak iGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;u tcsed jf refjrefEiS hf a&wdt k wGi;f


tjrwfrsm;rsm; &&Sad &;twGuf &if;ES;D jrKwfEEHS ikd rf nfh ae&mud&k mS vm=uonf?
avmif;upm;qefaom aiGa=u;udak ps;upm;onfh pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;
(Speculative Funds) &Sdvm=uonf? tqdkyg pDyGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;.
zdtm;a=umifh tar&duefb¾ma&;0ef}uD;XmeESifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;
&HyaHk iGtzG@J / ta&S@awmiftm&SEikd if rH sm;&Sd tpd;k &rsm;taejzifh jyKjyifajymif;vJ
r_rsm;vkyfaqmifvm=u&onf? pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif EdkifiHawmfu
yg0ifpGufzufxdef;csKyfr_udkavsmhcsvm=u&+yD;/ aiGa=u;t&if;pD;qif;r_ESifh
ygwo f ufI xde;f csKyfxm;aompnf;rsO;f rsm;udk z,f&mS ;ay;cJ=h u&onf?
1994 ckEpS Ef iS hf 199& ckEpS u
f mvt=um;rSmyif aiGa=u;aps;upm;onfh
t&if;aiG (tar&duefa':vm bDv, D H 100) cef@ ta&S@tm&SEiS hf ta&S@
awmiftm&S a'orsm;ok@d p;D 0ifc+hJ yD; tdr, f majrvkyif ef;/ pawmhaps;uGuEf iS hf
ajra&mif;0,fa&;aps;uGuf wdk@uJhodk@aom aiGjzpfvG,faomvkyfief;
u¾rsm;wGif &if;ES;D jrKwfEcHS =hJ uonf? vkyif ef;u¾tenf;i,fwiG f pk+yHKI
aiGv;kH aiG&if;jzifh &if;ES;D jrKwfEaHS eaomtcg a&mif;vdt k m;enf;I 0,fvt kd m;
rsm;+yD; aps;uGuyf suaf wmhonf? ,if;vkyif ef;u¾rsm;udyk g +ydKvJysupf ;D
apcJyh gonf? pD;yGm;a&;tajcysuo f mG ;jcif;ESit
hf wl &if;ES;D jrKwfEo
HS rl sm;u
txdww f vef@jzpfc=hJ uonf? 1997 ckEpS f aEG&moDwiG f aiGa=u;upm;onfh
pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;u Ttajctaeudt k cGit hf aumif;,lI tjrwfxw k f
Edik &f efqufvuf vkyaf qmifc=hJ uygonf? (tar&duefa':vm bDv, D H 100)
udk ,if;a'orS &kwfw&ufjyefvnfxkwf,lum tjcm;ae&mrsm;odk@
a&$@ajymif;xm; vdkufonf? xdktcg xdkEdkifiHrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;bHk;bHk; vJ
awmhonf? +rDpm;aºuG;,lxm;olurk % ` rD sm;u xdak ºuG;aiGrsm;udk jyefrqyf
Edik af wmhojzifh aemufq;kH enf;vrf;rSm tpd;k &rsm;u xdpk ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;
rsm;udk EdkifiHydkifodrf;cJh=u&+yD;/ olwdk@.taºuG;rsm;udk vufv$Jajymif;,l
vdu k =f u&awmhonf? tpd;k &rsm;taejzifv h nf; xdo k @akd qmuf&u G Ef ikd &f ef
twGuf "etiftm;vnf;rvHkavmufaoma=umifh EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;
&HyaHk iGtzG@J (IMF) u ay;vmrnfh “u,fq,fa&;&HyakH iG” rsm;udak pmifh
qdkif; =u&awmhonf? T “u,fq,fa&;&HyHkaiG” rsm;ESifhtwl ,cif
apmapmydkif;u tmz&duESifhvufwiftar&duwdkuf&Sd EdkifiHrsm;wGif
aqmif&u G cf =hJ u&aom “tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f m jyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnf

40
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

aqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program) udv k ukd ef m


aqmif&Guf =u&awmhonf? “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&m jyefvnf
zG@J pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment Program)
rsm;rS vGwfajrmufaecJhonf urBm.wckwnf;aoma'ojzpfaom T
a'oonfvnf; trsm;enf;wl Tvrf;a=umif;ay: vdu k =f u&jyefawmh
onf?
*vdb k ,fvu kd af Z;&Si;f ESihf vpfb&,fvukd af Z;&Si;f ac: wcg;zGio hf nfh
pD;yGm;a&;pepfw@kd u pD;yGg;a&;bmom&yfjzifyh gwo f uf+yD; ‚if;wd@k . aumif;
uGuu f akd xmufjyjiif;ckef avh&=dS uygonf? aps;uGuu f kd vGwv f w G vf yfvyf
cGijhf yKxm;jcif;tm;jzifh aps;uGuu f OpPm"eudk trsm;od@k jzef@caJG &muf&adS p
Edik +f yD;/ ydIk csr;f omºuG,0f aom b0jzpfapatmif zefw;D ay;Edik v f rd rhf nf[k
qd=k uygonf? rnfo@kd yifjzpfap TonfrmS oabmw&m;a&;&mt& jiif;ckH
r_w&yfomjzpf+yD;/ Toabmw&m;onfvnf; rnfonfh vlwef;pm;.
tusKd;pD;yGg;twGuftusKd;aqmifay;aeaom oabmw&m;jzpfa=umif;
oabmayguef m;vnfxm;&ef rsm;pGmta&;}uD;ygonf?

41
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

Edik if w
H umaiGa=u;b¾ma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tzG@J tpnf;}uD;rsm; —
‚if;wdk@. vkyfief;wm0efrsm;ESifh awmifurBmbufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;
tay:tusKd;oufa&mufapr_?

Edik if w
H umaiGa=u;&HyakH iGtzG@J (tdik -f trf-tufz)f /
urBmb h %f/ urBmu
h ek of ,
G af &;tzG@J ('AvsL-wD-td)k ESihf
ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;toif; (tmqD,H)

EdkifiHwum aiGa=u;&HykHaiGtzGJ@ (tdkif-trf-tufzf)


'kw, d urBmppf+yD;umvwGif tdik -f trf-tufzf tzG@J ukd zG@J cphJ Ofumvu
&nf&, G cf surf mS aiGa=u;pepftrsK;d rsK;d t=um; wnf&adS eaom zvS,rf E_ e_ ;f
xm;udk wnf+idrrf &_ adS p&ef aqmif&u G af y;&efjzpfonf? Tpepfonf a&$
wefb;kd tay:tajcjyKxm;+yD;/ a':vmwefb;kd ESihf csw d qf ufxm;ygonf?
(odk@jzifhtar&duefa':vmonf urBmht&HaiGa=u;jzpfoGm;apcJhygonf?)
1972 ckEpS w f iG f tar&dueforRw &pfcswef pfqifvufxufY a':vmESihf
a&$wefzdk;csdwfqufxm;jcif;udk jzwfawmufvdkuf+yD;/ aiGa=u;wefzdk;udk
vGwv f wG v f yfvyfar#mxm;aom aiGa=u;avmuudk pwifcyhJ gonf? tdik -f
trf-tufzf onf ‚if;. rlvwm0efr&Sd awmhaomfvnf;/ wm0eftopf
tcef;u¾opfwckukd &cJyh gonf? rdrw d @kd . xkwu
f ek w
f efb;kd xuf ydrk I kd
Edik if jH cm;rSwifoiG ;f ae=u&aom Edik if rH sm;taejzifh aiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;wGif
vkad iGpm&if;jy vmcJ=h uygonf? Tvdak iGuakd y;qyf&eftwGuf jyifyb%f
rsm; od@k r[kwf Edik if w H umpD;yGm;a&;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS aiGacs;,lIay;cJ=h u&
ygonf ? td k i f - trf - tuf z f tzG @ J t aejzif h xd k z G H @ +zd K ;qJ E d k i f i H r sm;.
ukefoG,fa&;wGif rwefwqukefoG,fwifoGif;jcif;rjyKap&ef/ wenf;
aiGa=u;pm&if; &Si;f wrf;rsm;ESiyhf gwo f ufI vdak iGjyr_ rrsm;ap&ef/ paom
csrSwfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk vdkufem-rvdkufemonfudk
apmif h = unf h & aom wm0ef u d k , l & ygawmh o nf ? td k i f - trf - tuf z f
tzG@J taejzifh Twm0efu, kd cl hJ &jcif;rSm pD;yGm;tajcrysuaf pa&;twGuf
ta&;ay:acs;aiGrsm; xkwaf y; Edik pf rG ;f &Sad oma=umifv h nf; jzpfonf?

42
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

1980 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f u tdik -f trf-tufzf tzG@J . vkyif ef;aqmifwm


rsm;udk wdk;csJ@cJhonf? pD;yGm;a&;t&vGwfvyfr_&Sda&;/ xdef;csKyfuef@owf
r_rsm;udk avsmhcsay;a&;ESifh zufpHkvkyfief;rsm;yk*~vduydkifjyKvkyfa&;wdk@udk
wGef;aqmfaom wpHkvHk;t&qdkv#if “tajccHtaqmuftODqdkif&mjyef
vnfzGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” (Structural Adjustment
Program) udk t"dutaumiftxnfaz:aqmif&Guf&ef armif;ESifae
onfh ud, k pf m;vS,Xf me jzpfvmonf? T “tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f m
jyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf” taejzifh rdrw d @kd .vlaer_pepf
vnfygwaf qmif&u G af eyHk yHpk .
H twGi;f usustxd 0ifa&mufI ajymif;vJr_
rsm; jzpfaponf? tajccHusaom rdu k u f &dpk ;D yGm;a&;ESihf rufu&dpk ;D yGm;a&;
ay:vpDrsm;ajymif;vJa&;udk awmif;qdv k #uf vlrt _ zG@J tpnf;twGi;f rsm;pGm
ajymif;vJ&u kd cf wfrr_ sm; jzpfapcJo h nf?
1990 ckESpfrsm;wGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpktpdk;&. zdtm;ay;
awmif;qdkcsufa=umifh/ tdkif-trf-tufzftzGJ@wGif aemufxyft"du
aqmif&Guf&rnfh vkyfief;wm0ef&vmcJhonf? ,if;vkyfief;rSm aiGa=u;
t&if;tESD;rsm;udk uef@owfxdef;csKyfxm;r_rS uif;vGwfapa&;twGuf
wGe;f tm;ay; a&;jzpfonf? Oyrm — aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;tm; vk;H 0
O\kH vGwv f yfpmG pD;qif;cGiahf y;a&;/ t&if;tES;D aiGa=u;rsm;.b%fpm&if;
(Account) ESifh oufqdkifaomudpPrsm;wGif vkH;0vGwfvyfapa&;ESifh
t&if;pD;qif;r_ukd uef@owfxm;r_rsm;z,f&mS ;ypfa&;wd@k jzpfonf?

43
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

urBmb
h %f (World Bank)
1950 ckESpfrsm;wGif ppf'%fcHcJh&aom Oa&myjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;
&nf&, G cf sujf zifh zG@J pnf;cJah om tzG@J r&S nf&,G cf suaf jymif;vJum urBmb h %f
jzpfay:vmcJo h nf? ‚if;.&nf&, G cf surf mS ajrmufurBmjcrf;rS t&if;tjrpf
rsm; awmifurBmjcrf;Edik if rH sm;od@k pD;qif;apa&;ESifh zG@H +zdK;a&;tultnDrsm;
ay;onfh tzG@J tpnf;wcktjzpf aqmif&u G af &;jzpfonf? urBm@b%fwiG f
ajrmufurBmzufjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;onf t"duusaomEdkifiHrsm;jzpf+yD;/
ta=umif;rSm t&if;xnfh0ifa=u;pepft& trsm;pkxnfh0ifxm;aom
a=umifh jzpfonf? urBmb h %fwiG f tqH;k tjzwfjyKvkyo f nft
h cg rJay;Edik f
onfh tiftm;onf xnf0h ifonft h &if;tay:tajccHxm;I qH;k jzwfcsuf
ay;ydik cf iG &hf o
dS nf?
1960 ckESpfrsm;aESmif;ydkif;ESifh 1970 ckESpfrsm;a&mufaomtcg
urBmb h %f. axmufyahH &;bwf*suaf iGyrm% tqrwef }uD;rm;vmcJh
onf? zufpzkH @HG +zdK;a&;pDru H ed ;f rsm;udk wm0ef,al qmif&u G &f aom yifrtzG@J
tpnf;}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? urBmhb%f. taxmuftyHhtrsm;pkonf
tpdk;&rsm;rSwqifh jzwfoef;oGm;=u&onf? 1980 ckESpfrsm;twGif;
a&mufvmaomtcg tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif tm%m&vmonfh
vufsm*dk%f;/ vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGg;a&;pepfudk axmufcHtm;ay;
olrsm;u urBmhb%ftay: a0zefar;cGef;xkwfvmcJh=uonf? wcsKd@u
qdv k #if urBmb h %fuzkd suo f rd ;f ypf&efyif aqG;aEG;cJ=h uonf? ta=umif;rSm
urBmhb%ftaejzifh tpdk;&rsm;rSwqifh tultnDay;aoma=umifh
cdkifrmaom A[dktpdk;&rsm;jzpfvmap&ef zefwD;ay;ae+yD; qdk&S,fvpf0g'
usio hf ;kH &eftwGuf tajctaeESit hf cGit
hf vrf;rsm;udk zefw;D ay;aeonf[k
jrifvm=uaom a=umifhjzpfonf? aemufqkH;Y urBmhb%ftaejzifh
“tajccHtaqmuftOD qdik &f mjyefvnfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOf”
rsm;udk ‚if;.vkyfief;pOfwGif xnfhoGif;jyXmef;apjcif;jzifh/ ‚if;.vkyfief;
wm0efrsm;udk ajymif;vJapv#uf urBmb h %fukd zsuo f rd ;f rcH&apa&;twGuf
u,fwifEikd v f u kd f =uonf? rlvwm0efjzpfaom zG@H +zdK;r_tultnDay;a&;
vkyif ef;rsm;tpm;/ urBmb h %fonf pD;yGm;a&;wHcg;zGiahf y;apa&;twGuf
armif;ESiw f ukd w f eG ;f aeaom tiftm;pkw&yf jzpfvmcJo h nf?

44
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

urBmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJ@ (WTO)
urBmu h ek of , G af &;tzG@J onf 1948 ckEpS u f xJu ay:ayguv f mcJ&h ef&adS omf
vnf;/ aemuftESpf (50) t=um 1995 ckEpS u f sroS m wu,ftaumif
txnfay:vmcJo h nf? TumvtawmtwGi;f *wf (GATT)3 ac:
oGi;f ukeq f ikd &f m taumufceG Ef iS hf ukeo f , G af &;qdik &f mtaxGaxG oabm
wlnDcsuftzGJ@ taejzifh&SdcJhaomfvnf;/ vufawG@taumiftxnfaz:
aqmif&u G Ef ikd rf _ rsm;pGmtm;enf; cJo h nf? 1980 ckEpS rf sm; tapmydik ;f wGif
tar&duefjynfaxmifp. k pD;yGm;a&;onf ukeo f , G rf t
_ ay:ydrk kd rSw
D nfvm
+yD; yd@k uek rf sm;twGuf aps;uGurf sm;vdt k yfvmcJo h nf? TtajctaewGif
ukefoG,fr_udk }uD;=uyfxdef;csKyf&eftwGuf ydkrdkcdkifrmawmifhwif;aom
urBmhtzGJ@tpnf;w&yf&Sd&rnfqdkonfh t,ltqjyefvnftouf0if
vmcJo h nf? &SpEf pS =f um ndE‡ i_d ;f aqG;aEG;cJ=h u+y;D aemuf O&ka*G;pm;yG0J ikd ;f tpnf;
ta0;t+yD;wGi/f urBmu h ek o
f ,G af &;tzG@J }uD; ('AvsL-wD-td)k udk zG@J pnf;cJh
=uonf ? urB m h u k e f o G , f a &;tzG J @ }uD ; . oabmwl n D c suf r sm;t&
ukefoG,fr_wGif ta&twGuft&uef@owfr_rsm;udk w&m;r0ifa=umif;
owfrw S jf yXmef;cJ+h y;D jzpfovd/k ,if;wd@k tpm; oGi;f uket f ay:pnf;=uyfonfh
tcGepf epftjzpfom ajymif;vJowfrw S Ef ikd =f uawmhonf?
urBmu h ek of , G af &;tzG@J }uD;taejzifh oabmwlncD surf sm;wGif e,f
y,fus,fus,fjyef@jyef@udk v$rf;+cHKxm;+yD;/ pdkufysdK;a&;xGufukefqdkif&m
ukeo
f ,
G rf v_ yk if ef;rsm;ESihf 0efaqmifrv _ yk if ef;qdik &f mukeo
f ,G rf _ (a&&&Sad &;
rSonf ynma&;0efaqmifrv _ yk if ef;rsm;txd) rsm;txdyg0ifonf? 'AvsL-
wD-tdk tzG@J onf ukeo f ,G af &;vkyif ef;rsm;tjyif ukeo f ,G rf E_ iS q
hf ufE,G f
aom jy\emrsm;udyk g v$r;f +cHKaqmif&u G v f mcJo h nf? Oyrmtm;jzifh —
• ukefoG,fa&;ESifhoufqdkifaom &if;ESD;jrKwfESHr_y%mrqdkif&m
oabmwlncD surf sm; (TRIMs)4
• ukefoG,fa&;ESifhoufqdkifaom enf;ynmqdkif&m rlydkifcGifhqdkif&m
oabmwlncD surf sm; (TRIPs)5 ponfw@kd jzpfonf?
ukeo
f ,G af &;ESio
hf ufqikd af om &if;ES;D jrKwfErHS y_ %mrqdik &f m oabm
wlncD surf sm; (TRIMs) t&qdv k #if a'oqdik &f mzlvakH &;twGuf owf
rSwaf omcGwJ rf;pepfrsK;d udk xlaxmif&efrjzpfEikd af wmhay? pufrv _ yk if ef;rsm;

45
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

xlaxmifa&;twGuf (rdrv d yk if ef;tusK;d pD;yGg;udu


k muG,af y;aom) udpP
rsm;udkvnf; aqmif&Gufjcif;jyKEdkifawmhrnfr[kwfay? ukefoG,fa&;ESifh
oufqdkifaom enf;ynmqdkif&m rlydkifcGifhqdkif&m oabmwlnDcsufrsm;
(TRIPs) onf enf;ynmjyef@ygG ;r_ukd umuG,&f ef&nf&, G o
f nfh vky&f yfrsK;d
jzpfonf? (txl;ojzifh tm&SEdkifiHrsm;twGuf xdef;csKyf&ef&nf&G,fjcif;
jzpfonf) wif;usyfonfh enf;ynmrlydkifcGifhqdkif&m rSwfykHwifpnf;rsOf;
rsm;jyXmef;jcif;jzifh enf;ynmrsm;jyef@ESHaer_udkwm;qD;onf? (TRIPs)
onf pufre_ nf;ynmrsm;wkyI pufrv _ yk if ef;xlaxmifjcif;rsK;d udk Oya'
t& wm;jrpfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? ,if;onf obm0t& todynmrsm;
jyef@E@HS ru
_ u
kd ef@owfvu
kd o
f jzifh topfzefw;D xm;aom Oya'rsm; jzpfonf?
zG@H +zdK;qJEikd if rH sm;.tjrift&qdv
k #if pdu
k yf sd K;a&;qdik &f m oabmwlnD
csurf sm;onf ta&;t}uD;qk;H jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm tar&duefEiS hf
Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;&Sd pkdufysKd;a&;xGufukefqdkif&maps;uGufrsm;udk vGefpGmrS
umuG,w f m;qD;ay;r_rsm; aqmif&u G xf m;+yD;/ zG@H +zdK;qJEikd if rH sm;wGirf l ‚if;wd@k
ydkv#HaomxGufukefrsm;udk pk+yHKwifydk@Edkif&ef aps;uGufrsm;udk twif;zGifh
ay;cdik ;f aeaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
urBmu h ek o f , G af &;tzG@J }uD;taejzifh “wEdik if /H rJwrJ” pepft& xde;f
csKyfxm;onfqakd omfvnf; vufawG@q;Hk jzwfcsucf s&mwGirf l tiftm;}uD;
Edik if H (4) Edik if EH iS hf tjcm;Edik if H (17) Edik if /H (18) Edik if w
H @kd u cs,v
f ,
S q
f ;kH jzwf
aeaoma=umifjh zpfonf? trSew f u,f ndE‡ i_d ;f aqG;aEG;=uonfh ae&mwGirf l
“tcef;pdr;f vkyif ef;pOf” (The Green Room Process) [kac:qdak e=u
onfh aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;odk@ vufa&G;pifEdkifiHtcsKd@udkom zdwf=um;aqG;aEG;
qH;k jzwfcsurf sm; csae=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf?

46
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

tmqD,HtzGJ@ (ASEAN)
tmqD,HtzGJ@.tjzpfqdk;rSm pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;ut+rJwap EdkifiHa&;
udpPrsm;. vufatmufa&mufoGm;wwfjcif; jzpfonf? tmqD,Hudk
pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tzGJ@wcktjzpf zGJ@pnf;cJhjcif;jzpf
onf? tmqD,t H zG@J twGi;f Y tzG@J 0ifEikd if rH sm;onf r[mAsL[mt&udk
xifxif&mS ;&Sm;uGjJ ym;r_rsm; &Sad e=uonf? Edik if t H csK@d (Oyrm- tif'ekd ;D &Sm;/
rav;&Sm;) u tmqD,u H kd tzG@J 0ifEikd if rH sm;t=um; vGwv f yfaom ukef
oG,af &;pepf xlaxmifjcif;tm;jzifh aqmif&u G vf o kd nf? tzG@J 0ifEikd if rH sm;
t=um; ,cif “usm;Edik if rH sm;” .atmifjrifrp_ epfukd jyef@ygG ;ap&efaqmif
usO;f ay;onfh ykpH w H cktjzpfjrif=uonf? tjcm;Edik if rH sm; (puFmyl) url
tmqD,u H kd Edik if wH umvGwv f yfaomukeo f ,G af &;. a&S@ajy;tzG@J wck[k
&_jrif=uonf? tmqD,. H a'oqdik &f m yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;pDrcH sut f &
tm&Svw G vf yfaom ukeo f , G af &;a'o6 (Asia Free Trade Area) udk
xlaxmif&efjzpfaomfvnf;/ wu,fwef; (AFTA) jzpfajrmufvmap&ef
avmavmq,ftm;jzifh rnforl # trSew f u,ftm;xkwrf r_ sK;d r&Sad y?
tmqD,t H zG@J . wlnaD omtajccHjy\emrSm Ta'otwGi;f ae
xdik =f uaom jynfov l xl rk sm;u tmqD,pH rD cH suu f kd olw@kd EiS hf roufqikd f
ovdk oabmxm;ae=ujcif;yifjzpfonf? tmqD,o H nf Edik if aH &;xdyyf ikd ;f
acgif;aqmifwpkESifh wwfodynm&Sif xdyfydkif;wpk. pDrHcsuftjzpfom
qufvufwnf&Sdae+yD;/ tmqD,HtzGJ@twGif; 'Drdkua&pDenf;us jyKjyif
ajymif;vJjcif;rsm;vnf; aqmif&u G Ef ikd jf cif;vnf; r&Sad o;ay? tmqD,t H zG@J
u tcsed jf zKef;aecsed w f iG f tjcm;a'oqdik &f mtzG@J rsm;u rsm;pGmtaumif
txnfay: c&D;a&mufcJh=u+yD;/ w&kwfEdkifiHtaejzifh urBmvkH;qdkif&m
pD;yGm;a&;.wu,fhtiftm;w&yftjzpf ay:xGef;vmcJhonf? tmqD,H
Edik if rH sm;twGuf ar;p&mar;cGe;f rSm — rdrw d @kd Eikd if rH sm;tzd@k w&kwEf ikd if .H
xkwu f ek yf pPn;f rsm;twGuf aps;em}uD;wcktjzpf ajymif;ae+yDvm; qdo k nfh
ar;cGef;yifjzpfawmhonf? tmqD,HuJhodk@aom a'oqdkif&mpD;yGm;a&;
tzGJ@tpnf;rsdK;&Sdzdk@awmh vdktyfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; xda&mufonfh
jyKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm; rvkyaf qmifEikd yf gu tmqD,o H nf bmr#tok;H us
vdrrhf nf r[kwaf y?

47
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

jrefrmEdik if t
H wGuf tjcm;a&G;p&mvrf;a=umif;rSm rnfonfv h rf;jzpfEikd o
f
enf;? a&G;cs,&f mwGif rnfonft h csurf sm;udk tajccHIa&G;cs,f rnfenf;?
jrefrmEdik if t H aejzifh “t}uHwv l #iaf emufvo l mp+rJqokd nfh tusKd ;tjrwf
rsKd ;” &&eftcGit hf vrf;&Syd gonf? ta=umif;rSm aemufusrjS yKjyifajymif;vJ
cGiv hf yk &f aoma=umifh a&S@rvS rf;xGiof mG ;olrsm;. aumif;usK;d qd;k jypfrsm;udk
oifcef;pm,lEikd af om a=umifjh zpfonf? vGecf o hJ nf (25) ESpf =umumv
rsm;twGif; awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;udkwGef;tm;ay;cJhaom zGH+zdK;r_ykHpH
trsK;d rsK;d udk taotcsm qef;ppfoifcef;pm,l&ef ta&;}u;D ygonf?
• urBmph ;D yGg;a&;ESihf qufpyfxm;aomukex
f w
k v
f yk rf y_ pkH ?H rdrw
d @kd .
pD;yGm;a&;onf urBmhvkH;qdkif&mpD;yGg;a&;pepfESifh csdwfqufaygif;
pyfxm;+y;D urBm}u;D . ukex f wk v
f yk rf r_ sm;wm0efcaJG 0vkyu
f ikd rf t
_ &
xkwv f yk af ejcif;ESihf aps;uGutf &vnf;aygi;f pnf;xm;aom yHpk rH sK;d
jzpfygonf?
• acwfopfvpfA&,fay:vpDrsm;? ukefoG,fr_rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm
cGifhjyKxm;jcif;/ uef@owfxdef;csKyfr_rsm;rS avsmhayghay;a&;ESifh
yk*v
~ u d ydik v
f ufo@kd vkyif ef;rsm;v$aJ jymif;ay;a&;?
• xkwfukefwifydk@r_udktav;ay;jcif;? ydk@ukefrsm;vufcHrnfh aps;
uGufrsm;udk rdrdukefxkwfvkyfa&;pepf armif;ESiftm;tif*sifwck
tjzpf &_jrifaompepfjzpfygonf? jynfwiG ;f 0,fvtkd m;udk tav;
xm;rwGufyg?
• EdkifiHjcm;t&if;tESD;rsm;tay: rSDcdkr_? EdkifiHjcm;t&if;tESD;rsm;udk
EdkifiHzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_twGuf ta&;ygaom r[mAsL[mtqHk;
tjzwftjzpf &_jrifyrkH sK;d jzpfygonf?
• aºuG;+rDwif&Sdr_? ydk@ukefudktav;ay;onfh acwfopfvpfA&,f
oabmw&m;t& pD;yGg;a&;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr_ yHpk w
H iG f Edik if .
H pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;rsm;taejzifh tdik -f trf-tufz/f urBmb h %fEiS hf ul;oef;
a&mif;0,fa&;b%frsm;/ yk*v ~ u
d aiGa=u;ta&mif;t0,fvyk if ef;
rsm;. aiGa=u;t&if;tES;D rsm;tay: rsm;pGmrScD akd e&+yD; aºuG;+rDrsm;
jzifh weifwh yd;k 0efyd aewwfygonf?

48
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

• obm0&if;jrpfukd tav;xm;tok;H jyKr_? +ydKifqikd rf w


_ iG f tompD;
&Edik &f eftav;xm;+yD;/ obm0&if;jrpfrsm;udk rwefwqxkw, f l
oHk;pGJr_ yHkpHrsKd;jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm rdrdwdk@tom&EdkifajcrSm
obm0&if;jrpfrsm; azmazmoDo&D adS oma=umif[ h k ,lqyHrk sK;d jzpf
ygonf?
• vkyt
f m;udk tav;xm;tok;H jyKr_? Edik if w
H iG v
f yk t
f m;aygrsm;aom
a=umifh pufr_vkyfief;xlaxmifjcif;udk vkyftm;rsm;rsm;tokH;jyK
&aome,fy,frsm;tay: tav;xm;tm&kHpdkufxkwfvkyfr_rsKd;
jzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- vloHk;ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfief;rsm;
jzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif rdrw d @kd Eikd if rH sm;taejzifh t&if;tjrpf ºuG,0f
aomfvnf; vltiftm;&Sm;yg;aom a'orsm;od@k vkyt f m;wify@kd
aom pD;yGm;a&;yHpk rH sK;d udv
k nf; aqmif&u G cf =hJ uygonf?
• pufr_zGH@+zdK;a&;udktav;xm;I v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udk
vufatmufcHtjzpf,lqjcif;? +rdK@jya'ozGH@+zdK;a&;udk tm&Hkpdkuf
aomfvnf; aus;vufa'oudk vspv f sLjyKxm;jcif;/ ta=umif;rSm
“pufr_zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;uyxr” [laom t,ltqrsKd;udk
vufuikd x f m;um aqmif&u G jf cif;jzifh pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;. zG@H +zKd ;
r_ukd xdik ;f rdi_ ;f apcJjh cif;rsK;d jzpfonf?
ar;cGe;f xkwpf &mudprP sm;rSm — tem*wfjrefrmEdik if w H iG f rdrwd @kd tae
jzifh tvm;wlp;D yGg;a&;pepfz@JG pnf;yHrk sK;d jzifh jyefvnfwnfaqmufvykd govm;
qdak om udpjP zpfonf? zG@H +zdK;qJEikd if w
H cktzd@k rdrpd ;D yg;G a&;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;
twGuf A[dt k pd;k &tm%mydik rf sm;taejzifh pDrcH surf sm;a&;qGv J yk af qmif
&efrmS vdt k yfukd vdt k yfaomtajctae jzpfonf? pD;yGm;a&;rl0g'rsm;.
&nfreS ;f csurf sm;u rnfo@kd O;D wnfoifo h nf rnfonft h &mudprP sm; jzpfoifh
onfukd qk;H jzwf+yD; tm%mydik rf sm;u vkyaf qmif&OD;rnfjzpfonf? vlt
rsm;omwlnrD #tusK;d cHpm;cGi&hf &Sad &;avm/ vl@todik ;f t0dik ;f tm; r+ydKuG&J
avatmif xde;f odr;f a&;avm/ tysuo f abmraqmifaom zG@H +zdK;wd;k wuf
r_ypHk u
H kd zefw;D vdo k avm/ zufp[ kH efcsun f aD om zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr_ avm/
pDrHudef;qdkonfrSm aps;uGufudk vufeufu&d,mwck tjzpftokH;csI
wd;k wufr&_ mS jcif;avm/ aps;uGu. f vufo@kd tukex f ;kd tyfum rdrw d @kd .

49
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

vl@tajccHwefbdk;rsm;ESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk aps;uGuf.vufatmufcH


ozG,fxm;&Sdjcif;avm ponfjzifh ar;cGef;rsm;pGm qufvufar;zG,f&Sdyg
onf?
pD;yGm;a&;pepfqdkonfrSm ajym&v#ifrsm;pGmEdkifiHa&;ESifh ,SufEG,f
qufpyfaeaom jzpfpOfwckjzpfygonf? rnfou l bmudyk ikd q
f ikd f &&So
d enf;?
rnfonfhtwGufa=umifh ydkifqdkif&&Sdoenf;? rnfonfhyHk rnfonfhenf;
jzifyh ikd q
f ikd &f &So
d enf;? pojzifah r;cGe;f rsm;udk ajzqd&k ygrnf? pD;yGm;a&;ynm
udk wenf;tm;jzifh Edik if aH &;qdik &f mabm*aA'[kvnf; ac:avh&=dS uygonf?
,ae@pD;yGm;a&;ynmonf udef;*%ef;ocsFmoabmqdkif&mzufodk@
tawmfav;a&G@avsmvmygonf? oabmw&m;rsm;udk vufawG@tjzpf
taumiftxnfazmfaomyHpk o H @kd ajymif;vJvmygonf? pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif
rsm;vufodk@ rdrdwdk@EdkifiHrsm;.pD;yGm;a&;udk xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&ef
xdk;tyfvdkuf=uaomtcg pD;yGg;a&;ynma&;/ zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_yg ysufpD;
&ygawmhonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkynm&Sifqdkolrsm;onf pD;yGg;a&;ynm
qdkonfrSm rsm;pGmEdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;ESifh qufpyf,SufEG,faeonfudk
rjrif=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&m rl0g'rsm;csrSwf&mwGif
EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh rjzpfraeqkH;jzwfcsrSwfay;&rnfh
aomhcsuu f saom udprP sm;&Syd gonf? ‚if;wd@k rmS —
• aps;uGuEf iS Ehf ikd if aH wmf.u¾t=um; xde;f nda‡ y;jcif;?
• pdkufysdK;a&;u¾ESifh pufr_vkyfief;u¾t=um; xdef;nd‡ay;jcif;?
v,f,mpdu k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;udk t"duvkyif ef;tjzpf OD;aqmifomG ;
&ef rlcsrw
S rf nfavm?
• ydik q
f ikd rf E_ iS hf wdik ;f jynf.0ifaiGukd jyefvnfcaJG 0jcif;qdik &f mrlrsm;/
• zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;ESifh pufr_vkyfief;xlaxmifa&;wdk@twGuf ukef
oG,af &;ay:vpDrsm; csrw S jf cif;? rdr.
d arG;uif;p pufrv _ yk if ef;wd;k
wuf&iS o f ef}uD;xGm;apa&;twGuf oGi;f ukecf eG pf epfEiS hf oGi;f ukef
udkwm uef@owfaompepfudk toHk;jyKIumuG,fay;rnfvm;?
Todk@ aqmif&Gufygu urBmhukefoG,fa&;tzGJ@}uD;. rlrsm;ESifh
xdywf u
kd f jy\emawG@vmawmhrnf jzpfonf?

50
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

• EdkifiHawmfrSyHhydk;ay;jcif;? a'otqifhukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;udk
jzpfEikd o
f a&G@ qufvuf&iS o
f efaeap&ef A[dt k pd;k &rSyyhH ;kd r_rsm;ay;ae
&OD;rnfjzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm ukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;udk A[dk
wae&mwnf;rS csKyfudkifxkwfvkyfjcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifhyJ/ a'o
toD;oD; tqift h oD;oD;Y jzef@cx
JG w
k v
f yk Ef ikd af p&ef A[dck sKyfuikd rf u_ kd
avsmhcsay;&rnfjzpfonf?
• a*[aA' (obm0ygw0f ef;usi)f ESihf vltzG@J tpnf;? zG@H +zdK;r_vyk f
ief;rsm;udk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u
G af eaomfvnf; obm0ygw0f ef;usif
ESihf o[Zmw rjzpfojzif/h ygw0f ef;usiuf kd ysupf ;D aprnf qdyk gu
wd;k wufro _ nf a&wdo k abmom aqmifvrd rhf nf? umv=umvm
onfESifhtr# zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufr_rsm;onfvnf; jyefvnfysufpD;&
onfEiS hf }uHK&vdrrhf nf?
txl;ojzifh jrefrmEdik if t
H wGuf t}uHjyK&aomf —
• zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpt
k wGi;f ukex
f w
k v
f yk if ef;yHpk u
H kd rnfuo
hJ @kd
aqmif&u G rf nfenf;? pD;yGg;a&;t& rnfuo hJ @kd yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G f
Edik o
f enf;? enf;ynmt& rnfuo hJ @kd yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G =f urnf
enf;? ukeo f , G rf j_ yK =u&mwGiv
f nf; jynfaxmifp. k tcsK@d ae&mrsm;
u zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufr&_ Edik af omfvnf; tcsK@d aom a'orsm;/ jynfe,f
rsm;u xdcu kd ef pfemae&aom yHpk rH sK;d udv
k nf; a&Smif&mS ;&efvt kd yf
ygonf?
• 'Dru
kd a&pD jrefrmEdik if aH wmfopftaejzifh urBmu
h ek o
f ,
G af &;tzG@J /
urBmah iGa=u;&HyaHk iGtzG@J EiS hf urBmb
h %f paom Edik if pH t
kH zG@J tpnf;
rsm;ESifh rnfodk@rnfyHkqufqHa&;rsKd;xlaxmifxm;&Sdrnfqdkonf
rSmvnf; pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;I }udKwifawG;qxm;oifhaom
ar;cGef;rsm;jzpfygonf?

51
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

tkypf v
k u
kd af qG;aEG;r_&vm'frsm; tESpcf sKyfEiS hf ar;cGe;f rsm; ok;H oyfcsurf sm;

ES;D aESmzvS,yf w JG iG f yg0ifwufa&muforl sm;u v,f,majrESihf yk*v ~ u d


ydkifypPnf;OpPmrsm;udk trsKd;om;pD;yGm;a&;pepfwGif rnfuJhodk@aygif;pyfEdkif
rnfenf;[kar;jref;=uonf? a'guw f m a0gv'f geb f v J v f u kd ,if;udpo P nf
trsK;d om;pD;yGm;a&;pepftwGi;f rnfonfyh ikd q f ikd rf y_ okH ¾mefrsKd ;udk cGijhf yK
rnfenf; qdo k nft h csuEf iS hf ygwo f ufaomjy\emjzpfonf[k ajzonf?
rsm;aomtm;jzifh cGifhjyKxm;avh&Sd=uaom ydkifqdkifr_yHko¾mefrsm;rSm
EdkifiHawmfydkifqdkifr_ESifh pDrHcef@cGJr_yHkpH/ yk*~vduydkif aumfydka&;&Sif;}uD;rsm;/
or0g,rtzG@J rsm;/ &yfuu G af us;&Gmydik q
f ikd rf r_ sm; (tkypf v k ukd f ydik q f ikd cf iG hf
jyKr_ypkH )H ESihf Edik if aH bmifausmf aumfyakd &;&Si;f }uD;rsm;udk ydik q f ikd cf iG ahf y;jcif;
wd@k jzpfonf? Tydik q f ikd rf y_ pkH t
H m;vk;H udk trsK;d om;pD;yGm;a&;pepf twGi;f od@k
aygi;f pyfciG jhf yKoifo h nf? od@k aomf jy\emrSm Tydik q f ikd rf r_ sm;udk rnfonfh
tcsKd;tpm;ESifh zGJ@pnf;cGifhjyKrnfenf;qdkonfhtcsufjzpfonf? olwdk@udk
cGijhf yKxm;onfh tcef;u¾.twdik ;f twm/ w&m;Oya't& todtrSwf
jyKay;r_EiS hf Edik if aH &;t&owfrw S q
f ;Hk jzwfcsurf sm; ponfw@kd ukd rnfo@kd ppD Of
xm;rnfenf;qdak om tcsujf zpfonf?
aqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGwJ iG f yg0ifwufa&muforl sm;u v,f,mpdu k yf sLd ;a&;
u¾ESihf pufr_u¾t=um; rnfuJhodk@xdef;nd‡oifhoenf;? pdkufysdK;a&;
udktajccHaom pufr_zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh ygwfoufaom
xljcm;aom vuQ%mrsm;u rnfuo hJ @kd &o
dS enf; pojzifh xyfr&H iS ;f vif;ay;
yg&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? a'gufwm a0gvf'gefbJvfvdk u pdkufysdK;a&;
vkyfief;zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;/ v,f,majrjyKjyifajymif;vJa&;ESifh 0ifaiGcGJa0
jzef@cGJr_wdk@onf tc&musaomjy\emrsm;jzpfonf[k &Sif;jyonf?
od@k aomf &ifqikd =f u&rnfh jy\emwckrmS pufrz_ @GH +zdK;a&;twGuf azmfjyyg
tcsurf sm;udk aphaqmfonfw h eG ;f tm;taejzifh rnfuo hJ @kd a&&Snw f nfwhH
atmif xde;f odr;f rnfenf;qdo k nfh udpyP ifjzpfonf? 0,fvt kd m;udjk r‡iahf y;
&kHoufoufjzifh tvkyfjzpfrnfr[kwf? wcgw&Hpufr_zGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf
&if;ES;D jrKwfEoHS nfah iG&if;tajrmuftrsm; vdt k yfwwfonf? aiG&if;aiGE;DS
&zd@k enf;vrf;wckrmS Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f jynfrsm;rSjzpf+y;D acs;iSg;jcif; vky&f vdrrhf nf?

52
a0:vf'efb,fvkd

oifth wGuf aºuG;+rDrsm;wifvmvdrrhf nf? tjcm;jzpfEikd af om enf;vrf;wck


rSm tcGeaf iGrsm;udk pepfwusaumufc+H yD; 0ifaiGpak qmif;jcif;ESihf &onfh
0ifaiGukd &if;ES;D jrKwfErHS t
_ jzpf jyefajymif;oH;k pGo
J nfeh nf;jzpfonf? Tenf;
onf taumif;qk;H [kxif&aomfvnf; csr;f omolrsm;tygt0if vlwikd ;f xHrS
tcGeaf iGukd pepfwusaumufc&H ef vdt k yfrnf? od@k aomf tm&SEikd if t
H rsm;pk
tzd@k }uHKawG@ae=u&aomjy\emrSm taumufceG rf sm;udk xdxad &muf
a&mufEiS hf pepfwusraumufcEH ikd =f ujcif; jzpfonf?

NOTES:

1. Liberalization of International Trade.


2. Liberalization of Financial flows.
3. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
4. Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs)
5. Trade Related Property Rights (TRIPs)
6. Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA)

53
'Dru
kd a&pDawmfveS af &;twGi;f Y owif;rD', D m. tcef;u
toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvY owif;rD', D m.tcef;u ESihf
vlxrk sm;.od&ydS ikd cf iG hf

&St
D v
D m udv
k ekd ,f
Center for Investigative Journalism zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if ?H
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

'Dru
kd a&pDawmfveS af &;twGi;f Y
owif;rD',
D m.tcef;u / toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvY
owif;rD',D m.tcef;u ESiv hf xl rk sm;.od&ydS ikd cf iG hf
&St
D v
D m udv
k ekd ,f
Center for Investigative Journalism zdvpfydkifEdkifiH?
yxrydkif; aqG;aEG;csufrsm;wGif jyKjyifajymif;vJr_rsm;jzpfay:vmap&ef
v_y&f mS ;wduk yf 0JG ifaepOfumvtwGi;f Y owif;rD', D mrsm; aqmif&u G Ef ikd f
aom tcef;u¾udak qG;aEG;xm;+yD;/ ta&S@awmiftm&SEikd if rH sm;. tawG@
t}uHKrsm;udk Oyrmay;azmfjyxm;ygonf? 'kw, d ydik ;f aqG;aEG;csurf sm;wGif
EdkifiHa&;pepftoGifajymif;vJr_ jzpfay:+yD;aemufydkif; owif;rD'D,mrsm;rS
aqmif&GufEdkifaom tcef;u¾udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? wwd,ydkif;wGif
jynfot l rsm;. owif;rsm;&&Syd ikd cf iG t
hf cGithf a&; (The Right to Infor-
mation) ESihf ygwo f ufI aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? vufawG@usaom t}uHjyK
csufrsm;/ owif;ESifhrD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;ESifh ygwfoufaom Oya'rsm;/
owif;rD', D morm;rsm;. usi0hf wfrsm;udk pwkwyˆ ikd ;f wGif aqG;aEG;wifjy
xm;ygonf? aemufq;kH ydik ;f wGif tkypf v k u
kd af qG;aEG;r_rsm;rS xGuaf y:vm
aom &vm'ftESpcf sKyfukd wifjyxm;ygonf?

'Drdkua&pDawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_twGif;Y
owif;rD'D,mrsm;.tcef;u¾
rnfuo hJ @kd aom tm%m&Sit f yk cf sKyfa&;pepfrsK;d Yrqdk tm%m&Sit f pd;k &rsm;
u tm%mESio hf wif;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkycf sKyfuikd f xm;avh&=dS uygonf?
TuJo h @kd aom vuf0g;}u;D tkyx f ed ;f csKyfrr_ sK;d udk tpd;k &tzG@J rjS zpfap/ vly*k Kd~ vf
wOD;ujzpfap/ xde;f csKyfxm;wwf+yD; vlxrk sm;u rnfuo hJ @kd aomowif;rsK;d
od&o dS ifo h nf [laom qH;k jzwfcsurf sKd ;udk xdt k m%m&Sirf sm;u jyKvkyyf g
onf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm; usqHk;&onfESifhtr# xdkuJhodk@tm%mESifh
owif;rsm; tay:xde;f csKyf csKyfuikd rf r_ sm;onfvnf; wppD+ydKuGo J mG ;avh
&Syd gonf? tm%m&Sirf sm;. owif;csKyfuikd rf r_ sm;tay: qef@usiaf eaom
tiftm;pk rsm;onf vlrt _ odik ;f t0dik ;f twGi;f Y &Sad ewwf+y;D xdt k iftm;pk

57
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

rsm;onf ,ae@umvwGiyf I kd tiftm;aumif;vm=uygonf? TuJo h @kd


tm;aumif;vmonfh owif;rD'D,mtiftm;pkrsm;/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk
tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Edik if H Edik if aH &;pepftoGiu f ;l ajymif;pOfumvYa&m/ zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if H
toGiu f ;l ajymif; pOfumvYyg avhvmawG@&cdS =hJ u&ygonf? tm%m&Sif
pepfrjyKwfusrD umvuyif wdkif;jynftwGif;Y vGwfvyfaomowif;
rD', D mrsK;d aphrsm; tyiftan‡mufayguaf eonfukd jrifc=hJ u&ygonf? zdEydS f
aomtpd;k &rsm;/ tm%m&Sit f pd;k &rsm;u owif;rsm;udk xde;f csKyfxm;=u
jcif;rSm jynfolvlxkrsm;u owif;rSefrsm;udk od&SdvmonfESifhtr# xdk
owif;rsm;udk vlxktcsif;csif; vufqifhurf;jzef@a0vmonfESifhtr#
tm%m&Sirf sm;tzd@k 'ku}Q uHK=u &awmhrnfukd odaoma=umifyh if? owif;
rsm;od&v dS monfEiS t hf r# owif; tcsurf sm;jynhpf I kH ydpk Of;pm;vmEdik af om
aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;/ jiif;ckerf r_ sm; jzpfvmEdik af oma=umifh jzpfonf? vlxt k rsm;
u Edik if tH wGi;f jzpfysuaf eaom tajctaeudo k &d vdS mEdik +f yD; aqG;aEG;jiif;
ckerf r_ sm;jzpfvmum aemufq;kH tpd;k &u olw@kd tvdu k saqmif&u G af pvdk
aom udprP sm;udk jiif;y,fqef@usiv f m=urnf jzpfonf? owif;tcsuf
tvufrsm;a=umifh vlxrk sm;u wufwufºuºG urG rd t d a&;wGif yg0ifaqmif
&Gu=f uaom Edik if o H m;rsm;jzpfvmEdik af pouJo h @kd vlxt k rsm;pkaygi;f v_y&f mS ;
=ua&;twGuf pkpnf;rdvm apEdik af oma=umifh jzpfonf?
tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;u atmufygenf;rsm;jzifh owif;tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk xde;f csKyfavh&=dS uygonf?
• owif;rsm; qifqmpDppfjzwfawmufjcif;/ Oya'rsm;udkoHk;I
owif;rD'D,mrsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk uef@owfydwfyifjcif;/
vlxt k rsm; owif;rsm;&&S&d eftcGit hf a&;udk uef@owfyw d yf ifjcif;?
• owif;pmrsm;/ &kyjf rifo=H um;Xmersm;ESihf a&'D,x kd wk v f i$ rhf r_ sm;ESihf
tjcm;aomowif;jzef@a0Edik af om Xmersm;. ydik q f ikd rf u _ kd xde;f csKyf
xm;jcif;?
• vlxrk sm;. owif;rD', D mrsm;ESihf xdawG@qufqcH iG u hf kd xde;f csKyf
xm;jcif;?
• jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;Xmeu owif;rD'D,mrsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk
rsuv f ;kH a'guaf xmufteD;uyf=unfah eum rnfo@kd aom owif;rsK;d
udo
k m today;oifo h nf[k !$e=f um;r_rsm; jyKvkyaf ejcif;?

58
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

• acgi;f rmonf/ oabmxm;wif;rmonf,q


l &aom owif;pm
q&mrsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ tEkynm&Sifrsm;/ vlxkrsm;udk +cdrf;
ajcmufjcif;/ axmifoiG ;f tusO;f csjcif;ESihf vky}f uHowfjzwfrr_ sm;jyK
jcif;/ olw@kd .pmrsm;/ tEkynmvuf&mrsm;/ pmtkyrf sm;/ tpDtpOf
rsm;udk azmfjycGihf ydwyf ifjcif;?
ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif pme,fZif;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom
owif;rD', D mrsm;onf udv
k ekd pD epfqef@usiaf &; v_y&f mS ;r_umvrsm;wGif
vnf;aumif;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_umvrsm;wGifyg ta&;ygaom
tcef;u¾u yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=uonf? olwdk@aqmif&GufcJh=uaom
v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;rSm —
• tkycf sKyfot
l m%mydik rf sm;. tm%mtvGet
f u|t
H oH;k jyK aqmif
&Gurf r_ sm;/ tm%mtvGo J ;kH pm;r_rsm;udk azmfxw k zf iG chf sjcif;/ vmbf
pm;r_rsm;ESifh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm; ta=umif;udkwifjy
ajymqdkjcif;?
• tkyfcsKyfoltpdk;&rsm;rStyjzpfaom tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&macgif;
aqmifrsm;/ tiftm;pkrsm;udk jr‡iw hf ifay;jcif;?
• tm%m&Sirf sm;. tm%m=oZmudt k wdu k t
f cHjyKaom vlra_ &;/
Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;. atmifjrifrr_ sm;udk vltrsm;odEikd af tmif
wifjyay;jcif;? vltrsm;yl;aygi;f yg0ifvmap&ef wdu k w f eG ;f jcif;tm;
jzifh twdu k t
f cHtiftm;pkrsm; tiftm;aumif;vmap&ef aqmif
&Gufjcif;?
• twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;. tzGJ@0ifrsm;tcsif;csif;t=um;quf
pyfr_&Sdapjcif;/ olwdk@. owif;pum;rsm;udk tzGJ@0ifrsm;t=um;/
vlxt k =um; trsm;=um;apatmif aqmif&u G af y;jcif;?
• vlxrk sm;. a'goudx
k u
G af ygu&f ap&ef aqmif&u
G af y;jcif;? (txl;
ojzifh tjyeftvSeq f ufo, G Ef ikd af om tifwmtufwpfzrf 'D , D m
rsm;jzpfonfh 0ufbq f u kd pf mrsuEf mS rsm;rSwqifh qENazmfjyr_rsm;/
v_y&f mS ;r_rsm; ac:qdEk ikd af p&ef pDpOfxm;jcif;)/ xd@k tjyif vlxrk sm;u
olw@kd .a'gorsm;udk owif;rD', D mpmrsuEf mS rsm;/ xkwv
f i$ rhf r_ sm;
rSwqifv h nf; jyefvnfwifjyEdik af p&ef pDpOfay;Edik o f nf?

59
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

• tm%m&Sipf epfrS tjcm;pepfwckukd ajymif;vJvu


kd &f rkH #jzifh toGif
ul;ajymif;a&;umvwGif vGwfvyfaom/ 'Drdkua&pDusaom
owif;rD',
D mrsm; ol@zmomtvdt
k avsmuf ay:ayguv
f mavhr&S?d
• vGwv
f yfaomowif;rD',
D mrsm;u ulnyD yhH ;kd ygu/ vlxx
k ifjrif
csufrsm;=um;od&ap&efulnDaqmif&Gufay;Edkifygu 'Drdkua&pDus
aom vlxt k oif;tyif;rsm; ay:ayguv f map&efyI
kd vG,u
f o
l nf?
xdo
k @kd ay:ayguv
f mapa&;twGuf ydI k taxmuftuljyKonf?
• vlxkrsm;u owif;Xmersm;. tcef;u¾ESifh olwdk@vkyfief;.
wefz;kd udk todtrSwjf yK axmufcyH yhH ;kd rSomv#i/f vGwv f yftrSt D cdk
uif;aom owif;rD'D,mXmersm; ay:aygufvmEdkifonf? xkd
vlrt_ odik ;f t0dik ;f udk tusKd ;jyKaom tiftm;pkw&yf jzpfvmapEdik f
onf? (Oyrm tm;jzifh — urfabm'D;,m;Edik if w H iG f vlxrk sm;u
vGwv f yfaom owif;rD', D mrsm;udk axmufct H m;ay;r_ tenf;
i,fom&Scd +hJ yD; trsm;pkrmS touf&iS o f efa&;twGuo f m touf
arG;0rf;ausmif;udprP sm;udk tm&Hpk u kd af ecJ=h u&onf? owif;rD', D m
rsm; vGwv f yfpmG aqmif&u G Ef ikd rf /_ raqmif&u G Ef ikd rf _ udpoP nfow l @kd
ta&;r[kw[ f k jrifaecJ=h uonf)?

toGiu
f ;l ajymif;a&;umvowif;rD',
D mrsm;.tcef;u¾
pepfwckrS pepfwcko@kd toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvrsm;qdo k nfrmS vGepf mG rS
xdvG,f&SvG,f/ txdtcdkufrcHaomumv jzpfonf? Tumv wGif
vlxktwGif;vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;wdk;wuf&&Sdvm+yD;/ rnfodk@rnfyHk
tm%mcsdefcGifv#m xdef;nd‡Edkifrnfudk tqHk;tjzwfay;rnfhumvvnf;
jzpfonf? TumvwGif pepfopfo@kd toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umv. vkyif ef;
tqifq h ifu
h kd vltrsm;od&EdS ikd &f eftwGuf owif;tcsut f vufrsm;ay;&m
Y owif;rD', D mrsm;onfta&;}uD;aom tcef;u¾rS wm0ef&adS eonf?
rnfonfh tajctaejzpfysuaf eonf? vltzG@J tpnf;&Sd u¾toD;oD;&Sd
jynfot l rsm;taejzifh rnfo@kd rnfyt kH wlwuGy;l aygi;f aqmif&u G Ef ikd =f u
onf qdkonfudk owif;rD'D,mrsm;u vltrsm;od&Sdatmifaqmif&Guf
ay;Edik o
f nf? xd@k tjyif Edik if o
H m;wOD;. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk ynmay;&ef

60
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

twGuf ynmay;a&;wGifvnf; owif;rD'D,mrsm;u t"dutcef;u


aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonf? 'Drdkua&pDvltzGJ@tpnf;twGif;aexdkifaom
EdkifiHom;wOD;taejzifh rnfonfhtcGifhta&;rsm;cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf?
rnfonfhwm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk xrf;aqmif&rnfudk ynmay;Edkifonf?
xd@k tjyif tpd;k &tzG@J opf. zG@J pnf;yHu
k pd /P xdt
k pd;k &.vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;
wGif jynfoltrsm;u rnfuJhodk@0ifa&mufyl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkifonf/
tpdk;&opftaejzifh jynfolrsm;ESifhqufpyfa&;twGuf rnfodk@rnfyHk
aqmif&Gufrnfudk todynmay;a&;twGufwGifvnf; owif;rD'D,m
rsm;u ta&;}uD;aomtcef;u¾u aqmif&u G af y;aeonf?
xdk@tjyif owif;rD'D,mrsm;onf xdkuJhodk@aom tul;tajymif;
umvrSmyif tpd;k &udak pmif=h unfah eoltjzpfvnf; aqmif&u G af o;onf?
tpd;k &opftaejzifh vlrsm;jzpfEikd o f r# rsm;rsm;yg0ify;l aygi;f aqmif&u G Ef ikd af &;
twGuf zGJ@pnf;yHk,E W,m;udk rnfr#zGifhxm;ay;onf/ rnfr#zGJ@pnf;yHk
aumif;aumif;zG@J pnf;xm;onfukd apmif=h unfah xmufjyay;Edik o f nf? xd@k
tjyif csrw S x f m;aom rl0g'topfrsm;taejzifh vlxrk sm;tusK;d twGuf
rSeuf efaomrl0g'rsm;jzpfrjzpfukd axmufjyay;Edik o f nf? xd@k tjyifowif;
rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGif;rSmyif vl@tzGJ@
tpnf;twGi;f &Sd tiftm;pktoD;oD;. toHrsm;/ tjrifoabmxm;rsm;
udk vltrsm;=um;apEdkif&ef/ rl0g'rsm;csrSwfa&;qGJ&mwGif xif[yfap&ef
aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh wdkif;&if;om;tiftm;pkrsm;/
trsK;d orD;rsm;. toHrsm;=um;&apa&;twGuv f nf; owif;rD', D mrsm;u
axmufual y; oifo h nf? toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvwGif ta&;t}uD;qH;k
tajctaew&yfrmS vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f &Sd rwlujJG ym;aomtiftm;pk
rsm;t=um; ,H k = unf r _ y d k r d k & &S d a tmif w nf a qmuf a y;a&;jzpf o nf ?
xdtk wGuaf =umifh owif;rD', D mrsm;taejzifh rwlujJG ym;aom tiftm;pk
rsm;toD;oD;=um;wGif owif;rsm;ul;vl;qufqHa&;jzpfay:vmatmif/
qufo, G Ef ikd af patmif/ uGjJ ym;r_rsm;udk &if=um;aphay;Edik af tmif/ jy\em
rsm; ajyvnfapatmif ulnDaqmif&Gufay;oifhonf? 'Drdkua&pDwnf
aqmufaeqJumvwGif owif;rD', D mrsm;taejzifh tjyKoabmraqmif
yJ ysupf ;D &m ysupf ;D a=umif;vky&f yfrsm;udk jzpfapcJah omaqmif&u G cf rhJ r_ sm;pGm
om"u&SdcJhzl;onf? owif;rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh trkef;udkjzpfapaom

61
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

a[majymcsurf sm;udk xkwv f i$ jhf zef@jzL;ay;jcif;/ tkypf w k ckEiS hf wckt=um;


&efwdkufay;jcif;/ ordkif;a&;&mt& uGJvGJaomtcsuftvufrsm;udk
t}udr}f udrjf yefvnfazmfjyI tjiif;yGg;rsm;udk wGe;f tm;ay;jcif;/ vltrsm;
udk &if=um;aphoifhjrwfap&ef wdkufwGef;&rnfhtpm; &efvdkwdkufcdkuf
ap&efajr‡mufay;jcif; paomenf;rsm;tm;jzifh owif;rD'D,mrsm;u
vl@tzG@J tpnf;twGi;f aoG;uGaJ p&efvnf; aqmif&u G Ef ikd =f uonf? Tonf
udk owdcsyf&ef vdkonf? aemufwenf;tm;jzifh owif;rD'D,mrsm;u
tysuv f yk if ef;rsm;aqmif&u G Ef ikd o f nfrmS tkypf t k csK@d ukd jiif;y,fyvSyx f m;
jcif;tm;jzifh vltrsm;. aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;rS ab;a&mufaeapjcif;jzpfonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh — tpOftvmt&udu k yif ud, k pf m;jyKwifjycGihf r&cJ=h u
aomtiftm;pkrsm;. toHuq kd ufvufI jiif;y,fxm;&if;/ xdo k rl sm;.
toHuv kd nf; owif;rD', D mrsm;wGif =um;cGirhf &apjcif;jzpfonf? Oyrm
azmfjy&v#if A[dck sKyfuikd rf r_ sm;aom Edik if rH sK;d rS Xmaewdik ;f &if;om; tiftm;pk
rsm;jzpfonf? Tod@k jiif;y,fcx H m;&aom olw@kd .tjrifukd trsm;od@k wifjy
cGirhf &ovd/k olw@kd .toHuv kd nf; r=um;=u&/ olw@kd .ta&;udv k nf; rl0g'
rsm;csrw S &f mwGif xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm; rcH=u&aomtcg/ xdo k rl sm;u jy\em
udtk =urf;zufaomenf;jzifh ajz&Si;f &ef usK;d pm;vm=uonf? olw@kd .toH
udk =um;vmapa&;/ olwdk@. b0udktodtrSwfjyKcH&apa&;twGuf
tzsuv f yk if ef;rsm;jzifh wke@f jyefvmwwf=uonf? wcgw&Howif;rD', D m
rsm;u 'Dru kd a&pDukd qef@usiaf om tiftm;pkrsm;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡muf
vk y f a ewwf = uonf v nf ; &S d o nf ? Oyrmwck t jzpf azmf j y&v#if
jrefrmEdkifiH'Drdkua&pDtajymif;tvJjzpf+yD;aom umvaemufydkif;wGif
aomfrS ppftkyfpkudkaxmufcHaom tºuGif;tuseftiftm;pkrsm;u
owif;pmrsm;ESihf a&'D,t kd oHvi$ Xhf mersm;udk yHyh ;kd r_ay;um wufvmaom
tpd;k &opfrwnfr+idrjf zpfap&ef aqmif&u G af omvky&f yfrsm;/ azmfjyxkwf
v$ichf surf sm;udk qufvufjyKvkyaf eEdik yf gao;onf?
wcgw&HwGif owif;pmrsm;/ rD'D,mXmersm;taejzifh u|rf;usifr_
t&nftaoG;enf;yg;aoma=umihfvnf;aumif;/ owif;pmapmifa&
rsm;rsm;wdk;I a&mif;csvdkaom a&wdk&nf&G,fcsufa=umifhvnf;aumif;/
rjynfph akH om vlxok nf;ajc}udKufjzpfEikd af om qlv,
G ef yfv,
G f owif;rsK;d
owif;rSm;rsm;udx k wk v
f i$ hf azmfjyonfvnf; jzpfwwfygonf? Ttajc

62
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

taewGif vlrt _ zG@J tpnf; twGi;f &_yaf xG;a00g;r_rsm; jzpf&wwfygonf?


Edik if aH &;pepftoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvonf obm0t&udu k aumv
[mvowif;rsm;tvGeftrif; jzpfay:wwfaomumv jzpfygonf?
raocsmra&&mr_rsm; jynfah eaomumv jzpfygonf? xdt k ajctaewGif
owif;rD', D mrsm;rSazmfjyaom rjynft h pHo
k wif;rsm;/ aoG;qlv,G af om
owif;rsm;a=umifh raocsmra&&maom tajctaeudk rD;avmif&m
avyifh ydq k ;kd apEdik yf gonf?
jynfolrsm;.od&SdydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;ESifh
owif;rsm;&&SdydkifcGifhtcGifhta&;
jynforl sm;. od&ydS ikd cf iG hf tcGit hf a&;qdo k nfrmS vlom;wOD;csi;f &ydik cf iG hf
tcGit hf a&;w&yfjzpfygonf? TtcGit hf a&;udk tpd;k &u T owif;odap/
Towif;rodap&[k wm;qD;ydwyf if&efrjzpfEikd o f vdk tpd;k &tkycf sKyforl sm;
tvdu k s jyefvnf&yk o f rd ;f &efvnf; rjzpfEikd yf g? T tcGit hf a&;onf vlom;
rsm;. touf&iS o f efyikd cf iG Ehf iS hf vGwv f yfpmG azmfjya[majymEdik cf iG w hf @kd uo
hJ @kd
“tjynfjynfqikd &f mvl@tcGit hf a&; a=ujimcsu”f tpdwt f ydik ;f wckvnf;
jzpfygonf? jynforl sm;taejzifh owif;rsm;udk &&Syd ikd cf iG q hf okd nfrmS t"du
tm;jzifh Edik if o H m;wOD;. tcGit hf a&;jzpfaom tkycf sKyfot l pd;k &rsm; aqmif
&G u f c J h o nf h twd w f u mvu vk y f i ef ; rsm;/ vuf i if ; umvwG i f
aqmif&u G af eaom vkyif ef;rsm;/ a&S@wiG f qufvufaqmif&u G t f aumif
txnfazmfrnfh vkyif ef;rsm;udk od&ydS ikd cf iG hf &S&d rnfjzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifh
tpd;k &rsm;uvnf; jynfou l t kd oday;&ef wm0ef&o dS nf jzpfonf? ,ae@tcg
urB m w0S r f ; &S d 'D r d k u a&pD t pd k ; &trsm;pk r S m jynf o l r sm;.
od&SdydkifcGifhtcGifhta&;udk av;pmtod trSwfjyKvm=u+yDjzpfonf? T
tcGit hf a&;onf jynforl sm;twGuf omruyJ tpd;k ;&rsm;zufuyg tzd;k wef
tcGifhta&;wck jzpfa=umif; av;pm;todtrSwfjyKvm=u +yDjzpfonf?
xdktwGufa=umifhyg ,ae@tcg urBmay:&Sd EdkifiHaygif; (44) EdkifiHwGif
“owif;rsm;vGwfvyfpGm&,l jzef@a0EdkifcGifh tcGifhta&;qdkif&mOya'”
ud k j yXmef ; xm;=u+yD jzpf o nf ? vl x k rsm;. owif ; rsm;&&S d y d k i f c G i f h
tcGit hf a&;udk Oya'rsm;jzifh tumtuG,f ay;xm;=u+yDjzpfonf?

63
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

'Dru kd a&pDtpd;k &rsm;taejzifh jynforl sm;udk owif;rsm;od&adS pjcif;/


owif;rsm;&,lEdkifap&ef pDpOfxm;ay;jcif;tm;jzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfief;
rsm;wGif ydrk t kd qifajyacsmarG@a=umif; awG@&t dS odtrSwjf yKvm=uygonf?
vlxrk sm;taejzifh tpd;k &bwf*su0f ifaiGrsm;udk rnfo@kd rnfyt kH oH;k jyKonf
udk od&EdS ikd yf gonf? rnfonfch &dik af 'orsm;od@k rnfr#caJG 0ay;xm;onfukd
od&EdS ikd o
f nf? xd@k tjyif xd&k yH akH iGrsm;udk owfrw S xf m;aom &nf&, G cf su/f
pDruH ed ;f rsm;twdik ;f oH;k §roH;k / taumiftxnfazmf§razmfukd jynforl sm;
ud,k w f ikd u f , kd u
f s odjrifEikd =f uygonf? Ttcsurf sm;udk rod&x dS m;ygu
jynforl sm;taejzifh tpd;k &urnfonfv h yk if ef;rsm; aqmif&u
G af eonfukd
apmif=h unfah eEdik rf nf r[kwaf y?
jynfolrsm;taejzifh owif;rsm;ydkI jynfhjynfhpHkpHkod&Sd&jcif;tm;jzifh
ydkItodºuG,f0aom aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkyGJrsm;/ ydkrdkwefzdk;&Sdaom t}uHrsm;
aqG;aEG;Edik =f urnf jzpfonf? tu,fI jynfov l x l rk sm;taejzifh owif;
tcsut f vufrsm; r&&Sx d m;ygu aumif;rGewf efz;kd &Sad om t}uHrsm;wifjy
aqG;aEG;Edkifrnf r[kwfovdk/ aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;onfvnf; rjynfhpHkaom
owif;tcsurf sm;ESihf wef@aevdrrhf nf jzpfonf? rdryd *k Kd~ vfa&;xifjrifcsuf
rsm;/ cHpm;csufrsm;udk xkwfajymaeouJhodk@om &Sdayvdrfhrnf? tcsuf
tvufrsm; wyfqifay;rSom vlxak qG;aEG;yGrJ sm;taejzifh ydrk t kd m;aumif;
um wd;k wufvmayvdrrhf nf? ydrk t kd }uHaumif; Om%faumif;rsm;&&SEd ikd af y
vdrrhf nf? Oyrmazmfjy&v#if — owif;tcsut f vufrsm; jynfph akH om
a=umifh vlxkrsm;taejzifh &HyHkaiGrsm;udk rdrdwdk@ vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;twGif;
rnfonfhae&mrsm;/ rnfonfhudpPrsm;Y OD;pm;ay;oHk;pGJoifhonfudk
av;av;eufeuf xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;jzifh aqG;aEG;vmEdkif=uvdrfhrnf
jzpfonf? tESpo f m&t& ajym&v#if owif;tcsut f vufrsm;a=umifh
vlxrk sm;taejzifh tm%mcGet f m;ydI
k &Sv
d m=urnf jzpfonf?
owif;tcsut f vufrsm;od&ydS ikd cf iG hf tcGit
hf a&;&Sjd cif;tm;jzifh jynfol
rsm;. tjcm;aomtcGit hf a&;rsm;udv k nf; umuG,af y;&mY taxmuf
tuljyKvdrrhf nf jzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh ajr,mydik q f ikd cf iG Ehf iS hf ygwo
f uf
aom tcGithf a&;/ vGwv f yfpmG azmfjyajymqdck iG Ehf iS hf ygwo f ufaom tcGihf
ta&;rsm;udkvnf; wdk;wufumuG,fay;Edkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? owif;

64
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

tcsut f vufrsm; od&ydS ikd cf iG hf tcGit hf a&;r&Sad omtajctaewGif tjcm;


tcGit hf a&;rsm;jynfph akH p&ef awmif;qdak &;wGiyf if tcuftcJ&EdS ikd yf gonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh ajr,mydik q f ikd cf iG hf tcGit hf a&;rsK;d jzpfygonf? zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if w
H iG f
v,form;trsm;pkrmS t"rRae&ma&$@ajymif;cHc=hJ u&+yD;/ tvm;wl jrefrm
EdkifiHwGifvnf; jzpfay:cJhygonf? xdk@tjyif v,form;trsm;pkrSm T
ajronfow l @kd yikd q
f ikd o f nf[k taxmuftxm;jy&ef cdik v f akH ompm&Guf
pmwrf; taxmuftxm;rsm;vnf; r&Sd=uyg? w&m;&Hk;rsm;odk@oGm;I
ajr,mudrk rd yd ikd q f ikd o f nf [k tcdik t f rmwifjyI ydik &f iS t f rnfowfrw S f
ay;&efawmif;qdEk ikd af =umif;/ Oya'a=umif;csi;f &mudk rod&ydS gu olw@kd .
ajr,mydik f cGit hf cGit hf a&;udk toH;k csEikd v f rd rhf nf r[kwaf y? xdt k wGuf
a=umifh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;od&SdydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;qdkonfrSm
wenf;azmfjy&v#if tjcm;tcGifhta&;rsm;awmif;qdk usifhoHk;Edkifa&;
twGuf r&Srd jzpfvt kd yfaom wif}udKtajctaew&yfvnf; jzpfonf?
EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom urBmhb%f/ EdkifiHwum
aiGa=u;&HyakH iGtzG@J (tdik -f trf-tufz)f / tm&Sz@HG +zdK;a&;b%f (at-'D-bD)
wdk@tae jzifhvnf; owif;tcsuftvufrsm;od&SdydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;udk
wd;k wufap&ef tm;ay;ae=uygonf? ta=umif;rSm vltrsm;owif; od&dS
cGihf tcGit hf a&;a=umifh pD;yGg;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif ydrk jkd refjrefqefqefw;kd wuf
apaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? xdktzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u ajymqdk=uonfrSm
owif;aps;uGuf taejzifh vGwv f yfpmG vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf adS omtajctaewGif
aps;uGufpD;ygG;a&;pepfvnf; ydkrdkouf0ifvmonf? pD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;rsm;
twGuf ydkrdkaumif;rGefaomvkyfief;cGif tajctaeudkzefwD;ay;onf[k
qdkonf?
owif;rsm;&&Syd ikd cf iG chf ikd rf map&eftwGuaf qmif&u
G &f rnfh vkyif ef;pOfrsm;
'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfatmufY owif;rsm;&&SdydkifcGifh cdkifrm
tm;aumif;ap&eftwGuaf omfvnf;aumif;/ vGwv f yfaomowif; rD', D m
vkyif ef;rsm; jzpfay:ap&eftwGuv f nf;aumif;/ aqmif&u G &f rnfh vkyif ef;pOf
enf;vrf;rsm;&Syd gonf? atmufygt}uHjyKxm;aom enf;vrf; rsm;onf
tm%m&SifpepfrS 'Drdkua&pDjzpfay:wdk;wufcJh=uaom ta&S@awmif
tm&SEikd if rH sm;. tawG@t}uKH rsm;rSxw
k Ef w
_ w
f ifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf?

65
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

• zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'jyefvnf jyKjyifa&;qG&J mY jynforl sm;


.owif;rsm;&&SdydkifcGifh tcGifhta&;udk todtrSwfjyKI jyXmef;
azmfjyjcif;?
• wnf&q
dS J Oya'rsm;udk jyefvnfppD pf jyifqifa&;qGjJ cif;/ ,cifzEd ydS f
tkycf sKyfaom tpd;k &rsm;vufxufu usio hf ;kH cJah om Oya'rsm;udk
ypfy,fI owif;rD', D mrsm;vGwvf yfciG Ehf iS hf jynforl sm; owif;rsm;
&&Syd ikd cf iG t
hf cGit
hf a&;udk tmrcHaom Oya'rsm; a&;qGjJ yXmef;jcif;?
• owif;rD'D,mXmersm;. zGJ@pnf;yHkESifh vkyfief;rsm;udk jyefvnfpk
zGJ@jcif;?
• AsL&du
k a&pDtyk cf sKyfa&;,E ,
W m;rsm;udk jyefvnfz@JG pnf;jcif; tkycf sKyf
a&;,E , W m;rsm;taejzifh ydrk ykd iG v
hf if;aom vlxrk sm;ESihf ydrk q
kd ufqH
r_ &Sad omXmersm;tjzpf jyefvnfz@JG pnf;&ef vdo k nf? owif;rsm;udk
pepfwuspak qmif; odr;f qnf;xm;+yD;/ jynforl sm;taejzifh owif;
rsm;od&Sdvdkygu tvG,fwul&&SdEdkifaom pepfrsm;aqmif&Guf
xm;&ef vdt k yfonf?
• w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfwGifvnf; jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;&efvdktyfonf?
jynforl sm;. owif;rsm;&&Syd ikd cf iG t
hf cGit hf a&;udk tcdik t
f rmudik pf JG
umuG,af y;&efvt kd yfonf? TtcGit hf a&;udk w&m;&H;k rsm;wGif
pepfwusumuG,fay;r_rcH&ygu jynfolrsm;. owif;rsm;od&Sd
ydik cf iG hf tcGit
hf a&;qdok nfrmS rnfonfh t"dyg` ,rf &S rdS nf r[kwaf y?
• jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyif ef;rsm;Y vlxt
k ajcjyK vlxt
k oif;tzG@J
rsm;udkvnf; tm;aumif;vmap&ef aqmif&Gufay;oifhonf?
jynfol rsm;owif;rsm; &&SdydkifcGifhtcGifhta&;udk rnfolrsm;u
vufawG@ toH;k cs=urnfenf;? vufawG@ toH;k cs=u&mY owif;
rD'D,morm;rsm;omr[kwf/ omrmefjynfolrsm;a&m/ vlxk
toif;tyif;rsm;/ tpd;k &r[kwaf om toif;tzG@J tJe-f *s-D tdk rsm;
tjyif/ vlxkv_yf&Sm; r_vkyfief;rsm;uyg toHk;cs=uvdrfhrnf jzpf
onf? xdok rl sm;tm;vH;k u owif;rsm;ydrk jkd ynfjh ynfph pkH kH od&EdS ikd f atmif
awmif;qd=k uvdrrhf nf jzpfonf?

66
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

vGwfvyfaomowif;rD'D,mrsm;.tuef@towf
trsm;od=uonft h wdik ;f jrefrmEdik if t H zd@k udv k ekd t D yk cf sKyfa&;acwfu pI
zdEydS t
f yk cf sKyfaom tpd;k &tqufquf}uKH vmcJ=h u&onf? xdt k wdwf tarG
qd;k rsm; useaf evdrOhf ;D rnf jzpfonf? xdt k wdwu f mvrsm;wav#mufv;kH wGif
tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfolrsm;u owif;rsm;vGwfvyfpGm pD;qif;r_udk uef@owf
csKyfcs,cf =hJ u+yD;/ vGwv f yfpmG azmfjy ajymqdck iG u hf v kd nf; csKyfcs,cf hJ =uonf?
tpd;k &topftaejzifh olw@kd u, kd u f o kd w l @kd umuG,Ef ikd &f ef Ttkycf sKyfa&;
enf;vrf;rsm; Oya'rsm;tcsK@d ukd qufvuftoH;k jyKaeao;aom tajc
taevnf; }uHK&Edik af o;onf? Tod@k owif;xde;f csKyfaom Oya'rsm;udk
qufvufusio hf ;kH ae&jcif;rSm wdik ;f jynftajctae rwnf+idraf o;aom
a=umifh jzpfEdkifovdk/ Towif;uef@owfaom Oya'rsm;udk }udKwif
umuG,fr_w&yftaejzifh toHk;jyKvdkaoma=umifhvnf; jzpfEdkifonf?
ta&;}u;D aomtcsurf mS urBmw0Sr;f vH;k wGiw f nf&adS eaom Edik if t H oD;oD;&Sd
Oya'rsm;u EdkifiHawmfwcktaejzifh EdkifiHom;rsm;. tcGifhta&;udk
umuG,fay; &efvdktyfovdk EdkifiHawmftpdk;&wcktaejzifh rdrdudk,fudk
umuG,fay;Edkifaom tcGifhta&;&Sda=umif; todtrSwfjyKxm;jcif;
yifjzpfonf? wnf&SdaeqJjzpfaom vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;.
Oya'rsm;uyif Edik if w H cktwGuf tE &W m,fta&;w}u;D }uKH awG@vm&aom
tajctaewGif TuJo h @kd Oya'jzifh umuG,yf ikd cf iG u hf kd todtrSwjf yK cGijhf yK
xm;onf? tcGit hf a&;rsm;qdo k nfrmS tºuGi;f rJrh [kw?f od@k aomf xdo k @kd
tpd;k &rsm;taejzifh umuG,yf ikd cf iG hf tcGit hf a&;udt k oH;k jyK&mY ae&mwdik ;f Y
tus,t f jyef@ toH;k jyKjcif;rsK;d r[kwyf J xl;jcm;aom tajctaew&yfrS
om uef@owftoH;k jyKa&; jzpfonf? xdo k @kd r[kwyf gu tpd;k &rsm;zufu
tm%mtvGo J ;kH pm;r_rsm; ay: ayguv f mEdik f ao;onf? Tod@k tpd;k &rsm;
umuG,yf ikd cf iG u hf kd toH;k jyK&mY &St d yfaomtuef@towfrsm;udk Oyrmay;
azmfjy&v#if atmufazmfjyyguo hJ @kd aom tajctaersm; jzpfonf?
• EdkifiHawmf. vHk+cHKa&; tusKd;pD;yGg;udkwdkuf&dkufxdcdkufEdkifaom
tajctaerS umuG,af y;jcif;/ Tod@k Eikd if aH wmf. tusK;d pD;yGg;udk
umuG,&f mY Edik if aH wmfv+kH cKH a&;udk wdu k &f u kd +f crd ;f ajcmufcaH e &aom
tajctaewGirf S umuG,t f yfovd/k +cdr;f ajcmufcaH e&r_ rSmvnf;
txl;ta&;ay:tajctae jzpfoifo h nf?

67
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

• Oya't& w&m;pD&ifa&;udprP sm;wGix


f cd u
kd Ef ikd af oma=umifh owif;
tcsK@d ukd rxkwjf yefay;yJ xde;f odr;f xm;jcif;?
• vlwOD;csi;f . yk*v ~ ud b0ESihf *k%o f ud mQ vH+k cHKa&;udk umuG,af y;
&eftwGuf owif;rsm;udx k ed ;f odr;f xm;jcif;?
• vltrsm;&ke;f &if;qefcwfjzpf&rnfh tajctaerSumuG,af y;jcif;?
owif;tcsut f vufrsm; &&Syd ikd cf iG u
hf kd Oya'jyXmef;&mY vdu
k ef moifah om
tajccHrrl sm;rSm —
• tpdk;&Xmersm;ESifh oufqdkifaomvkyfief;wdkif;Y vlxkrSowif;
tcsut f vufrsm; &,lo&d EdS ikd cf iG &hf adS om tajctaersm; zefw;D
xm;ay;&ef vdt k yfonf? (od@k aomf tcsK@d Eikd if rH sm;wGif c|i;f csurf sm;
&SdEdkifonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh — xdkif;EdkifiHwGifrl bk&ifrdom;pkESifh
oufqikd af om owif;rsm;udk (75) ESp=f um+yD;rSom vltrsm;od&dS
ydik cf iG &hf adS om uef@owfcsu&f o dS nf)? od@k aomfTuef@owfcsurf sK;d
udk e,fajrusO;f Edik o f r# usO;f ap&rnf?
• owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk &,lcGifh&Sd&mY tpdk;&rSwfwrf;rsm;
r#om r[kwyf J tpd;k &vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm; pD&ifq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;udk
aomf vnf;aumif;/ w&m;cH&k ;kH rsm;uJo h @kd aom Xmersm;&Std csuf
tvufrsm;udv k nf; &,lyikd cf iG &hf dS ap&rnf? xd@k tjyif XmewckEiS hf
wckt=um; qufpyfaqmif&Gufaeaomtqifhrsm;wGifvnf;
owif;&,lciG hf &Sad p&rnf?
• owif;tcsut f vufrsm; &&Syd ikd cf iG [ hf q
k &kd mY oufqikd &f mpm&Guf
pmwrf;rsm;/ taxmuftxm;rsm;udk rdwWLyGg;,lEdkifa&;twGuf
oifah wmfr#waomE_e;f xm;jzifh rdwLW ul;cGijhf yKjcif;vnf; tygt0if
jzpfap&rnf?
owif;tcsuftvufrsm; vGwfvyfpGmpD;qif;cGifh&a&;twGuf Oya'
a=umif;t&vnf; jyKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm; jyKvkyaf y;&ef vdt k yfonf? T
tcsurf sm;wGif —
• ,ciftpdk;&rsm;vufxufu usifhoHk;cJhaom owif;pD;qif;r_
xde;f csKyfa&;XmeESihf ,E ,
W m;rsm; vkyx
f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm; udzk suo
f rd ;f
ypf&ef vdt k yfonf?

68
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

• topfjzpfaom owif;xde;f csKyfa&;qdik &f m ,E ,


W m;rsm;/ Oya'
rsm;/ vkyx
f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;jyXmef;ay;&efvt kd yfouJo
h @kd / owif;rD'D
,mXmersm;udk ydkifqdkifcGifh/ owif;ta=umif;csif;&m/ jzef@a0yHk/
owif;axmufrsm;. u|r;f usirf q _ ikd &f m t&nftaoG;paom udpP
rsm;twGuv f nf; pepfwusOya'rsm;jzifh jyefvnfxed ;f a=umif;
ay;&ef vdtk yfonf?
ta&;t}uD;qH;k ajz&Si;f ay;&efvt kd yfonfh jy\emw&yfrmS owif;
rD'D,mXmersm;udk rnfolu ydkifqdkifrnfenf;qdkaom udpPjzpfonf?
a,bl,stm;jzifh owif;rD', D mXmersm;udk ydik qf ikd rf y_ pkH H (3) rsK;d &SEd ikd o
f nf?
wckrmS tpd;k &ydik jf zpfI xde;f csKyfr&_ adS om owif;rD', D mjzpfrnf? tjcm;wck
rSm vlx0k efaqmifrv _ yk if ef;rsm;udk aqmif&uG af om owif;rD', D mrsKd ; jzpf
rnf? tpd;k & (od@k r[kw)f tpd;k &bwf*sux f rJ S &HyakH iGuakd xmufyahH y;aomf
vnf;/ tkyfcsKyfr_ESifh rl0g't&vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&Sdaom
owif;rD', D mXmersK;d jzpfonf? wwd,trsK;d tpm;rSm yk*v ~ u d ydik o f wif;
rD', D mXmersm; jzpfonf? Edik if t H awmfrsm;rsm;wGirf l owif;rD', D mrsm;
ydik qf ikd rf E_ iS hf ywfoufI (3) rsK;d pvH;k udak ygi;f pyf usio hf ;kH =uonf? od@k aomf
rnfodk@aom ydkifqdkifr_yHkpHudk tav;ay;rnfqdkonfrSm wufvmaom
tpd;k &opf. rl0g'rsm;tay: rlwnfonf? tpd;k &opfu qH;k jzwf&rnfjzpf
onf? ydik q f ikd rf y_ pkH u
H rnfo@kd yif&adS p ta&;}uD;aomtcsurf mS Edik if aH wmf
tqifh (trsK;d om;tqif)h / a'otqifEh iS hf &yf&mG tqift h qift h oD;oD;
wdik ;f Y oD;jcm; vGwv f yfaom rdrzd momjyXmef;qH;k jzwfvyk af qmifyikd cf iG hf
&Sad om owif;jzef@csad &;Xmersm; aygi;f pH&k adS eapa&;yif jzpfonf? xd@k tjyif
owif;rD'D,mXmersm;. vGwfvyfpGm+ydKifqdkifr_udkcGifh&rnf jzpfonf?
+yKd ifqikd cf iG &hf jdS cif;tm; jzifh owif;ta=umif;t&mydik ;f Y tpd;k &rSomxde;f csKyf
xm;jcif;/ jzef@a0r_pepfY tpd;k &uom vuf0g;}uD;tkyx f ed ;f csKyfxm;jcif;
paom tajctaersm;udk cGirhf jyKawmhay? wenf;qd&k v#if tpd;k &vuf0g;
}uD ; tk y f r _ u d k r&S d a p&ef j zpf o nf ? owif ; rD ' D , mXmersm;taejzif h
tjrifaygi;f pHu k kd xif[yfazmfjyap&rnf jzpfonf?
owif;rD'D,mXmersm;taejzifh vltm;vHk;r[kwfv#ifawmifrS
vltrsm;pk qufpyfxad wG@Eikd cf iG &hf &Sad tmif aqmif&u
G af y;=u&rnf jzpfonf?

69
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

qd k v d k o nf r S m owif ; Xmersm;. tajccH t aqmuf t OD j zpf a om


x&efprpfwm ac: xkwfv$ifhpufrsm;/ owif;jyef=um;a&;Xmersm;onf
vltrsm;xHo@kd a&mufatmifaqmif&u G af y;=u&rnf jzpfonf? vltrsm;
xdawG@Eikd cf iG hf qdak omtcsuo f nf vGepf mG ta&;}uD;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm
owif;rsm; vufcH&&Sdr_wGif rnDr#r_&Sdygu/ aemufydkif;wGif tm%mESifh
"etiftm;rnDr#ru _ ykd g qufvufjzpfay:vmapaoma=umifh jzpfonf?

owif;rD',
D mrsm;wGirf wlujJG ym;aomtoHtrsK;d rsK;d tjriftrsK;d rsK;d
udk =um;od&apa&;twGufvkyfaqmifEdkifaomenf;vrf;rsm;
jrefrmEdik if u
H o
hJ @kd aom Edik if rH sK;d Y wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d aygi;f pHk aexdik =f uonfh
tm;avsmpf mG xdrk wlujJG ym;aom vlrsK;d toD;oD;.toHrsm;/ tjrifrsm;udk
rD', D mrsm;Y xif[yfazmfjya&;rSm vGepf mG rS ta&;}uD;ygonf? xdo k @kd rwl
uGjJ ym;aom toHrsm;/ tjrifrsm;/ vlrsK;d toD;oD;. ar#mv f ifch surf sm;udk
owif;rD'D,mrsm;Y jrifawG@=um;&apa&;twGuf Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;
csrSwfI xdef;nd‡aqmif&Gufay;&ef vdktyfonf? Todk@aqmif&Guf&mY
atmufygenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh aqmif&u G af y;Edik o
f nf?
• tpd;k &rS taxmuftyHrh sm;ay;jcif;? tpd;k &taejzifh yHEk ydS pf ufrsm;
wnfaqmuf&ef taxmuftyHrh sm;ay;jcif;/ vdt
k yfaomtajccH
taqmuftODrsm;twGuf taxmuftyHrh sm;ay;jcif;ESihf owif;
rD',
D mvkyif ef;rsm;twGuf aiGa=u;taxmuftyHrh sm;ay;jcif;?
• owif;rD',
D mvkyif ef;rsm;udk axmufyahH y;Edik &f ef tcGet
f wkwrf sm;
owfrSwfjcif;? (Oyrmtm;jzifh- &kyfjrifoH=um; puf0,folxHrS
tcGefaumufcHIowif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;odk@ axmufyHhjcif;?
Tod@k axmufy&hH mwGiv f nf;/ owif;rD', D mXme}uD;rsm; xufpm
v#i/f vkyif ef;i,frsm;udk ydI
k axmufyjhH cif;)?
• z&efcsKdufvkyfief;rsm;ESifh vdkifpifrsm;udk (txl;ojzifh toHv$ifh
vkyif ef;rsm;Y) cGaJ 0csay;jcif;? Oyrmtm;jzifh tpd;k &rS rl0g'oD;oef@
csrwS I
f z&efcsKud v f yk if ef;rsm;csay;&mY wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;toD;oD;
&&Sdap&eftwGufvnf;aumif;/ vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;toD;oD;rS r#r#
ww&&Sdap&eftwGufvnf;aumif; pepfwuspDrHay;Edkifonf?

70
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

A[dt k pd;k & ESihf ‚if;.vufa0cHtzG@J tpnf;rsm;uom xde;f csKyfxm;


jcif;rsKd; rjzpfoifhay?
• a=umfjimvkyif ef;rsm;udk Oya'rsm;jzifh xde;f csKyfay;jcif;? Edik if t
H awmf
rsm;rsm;wGif owif;rD', D mvkyif ef;rsm;. t"du0ifaiGrmS tpd;k &
vkyif ef;rsm;udk a=umfjimay;aom vkyif ef;rS&aom0ifaiG jzpfonf?
xdkodk@tpdk;&a=umfjimvkyfief;rsm;rS &&Sdvmrnfh0ifaiGudk A[dkEdkifiH
awmftqif/h a'otqif/h &yf&mG tqift h oD;oD;&Sd owif;rD',
D m
vkyif ef;rsm;Y r#r#ww cGaJ 0toH;k jyKEdik af pa&;twGuf Oya'rsm;
jyXmef;I xde;f nda‡ y; oifoh nf?
• tajccHtaqmuftODqikd &f m axmufyu
hH n
l aD y;r_rsm;? a'orsm;
toD;oD;od@k tpd;k &rS &kyjf rifo=H um;pufrsm;axmufyahH y;jcif; tm;
jzifh y&dowfta&twGufudk wdk;rsm;vmapEdkifonf? xdktcg
owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;wGif a=umfjimvdkolrsm;ydkIpdwf0ifpm;
vmum 0ifaiGwdk;wuf&&Sdvm+yD; owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;udk
vnf; qufvuf&iS o f efapEdik o f nf?
• txl;tkypf rk sm;/ wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;/ trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuf
xkwv
f i$ chf sed f tpDtpOfrsm;/ tcef;u¾rsm;udk oD;oef@ppD Ofay;jcif;?
• Oya'pd;k rd;k aom w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf (Rule of Law)? jyXmef;xm;
aom Oya'rsm;twdkif;tm%mwnfap&ef aqmif&Gufa&;onf
vnf; ta&;}uD;ygonf? w&m;&H;k rsm;taejzifh owif;rD', D mXme
rsm;. owif;&,lyikd cf iG Ehf iS hf owif;ay;yd@k wifjyEdik cf iG hf tcGithf a&;
rsm;udk umuG,fay;&efvdktyf+yD; jynfolvlxkrsm;. owif;
&&Syd ikd cf iG hf tcGit
hf a&;udv
k nf; tvm;wlumuG,af y;&ef vdt k yfonf?
• owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;rsm;twGif;Yvnf; rdrdzmompnf;urf;
xde;f nda‡ om vkyif ef;pOfrsm;&S&d ef vdt k yfonf? xdrk o S m owif;pm/
pme,fZif;/ rD',D morm;rsm;. vGwv f yfciG u
hf kd uef@owfxed ;f csKyf
p&mrvdyk J ‚if;wd@k .vkyyf ikd cf iG t
hf vGo J ;kH pm;jyKr_ukd umuG,w f nfrh wf
Edkifrnfjzpfonf? qdkvdkonfhoabmrSm owif;pm/ pme,fZif;
orm;rsm;taejzifh usi0hf wfou d mQ csK;d azmufjcif;ESihf ynm&Siq
f ikd &f m
usi0hf wfpnf;rsO;f csK;d azmufrr_ sm;udk olw@kd zmomxde;f nda‡ y;Edik rf nfh
71
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

vkyfief;pOfrsm;xm;&Sdoifhonf? odk@rSom EdkifiHawmfrS0ifa&muf


pGuzf ufrr_ vdt
k yfyJ rdrv
d yk if ef;udk aumif;rGepf mG aqmif&u G Ef ikd =f u
rnf jzpfonf? owif;rD', D mvkyif ef;udk apmif=h unfo h rl sm;/ owif;
axmuftoif;rsm;/ woD;yk*v ~ rsm;ESihf tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzG@J
tpnf; (tJe-f *s-D td)k rsm;u TuJo h @kd xed ;f nda‡ y;aom wm0efukd
xrf;aqmifEdkif=uonf?
tkyfpkaqG;aEG;yGJ&vm'frsm;.tESpfcsKyf
yg0ifaqG;aEG;olrsm;u jrefrmjynfwiG ;f &So d wif;rD', D mrsm;. vuf&t dS ajc
taerSm pdwyf suzf , G af umif;avmufatmif usqif;aeonf[k oH;k oyf
=u+yD;/ e,fpyfa'oESifh jynfy&Sdowif;rD'D,mrsm;taejzifhvnf; tm;&
zG,rf &Sad o;[k oH;k oyf=uonf? yg0ifaqG;aEG;olrsm;u acwfay: qufo, G f
a&;enf;ynmrsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muftoHk;jyKoifhonf[k aqG;aEG;
=uonf? odk@aomf wdkif;&if;om;tiftm;pkrsm;taejzifh owif;rD'D,m
avmuwGif ,SO+f ydKifEikd af om t&nftaoG; (txl;ojzifh toHvi$ hf —
&kyjf rifxw k vf i$ rhf r_ sm;wGi)f tm;enf;aeao;onf[k todtrSwjf yK =uonf?
Edik if aH &;t& oH;k yGiq hf ikd af qG;aEG;yGJ pwifEikd af omumvwGif aqG;aEG;yGt J wGi;f
aqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk jynfolodk@wifjyEdkif&ef EdkifiHydkif&kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh
toHv$ifhXmersm;rS xkwfv$ifhcsdefwck owfrSwfI xkwfv$ifhcGifhjyK&ef
}udKwifoabmwlncD suf &,loifo h nf[k aqG;aEG;=uonf? 'Dru kd a&pD
tkycf sKyfa&;od@k ul;ajymif;Edik af omumvwGif ,cifzEd ydS af om tkycf sKyfol
tpd;k &tqufqufrS usio hf ;kH cJah om Oya'/ vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;udk zsuf
odr;f oifo h nf[k aqG;aEG;=uonf? jzpfay:vmrnfh zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccH
Oya'opfwiG f jynforl sm;.owif;&&Syd ikd cf iG u hf kd xnfo h iG ;f jyXmef; oifo h nf
[k oabmwl=uonf?
yg0ifaqG;aEG;olrsm;u &yf&mG qdik &f m/ a'oqdik &f mESihf wdik ;f &if;om;
bmompum;qdkif&m owif;rD'D,mrsm;xGef;um;a&;twGuf jr‡ifhwif
aqmif&u G af y;oifoh nf[k tav;ay;aqG;aEG;=uonf? tu,fI jzpfay:
vmrnfh jynfaxmifpkopfonf zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkzGJ@pnf;yHkrsKd;jzifh
zGJ@pnf;Edkifrnf qdkygu jynfe,ftpdk;&rsm;&Sdvmrnfjzpf+yD;/ xdkjynfe,f
tpdk;&rsm;u vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEdkifaom vlxk0efaqmifrD'D,m

72
&St
D v
D mudv
k ekd ,f

vkyif ef;rsm;udk axmufcyH yhH ;kd oifo h nf[k aqG;aEG;=uonf? wdik ;f &if;om;
bmompum;rsm;jzifx h wk v f i$ rhf nfh owif;rD',D mvkyif ef;rsm;twGuf vnf;
z&ef c sKd u f E S i f h vd k i f p if r sm;cG J a 0 csay;oif h o nf [ k tjrif & S d = uonf ?
a0;uGmvSr;f aom a'orsm;&Sjd ynforl sm; rSvnf; owif;tcsut f vuf
rsm;&&SEd ikd af p&ef/ tajccHtaqmuftODrsm; yHyh ;kd oifo h nf[k aqG;aEG;=u
onf? a'oqdkif&m owif;rD'D,mrsm;ESifh &yf&Gmrsm;&Sdowif;rD'D,m
vkyfief;rsm;. pD;yGg;a&;t& &SifoefEdkifapa&;twGuf wdkuf&dkuftpdk;&
taxmuftyHjh zifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ od@k wnf;r[kwf tjcm;0ifaiG&&SEd ikd f
aom tcGeftwkwfpepfjzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ a=umfjimrsm;rS &&Sdrnfh
0ifaiGrsm;jzifah omfvnf;aumif; aqmif&u G o f ifo
h nf[k aqG;aEG;=uonf?
awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_umvtwGif;ESifh aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGif
twdu k t f cHvy_ &f mS ;r_EiS hf qufpyfaeaom owif;rD', D mrsm;. tcef;u¾
ESihf ygwo f ufIpd;k &dryf yl efru _ kd azmfjy=uonf? rpPuv kd ekd ,fvf u a0zefa&;
udv k ufco H ifah =umif; tav;ay;aqG;aEG;onf? twdu k t f cHtzG@J tpnf;
rsm;onfyif a0zefa&;vdt k yfa=umif;ESihf rdrpd nf;&H;k a&;e,fy,f&v dS x
l rk sm;.
wke@f jyefou H jkd yefvnfem;axmif&ef vdt k yfonf[k aqG;aEG;onf? a0zefr_
ESihf rdrw d @kd .vkyif ef;atmifjrifru _ w
kd ifjyr_=um;wGif vlxrk sm;taejzifh r#r#
wwod&EdS ikd o f ifo h nf[k aqG;aEG;onf? w}udrw f iG f 'Dru kd a&pDtpd;k & ay:
ayguv f mygu owif;rD', D mrsm;udk Oya'/ vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;jzifh xde;f
csKyfrnfhtpm; olwdk@zmomtjyeftvSefxdef;nd‡apaom enf;tm;jzifh
aqmif&Gufapoifha=umif; t}uHjyKonf? owif;rD'D,mrsm;taejzifh
tcsi;f csi;f pkz@JG um usi0hf wfqikd &f m usix hf ;kH rsm;jyXmef;jcif;/ owif;aumifpD
zG@J pnf;jcif;rsm; aqmif&u G o f ifoh nf? od@k ro S m owif;rD', D morm;rsm;.
vkyfydkifcGifhtvGJoHk;pm;jyKr_rsm;udk umuG,fwm;qD;Edkifrnf jzpfonf?
owif;vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk EdkifiHawmfvHk+cHKa&;/ EdkifiHawmftusKd;pD;yGg;
qdik &f mudprP sm;twGuf umuG,af y;Edik &f ef xde;f csKyfuef@owf&mY vnf;
aumif;/ vlrsm;. yk*v ~ u
d qdik &f mudprP sm;udk umuG,af y;&ef xde;f csKyf&mY
vnf;aumif; udpw P ckcsi;f tay: tao;pdw&f dS oifo h nf? Tta=umif;
jycsuu f o kd ;kH I tm%mtvGo J ;kH pm; rjzpfap&efvnf; umuG,o f ifoh nf[k
aqG;aEG;wifjyonf?

73
zG_H z+ Kd ;r+twGurf [mAsL[m (ta&SŒwDarmtawGŒt}uHK)

tDrv D ,D m yD&ufpf
ta&SŒwDarmEdik if /H pDruH ed ;f ESib
hf ma&;0ef}u;D Xme
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

zGŒH _zdK;r+twGurf [mAsL[m (ta&SŒwDarmtawGŒt}uHK)

tDrv D ,D m yD&ufpf
ta&SŒwDarmEdik if /H pDruH ed ;f ESib
hf ma&;0ef}u;D Xme

wifjyr_yxrydik ;f wGif ta&S@waD rmEdik if H vGwv f yfa&;r&rDumvtwGi;f jyif


qif=uyHu k kd wifjyonf? xdak emufyikd ;f wGif qufIjzpfay:vmaom trsK;d
om;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrp_ rD cH suf (National Development Plan) twGuf
aemufuG,fwGif v_yf&Sm;pnf;&Hk; =u&yHkrsm;udkwifjyonf? trsKd;om;
zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufrp_ rD cH suqf o kd nfrmS ta&S@waD rmEdik if t H aejzifh zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufr_
vkyif ef;rsm;wGif rnfonfu h pd &P yfrsm;udOk ;D pm;ay; aqmif&u G rf nfukd 0dik ;f 0ef;
owfrw S =f ujcif;jzpf+yD;/ vltrsm;. yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf &_ ,lum jzpfay:
wd;k wufvmaom pDrcH sujf zpfonf? xd@k aemuf ta&S@waD rmtawG@t}uHK
ESi, hf OS If jrefrmEdik if w
H iG }f uHKawG@&Edik af om taetxm;rsm;twGuf t}uH
jyKonf? aemufqHk;ydkif;wGif tkyfpkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;rS &&Sdvmaom&vm'f
tusO;f csKyfukd azmfjyxm;ygonf?

zGH@+zdK;r_r[mAsL[mcsrSwfEdkif&efjyifqif=uyHkvkyfief;tqifhqifh

toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGufjyifqif=ujcif;?
ta&S@waD rmEdik if H vGwvf yfa&;twGuf v_y&f mS ;wdu k yf 0JG ifc=hJ uaom (25)
ESpfwmumvtwGif; ta&S@wDarmjynfolrsm;. tem*gwftwGuf
jyifqifrq_ Ikd txl;r&Scd ahJ y? xdu
k pd rP mS vGwv f yfa&;twGuf v_y&f mS ;wdu k yf JG
0ifaeolrsm;. OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G &f rnfh vkyif ef;wcktjzpf rowfrw S f
cJ=h uay? awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_. xdyyf ikd ;f wGif Edik if aH &;tpktzG@J i,f&+dS yD;
trsm;pku jynfya&muf ae=u&onf? vlrsm;pkjzpfaom v_y&f mS ;aeol
atmufajcxkrsm;rSm ta&S@waD rmEdik if t H wGi;f Y &Sad e=uonf? Tumv
twGi;f wGif ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;twGi;f rS ynm&Sirf sm;/ u|r;f usio f rl sm;
trsm;tjym;ay:ayguv f mcJah omfvnf; xdo k rl sm;udk awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_
twGi;f od@k wufwufºuGºuGyg0ifvmatmif rodr;f oGi;f Edik cf =hJ uay? 1998

77
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

ckEpS f {+yDv a&mufaomtcgusro S m ta&S@waD rm awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_


. r[mrdwftoif;csKyf}uD;jzpfaom ta&S@wDarmckcHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_
trsK;d om;aumifpD 1 (CNRT) udk Zmem;em; *wfprf . kd OD;aqmifra_ tmuf
wGifzGJ@pnf;EdkifcJhonf? xdktzGJ@csKyfwGif ta&S@wDarmvGwfvyfa&;twGuf
v_y&f mS ;aeaom toif;tzG@J reS o f r#ukd pkpnf;Edik cf o
hJ nf? Ttcsed rf pS I
aumif;rGeaf om tajymif;tvJrsm;jzpfay:&ef pwifvm Edik cf o hJ nf?
1998 ckESpf atmufwdkbmva&mufaomtcg tif'dkeD;&Sm;EdkifiH/
*smumwm+rdK@wiG f tusO;f usaeaom acgi;f aqmif Zmem;em; *wfprf u kd
ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;od@k txl;ojzifh ynm&Sirf sm;ESihf u|r;f usio f rl sm;od@k
ta&S@waD rmtem*gwf zG@H +zdK;aumif;pm;a&;twGuf ,cktcsed rf pS I }uHq
=uyg&ef yef=um;v$mwapmifjyKonf? Zmem;em;u jzpfapcsifonfrSm
urBmtES@H tjym;wGif aexdik =f uaom ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;pkpnf;vm+y;D /
ta&S@waD rmtem*gwt f wGuf zG@H +zdK;r_prD cH suw
f apmifukd a&;qGaJ y;apvdk
jcif;jzpfonf? ol@taejzifh vGwfajrmufr_tvm;tvmudk jrifae+yDjzpf
onf? xdt k csed w
f iG f Edik if w
H umrS&adS eaompd;k &dryf yl efcsurf mS vnf; ta&S@
wDarmEdkifiHvGwfajrmufvmygu EdkifiHwcktjzpf&yfwnftkyfcsKyfEdkif&ef
vlom;t&if;tjrpfvakH vmufr_ r&Srd nf udk pd;k &dryf yl efae=uonf?
ta&S@waD rmEdik if jH yifywGif uGezf &ifh (2) ckusi;f ycJo h nf? xdt k pnf;
ta0;rsm;. &vm'ftjzpf ta&S@waD rmtem*gwzf @HG +zdK;wd;k wufrt _ wGuf
zG@H +zdK;r_r[mAsL[mtpDtpOfukd a&;qGEJ ikd cf o hJ nf? uHraumif; ta=umif;
rvSonfrmS xdt k pnf;ta0;ESpcf v k ;kH twGi;f enf;ynm&yfyikd ;f qdik &f m u|r;f
usio f yl nm&Sirf sm;ESihf Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;t=um; ,H=k unfrj_ ynfjh ynfh
00 rwnfaqmufEikd =f ujcif;jzpfonf? xdt k wGuaf =umifv h nf; xdt k pnf;
ta0;rsm;rSxu G af y:vmaom tajccHy=kH urf; (Blue Print) udk Edik if . H
a&S@aqmif&u G &f rnfh zG@H +zdK;r_qikd &f m bHrk [mAsL[mtjzpf owfrw S v f ufrcH
EdkifcJh=uay? Todk@jzifh r[mAsL[m pDrHcsufw&yf r&Sdxm;aoma=umifh
EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdvmaomtcg wdkif;jynfjynfvnfwnfaqmufa&;
udprP sm;Y aomfvnf;aumif;/ toif;tyif;tzG@J tpnf;rsm; xlaxmifa&;Y
aomfvnf;aumif; rsm;pGmaESmifah ES;cJ&h onf? tuef@towfrsm; jzpfc&hJ
onf? ta&S@waD rmjynfow l &yfv;kH taejzifh TEdik if jH yefvnfwnfaqmuf
a&;udpPrsm;wGif wa,mufwrsKfd;/ t,ltquGJjym;um rnfolur#
78
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

=oZmoufa&mufEdkifjcif;r&SdyJ EdkifiHwumtiftm;pkrsm; aemufodk@


vdkufcJh=u&onf?
aemufq;kH usL;ausmo f rd ;f ydu
k x
f m;ol tif'ekd ;D &Sm;wyfrsm;u qkwcf gG
oGm;+yD;/ EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u xdef;odrf;ay;&ef0if a&mufvm
=uonf? xdk@aemufwdkif;jynfjyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;
pwifawmhonf? xdt k csed wf iG f ta&S@waD rm vlxak cgi;f aqmifrsm;ua&m
jynfolrsm;uyg Twnfaqmufr_vkyfief;pOfrsm;tay: vrf;!$efr_ray;
Edik cf =hJ uay? urBmb h %fu tultnDay;vmrnfh tultnD pD;0ifaiGrsm;udk
pkpnf;xde;f odr;f ay;&ef 0ifvmcJo h nf? T wdik ;f jynfjyefvnfwnfaqmuf
a&;udprP sm;wGif wwfEikd o f r#ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;. oabmxm;rsm;
yg0ifap&ef Edik if w H umtzG@J tpnf;rsm;u }udK;yrf;cJ=h uaomfvnf; ta&S@
wDarmjynfov l x l rk sm;zufwiG f Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf wwfou d |r;f
usio f yl nm&Sit f yk pf rk sm;t=um;wGif yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf r_ &/ pkpnf;Edik rf _
r&Syd J aemufvu kd o f ufoufozG,f jzpfc&hJ onf? wdik ;f jynfjyefvnfwnf
aqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf OD;pm;ay;tpDtpOfrsm;csrSwfcJh=uonf?
od@k aomf pepfwusr[kw/f trsm;oabmwlncD sujf zifh a=ua=uvnfvnf
csrSwfjcif;r[kwfyJ/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ yHkpHjzifhcsrSwfcJhjcif;rsKd;r[kwfay?
ta&S@waD rmjynfov l x l rk sm; txl;ojzifh Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmif trsm;pk
taejzifh xdpk Ofumvu aqmif&u G af eaom vkyif ef;rsm;tajctaeudk
oabmaygufem;rvnfcJh=uay? xdkpOfu ESpftenf;i,ft=umtxd
aqmif&u G af ecJ&h aomvkyif ef;rsm;rSm ta&;ay:tultnDaxmufyrhH r_ sm;
ay;jcif;ESihf ta&;ay:vdt k yfcsurf sm;udk wnfaqmufay;jcif;wd@k om jzpf
aomfvnf; xdktcsdefu qHk;jzwfcJhaom qHk;jzwfcsuftcsKd@rSm EdkifiH.
a&&Snzf @HG +zdK;a&;udprP sm;txd tusK;d oufa&mufaevdrrhf nf jzpfa=umif;
owdrrlrcd =hJ uay?
2001 ckEpS af &mufvmaomtcg &nfreS ;f csuw f cktwGuf tm;vH;k u
pkaygi;f taumiftxnfazmf=u&rnfh bHv k yk if ef;pOfprD cH suw
f &yf vdt
k yf
a=umif; trsm;uoabmayguv f m=uonf? ta&S@waD rmqdik &f m urBmh
ukvor*~=um;jzwftyk cf sKyfa&;tzG@J (United Nations Transitional
Administration in East Timor- UNTAET) tultnDjzifh ta&S@
wDarmvlxkrsm;u pDrHudef;a&;qGJa&;aumfr&Sifw&yfudk zGJ@pnf;EdkifcJh=u
79
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

onf? xdpk rD u H ed ;f a&;qGaJ &;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif vltrsm;yg0ifciG hf &apa&;ESihf


ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;ud, k w
f ikd af &;qGaJ om pDru H ed ;f jzpfapa&; wd@k twGuf
aumfr&Sifudk =um;jzwftkyfcsKyfa&;tpdk;&rS udk,fpm;vS,f (5) OD; (xdk
=um;jzwftpd;k &wGif yg0ifot l m;vH;k rSm ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm; jzpf=u
onf) yg0ifI tkycf sKyfa&;t}uD;tuJ 0ef}uD;ud, k wf ikd f yg0ifacgi;f aqmif
onf? xd@k tjyif vlxv k w
l ef;pm;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;zufrS (5) OD;yg0ifonf?
Zmemem; *wfprf kd u OD;aqmifonf? (xdt k csed u f Zmem;em;rSm orw
tjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif; rcH&ao;ay)? &nf&, G cf surf mS ta&S@waD rmvlxk
rsm; udk,fwdkifa&;qGJaom pDrHudef;ay:xGufvmap&efjzpf+yD; vltrsm;
yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G cf iG &hf ap&ef jzpfonf? xdak umfr&Siw f iG f azmfjyygowfrw S f
csurf sm;ESihf rudu k n f aD omfvnf; xnfo h iG ;f oifah om yk*Kd~ vfrsm;&Sv d mjyef
onf? ‚if;wd@k rmS tvSL&Sit f zG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf yk*v ~ u d vkyif ef;&Sirf sm; jzpf
onf? tvSL&Sifrsm;udk pDrHudef;a&;qGJ&mwGif ueOD;tqifhrSyg0ifcGifhay;
jcif;tm;jzifh aemufaemiftvSL&HyakH iGrsm; &&S&d efaocsmaprnf jzpfonf?
ta&S@waD rm jynforl sm;rSm pDru H ed ;f a&;qGaJ eaomfvnf; xdt k csed t
f xd
taumiftxnfazmf&ef rdrzd momEdik pf rG ;f aom tiftm;r&Sad o;ay?

pDru
H ed ;f a&;qGaJ &;vkyif ef;udk vG,uf v
l #ijf refap&ef yg0ifaqmif&u G f
ae=u&aom olrsm;oabmayguef m;vnfI yg0ifaqG;aEG;Edik af p&ef ar;cGe;f
(4) ckukd csay;cJo h nf? xdak r;cGe;f (4) ckukd ajzqdjk cif;jzifh jy\emrsm;udk
csO;f uyfEikd af p&ef }uHqcJo
h nf? ‚if; ar;cGe;f rsm;rSm —

rdrdwdk@rnfonfhtqifhae&mwGif&Sdaeoenf;?

Tar;cGe;f udk ajzqd&k efxt kd csed u


f rjzpfEikd cf =hJ u? vuf&w dS ikd ;f jynf. tajc
taeudt k rSet f wdik ;f em;vnf&ef vGepf mG cufcyJ gonf? tajctaeray;?
Tod@k jzifh avhusichf ef; (3) cky%mrtaejzifh aqmif&u G cf =hJ u&onf? yxr
taejzifh 1999 ckESpfrS 2001 ckESpft=um;wdkif;jynftwGif; jzpfysufcJh
aomtajctaeudk qef;ppfo&d EdS ikd &f ef avhvma&;tzG@J rsm;zG@J I aqmif&u G f
=u&onf? 0ef}u;D Xmersm;rS 0efxrf;rsm;jzifh aygi;f pyfz@JG pnf;aqmif&u G af om
tvkyt f zG@J (8) zJ@G jzifah qmif&uG cf =hJ u&onf? xdt k vkyt
f zG@J rsm;wGif tawG@

80
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

t}uKH &Sad om 0efxrf;rsm;jzifh yg0ifz@JG pnf;+y;D / tvkyt


f zG@J wckpu
D kd 0ef}u;D rsm;
udk,fwdkifu OD;aqmif=uonf? xdkrS&vmaom &vm'frsm;udkpkaygif;I
“Edik if aH wmf.vuf&t
d S ajctae” trnfjzifh tpD&ifcpH mwapmif wifoiG ;f onf?
'kw, d tqift h aejzifh wEdik if v
H ;kH twdik ;f twmtaejzifh qif;&Jr'_ %f
udk twdik ;f twmrnfr#txdcpH m;ae=u&onfukd ppfwrf; aumuf,o l nf?
Tppfwrf;aumuf,l&mY tjcm;EdkifiHwumtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom
urBmhb%f/ tm&SzGH@+zdK;a&;b%f (at-'D-bD)/ *syefEdkifiHwumyl;aygif;
aqmif&u G af &; at*sipf D (a*s-tdik -f pD-at)/ ukvor*~z@HG +zdK;r_ tpDtpOf
(,l-tJe-f 'D-yD) ponfh tzG@J tpnf; (4) ck. yl;aygi;f ulnrD j_ zifh aqmif&u G f
cJjh cif; jzpfonf? Tvkyif ef;pOf ppfwrf;aumuf,rl r_ w S qifh ta&S@waD rm
jynforl sm;. qif;&Jrt _ ajctaeowfrw S rf p_ EH e_ ;f rsO;f (Poverty Line) udk
owfrw S Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;. (41) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f rSm qif;&Jr_
rsO;f . atmufzufwiG af exdik af e=u&a=umif; &SmazGazmfxw k Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf?
ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;. qif;&Jr_ pHowfrw S rf r_ sO;f rSm wae@v#i0f ifaiG
(55 qifh - xdik ;f bwfaiG 22 bwfcef@) [laomE_e;f xm;jzifh owfrw S f
jcif;jzpfonf?
wwd,tqift h aejzifh ukvor*~z@HG +zdK;a&;tpDtpOf (,l-tJe-f 'D-
yD) .ulnDyHhydk;r_ESifhaqmif&Gufaom trsKd;om;vlr_zGH@+zdK;a&; tpD&ifcHpm
(National Human Development Report) udkjyKpk EdkifcJhonf?
ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;. vlrz_ @HG +zdK;r_pjH y!$e;f ude;f (Human Develop-
ment Index) udk tvm;wlaqmif&u G cf =hJ uonfh Edik if H (161) Edik if EH iS hf
Edi_ ;f ,SOw f ifjyEdik cf o
hJ nf? T tajctaerSm ta&S@waD rmEdik if . H tajctae
udu k ed ;f *%ef;rsm;jzifh jynfjh ynfph pkH w kH ifjyEdik jf cif; jzpfonf? tem*gww f iG f
OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G &f rnfh vkyif ef;rsm;owfrw S &f mY Tude;f *%ef;tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk tajcjyKoGm;Edik rf nf jzpfonf? t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk cGaJ 0&m
wGiv f nf; OD;pm;ay;tpDtpOfrsm; owfrw S Ef ikd rf nf jzpfonf? rdrw d @kd tae
jzifh ar;xm;aomar;cGe;f udk wdwu d sus ajzqdEk ikd &f ef wwfEikd o f r# }uKd ;yrf;cJh
=uonf? xdt k wGuaf =umifv h nf; aemufaemifvyk if ef;pOfrsm;wGif Edik if aH &;
ya,m* tuif;qH;k jzpfEikd &f ef aqmif&u G Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? aemufq;kH pDrcH suf
xGufay:vmaomtcg xdktcsuftvufrsm;tay: tajccHItm;vHk;
oabmwlnrD &_ atmif wdu k wf eG ;f aqmif&u G Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf?
81
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

rnfonfhae&modk@a&mufatmifoGm;vdkoenf;?
trsK;d om;w&yfv;kH . wlnaD omtjrifw&yfxw k ,f &l &SEd ikd &f eftwGuf wEdik if H
vH;k twdik ;f twmod@k aqG;aEG;t}uH&,lrr_ sm; jyKvkyo f nf? xd@k tjyif Tod@k
aqG;aEG;t}uH&,laomvkyif ef;pOftm;jzifh vlxt k m;vH;k u TpDrcH suu f kd
olwdk@.udk,fydkifpDrHcsuf wcktjzpf cH,loabmaygufvmapa&;twGuf
jzpfonf? tpd;k &u csrw S af y;aompDrcH suo f ufouf[k xifrw S rf aeapa&;
twGujf zpfonf? ta&S@waD rm&Sd aus;&Gmtm;vH;k eD;yg;jzpfaom &Gmaygi;f
(500) ausmfY tvkyf&HkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;jyKvkyfonf? xdkaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;wGif
ta&S@waD rmEdik if t H aejzifh ouU&mZf 2020 Yrnfuo hJ @kd aom Edik if t H jzpf
jrifvo kd enf;[laom ar;cGe;f udk &Gmom;tm;vH;k od@k ajzaponf? vlxrk sm;
tm;vHk;twGuf ta&;t}uD;qHk; OD;pm;ay;vkyfief; (3) ckrSm rnfonfh
vkyfief;rsm; jzpfoenf;? TOD;pm;ay;vkyfief;rsm;wGifvnf; aemuf
qufwaJG r;cGe;f rsm; qufajz aponf? olw@kd .tjrif (ar#mrf eS ;f csu)f twdik ;f
&&Sdapa&;twGufausmfv$m;&rnfh jy\emrsm;u rnfonfhjy\em
rsm;jzpfonf[k ,lqygoenf;? Tjy\emrsm;udk rnfonfhenf;jzifh
ajz&Sif;Edkifrnfenf;? Tjy\emrsm;ajz&Sif;ay;a&;twGuf vlxkrsm;u
rnfuJhodk@ulnDay;Edkifrnfenf;? vlxkvlwef;pm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u
rnfonft h cef;u¾u 0ifa&mufun l D ajz&Si;f ay;Edik f oenf;? yk*v ~ u d
vkyfief;&Sifrsm;taejzifh rnfonfhtcef;u¾u ulnDajz&Sif;ay;=u
rnfenf;? tpd;k &taejzifh rnfuo hJ @kd aqmif&u G af y;Edik f oenf;? pojzifh
ar;cGef;rsm; ajzaponf? TuJhodk@aom vlxkrsm;ESifhaqG;aEG;aom
avhusichf ef;rsm;rSm ta&;}uD;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm trsK;d om;w&yfv;kH
twGuf wlnaD omtjrif (ar#mrf eS ;f csu)f w&yfcsrw S Ef ikd cf +hJ yD; zG@H +zdK;r_ vkyif ef;
rsm; twGuv f nf; OD;pm;ay;tpDtpOfrsm;csrw S f Edik cf ahJ oma=umifh jzpfonf?
vltrsm;. oabmwlnrD &_ &ef udpo P nfvnf; ta&;}u;D yg onf? od@k ro S m
tem*gwfpDrHcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif acsmarG@vG,ful
aprnf jzpfonf? tu,fI TudprP sm;udk tajymif;tvJvyk f vdyk gu
vlxkxH jyefoGm;I t}uH^m%f &,l&efyifjzpfonf? Tenf;tm; jzifh
xdyfydkif;EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;twGif;Yvnf; rvdktyfaom tjiif;yGg;
r_rsm;udk avsmeh nf;ap+yD;/ vlxrk sm;twGuv f nf; ajyma&;qdck iG &hf vmap
onf? ta&S@waD rmEdik if o H pftwGuf ta&;w}uD; vkyaf qmif&efupd rP sm;

82
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

tjzpf owfrSwfcJhaom OD;pm;ay;vkyfief;rsm;rSm — rlvwef;ynma&;/


tajccHuse;f rma&;apmifh a&SmufrE_ iS hf v,f,mpdu
k yf sK;d a&; (q,fajrmif;a&
ay;a&;) ESihf tajccHtaqmuftODjzpfaom vrf;yef;qufo, G af &;udprP sm;
jzpf=uonf?

rnfodk@rnfyHkoGm;=urnfenf;?
Tae&mwGif rdrw d @kd omG ;vdak om &nfreS ;f csurf sm;&&Sad &;twGuf (5) ESpf
pDru H ed ;f rsm;a&;qG&J ef aqmif&u G &f mwGif t"duu|r;f usio f rl sm;. tcef;
u¾a&mufvm=uonf? wEdik if v H ;kH rS t}uH&,la&;qGpJ pk nf;xm;aom
“ouU&mZf 2020 trsK;d om;ar#mrf eS ;f csu”f ESifh “u¾tvdu k Of ;D pm;ay;
vkyif ef;rsm;” u wpHv k ;kH +cHKiHrk ad om ausm&d;k awG;ac:r_uakd y;xm;+yD; jzpf&m
u|rf;usifolynm&Sifrsm;taejzifh r[mAsL[mrsm;ESifh oufqdkif&mrl0g'
rsm;udk qufvufa &;qGJ=uonf? Ta&;qGJxm;aom r[mAsL[mESifh
rl0g'rsm;u trsK;d om;zG@H +zKd ;r_prD u H ed ;f . tpdwt f ydik ;f rsm;jzpfvmawmhonf?
xdt k csed w f iG yf if yk*v~ u d vkyif ef;rsm;ESiahf omfvnf;aumif;/ tpd;k &r[kwf
aom tzG@J tpnf;rsm; (tJe-f *s-D td)k rsm;ESiahf omfvnf;aumif;/ Edik if aH &;
ygwrD sm;ESihf aomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;aompdwyf g0ifpm;oltiftm;pkrsm;
ESihf t+ydKifaqG;aEG;r_rsm;/ t}uH&,lrr_ sm;vnf; jyKvkyaf qmif&u G af eao;
onf? Tvkyif ef;tpDtpOfEiS hf b¾ma&;bwf*suu f kd trsK;d om;ygvrD mefrS
uef@uu G of rl &Sd wcJeufoabmwl ay;onf? Edik if w H umrdom;pkrv S nf;
Tvkyif ef;rsm;aqmif&u G af er_tay: tifwu kd t f m;wdu k tf m;ay;=uonf?
aemufq;kH wGif TtpDtpOfrsm;onf tpd;k &vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;twGuf
Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f jynfrsm;rS tv_&iS rf sm;/ zG@H +zdK;a&;tultnDay;a&; rdwaf qG
EdkifiHrsm;qufqH&mY vufudkifxm;&rnfh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;rlwck
ozG,fjzpfvmcJhonf? EdkifiH&yfjcm;rS tultnDay;a&;pDrHcsufrsm;wifjy
tqdjk yKvmygu rdrw d @kd qx JG m;aom r[mAsL[m. tpdwt f ydik ;f ESiuhf ukd n
f D
aom pDrcH surf sm;udo k m vufco H nf? rdrv d yk if ef;pOfwiG f rnfo@kd tm;jznfh
rnfudk pOf;pm;aomyHkpHjzpfvmapcJhonf? odk@aomf trsKd;om;zGH@+zdK;a&;
pDrcH sut f wdik ;f taumiftxnfazmfa&; twGuv f yk if ef;rsm;wGif tcuf
tcJjy\emrsm;pGmESifh &ifqdkifae&ygao;onf? ta=umif;rSm T
r[mAsL[mygvyk if ef;pOfrsm;ESihf rl0g'rsm;udk vufawG@taumiftxnf

83
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

azmfEikd af &; twGuf tao;pdwv f yk if ef;pOfrsm;/ pDru


H ed ;f rsm;/ ya&m*surf sm;
a&;qG&J mwGif u|r;f usio
f l rjynfrh pHrk vHrk avmufjzpfaeaoma=umifyh if
jzpfonf?

rdrdwdk@vkyfief;wdk;wufr_rsm;udkrnfuJhodk@wdkif;wm=urnfenf;?
rdrdwdk@vkyfief;rsm; atmifjrifwdk;wufr_rsm;udk wdkif;wm=uaom
vkyif ef;tqifrh mS ,ae@umvta&S@waD rmwGif aqmif&u G af eqJ udpjP zpf
onf? rdrw d @kd taejzifh aumufc&H &Sad omtcsut f vuf ude;f *%ef;a'wm
rsm;tay: tajcjyKI oifhawmfaom owfrSwf&nfrSef;csuf (ypfrSwf)
rsm;xm; &So d nf? xdo k @kd ypfrw S rf sm;xm;&S&d mY rdrw d @kd wiG f tcuftcJtuef@
towf &Sad eaom aiGtm;/ vltm;/ enf;ynmponfw@kd ukd xnfw h u G f
csichf sed u
f m aemif (5) ESpt f =umwGif jzpfapvdak om &vm'fEiS hf csed x f ;kd I
vufawG@us aomypfrw S &f nfreS ;f csurf sm; csrwS yf rkH sK;d jzpfonf?

zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufa&;twGuf tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;udk rnfuo


hJ @kd
vrf;xGif=urnfenf;?

(ta&S@wDarmrS) &&Scd ahJ omoifcef;pmrsm;ESihf t}uHjyKcsurf sm;?

aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;yGJvkyfief;pOfrsm;
(ta&S@waD rm. aqmif&u G cf &hJ r_rsm;teufr)S rdrw
d @kd &&Scd ahJ om ta&;
t}uD;qH;k oifcef;pmwckrmS acgi;f aqmifrt _ wGi;f Y pnf;vH;k nD!w G rf _ &Sad e
&efjzpfonf? EdkifiHwumaiGa=u;b¾ma&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;jzpf=uaom
urBmb h %f/ tm&Sz@HG +zdK;a&;b%f/ Edik if w H umaiGa=u;&HyakH iGtzG@J ponfw@kd rS
ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf vufcaH wG@qakH omtcg rnfo@kd rnfyo kH abmxm;
rnf/ rnfo@kd rnfyv kH ufcH awG@qrkH nfukd acgi;f aqmifrsm;tcsi;f csi;f =um;Y
}udKwifnE‡d i_d ;f xm;jcif;rsm;/ wlnaD omoabmxm;&,lxm;jcif;rsm; &So d ifh
onf? (ta&S@waD rmtawG@t}uHKt&) Edik if w H umtzG@J tpnf;rsm; tae
jzifh rdrdwdk@udkcsOf;uyfvm=u&mY tcgrsm;pGmwGif pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;
oabmwlvufrw S af &;xd;k &ef pmcsKyfrsm;xlxpJ mG ,laqmifvmwwf=u+yD;

84
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

‚if;pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;wGif a&;om;xm;aompmom;rsm;rSmvnf;
vltrsm;em;rvnfEikd af om ynm&Sit f oH;k tE_;H rsm;ESihf a&;om;xm;=u
onf? xdk udprP sm;udk qH;k jzwfta=umif;jyefay;&efupd rP sm;udv k nf; tcsed w
f kd
twGi;f jyef=um;ay;yg&ef ZGww f ukd w
f eG ;f E_;d aqmfwwf=uonf? t}udrrf sm;
pGmwGif Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;ab;Y enf;ynmydik ;f qdik &f mt& t}uHay;
Edik o
f rl sm;r&S=d uyJ xdo k rl sm;qH;k jzwfcsucf say;&efwu kd w
f eG ;f aeaom udp&P yf
rsm;Y rnfonft h ESpo f m&oabmaqmifa=umif; oabmrayguEf ikd jf zpf=u
&onf?

vufawG@t}uHjyKcsufrsm;
• tu,fI Edik if w
H umaiGa=u;b¾ma&;tzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS ud,
k pf m;
vS,rf sm;ESihf awG@qckH iG jhf yK&efawmif;cHvmygu (od@k r[kw)f Edik if EH pS cf k
t=um; tusK;d wly;l aygi;f aqmif&u G af &; tultnDupd rP sm;twGuf
aqG;aEG;p&mudprP sm;twGuf awG@qckH iG ahf wmif;vmygu oif.ab;
em;wGif Oya'ydkif;qdkif&m t&t}uHay;Edkifaomol ,Hk=unf&
avmufaom enf;ynmydik ;f qdik &f mt}uaH y;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf twlom
vufcaH wG@qkH oifo h nf?
• tu,fI oifuqH;k jzwfta=umif;jyefay;&ef pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;
udk &ufwt kd wGi;f om}udKwif&&Syd gu/ (tu,fI pm&Gupf mwrf;
rsm;uvnf; oif.vufaxmuf0efxrf;rsm; em;vnfEikd rf nfqykd g
u) olw@kd ukd ay;Iaocsmavhvm cdik ;f apoifo h nf? +y;D aemufawG@&dS
csufrsm;udk rdrdxHodk@jyefvnfwifjy t}uHjyKcdkif;apoifhonf?
oifxh o
H @kd jyefvnfwifjyaom pmwrf;taejzifh wdw k o dk mjzpfoifh
onf? (2 - 3 rsuEf mS xuf rydak p&)? zwfIavhvmcdik ;f xm;aom
pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk +cHKiHkrdaom “tr_aqmifvl}uD;rsm;zwf&ef
tESpfcsKyf” (Executive Summary) yHpk rH sK;d jzpfapoifo h nf?
• oifw
h iG f Tpm&Gupf mwrf; (pmcsKyf) rsm;ESiyhf gwo
f ufI oif.enf;
ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&m t}uHay;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;&ef tcsdeftvHkt
avmuf&apoifhonf? xdkaemufrSom tv_&SifEdkifiHrsm; tzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;. ud, fk pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf awG@qo
kH ifo
h nf?

85
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

vlom;t&if;tjrpfjy\em?

ta&S@wDarmEdkifiHtaejzifh EdkifiHjyifywGifaexdkif=uaomolrsm;xJrS
wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;rnfr#&o dS nf/ rnfonfah e&mrsm;wGif aexdik =f uonf
udk }udKwifI vlom;t&if;tjrpfppfwrf;aumuf,rl _ jyKxm;Edik cf o hJ nf?
xdkodk@ wwfodynm&Sifrsm;taejzifh tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;wGif jzpfysufcJhaom
tajctaersm;udk oifcef;pm,lEikd cf +hJ yD;/ ta&S@waD rmwGif tvm;wljzpf&yf
rsK;d rjzpfap&ef umuG,af qmif&u G f t}uaH y;Edik cf =hJ uonf? od@k ygaomfvnf;
rdrw d @kd taejzifh rdrw
d @kd . tawmfq;kH taumif;qH;k ynm&Sirf sm;udk vufvw G f
oGm;cJ&h onfh tajctaersm;vnf; &Scd o hJ nf? Edik if w H umrdom;pkrsm; tzG@J
tpnf;rsm;rS pdwaf pwemxufxufoefoefjzifh ta&S@waD rmEdik if o H @kd tul
tnDay;csifaecsdefwGif rdrdwdk@a'ocHrsm;. pGrf;aqmif&nfenf;yg;r_rsm;
a=umifh tultnDrsm; tjynfht0vufcHr&,lEdkifaom tajctae
vnf;&SdcJhonf? tajccHta=umif;rsKd;pHk&Sdaomfvnf; ta=umif;wckrSm
vlrsm;tm;vH;k udv k cwajy;nD ay;r_jzpfonf? xdt k wGuaf =umifh tcsK@d
aom ynm&Sirf sm;udk qufvufxed ;f xm;Edik af &; cufvmonf? Tod@k
vc wajy;nDay;aomrla=umifh jynfyod@k a&mufae=uaom ta&S@waD rm
wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;udk rqGaJ qmifEikd af wmhay? xdo k rl sm;rSm wajz;ajz;ESihf
rdrdaexdkif&if; EdkifiHrsm;odk@jyefoGm;=uawmhonf? ta&S@wDarmEdkifiHtzdk@
rdr. d tawmf qH;k u|r;f usio f rl sm; qH;k &_;H =u&onf? xdEk ikd if &H yfjcm;a&muf
wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;zufu jyef=unfyh guvnf; Edik if EH pS cf w k iG cf I
G aexdik f
ae=uaom rdom;pkrsm;. 0efux kd ed ;f odr;f Edik af &;qdo k nfrmS Tvkycf rsK;d jzifh
rjzpfEdkif=u? Twwfodynm&Sifrsm;taejzifh EdkifiHtwGufta&;ygaom
tcef;u¾rsm;jzpfaom tqifjh rifrh efae*smrsm;wm0efukd aqmif&u G jf znfh
qD;ay;Edkifolrsm; jzpf=uonf? EdkifiHwGif;&Sdyk*~dKvfrsm; EdkifiH&yfjcm;odk@
oifwef;rsm;oGm;aecsed w f iG f tpm;xd;k aqmif&u G af y;Edik o
f rl sm; jzpf=uonf?
tqifjh rifph rD cH ef@caJG &;acgi;f aqmifrsm; tqifjh rifrh efae*smrsm; vdt k yf
aeaom jy\emonf ,ae@ta&S@wDarmtkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mydkifrsm;
&ifqdkif}uHKawG@ae&aom jy\emjzpfonf? ajz&Sif;&ef acgif;cJaeaom
jy\emvnf; jzpfonf? rnfo@kd yifjzpfap vuf&adS jz&Si;f aer_ yHpk rH sK;d jzifh
qufvufwnf+ird af tmifxed ;f odr;f xm;a&;qdo k nfrmS Edik if t
H wGuv f eG pf mG

86
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

cufcaJ omudpP jzpfonf? vuf&adS jz&Si;f aeyHrk mS ta&S@waD rmjynforl sm;udk


Edik if wH umod@k paumfvm&Sprf sm;/ ynmawmfoifrsm;apv$wI f xdv k pfvyf
aeaom ae&mrsm;Y Edik if jH cm;wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;jzifh tpm;xd;k ajz&Si;f ae&
jcif; jzpfonf? Tod@k ajz&Si;f yHk yHpk rH mS ukeu f spm;&dw}f uD;jrif+h yD; a&&Snx f ed ;f
odr;f &efvnf; cufcv J o
S nf? jzpfoifo h nfrmS jynfya&muf rdrEd ikd if o H m;
rsm;udk jyefvnfpnf;&H;k jcif;rsK;d om jzpfoifo h nf? rnfonfEh ikd if aH &;aemufcH
tzG@J tpnf;rS vmvm/ rnfonfEh ikd if rH v S mvm pnf;&H;k oifo h nf? olw@kd .
wwfu|r;f usirf E_ iS hf t&nftcsi;f udv k u
kd I f cHpm;cGirhf sm;udv
k nf; wd;k jri‡ ahf y;
oifhonf? odk@aomfvnf; EdkifiHjcm;ynm&Sifrsm;udk ay;ae&oavmuf
ukeu f svrd rhf nf r[kwof nfrmS aocsmonf?

vufawG@t}uHjyKcsufrsm;
• oif. txl;c|eq
f ;kH olrsm;udk a&G;cs,yf g? xdo
k rl sm;udk ae&mrSev
f rl eS f
&if;ES;D jrKwfEo
HS nft
h aejzifh ae&mcsxm;yg?
• tpd;k &. vlx0k efaqmifrv
_ yk if ef;rsm;onf Edik if aH &;ya,m* (pGuf
zufr)_ uif;&Si;f r_&adS p&ef txl;ta&;}uD;ygonf? rnfonfEh ikd if aH &;
ygwDaemufcHjzifh vmonfudkr=unfhyJ/ t&nftcsif;jynfh0aom
u|r;f usio
f rl sm;udo k m wm0efxrf;aqmifap oifo h nf? xdo
k rl sm;
udk qkay;'%fay;jyKvkyf&mYvnf; tvm;wlt*wduif;pGm
aqmif&Gufoifhonf?
• Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;t=um;wGif tjyef
tvSe, f =kH unfr_ &Sod ifo
h nf? tu,fI Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;u
rdrv
d x
l xk rJ S wwfoyd nm&Sirf sm;udk r,H=k unfy/J Edik if w
H umt}uH
ay;rsm;udk ydIk ,H=k unfaeygu ud,k u f sK;d enf;Edik o
f nf?
• rwlujJG ym;aom tjriftrsK;d rsK;d udk axmifph akH tmif em;axmifoifh
onf/ wifjycGijhf yKoifo
h nf? rdr. d Edik if aH &;ygwrD S vlrsm;. t}uH
ay;csurf sm;jzifo
h m usO;f ajrmif;I ra&mif&h aJ poifah y? &&SEd ikd o
f r#
aom t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm;vH;k udk toH;k cs&efvo kd nf?
• rdrv
d x
l rk sm;xJrS ynmwwfy*k Kd~ vfrsm;udk Edik if w
H umtzG@J tpnf;
rsm;/ Edik if w
H um tJe-f *s-D tdrk sm;xJrS qGaJ qmiford ;f oGi;f oGm;jcif;
87
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

rsKd;rjzpf atmifa&SmifusOfoifhonf? a'ocH0efxrf;rsm;udkvnf;


wef;wl&nf wlvcay;ygrnf [laom }udKwifoabmwlnrD r_ sK;d udk
Edik if w
H um tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf }udKwif&,l xm;oifo
h nf?

pDrHudef;rsm;a&;qGJjcif;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&,ljcif;?
rwlujJG ym;aomtv_&iS Ef ikd if rH sm;ESihf tzG@J tpnf;rsm;=um;wGif pDru H ed ;f rsm;
a&;qGJjcif;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&,ljcif;udpPrsm;tm;vHk;udk tpdk;&
vufxYJ csKyfuikd x f m;Edik &f ef ta&;}u;D ygonf? yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf _ &,ljcif;
udprP sm;udk urBmb h %fvt kd zG@J tpnf;rsK;d u vG,v f ,
G Ef iS hf ulnaD qmif&u G f
ay;Edik o
f nf[k qdv k mEdik o f nf? od@k aomfow l @kd tay:rScD I kd TudprP sm;udk
vufvw $ f rxm;oifah y? rwlujJG ym;aomtv_&iS rf sm;/ tzG@J tpnf;toD;
oD;udk qufq&H eftwGuf rdru d ,kd yf ikd rf rl sm; &Sx
d m;oifo h nf? rdrEd ikd if tH wGuf
vufrw S x f ;kd vdu
k &f onfh tvSLaiG (*&ef@aiG) rsm;udk rdrEd ikd if t H wGi;f oH;k pGJ
ap&ef pepfwuspDppf&rnf jzpfonf? trsm;pkaom tvSLaiGrsm;rSm
enf;ynm qdik &f maxmufyu hH nl D t}uHay;r_upd rP sm;ESihf ukeo f mG ;wwf=u
onf? qdv k okd nfrmS — olw@kd t}uHay;0efxrf;rsm;vpmESihf ukeo f mG ;wwf
+yD;/ 0ifvmonfhaiGu olwdk@ukd,fwdkifjyefoHk;oGm;onfh tajctaersKd;
jzpfwwfonf?

vufawG@t}uHjyKcsufrsm;
• pDrHudef;rsm;a&;qGJjcif;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_&,ljcif;udpPrsm;
twGuf tpd;k &twGi;f wGif oD;oef@,el pfwckz@JG I xm;&So
d ifo
h nf?
oif.&Sdaeaom vlom;t&if;tjrpfrsm;xJrS aqG;aEG;&eft&nf
tcsi;f u|r;f usio
f /l rdr,
d =kH unf&avmuforl sm;udk TXmersK;d wGif
wm0efay;tyf oifo h nf?
• EdkifiHwumtvSL&Sifrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;vHk;ESifh aumif;rGef
eD;pyfaomqufqHa&;udk xdef;odrf;xm;&rnf? tvSL&SiftzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;. zG@J pnf;xm;&Syd pkH epfEiS hf vkyif ef;vkyu
f ikd af qmif&u
G yf kH
rsm;udk aocsmavhvmxm;oifo h nf? Tenf;tm;jzifh oif.vuf
axmufrsm;u tvSL&Sit f zG@J tpnf;rsm;.owif;rsm;udk od&adS e+y;D /

88
tDrv
D ,
D myD&ufpf

rnfuohJ @kd aom pDrcH su/f ya&m*surf sK;d udk rnfonft


h zG@J tpnf;rsK;d rS
ulnD Edik af =umif;oifuh kd t}uHay;Edik =f urnf jzpfonf?
• ulnaD xmufyrHh a_ iGrsm;pD;qif;oGm;vmaeyHEk iS hf rSww
f rf;rsm;/ Edik if H
twGi;f tusK;d jzpfxeG ;f r_rwS wf rf;rsm; (Database) pepfwusjyKpk
xm;oifo h nf? od@k roS m axmufyrhH a_ iGrsm;udk repfem&apatmif
vdu
k v
f oH rd ;f qnf; Edik rf nfjzpfonf? Tod@k rjyKpkxm;ygu vkyif ef;
xyfwljzpfaeonfrsm;/ aiGrsm;tv[ojzpf&r_rsm;udk umuG,f
wm;qD;Edik rf nf jzpfonf?
• vkyu
f ikd af eaom pDrcH suf (ya&m*su)f rsm;wGif t&nftaoG;jr‡ihf
wifa&;oifwef;rsm; yg0ifapa&;udk tav;xm;oifo
h nf? oifvkd
tyfcsufrsm;udk ay;tyfaomtultnDrsm;xJrS xyfrHItao;
pdwjf znfph u
G u
f m awmif;qdEk ikd o
f nf?
• vkyu
f ikd af eaom pDrcH suf (ya&m*su)f rsm;wGif vlrsm;rsm;tvkyf
tudik af y;Edik af &;udk tav;xm;oifo h nf? tcsK@d aom udprP sm;wGif
pDrcH surf sm;taeESihf aES;aumif;aES;Edik o
f nf? od@k aomfvrl sm;rsm;
tvky&f apaom pDrcH surf sm;jzpfap&rnf? pufrsm;ESihf aqmif&u G f
yguvkyif ef;+y;D jrefonf rSeaf omfvnf;/ rdrvd x
l rk sm; tvkyrf &apyg?
oifhtaejzifh Ttcsufrsm;udkwGufcsufI csifhcsdefoifhonf?
qH;k jzwfcsuo f nf oift h ay: Yom wnfonf?

tkyfpkvdkufaqG;aEG;yGJ&vm'frsm;.tESpfcsKyf
aqG;aEG;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJwufa&mufolrsm;u ar;cGef;rsm;ar;&mwGif
trsK;d om;pDru H ed ;f a&;qG&J mwGif vlxrk sm;taejzifyh g0ify;l aygi;f aqmif&u G f
vmatmif rnfuJhodk@wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmfcJhoenf;[k ar;=uygonf? rpP
yJ&ufpf u&Si;f jy&mY xdo k @kd y;l aygi;f aqmif&u G &f ef wdu
k w f eG ;f E_;d aqmfcsuf
rsm;udk vlr_todkif;t0dkif;xJrS tjyKoabmxm;&Sdolrsm;rSwqifh aomf
vnf;aumif;/ owif;rD'D,mrsm;rSwqifh ,ckvGwfvyfa&;&vmaom
tcsed Yf vlxyk ;l aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;onf rnfr#ta&;}u;D a=umif; ynmay;
0g'jzef@csjd cif; jzifv
h nf;aumif; aqmif&u G cf o
hJ nf[k &Si;f jyygonf? aus;&Gm
tqifh ndE‡ id_ ;f aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;Y vlxrk sm;udk (Oyrmtm;jzifh — wdik ;f jynf.

89
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

qif;&Jaer_ tajctaeoH;k oyfcsuu f kd &Si;f jyjcif;tm;jzif)h vlxrk sm;udv k nf;


vuf&Sd tajctaeESifhygwfoufI em;vnfoabmaygufvmatmif
&Si;f vif;jy Edik cf o
hJ nf? xd@k tjyif vlxrk sm;ESiEhf ;DS aESmaqG;aEG;yGrJ S &vm'frsm;udk
tpD&ifcpH m pmtkyif ,frsm;jzifh jyefvnfwifjyay;onf[k rpPy&J ufpf u
&Sif;jyonf?
aqG;aEG;yGJwufa&mufolrsm;u vlom;t&if;tjrpfta&;}uD;yHkudk
oabmwlvufcH=uaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh wwfod
ynm&Sirf sm;t=um; jy\emrsm;jzpfEikd yf u kH kd axmufjy=uonf? rpPy&J ufpf
u &Si;f jy&mY ta&S@waD rmEdik if t H aejzifh wwfEikd pf rG ;f aom rdrv
d rl sK;d wwfod
ynm&Sifrsm;pGmudk olwdk@udktodtrSwfjyK vkyfcGifhay;aomae&m tae
txm;ESifh olwdk@&aom vpmenf;aoma=umifh qHk;&_H;epemcJh&a=umif;
ajymjyonf? jynfya&mufaeaom ta&S@waD rmEdik if o H m;rsm;pGmrSm tp
yxru wdik ;f jynfo@kd jyefvmcJ=h uaomfvnf; wdik ;f jynfYqufvufraeyJ
jyefomG ;=ua=umif; ajymjyonf? wwfu|r;f aom wwfoyd nm&Siw f OD;
onf pepfwckudkxdef;odrf;Edkifoljzpfovdk t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;udkvnf;
vufcEH ikd af om yGiv hf if;oljzpfa=umif; tkycf sKyforl sm;ESiahf omfvnf; aumif;/
Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;ESihf aomfvnf;aumif; ajyvnfatmif qufqH
wwfolrsm;jzpfa=umif; &Sif;jyonf? aumif;rGefaom wuUEdkc&uf ac:
wwfoyd nm&Siw f OD;udk &SmazG&cufcaJ =umif; &Sm;yg;a=umif; xdt k wGuf
a=umifh xdo k rl sm;udk aumif;rGex f u
kd w
f efpmG vcay;xm;&efvt kd yf+yD;/ rdrd
twGuf tvkyfvkyfay;rnfholrsm; jzpfvmap&ef pnf;&Hk;oifha=umif;
&Sif;jyonf?

NOTE:
1
National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT)

90
Edik if w
H umrS a[majymolynm&Sirf sm;?

“jrefrmEdik if zH ŒHG _zdK;wd;k wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;”


tqifjh rifah cgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf
usif;yaomaqG;aEG;ES;D aESmyGJ
aemufqufwGJ

Edik if w
H umrS a[majymolynm&Sirf sm;?
“jrefrmEdkifiHzGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;”
tqifhjrifhacgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf
usif;yaomaqG;aEG;ESD;aESmyGJ
2002 ckEpS /f ZEM0g&D (8) &ufae@rS (12) &ufae@txd
trsK;d om;'Dru kd a&pDwyfaygi;f pk (NDF) / jynfaxmifpw
k ikd ;f &if;om;rsm;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) (UNLD- LA) ESifh 'uf
[rfrm;&_d;azmifa';&Sif; (Dag Hammarskjold Foundation) wdk@rS
OD;aqmifusi;f yonf? trsK;d om;jyefvnf &if=um;apha&;tpDtpOf (NRP)
rS yHyh ;kd ulno
D nf?

a0gvf'if b,fvdk
Walden Bello
a0gv'f if b,fvo kd nf xdik ;f Edik if H befaumuf+rdK@wiG t
f ajcpduk af om
ay:vpDa&;&m okawoe tzG@J wzG@J jzpfonfh (Focus on the Global
South) tzG@J (awmifurBmjcrf;a'o txl;jyKavhvma&;tzG@J ) udk pwif
wnfaxmifol n$e}f um;a&;rSL; jzpfonf? xdt k &ifu u,fvzD ;kd eD;,m;jynf
e,f/ tkwuf vef+rdK@&dS pm;a&&dumQ ESihf zG@+H zdK;wd;k wufa&; rl0g'qdik &f mXme
(pm;a&&dumQ yXr) tr_aqmif!eG }f um;a&;rSL;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
cJo
h nf?
y&ifhpwefwuUodkvfwGif ynmqnf;yl;cJh+yD;/ ,if;wuUodkvfrSyif
1975 ck E S p f w G i f vl r _ a &;aA'bmom&yf j zif h yg&*l b G J @ &&S d c J h o nf ?
bG@J &+yD;aemuf u,fvzD ;kd eD,m;wuUov kd f (bmuav+rdK@) Y pmoif=um;
ay;aepOf/ xdk wuUov kd af usmif;&Sd ta&S@awmiftm&Sqikd &f m avhvma&;
XmeY wGzJ ufIokawoDtjzpf wm0ef,cl o hJ nf?
olonf EdkifiHwum w&m;r#wr_ ESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;twGuf
v_y&f mS ;r_ wGif vlord sm;xif&mS ;aom OD;aqmifwu kd yf 0JG ifol wOD; jzpf+yD;/
rsufarSmuf urBmhvkH;qdkif&m pDyGm;a&;tpDtpOftcif;tusif;wGif
awmifurBmzufjcrf; zG+H zKd ;qJEikd if rH sm;ESiyhf gwo
f ufI OD;aqmifa0zefaeaom
93
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

vGwfvyfaom woD;yk*~vynm&SifwOD; jzpfonf? olonf atmufyg


pmtkyrf sm;tygt0if pmtkyaf ygi;f rsm;pGmudk a&;om;cJo
h nf?
"A Siamese tragedy: Development and Disintegration in Modern
Thailand"
“xdik ;f Edik if .
H tjzpfq;kd / acwfopfxikd ;f Edik if .
H zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrE_ iS hf +ydKuGrJ ”_
(Shea Cunningham) ESihf (Li Kheng Poh) wd@k Ei St hf wlwIJG a&;om;
cJo
h nf? (1999 ckEpS )f
"Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment and Glo-
bal Poverty"
“ar#mv f ifch suu
f if;rJah omatmifyJG — tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k tajccH
taqmufttkHjyefvnfzGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufr_tpDtpOfESifh urBmvkH;
qdik &f m qif;&JraJG wr_”
( Shea Cunningham) ESit hf wla&;om;cJo
h nf? (1994 ckEpS )f
"People and Power in the Pacific: The Struggle for the Post-Cold
War"
“ypPzd w
d af 'ojynforl sm;ESithf m%m? ppfat;vGeaf cwftwGuf &ke;f uef
}udK;yrf;r_” (1992 ckEpS f )
"Dragons in Distress: Asia's Miracle Economies in Crisis"
“txdem=uaome*g;rsm; — tm&S. tHrh cef;pD;yGm;a&;rSonf tusyf
twnf;rsm;qDodk@”
(Stephanie Rosenfeld) ESit
hf wlwI
JG a&;om;cJo
h nf? (1992 ckEpS )f
"Brave New Third World ? Strategies for Survival in the Global
Economy"
“owWdaumif;aom wwd,urBmh — urBmvkH;qdkif&mpD;yGm;a&;twGif;
&Sio
f efa&;r[mAsL[mrsm;” (1990 ckEpS )f
"Development Debacle: The World Bank in the Philippines"
“zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufr_ tdyrf uf+yKd uGyJ supf ;D oGm;jcif;? zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if EH iS hf urBmb
h %f”
(1982 ckEpS )f
"Deglobalization: Ideas for a New World Economy"
“*vkdb,fvdkufaZ;&Sif;udk qef@usif&yfwnfjcif;? urBmhpD;yGm;a&;tcif;
tusi;f opftwGuf t,ltqrsm;” ( 2002 ckEpS f )

94
aemufqufwGJ

&SDvm udkvdke,f
Sheila Coronel
1989 ckEpS rf S ,cktxd (The Philippine Center for Investiga-
tive Journalism) tzG@J tpnf;wGif tr_aqmif!e$ =f um;a&;rSL; wm0ef
,laeol jzpfonf? ,if;tzG@J tpnf;onf owif;rsm;udk aemufa=umif;
ajcajcjrpfjrpf pkpH rf;ppfaq;+yD; owif;ay;ydjk cif;udk txl;jyKaqmif&u G af e
aom vGwfvyfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpfonf? pD;yGg;a&;tusdK;tjrwf
twGuf aqmif&u G af ejcif;r[kwo f nf/h tpk&, S , f mrsm;xm;&Sjd cif; r&So
d nfh
tzGJ@wckjzpfonf? TtzGJ@. t}uD;tuJtjzpf pkHprf;ppfaq;I &&Sd
vmonfo h wif;rsm;/ aqmif;yg;rsm;udk ppfaq;}uD;=uyfjcif;/ aps;uGuw f iG ;f
tjcm;olrsm;pdw0f ifpm;ygu 0,f,t l oH;k cs Edik &f ef aps;uGuwf ifay;jcif;/
pmtkyrf sm;/ rSww f rf;qdik &f m pDruH ed ;f rsm;ud=k uyfrwfjcif;rsm; aqmif&u G f
&ygonf? 0efxrf; (16) a,mufukd vuf&pdS rD t H yk cf sKyfaeygonf? ,if;tzG@J rS
wESpfv#if av;}udrfxkwfa0aom pkHprf;ppfaq;a&;owif;r*~Zif;.
pmwnf; tjzpfvnf;aqmif&u G af eygonf?
1995 ckEpS rf S ,cktxd xdik ;f Edik if /H tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Edik if H ESihf eDaygEikd if w
H @kd &dS
owif;pmq&mrsm;twGuf pkpH rf;ppfaq;&onfh owif;ay;yd@k jcif;qdik &f m
oifwef;rsm;udk ay;cJoh nf?
1987 ck E S p f r S 1995 ck E S p f t xd e,l a ,mh w d k i f ; owif ; pmES i f h
vef'ef+rdK@EiS hf refcsupf wm+rdK@xw
k f onf*g', D efowif;pmrsm;. reDvm+rdK@
owif; axmuf tjzpfaqmif&u G cf o
hJ nf?
1986 ckEpS rf S 1988 ckEpS t
f xd reDvm oHawmfqifh (The Manila
Chronicle) owif;pmwGif txl;owif;a&;om;olEiS hf aqmifyg;&Siw f OD;
jzpfonf? ,if;owif;pmwGif owif;rsm;/ aqmif;yg;rsm;ESihf zdvpfyikd Ef ikd if .
H
rsuaf rSmufa&;&mrsm;udk a&;om;cJo
h nf?
1982 ckEpS rf S 1986 ckEpS t f xd zdvpfyikd f jrifuiG ;f us,f r*~Zif; (Phil-
ippine Panorama Magazine) wGif Edik if aH &;udprP sm;udk a0zefa&om;
oljzpfco
hJ nf? zdvpfyikd .
f Edik if aH &;ESihf vl@tzG@J tpnf;qdik &f mESihf ygwo
f uf
aomaqmif;yg;rsm;pGmudak &;om;cJo h nf?

95
jrefrmEdkifiHzHGŒ_zdK;wdk;wufa&;tjcm;enf;vrf;

&SJvf-atmfum aemh'fuGpf
Kjell-Ake Norkquist

Dr. Kjell-Ake Norkquist onf qG'D ifEikd if H tkyq


f mvm wuUovkd f
(Uppsala University) rSwGJzufygarmuQwOD;jzpf+yD; +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh
yÉdyuQqikd &f m okawoeXme. XmerSL;vnf; jzpfonf? ol. okawoe
vkyif ef;rsm;taejzifh a&&Snt f mrcHaom e,fjcm;rsO;f owfrw S af &;qdik &f m
oabmwlnDcsufrsm;/ udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk yÉdyuQajz&Sif;a&;
,E , W m;tjzpf toH;k csjcif;/ jynfwiG ;f ppfrsm;+yD;aemuf umvwGif vlra_ &;
ESiEhf ikd if aH &;t& jyefvnfoifjh rwfa&;aqmif&u G jf cif;udprP sm;ESihf ygwo
f ufI
okawoejyKcJhonf?
1997 ckEpS u f wnf;uyif Dr. Kjell-Ake Norkquist taejzifh
ta&S@waD rmvGwv f yfa&; &apcJo h nfjh zpfpOfwiG f yg0ifygwo f ufco hJ l jzpfonf?
tpydik ;f wGif ESpzf ufv;Hk uvlrsm;yg0ifaom ta&S@waD rm avhvma&;tpk
wcktwGuf ud, k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyfa&;ESihf yÉdyuQajz&Si;f a&;qdik &f m u|r;f usio f l
t}uHay;wOD;tjzpf yg0ifaqmif&u G cf yhJ gonf? 1999 ckEpS f qENc, H yl +JG yD;
aemufyikd ;f ESihf ,ae@umvwGirf l yÉdyuQjzpfc=hJ uonfh t"dutiftm;pk
(2) ckjzpfaom CNRT/Falintil ESihf tif'ekd ;D &Sm;udv k vkd m;aom jynfo@l ppf
tkyfpkwdk@t=um; =um;0ifaphpyfjzefajzay;olESifh aqG;aEG;awG@qHkyGJrsm;
uruxjyKpDpOfay;oltjzpf wm0ef,al eygonf? xd@k tjyif olonf qG'D if
Edik if t
H aejzifh Edik if wH um yÉdyuQrsm;ajz&Si;f a&;wGif rnfo@kd rnfy=kH um;0if
aqmif&u G o
f ifo h nfukd t}uHay;aom yk*Kd~ vfwOD;tjzpfvnf; aqmif&u G f
ygonf? xd@k jyif +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf yÉdyuQqikd &f m okawoeXmewm0ef&o dS l
wOD;taejzifh vufeufuikd yf ÉdyuQrsm;qufvufjzpfymG ;aeao;aom tif
tm;pkrsm;t=um; aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;udk qufvufppD Of aqmif&u G af eygonf?
Dr. Kjell-Ake Nordquist onf aemfa0Edik if EH iS hf eD;aoma'owck
wGif 1952 ckEpS u hJ nf? Inger ESiv
f zGm;jrifco hf ufxyfc+hJ yD; uav;ESpf
a,muf (Anna Lina and Carl Johan ) xGe;f um;onf? tm;vyfonfh
tcg taysmw
f rf;*Dwynm&Siw
f a,muftjzpf 0goemt& aqmif&u
G af vh
&So
d nf?

96
aemufqufwGJ

t,frDvD,m yD;,m;pf
Emilia Pires

t,frv D , D m yD;,m;pf onf ta&S@waD rm wGiaf rG;zGmcJ+h yD;D arG;csi;f


(7) a,mufwiG f orD;OD; jzpfonf? 1975 ckEpS f uwnf;u =opa=w;vsEikd if H
wGif 'kuo Q nftjzpfcv kd a_H exdik cf &hJ m wdik ;f jynfjyefa&mufonftxd (25)
ESpf=umonf? 1983 ckESpfwGif =opa=w;vsEdkifiH vmo&kyfwuUodkvfrS
(Latrobe University) rS 0dZm… bG@J (pm&if;tif;ynm) &&Scd o hJ nf? xdk aemuf
1994 ckEpS w f iG f rJvb f ek ;f wuUov kd rf S tpd;k &tkycf sKyfa&; Oya'rsm; qdik &f m
'Dyvdrk mbG@J &o dS nf? 0dw&kd , d c&dik .f vlxk 0efaqmifr_ vkyif ef;Xme (td;k tdr)f
wGif jynfo0l efxrf;f wOD;tjzpf (15) ESpf =umwm0efxrf;aqmif cJo h nf?
1999 ckESpfwGif CNRT OuUX Zmemem *wfpfrdk xHajymif;a&$@cJh+yD;
zG@H +zdK;r_qikd &f m t&m&Sw d OD;tjzpf wm0ef,cl o hJ nf? 2000 ckEpS w f iG f yxrOD;
qk;H aom ta&S@waD rm toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;=um;jzwftpd;k &. trdsK;om;
pDru H ed ;f ESihf zG@H +zdK;a&;at*sipf . D t}uD;tuJtjzpf/ xdt k csed Yf ukvor*~
rS wm0ef&o dS l t}uD;tuJ rpPwm qm*s, D kd AD&m 'Drv J ;kd (2003 ckEpS w f iG f
tD&wfYusqHk;) . cef@tyfwm0efay;jcif;cH&onf? t,frDvD,monf
'kwd, ta&S@wDarmtoGiful;ajymif;a&;tpdk;&vufxufwGifvnf;
pDrHudef;aumfr&Sif. twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf xyfrHwm0efay;cH&jyefonf?
ta&S@wDarmEdkifiH. yxrqkH;aom trsdK;om;wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;r_pDrHudef;udk
a&;qGJcJhonf?
avmavmq,fwiG f t,frv D ,
D monf wDarmvdpf 'Dru kd &ufwpf
orRwEdkifiH. pDrHudef;ESifhb¾ma&;0ef}uD;Xme. t}uD;wef;t}uHay;
t&m&SdwOD;tjzpf aqmif&Gufv#uf&Sdonf? olrtaejzifh trsdK;om;
wd;k wufz@HG +zdK;r_prD u
H ed ;f rsm; taumiftxnfaz:aer_ukd }uD;=uyfae&onfh
tjyif/ ta&S@waD rmEdik if t H m; jynfyrSaxmufyrhH r_ sm;ESihf ygwo
f ufI pDrcH ef@cJG
r_rsm; wm0ef,al qmif&u G af e&onf?

Ò Ò Ò Ò Ò

97
Preface
A democratic Burma - that is what we struggle for. We want
democracy, we want peace, and we want human rights to be
respected in our country. The most apparent hindrance to this
vision is the dictatorship of the military junta. Burma has been
ruled by the military for forty years. Forty years of brutal
oppression and extreme poverty.
The movement working for a democratic Burma is large
and diverse, but united in the struggle for democratic change.
The regime will fall one day and the power will once again be
in the hands of the peoples of Burma. This may take several
years, but it may also happen very soon. When this day comes
we have to be prepared to take this unique chance to shape a
new society based on the visions and beliefs of the peoples of
Burma.
At that point we will stand before a new set of challenges
and new kinds of massive pressure will be put on our country.
Not being prepared for this, not already having a plan for
development at this point, might lead us to a situation where
the majority of the population is alienated from the political
process once again. Years of struggle might have been in vain.
We may suddenly find ourselves in a situation where foreign
companies control our natural resources, thereby controlling
our exports. We may find ourselves highly indebted to
international financial institutions, forced to abide by their rules
and in effect handing over sovereignty to them.
Preparations have to start now. A participatory process
needs to be built right away to begin the formulation of
development strategies that are based on the thinking of the
Burmese, our own particular desires, visions, aspirations and
hopes - not on the models of northern countries and
international institutions. We have the benefit of being a late-
comer. We have a unique opportunity to learn from other
countries' mistakes and successes, and decide on our own way
from the very start.
99
Another Development for Burma

A seed has been planted for this process to grow. This


report is part of a project called Another Development for
Burma which aims to highlight some of the crucial choices
that we will have to make. Choices that will have a long-lasting
impact on the future of our country. These are issues that are
of immediate concern - as urgent as our daily struggle for
democracy and change of regime.
The project has a broad base in the Burmese democracy
movement and is so far organised by the National Democratic
Front and the United Nationalities League for Democracy -
Liberated Areas, through the National Reconciliation Program.
We are grateful for the collaboration with the Dag
Hammarskj?ld Foundation in this process, and would also like
to thank all other friends of Burma around the world that are
contributing. We hope that this report will stimulate discussions
on development issues that will spread among Burmese both
inside Burma and in exile.
To find our own path will not be an easy task. The post-
transitional challenge may very well be as demanding as our
immediate struggle to bring about the fall of the regime. To
be truly democratic and to be sustainable, this process must be
as inclusive as possible, incorporating people from all sectors
of society. We must all take on this challenge.

David Taw
Chair, Seminar coordinating committee

100
Introduction
This document contains summaries of the presentations
delivered at a high-level seminar for the leadership of the
Burmese democracy movement. It was held in Mae Sod,
Thailand, on 8-12 January 2003, and organised by the Dag
Hammarskjold Foundation together with the United Nation-
alities League for Democracy-Liberated Areas (UNLD-LA)
and the National Democratic Front (NDF) and in collaboration
with the National Reconciliation Program (NRP).
The seminar was the first in a series under the title of
'Another Development for Burma'. The purpose of the
seminar series is to present alternative perspectives on
development and to give participants an opportunity to
discuss important development issues beyond the immediate
liberation struggle.
The seminar was attended by more than 30 participants,
including international resource persons, Dag Hammarskj?ld
Foundation staff, NRP coordinators and organising committee
members. The following resource persons were invited to the
seminar: Kjell-Ake Nordquist from the Department of Peace
and Conflict Research at Uppsala University, Walden Bello
from Focus on the Global South in Bangkok/Manila, Sheila
Coronel from the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism
(PCIJ) in Manila and Emilia Pires from the Ministry of Planning
and Finances of East Timor.
The seminar was structured around presentations and
discussions on the nature of democratic transition, the role of
the media in strengthening democracy and public participation,
and globalisation and economic development. The East Timor
experience during transition and the post-transitional period,
especially in dealing with international institutions, was given
special attention.
The seminar was facilitated and chaired by Dr Chao Tzang
Yawnghwe (NRP), Teddy Buri (MPU) and David Taw (NDF).

101
Another Development for Burma

The lectures were translated into Burmese by Dr Naing Aung,


Nyo Ohn Myint and Dr Lian H Sakhong.
The presentations delivered at the seminar were: Kjell-
Ake Nordquist: Priorities in Transition and Post-Transitional
Challenges; Walden Bello: International Institutions,
Transnational Corporations and Globalisation: Future Challenges
and Alternative Perspectives; Sheila Coronel: The Role of Media
in the Struggle for Democracy, the Role of Media during Transition
and the Right to Know; Emilia Pires: Strategies for Development:
Experiences from East Timor.

The views expressed in the presentations are those of the


resource persons and participants and not necessarily the views
of the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation. The summaries have
been made at the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation and are
based on tape recordings made during the seminar.

102
The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation and
'Another Development'

The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation was founded in 1961


after the death of Dag Hammarskjold, the second Secretary-
General of the United Nations, preceding U Thant of Burma.
For more than 30 years it has worked in the area of alternative
development, with the aim of examining mainstream development
patterns and of highlighting perspectives and solutions from,
in particular, the South, the Third System (civil society) and
marginalised groups. By bringing together people from
different backgrounds, the Foundation's seminars seek to
inspire alternative and innovative thinking on a broad range of
issues.
The concept of 'Another Development' was formulated
in the Dag Hammarskjold Report What Now: Another
Development. This document was the main result of the 1975
Dag Hammarskjold Project on Development and International
Cooperation, in which 120 leading policy-makers and scholars
were involved. The report was submitted - as an independent
contribution - to the Seventh Special Session of the United
Nations General Assembly and published in six of the world's
major languages.
'Another Development', it was concluded by those
involved in the project, 'is people-centred, geared to the
satisfaction of basic human needs for all - both material and,
in its broadest sense, political; it is self-reliant, endogenous,
ecologically sound and based on democratic, political, social
and economic transformations which alone will make possible
the attainment of the other goals. Another development also
encompasses the search for societies overcoming discrimination
of any kind - be they social, sexual, ethnic or economic. It is a
participatory and pluralistic process.'
Since What Now, the Foundation has concentrated on
attempts to develop a wide range of alternative development
103
Another Development for Burma

strategies. These strategies have been elaborated in the


Foundation's seminars on health, education, science and
technology, genetic resources, biotechnology, information and
communication, international monetary policy and disarmament.
Much of these elaborations are reflected in the Foundation's
biannual journal Development Dialogue, available free of charge
on the web (www.dhf.uu.se).
Current focus
Currently, the Foundation is focusing its activities on three
projects areas:
- The What Next project, which aims to take stock of the
major trends in the 30 years since What Now and, more
importantly, to contribute to the identification of new
threats and challenges, the refinement and formulation of
new alternative visions and the exploration of innovative
strategies for change.
- A series of seminars exploring the social and environmental
implications of new technologies such as nanotechnology
(a first international seminar was held in 2001, followed
by regional seminars during 2001-2003).
- The seminar project Another Development for Burma,
jointly with the Burmese democracy movement, which
aims to stimulate critical discussion on alternative
development strategies for a future democratic Burma.

104
Summary of presentations

Priorities in Transition and


Post-Transitional Challenges

Kjell-Ake Nordquist of the Department of Peace and


Conflict Research at Uppsala University
Priorities in Transition and
Post-Transitional Challenges
Kjell-Ake Nordquist of the Department of Peace and
Conflict Research at Uppsala University

The first part of the presentation gives an overview of priorities


and challenges in transitional periods in general. The second
part poses some of the challenges that are common in post-transi-
tional periods, such as the question of responsibility, war repara-
tion and rehabilitation. The last section contains a summary of
the group discussions.

Priorities in transition
Every conflict has three components. These are conflict issues,
conflict behaviours and conflict attitudes. They can
influence each other, for example when we have a military
operation (conflict behaviour), which may influence the other
components by creating hardened attitudes, thus constructing
a vicious circle. In order to break the vicious circle we can act
to change any of the components. For a transition to take
place we need change in all three components. A transition
period is defined here as the period between the first
establishment of a change order, when the main actors have
decided on change, and the establishment of the new order,
for example a new constitution.
When we speak of priorities in transition, priorities are
generally identified for three different reasons: They can be
things that you do just because they are necessary and/or logical.
Secondly, priorities can be normative, based on judgement or
ideology. Thirdly, priorities can be based on limited resources,
e.g. lack of people, limited competence, or economic constraints.
A structural view of transition dimensions
Most societies can be seen as having three structural levels: the
top, the middle level and the grass roots. Each of these levels

107
Another Development for Burma

has its leaders. The middle-level leaders are strategically placed,


they represent a group that provides the basis for recruitment
to the top leadership, and they have access to both the top
leaders and the grass root leaders. The middle-level leaders are
a natural link between the top and the grass roots. Grassroot
leaders make up the group with credible access to the majority
of the population, a critical function in a democratic society.
All three levels are affected by a transitional process and should
of course be part of it. Thus, movements such as the Burmese
democracy movement need to address all three levels. It seems
important that the democracy movement, being both inside
and outside Burma, has connections with all levels in Burma
since transition will take place at all levels of Burmese society.
Another challenge is to coordinate actions at all three
levels. For the grass roots and middle levels to be inspired and
optimistic about general developments they need information
about top-level developments. A strategic decision for a
movement is whether to choose to work from a 'bottom-up'
perspective or to try to have direct access to the top level; or
to work through both approaches.

When are counterparts likely to start negotiating?


In a conflict situation the concept of a 'hurting stalemate' is
used to describe a stage at which parties are likely to start
negotiating. If the counterpart is facing increasing costs by
maintaining the status quo and at the same time cannot change
the situation to its advantage, it is a favourable time for a rational
counterpart to change its behaviour from violence to negotiation.

Ending a protracted civil war: a textbook example


The most critical dimensions of societies in a transitional period
are the security and political dimensions. Several aspects of tran-
sition relating to these dimensions may in theory look well
ordered. The first aspect reached in transition is the fundamental

108
Kjell-Ake Notdquist

agreement. At the political level this means that the main political
actors have agreed that there needs to be major change. The
talks preceding the fundamental agreement are usually a crucial
task. For these talks to bear fruit it is vital to consider who the
main actors to be party to a fundamental agreement are. The
rule of thumb is that anyone who could break the agreement
should take part in forming the agreement. On the security level
the fundamental agreement should mean that cease-fires are in
place everywhere. If there is no security, people feel unsafe
and might pull out of the process.
The second aspect in a transition period is the preparation
for a new government. At the political level this usually leads to
some kind of transitional governmental structure. At the security
level it usually includes the recruitment and training of a new
police force and army.
The third aspect of a transition period is the establishment
of a political structure: elections and the adoption of a new
constitution. On the security level it involves the establishment
of new security forces, e.g. police and army.
The fourth aspect of a transition period concerns the
institutionalisation of new political structures. Here, the political
dimension involves the creation of new government agencies
and institutions while the security dimension involves the
professionalisation of the new security forces through training
and education.
The fifth aspect of the transition is social and political
trust-building. Politically, this requires an examination of
whether or not the new structure is free of corruption, and
whether or not it is treating citizens fairly and equally. On the
security level it is important that the new security forces
respect human rights and that the legal system is independent
of the political system.
The final question for building trust in a society concerns
how the past can be understood: how to interpret the common
history of suffering?
109
Another Development for Burma

Three challenges in the process towards transition


- Are all organisations that have an interest in change and
democratic development part of the movement for change
and democratic transition? Or are any of them 'free riders'?
If so, how to deal with them?
- Strength in the struggle is created by the unity that comes
from being together in the struggle. When a movement - in
particular an umbrella movement - comes close to achieving
its goal, there is a risk of disagreement about when to break
up. Collectively identifying in advance what needs to be
achieved before breaking up, and sticking to that, gives the
movement maximum strength right up to the last moment
of the struggle.
- A country needs a non-political space for self-reflection. In
transition processes perspectives are easily lost and other
groups' views forgotten. But some issues are of national
rather than of group/ethnicity interest and should be
discussed as such. A 'Forum for Dialogue' can be effective
in sorting out problems before they become serious political
troubles.

Post-transitional challenges
Transition in Burma is something we, who want to see change
in Burma, look forward to. This is an inside perspective. From
the outside, a transitional period is looked upon very cautiously
as a period of uncertainty. The transition period should ideally
be relatively short; it should not become the 'normal' condition.
We will now look at what happens after the transition period
and what major tasks a government will face then.

Normalisation
The international community will gradually de-prioritise
your case. In order to avoid conflict when resources are

110
Kjell-Ake Nordquist

decreasing, one requirement is to agree on priorities as early as


possible. Equally important is to develop internal strategies as
well as good relations with the international community and
donors in preparation for the shift towards regular aid
co-operation. The new government of Burma will have to
live on its own financial basis, and now is the time to test this
basis. The post-transition period is also when Burma should
ensure that space for it is created within the community of
international institutions; this will involve deciding on its
positions and creating a unique identity among the countries
dealing with these institutions.

War reparation
There will be a need to deal with the modern history of Burma
and its impact on society. This is not really a part of the transition
process because it takes years and years, and is thus essentially a
post-transition challenge. Yet, early on it is important to prepare
for such challenges as:
- Bringing back refugees and internally displaced persons.
- Rebuilding the infrastructure.
- Dealing with the psychological and social stress caused by
violence and the armed struggle.
- Reintegrating soldiers in society.
The former soldiers in the liberation army have usually
been away from home for several years and have sacrificed
much in their struggle. On a personal level they suffered greatly
for this, and may lack education, job training, etc. They have a
high moral standing, but at the same time they are unprepared
for normal life and lack skills. If this group is not supported it
will be a problem. It is easy for them to take up arms again.
The issue of responsibility
We said earlier that the three common components of con-
flicts are conflict issues, behaviour and attitudes. These are to
be dealt with through various ways of conflict resolution,

111
Another Development for Burma

management of security issues in all parts of society, and the


building of social trust. One question related to building social
trust, which will come up during and after transition, is surely
'What happened?' Who will write the history of Burma? Will
there be one common history book for all the peoples of
Burma or a different one for each separate state?
Maybe the most difficult question that arises is the
question of responsibility. Is anyone responsible for what
happened? There will be international views on responsibility,
and maybe also internal views. There are several ways of dealing
with the question of responsibility, social trust and reconciliation.
Depending on whether a 'high' or 'low' moral focus is chosen,
and a 'high' or 'low' legal focus, four different approaches can
be outlined

Moral focus Legal focus


Low High
Low Amnesty Social pardon
(e.g. Latin America) (e.g. Mozambique)

High War crime tribunal Truth commission


(e.g. former Yugoslavia) (e.g. South Africa)

Amnesty: In Latin America, amnesty has often been granted.


Before an outgoing government has handed over power, it
has often been decided that no one can be brought to court
on the grounds of alleged responsibility.
Social pardon: an approach chosen by some African
countries, e.g. Mozambique. How could the children that were
recruited as soldiers be reintegrated into their villages? They
were brought back through a process of social pardon. A
legal process was not relevant in their societies.

112
Kjell-Ake Nordquist

War-crime tribunals: an approach currently adopted in


Europe in relation to the wars in former Yugoslavia. This is a
legal process only, and includes no dimension of morality, social
pardon or forgiveness.
Truth commission: a process similar to the one undertaken in
post-apartheid South Africa. This is an attempt to combine
morality and legality, the idea being: 'If you tell the truth and
take responsibility you will be granted amnesty and not be
brought to court'.
Which choice to make is really at the heart of each country's
minds and traditions, although ideally international law should
be universal and express clear opinions on responsibility. The
question of responsibility has to be handled in such a way that
it does not threaten the overall process. There will be a need
for compromise; and what we are talking about at this stage
could be described as transitional justice. Democracy is the
fundamental issue; other aspects should not be allowed to harm
the democratisation process.

Summary of group discussions


One group discussed the need to formulate a common anti-
military strategy accepted by all opposition groups. There needs
to be increased international pressure: efforts should focus on
creating more space for political parties inside Burma to be
operative. The international community needs to be convinced
that the military regime is not capable of governing Burma.
The military regime must be weakened through economic and
diplomatic sanctions, as well as increased military activities from
armed opposition groups. Lobbying at the UN should aim to
elevate the Burma issue to the Security Council level. One
proposal on how to create a widened space inside Burma was
that the leader of the opposition could come up with specific
areas for dialogue, and thus force the State Peace and Devel-
opment Council to react to her specific suggestions.

113
Another Development for Burma

The proposal of the UN Special Envoy on Burma for a


'National Convention' can be viewed as an opportunity for an
offensive measure. Instead of thinking only of the former,
failed National Convention, why don't we, the opposition,
come up with a proposal for how to prepare for and proceed
with a new Convention? It would put the ball in the right
court.
On the normalisation of economic life in a democratic
Burma, all groups held the view that the economy needs to be
agriculture-based. In addition, ecologically sound tourism can
be promoted and investment from abroad invited. Burma is
still rich in natural resources, from which income for the state
can be generated. Burma will probably be a recipient of
bilateral aid and loans. The current taxation laws also need to
be reviewed and amended. Foreign taxation experts and
government officials could be invited to come and help set up
the taxation system.

114
International Institutions, Transnational
Corporations and Globalisation:
Future Challenges and Alternative Perspectives

Walden Bello, Focus on the Global South,


Bangkok and Manila
International Institutions, Transnational
Corporations and Globalisation: Future
Challenges and Alternative Perspectives
Walden Bello, Focus on the Global South,
Bangkok and Manila

The first part of the presentation concerns the global economic


system and the globalised economy. The second part gives a brief
description of the history and structure of the main international
financial institutions - the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO) - and of
the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). The third
part of the presentation outlines a possible alternative path for
the development of Burma. The last part contains a summary of
the group discussions.

The global economic system: main characteristics


and weaknesses
The last 50 years of international politics are commonly
divided into, first, the time of the Cold War, and, then, the
post-war period from 1989 onwards. However, in terms of
the global economy, the same period can roughly be divided
into the 'pre-globalisation era', from the late 1940s until around
1980, and the 'era of globalisation' from 1980 up to today. A
general description of the pre-globalisation era would be an
era of national capitalism under the hegemony of the United
States. The pre-globalisation economies of the North, or the
'developed' countries, can be seen to have the following
characteristics:
- Dominance of monopoly capital.
- A strong role for state regulation in terms of governing the
market.
- Social compromise between labour and capital.

117
Another Development for Burma

In the case of developing countries, one term coined to


describe these economies is 'state-assisted capitalist regimes'.
Several major characteristics can be identified:
- The dominant classes in society were the landed elite and a
financial and commercial bourgeoisie, allied to northern
capital.
- The economies were undertaking import-substituting
industrialisation: this was production in order to fulfil
domestic demand, controlling imports through high tariffs
and strict quotas.
- Whatever the political colour of government, the State was
very important in all dimensions of economic life, from
production to exchange and distribution.
Turning to the era of globalisation, from around 1980 onwards,
the main characteristics are:
- Rapid liberalisation of international trade and dismantling
of protectionist walls around national industries.
- Rapid liberalisation of financial flows: lifting of barriers
restricting financial flows.
- Liberalisation of flows of direct investment.
- Continuing very tight restrictions imposed on the mobility
of labour.
In developing countries in particular, this liberalisation of trade,
financial flows and investment took place under what were
called programmes of structural adjustment. Structural adjust-
ment took place both in the North and the South. In the North
it was known as Reaganism/Thatcherism - dismantling the
role of welfare state to move the state away from an interven-
tionist role and to end the compromise between labour and
capital to the advantage of capital. In the South structural
adjustment of state-assisted capitalist regimes was made possible
by the debt crisis of the early 1980s. Many of them could not

118
Walden Bello

service their loans due to the excessively heavy borrowing that


had taken place in the 1970s and needed access to international
financial institutions for assistance with repaying the commercial
creditors. The US, working through the IMF and the World
Bank, demanded far-reaching reforms in these economies
before they could gain access to new money. These structural
adjustment reforms had three main components:
- Drastic liberalisation of trade.
- Drastic de-regulation in an effort to minimise state
intervention in production, exchange and distribution.
- Moving of economic activities that previously belonged to
the state sector to the private sphere, through the dismantling
of state enterprises.
It was the weakest regions in the South - Africa and Latin
America - that suffered most from structural adjustment. This
period in Africa and Latin America was marked by economic
stagnation, rapidly increasing inequality and growing
proportions of the populations falling below the poverty line.
One area of the world was an exception to this process:
East and Southeast Asia, the so-called 'Tiger economies'. The
structures of these economies were similar to those of Latin
America, characterised by state intervention and protectionism.
In addition, however, the Tigers had launched an export drive,
heavily subsidised by the governments. The Tigers were
aggressive exporters of labour-intensive products and later
also of capital-intensive manufactured goods to the Northern
markets. There came a backlash on the Tigers with Northern
economies imposing increasing restrictions on imports from
East and Southeast Asia. The reason the Tigers managed to
resist the pressure to undergo free market reforms in the 1980s
was mainly due to the inflow of Japanese capital. The increased
comparative value of the Japanese yen in 1985, after the US
and its European partners had forced Japan into revaluation
of the currency, had made it expensive for Japanese companies

119
Another Development for Burma

to produce at home and made them turn to the relatively cheap


labour available in China, Taiwan and South Korea.
In 1990 the level of Japanese investment was tapering off;
at the same time in the North, due to developments during the
Reagan and Thatcher era, there were large capital flows and
speculative funds seeking quick and great short-term profit.
Owing to the pressure exerted by these funds, as well as the
US treasury and the IMF, governments in Southeast Asia
de-regulated or minimised state intervention and removed
regulations on the inflow of capital. Between 1994 and 1997,
100 billion dollars of speculative capital flowed into the
region and into sectors such as real estate, the stock market
and land. Large sums were concentrated in a very few sectors,
creating over-supply, which led to the collapse of these
sectors. There was an economic imbalance and investors
panicked. In the summer of 1997, currency speculators took
advantage of the situation in order to make huge profits: 100
billion dollars left the region, leading to economic collapse.
Borrowers could not repay their loans and instead the
governments had to nationalise, and take over, their loans. The
governments lacked resources to do this, so the IMF came up
with 'rescue packages' containing similar structural adjustment
reforms as earlier imposed on Africa and Latin America. The
one area of the world that had hitherto escaped structural
adjustments was brought into line.
Globalisation and liberalisation are often discussed in
economic language, with the claims made that left alone the
market will manage the distribution of wealth to all and lead
to more prosperity. It is important to realise, however, that
this is really an ideological argument. Whose interests are served
by the ideology?

120
Walden Bello

International financial institutions: how do they


function and what is their impact on the South?
IMF, World Bank, WTO and ASEAN

International Monetary Fund (IMF)


The initial function of the IMF in the post-war period was to
make rates of exchange between different currencies stable.
This system was based on the value of gold, thus linking the
value of the dollar (in effect the world's reserve currency) to a
certain volume of gold. In 1972, US President Richard Nixon
cut the link between the dollar and gold and inaugurated a
world of freely floating currencies. The IMF lost its original
function but acquired a new role. Countries importing more
than the value of their export have current account deficits
and have to borrow money from the outside banks or
international institutions. The IMF would make sure developing
countries maintained discipline over trade or currency accounts.
The IMF could take up this role because of its ability to make
emergency stability loans.
In the 1980s the IMF expanded its range of activities to
become the main implementing agent of comprehensive
structural reform, pushing for liberalisation, deregulation and
comprehensive privatisation. Structural adjustment went to the
very core of the way societies function, requiring fundamental
micro- and macro-economic policy changes.
In the 1990s the IMF acquired yet another major function
after pressure from the US government: the deregulation of
capital, i.e. comprehensive capital liberalisation, capital account
liberalisation and removal of restrictions on flows of capital.

World Bank
In the 1950s the World Bank was changed from a reconstruc-
tion agency for war-torn Europe into a development agency

121
Another Development for Burma

through which resources would flow from North to South.


In the World Bank the North has majority control due to a
system where voting power is based on capital subscriptions to
the Bank.
In the late 1960s and 1970s there was a huge expansion in
the aid budget of the World Bank as it took on comprehensive
projects for development. Since most of this aid was
channelled through governments, right-wing, free-market
proponents who came to power in the US in the 1980s began
to question the World Bank - some even wanting to abolish it
- because it was seen as strengthening states and creating
opportunities for socialism. In the end the Bank was 'saved'
by the introduction of structural adjustment programmes,
which allowed it to change its role and become a force for
liberalisation.

World Trade Organization (WTO)


The WTO was supposed to have been created as long ago as
1948 but did not come into being until nearly 50 years later, in
1995. In the meantime the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT) was in existence but with weak powers of
implementation. In the early 1980s when the US economy had
become more dependent on trade and needed export markets,
the idea of a stronger organisation for governing trade was
revived. In an eight-year process of negotiation - called the
Uruguay round - the WTO was created. Under the WTO
quantitative restrictions were outlawed and had to be
transformed into tariffs.
The WTO covers wide areas, including trade in agriculture
and trade in services (from providing water to education
services). It also goes beyond trade into so-called trade- related
issues, such as:
- Trade-related investment measures (TRIMs).
- Trade-related property rights (TRIPs).

122
Walden Bello

According to the TRIMs agreement it is no longer possible to


set up local content quotas in the process of industrialisation.
The TRIPs agreement aims to control the spread of technology
(especially to countries in Asia) by enforcing strict patent rules.
TRIPs is outlawing industrialisation by imitation. It is revolu-
tionary because it restricts the natural spread of knowledge.
From the point of view of developing countries the
agreement on agriculture is the most important. It is highly
protectionist of European and US markets while opening up
the markets of developing countries to dumping of agricultural
surplus.
The WTO is supposed to be governed on a 'one country,
one vote' basis. Decision-making in practice is limited to the
four big powers plus another 18 countries. Only a few countries
are invited to the so-called 'green room process' where the
actual negotiations take place.

ASEAN
The tragedy of ASEAN is that the economic project is always
subordinated by the political. It was built as an anti-commu-
nist organisation. There are underlying strategic differences within
ASEAN. Some countries (Indonesia, Malaysia) have seen the
creation of free trade among ASEAN members as a model
for recreating the previous 'Tiger' system among ASEAN mem-
bers, while others (e.g. Singapore) have seen it as a prelude to
international free trade. The regional integration project of
ASEAN has seen the creation of AFTA (the Asia Free Trade
Area) but there is currently no real effort to make AFTA a
working reality.
An equally fundamental problem is that the people do not
feel part of the project. ASEAN remains the project of the
political and technocratic elites and has not been democratised.
While ASEAN has been wasting time, other regional projects
have come into being and China has become an economic

123
Another Development for Burma

powerhouse at the global level. The question for ASEAN countries


is: are we turning into a dumping ground for China's produce?
A regional economic institution such as ASEAN is needed;
but without drastic reform ASEAN will remain useless.

An alternative path for Burma? What are crucial


choices to make?
Burma has the advantage of being 'late' on the scene. It is
important to examine the development model that has been
imposed on the countries of the South for the last 25 years:
- Globalised production. Southern countries' economies are
being drawn into global systems of integrated production
and integrated markets.
- Neo-liberal policies - liberalisation of trade, deregulation and
privatisation.
- Export orientation. Export markets rather than domestic
demand drive production.
- Foreign-capital dependency. Foreign capital is seen as the
strategic factor in development.
- The problem of debt. The dynamics of export-oriented
neo-liberal growth have made these economies heavily
indebted to the IMF, the World Bank, commercial banks
and private speculative funds.
- Dependency on natural resources. Southern countries are
forced to focus on the extraction of natural resources since
this is an area where they are supposed to have comparative
advantage.
- Labour-intensiveness. Industrialisation is focused on labour-
intensive areas such as manufacturing. These economies have
also become exporters of labour to regions that lack labour
but are capital-rich.
- The subordination of agriculture to industry, and of rural
areas to urban areas. The idea is 'industry first', leading to
stagnated agriculture.

124
Walden Bello

The question to pose is: do we want to recreate this structure


in the future Burma? Planning must be the central activity of
the authorities of a developing country. First we must decide
what the objectives of economic policies should be. Equity?
The preservation of community? Achieving a pattern of
development that is not disruptive? Balanced development?
Planning means using the market as a tool that is controlled
and subordinated to fundamental values and objectives.
Economics is an intensely political process, determining who
gets what, how, and why. Economics used to be called political
economy. Economics today has become a highly mathematical,
theoretical practice. Economic collapse occurs because, not
realising the highly political nature of economics, we have put
economists in charge! There are some key issues on which the
political leadership must arrive at some decisions:
- The balance between market and state.
- The balance between agriculture and industry. Should
agriculture be the lead industry?
- Asset and income redistribution.
- Trade policy for development and industrialisation. Should
you use tariffs and quotas to promote your industry?
Remember: if you do you will be in conflict with the WTO.
- Subsidiarity: making production stay at the local level when
this is possible, in view of the continuing importance of
decentralised production.
- Ecology and community. Putting development ahead of
ecological equilibrium is short-sighted; if you do, it will
destroy your development.
For Burma in particular:
- How should production take place in a federal union? What
sorts of economic co-operation, technical co-operation,
trade relations should be in place to ensure that some parts
of the union do not develop at the expense of others?
- How will a democratic Burma relate to multilateral
agencies such as the WTO, IMF and World Bank?

125
Another Development for Burma

Summary of group discussions and questions/comments


Participants raised the question of how land and property can
be integrated in the national economy. Walden Bello argued
that this issue was related to that of 'ownership' in the economy.
The most common systems of ownership are state owner-
ship and management, and ownership by private corporations,
transnational corporations, cooperatives and the community.
All these systems can be integrated into the economy. The issue
is how to organise it, how to make political decisions about the
extent of the role that each system should be allowed to take,
and how to legislate in this regard.
Participants asked for more information about how to
balance agriculture and industry and about the characteristics
of agro-based industrialisation. According to Walden Bello,
the development of agriculture, land reform and income
distribution are key issues. A question is how to sustain this as
a stimulus for industrialisation. Creating demand will not do it
alone; at some time there is a need for huge sums of investment
capital. One way of acquiring capital is through foreign capital
- borrowing - which will get you into debt. Another is to
establish efficient taxation practices, with taxation gathering
income and transforming income into investments. This looks
the best solution, but you will need to tax everybody, including
the rich. Asian states have generally been unable to follow
effective taxation practices.

126
The Role of Media in the Struggle for
Democracy, the Role of Media during
Transition and the Right to Know

Sheila Coronel, Philippine Centre for Investigative


Journalism
The Role of Media in the Struggle for
Democracy, the Role of Media during
Transition and the Right to Know
Sheila Coronel, Philippine Centre for Investigative
Journalism

The first part of the presentations concerns the role of the media
in fighting for change, with examples from other countries in South-
east Asia. The second part concerns the role of the media in the
post-transitional situation. The third part is about the Right to
Information. Practical advice and examples of information and
media legislation and media codes of conduct are given in the
fourth section. The last section contains a summary of the group
discussions.

The Role of Media in the Struggle for Democracy


All forms of authoritarian rule have a monopoly of power
and information. Such a monopoly can be in the hands of a
junta or an individual - a dictator - who decides what
information citizens should be given. The fall of dictatorships
starts with a fragmentation of power and information
control. Increasingly there will be groups in society challenging
the dictatorship's control of information. We have seen this
transition both in Indonesia and in the Philippines, where the
seeds of a free press were sown before the fall of dictatorships.
Repressive governments hold on to information because once
people have information, once it is shared, governments are in
real trouble. Information allows informed discussion and
debate. People know what is going on in their country and
they can then debate and oppose what the government wants
them to do. Information makes possible active citizen
participation and inspires people to organise themselves for
collective action.

129
Another Development for Burma

There are several ways in which authoritarian regimes control


information:
- Censorship and other laws restricting media freedoms and
the freedom of citizens to obtain information.
- Ownership of newspapers, TV and radio stations and other
information outlets.
- Restricting citizens' access to information media.
- Information ministries that keep a close watch on the media
and instruct them as to what should be reported.
- Intimidation, imprisonment and murder of recalcitrant
journalists, writers, artists and other citizens, and the banning
of books, other publications, television and audio
programmes, etc.
In Southeast Asia the press and other media have played a key
role in both anti-colonial and pro-democracy struggles by:
- Exposing the excesses and abuses of ruling regimes, talking
about corruption and abuses of human rights.
- Promoting alternatives to the ruling government.
- Publicising the successes of social and political movements
challenging the regime, strengthening the opposition by
persuading other people to join.
- Keeping members of the opposition in touch with each
other and with their membership and constituencies.
- Providing outlets for the anger of citizens, especially in
interactive media like websites and call-in programmes.
People can also express their anger at the media.
Lessons learnt from Indonesia, the Philippines and Cambodia
- Free and democratic media do not automatically emerge
during the transition just because you change regimes.
- Democratic institutions emerge much more easily if free
media help inspire debate and develop public opinion.
- Independent media can only emerge and be a positive force
if the community support and value the media's role. For
example, in Cambodia there was little community support

130
Sheila Coronel

for a free press. People were more concerned about


survival and it mattered little to them whether the press
was free or not.

The role of the media during transition


Transition periods are usually very fragile; this is the time when
the balance of power that will emerge in society is decided.
During this period the media plays a very important role in
providing information about the transition mechanisms, what
is taking place and how the various sectors of society are
working together. It also plays an important role in educating
the public on such issues as citizenship, asking questions about
their rights and obligations as citizens of a democracy. The
media is important in educating the public on the new
structures of government, on new ways of participating in
decision-making and new ways in which government is trying
to relate to people.
The media is a watchdog of the government even at this
early period, asking whether the new government is doing a
good job in setting up new structures that could allow, for
example, the maximum participation of citizens, and whether
the new policies being implemented are the right ones? During
transition the media should also already be giving various
sectors of society - such as the different ethnic groups, and
women - the sense that their views are represented in the public
sphere. In transition it is important to build trust among groups
in society. The media should help the different groups to
communicate, settle their differences and be reconciled to each
other.
There have been cases where the media has been a negative
and destructive force, going against the project of building
democracy. One way in which the media can create divisions
in society is through hate speech, pitting one group against
another, reinforcing historical prejudices and encouraging
people to fight rather than overcome their differences.

131
Another Development for Burma

Another way in which the media has been a destructive force


is by keeping certain groups out of discussions taking place in
the public sphere, e.g. continuing to exclude groups that have
traditionally not been represented or allowed a voice in the
media. These may be indigenous peoples, in the case of countries
where there is a very strong centre. If the sentiments of these
excluded groups are not heard in the media or are not taken
up in the public sphere they may resort to destructive, even
violent action so that they are heard. Sometimes, too, the media
supports groups that are anti-democratic. For example, the
remnants of the military in Burma can still supports newspapers
and radio stations that aim to destabilise the new regime.
Sometimes, because of lack of professional training or the
need to sell newspapers, the media provides incomplete,
sensationalised or wrong information that adds to confusion
in society. The transitional period is usually a time where there
are so many rumours and so much uncertainty, which the media
can help fuel.

The right to know and the right to information


The right to know is a right belonging to individuals, not some-
thing that governments should choose to give or withdraw as
they please. It is part of the universal declaration of human
rights along with, for example, the right to free speech and the
right to life. Primarily, it concerns the right of citizens to be
informed about the activities of government, whether those
activities are in the past, in the present or being planned for the
future. Increasingly, many democratic states around the world
recognise the right of citizens to be informed. They see it is a
valuable right not only for citizens but also for themselves.
That is why there are now 44 countries that have a 'Freedom
of information act' or laws guaranteeing access to information.
Democratic governments are recognising that providing
access to information helps them govern well. If citizens know
how the government budget is being spent and how much

132
Sheila Coronel

should go to each district, they can see for themselves whether


public funds are indeed being used for the purposes for which
they were intended. Unless people know they cannot watch
what government is doing.
Information also allows for intelligent discussion and
debate. If people don't have the facts the level of 'discussion'
will consist mainly of ill-informed attacks and the exchange
of biased views. If people are armed with facts, public
discussion can be more intelligent. There can be sober debate
about what, for example, should be the priorities of a society.
In this sense information empowers citizens.
The right to information also helps protect other rights,
such as land rights or the right to free expression. Without the
right to information, enforcement of other rights is difficult.
To take the example of land rights: there are many displaced
farmers in the Philippines and, as in Burma, many of these
don't possess the papers enabling them to prove that a
particular piece of land is theirs. Unless they know that there
are laws, that they can take their case to the courts, and that
there are other ways in which they can assert their right to their
land, they cannot act on their rights. So the right to information
is often a precondition to the exercising of other rights.
Several multilateral institutions, including the World Bank,
the IMF and the Asian Development Bank, are promoting the
right to information on the grounds of economic efficiency.
They claim businesses work better in a free market if there is
also a free market of information.

Mechanisms to ensure access to information


There are several ways of ensuring access to information and
promoting a free press in the democratic regime to be estab-
lished. The examples given below are based on experiences
from other countries in Southeast Asia that have undergone a
democratic transition:

133
Another Development for Burma

- Reforming the constitution so that it allows for the


recognition of the right to information.
- Reforming the existing laws, discarding the repressive laws
of the former regime and making new laws guaranteeing
a free press and the right to information.
- Reforming the structure and organisation of the media.
- Reforming the bureaucracy so that it becomes more open
and collects and organises information so that it is easily
accessible and eventually made available to citizens.
- Reforming the courts to ensure they uphold the right to
information. The right itself is nothing if you cannot seek
protection for that right in the courts.
- Reforms aimed at empowering civil society. Who will
exercise the right to information? It is not just the media
but also ordinary citizens, community groups, NGOs and
social movements that will have to demand information.

Limitations on the freedom of the media


Burma has a legacy of repressive laws, including laws to re-
strict flows of information and freedom of speech, dating
back to the colonial era. It will be tempting for a new government
to retain some of these laws - tempting because the situation
will probably not be stable and a new government may want
to retain some of them as a protective measure. It is important
to know that legislation all over the world recognises the right
of the state to protect itself, and the rights of individuals.
Existing liberal legislation allows for the former as long as a
threat to the state is imminent. Rights are not absolute. The
only guideline is that the limitations on individual rights need
to be very specific rather than broad so that they are not abused.
Examples of such limitations are:
- Protection of legitimate national security interests. This is
valid if the security of the state is threatened and the threat
is imminent.
- Withholding information if it may affect law-enforcement
activities.

134
Sheila Coronel

- Protection of privacy and individual reputation.


- Prevention of public disorder.

Guidelines for access to information legislation


- Information access should be applied to all public
institutions. Most countries have exceptions; for example,
in Thailand there is a 75-year ban on information about the
royal family. But these exceptions should be kept narrow.
- Access should be not just to government records but also
to government proceedings and to institutions such as the
courts. There should be access to information on
institutional processes.
- Access to information also means there should be
reasonable costs involved - for example, when people need
to make photocopies of relevant material.

Legal reforms needed to ensure the free flow of information


- To dismantle mechanisms of information control of the
previous government.
- To enact a new regulatory framework, laws or mechanisms,
to regulate ownership, content, distribution, and the
professional activity of journalists.

One of the most important issues to be settled is: who will


own the media?
There are three general types of media ownership: state
owned and controlled media, public service media (funded
from government or government revenues, but independent
from the government) and privately owned media. In many
countries there is a mix of all types. But which type will be
dominant is up to the new government to decide. Whatever
the ownership pattern the ideal is to have multiple autonomous
and independent media outlets at national, regional and local
levels. There should be a competitive media, meaning no

135
Another Development for Burma

monopolies in content or distribution, and certainly not a


government monopoly. The media should express a range of
views.
The media should be made accessible to the majority of
people, if not to all. This means, for example, building an
infrastructure of transmitters so that radio and TV can reach
all. This is very important since disparities in power and wealth
can be compounded if there is also disparity in information
access.

Ways of guaranteeing a diversity of voices in media


In a country like Burma, where there are many nationalities, it is
very important that the various peoples are well represented in
the media. There are several ways to regulate media to ensure
that a diversity of voices is heard and views expressed:
- Subsidies, providing printing presses, building infrastructure
and financial subsidies.
- Special taxes to support the media. For example, taxes on
TV ownership in order to provide support for diversity
and small media companies.
- Dividing franchises and licenses, especially in broadcasting.
You can have a policy where franchises are distributed
among various nationalities and communities so that the
central government and their allies don't control all.
- Regulate advertising. In many countries government
advertisements constitute a major source of revenue for
the media. There can be a law to ensure that advertising is
evenly distributed among national, regional and local media.
- Infrastructural support, providing TV sets to communities
to increase the audience and make media more viable for
advertisers.
- Provision of airtime or space for designated groups such
as ethnic minorities and women.
- Rule of law: to make sure that laws enacted are also

136
Sheila Coronel

enforced. You need courts to protect the media's right to


obtain and report information and citizens' access to
information.
- Within the media there should be self-regulatory
mechanisms so that journalistic abuses can be corrected
without limiting journalistic freedoms. The idea is that
journalists themselves have mechanisms to correct ethical
lapses or unprofessional conduct without the state interfering.
Here, media watchdogs, journalist associations, individuals
and even NGOs can play a role.

Summary of group discussions


Participants viewed the current situation of the Burmese media
as dismal inside the country but rather satisfactory on the out-
side, along the border. They ruled out the use of new infor-
mation technology while acknowledging a need to improve
the competence of minority groups, as well as generally in the
field of audio-visual media. In the beginning of the tripartite
dialogue there should be an agreement on how the state media
can provide airtime for discussion on the dialogue process.
Once there is democratic rule, the restrictive laws and decrees
of the former regime should be repealed. The right to infor-
mation should be clearly inscribed in the new constitution.
Participants stressed the importance of promoting local,
regional and ethnic language media. When a federal state
structure is in place, individual state governments should
support independent public service media. Franchises and
licenses should be distributed to ethnic language media.
Infrastructure support is needed to ensure that even remote
areas have access to the media. The economic viability of local
and regional media should be enhanced, either directly through
subsidies, or through taxation and advertising revenues.
Concerns were raised about the role of the media linked
to the opposition, both during the struggle for democracy
and afterwards. Sheila Coronel stressed the importance of

137
Another Development for Burma

allowing criticism: the opposition organisations need criticism


and feedback from their constituents. There should be a balance
between criticism and the reporting of achievements. Once a
democratic regime is in place, a solution based on self-regulation
is advisable, rather than laws and regulations. The media itself
should draw up codes of conduct and institute press councils,
to minimise abuses of media freedom. The limitations on
media freedom aimed at protecting, for example, national
security interests, privacy or individual reputations need to be
very specific so that they are not misused.

138
Strategies for Development: Experiences
from East Timor

Emilia Pires, Ministry of Planning and Finances of


East Timor
Strategies for Development: Experiences
from East Timor
Emilia Pires, Ministry of Planning and Finances of
East Timor

The first part of the presentation concerns the preparations


before East Timor gained independence. It is followed by a
description of the process behind the National Development Plan,
a plan establishing the East Timorese priorities in development
that was evolved through a participatory process. The third
section offers some recommendations for Burma based on the East
Timor experience. The last section is a summary of the group
discussions.

The process of establishing a development strategy


Preparing for transition
During the 25 years of struggling for independence, preparing
East Timorese people for the future was not among the
priorities of the independence movement. At the top of the
movement there was a small political group, especially in the
diaspora; below was a large group of grassroots followers,
particularly inside East Timor. Although there was a growing
number of technical and professional East Timorese during
this period, they were not actively brought into the resistance
movement. Only in April 1998, when the umbrella organisation,
the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), was
formed under the leadership of Xanana Gusmao, were all the
different groups promoting the independence of East Timor
brought together. It was at this point that concrete changes for
the better started to take place.
In October 1998, Xanana Gusmao, imprisoned in Jakarta,
appealed to all East Timorese people, particularly the intellectuals
and professionals, to start thinking about the future development

141
Another Development for Burma

of East Timor. Xanana wanted this group of people from all


over the world to come together and prepare a development
plan for the country, should it become independent. There
was also international concern that East Timor might not have
sufficient human resources to ensure its viability as an independent
nation.
Two conferences were organised outside East Timor, which
produced a strategic plan for the future development of the
country. Unfortunately, neither of the two processes managed
to build the necessary trust required between the political and
technical groups to ensure that the former accepted the blueprint
as a common strategic document for the country. Without
such a strategic plan, the influence of the East Timorese people
as a whole, on the country's reconstruction process and
establishment of institutions once independence was granted,
would be limited.
Once the Indonesians left the country and the international
community took over, the reconstruction process began without
strong guidance from the East Timorese. The World Bank
came in to organise the inflow of aid. Although efforts were
made to ensure the participation of the East Timorese in all
these processes, the lack of organisation and coordination
between the political and technical groups on the side of the
East Timorese ensured that we were mostly followers.
Development priorities were decided, but not in a systematically
consensual and coordinated fashion. Many of the East
Timorese, particularly the politicians, failed to understand that
even though the first few years were mainly concerned with
addressing emergency and reconstruction issues, decisions were
made that set the direction for the future development of the
country.
By 2001 it was clear that a plan was needed to ensure that
everyone was working towards the same goals. Together with
the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
(UNTAET) the East Timorese established a 'Planning

142
Emilia Pires

Commission'. To ensure everyone's participation and Timorese


ownership, the commission was composed of five people
from the transitional government (which was an all-Timorese
government) led by the Chief Minister himself, and five people
from civil society led by Xanana Gusmao (at that time not yet
President). The intention was to make the process East
Timorese and all-inclusive. There was also a need to bring in
the other players, such as donors and the private sector, who
did not fit in the above categories. Ensuring the donors'
involvement right from the start increased the chances of the
Plan being financed, given that East Timor was not yet in a
position to finance it from its own limited resources.
In order to make the planning process easier, so that every-
one could understand and participate, only four questions were
asked:

Where are we?


To address this question, which was to enable us to understand
the current conditions of the country, we undertook three exer-
cises. Firstly, an evaluation of what had happened during the
period between 1999 and 2001 was conducted by eight inter-
ministerial working groups, made up of senior public servants
and each led by a Minister. The results of this evaluation were
then reported in a document called 'The State of the Nation'.
Secondly, a nation-wide poverty assessment was carried
out through a joint survey with support from four development
partners: the World Bank (WB), the Asian Development Bank
(ADB), the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Through this process we were able to determine East Timor's
'poverty line' at an estimated 0.55 USD per day - which meant
that 41% of our people lived in poverty.
Thirdly, a National Human Development Report with
UNDP's support was undertaken, giving an opportunity to

143
Another Development for Burma

compare East Timor's Human Development Index with 161


other countries that had undertaken a similar exercise. It was
the first time that data was gathered to give the real picture of
the situation in East Timor. Future allocation of resources would
be prioritised on the basis of these data. We tried to be as
objective as possible with the questions asked in the survey so
as to ensure a depoliticised process, thus creating possibilities
of consensus on the plan.
Where do we want to go?
A countrywide consultation process was undertaken to for-
mulate a common vision and to ensure that everyone felt that
the process belonged to all, not just the government. Work-
shops were organised in all of the 500 villages in East Timor
and the villagers were asked:
- What kind of East Timor did they want to see in 2020?
- What were their three top priorities?
On each of the identified priorities the villagers were asked
follow-up questions such as:
- What problems needed to be overcome for them to achieve
their vision?
- How could these problems be solved?
- What could they do themselves to help solve them?
- What could civil society do?
- What could the private sector do?
- What could the government do?
This exercise was important not only because we were going
to formulate the national vision for the country but develop-
ment priorities were also going to be set. It needed everyone's
agreement so as to ensure smoother implementation of future
programmes. To change them one would need to go back to
the people. In this way, arguments among the top leadership
would be minimised as the people had already spoken. In East
Timor the priorities determined were primary education, basic
health care, agriculture (irrigation) and infrastructure.

144
Emilia Pires

How do we get there?


This question was mainly addressed by having the technical
people working on a five-year plan through which our goals
would be reached. The 2020 national vision and sector priorities
established through the countrywide consultation gave the broad
framework for the technical people to draw up strategies and
policies, which became a part of the National Development
Plan. There were also parallel consultations with the private
sector, NGOs, political parties and other interested groups.
The Plan and the Budget were adopted by consensus by the
National Parliament. The international community also gave
its full support.
The Plan now works as the main coordinating tool that the
government uses in its contacts with donors and other
development partners. Only proposals for projects that
support the strategies contained in the Plan are accepted.
However, there are still a number of issues to be dealt with in
our efforts to implement the Plan. We do not have enough
human resources - people who are able to translate the strategies
and policies into concrete proposals for programmes and
projects.

How do we measure our progress?


The process of measuring progress is going on right now in
East Timor. We are working on setting up the appropriate
targets based on the data collected and taking into consider-
ation what we want to achieve in the five-year period within
the technical and financial constraints.
How to pursue an alternative development agenda:
lessons learnt and recommendations
The negotiation process
One very important lesson we learnt was that it is very impor-
tant for the leadership to be united. They must at least have

145
Another Development for Burma

some preliminary discussions among themselves and reach


some consensus before deciding to receive representatives from
the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) such as the World
Bank, the ADB and the IMF. We observed often how we
were approached on numerous occasions with huge documents,
all written in a language we could not understand, and asked
to make decisions within a very limited time. Very often the
leadership had no technical advice and therefore no clue as to
what they were being asked to decide upon.

Practical recommendations:
- If you are asked to receive a representative of any of the
IFIs, or bilateral donors, you must always be accompanied
by your relevant technical staff and legal people.
- Ask to be given the relevant documentation a few days in
advance, in a language that your people understand, to
allow them to study it and advise you on its contents. The
documents should always be brief. Ideally what comes to
you should really be no longer than two or three pages. It
should be an executive summary of the main document.
- Ensure you have sufficient time to discuss the document
with your technical people before discussing it with the
representatives of the donor community.

Human resources
The East Timorese made a human resource survey to find all
their technical persons living outside East Timor. These technical
people were aware of what had happened in other countries
and so they worked towards ensuring that similar things would
not happen in East Timor. Nonetheless, we still failed to ensure
we kept our best people. We faced situations of lack of local
capacity to deal with a generous international community, which
for a number of reasons - including that of sustainability - felt
that everyone should be paid at the same level. Obviously this
did not attract the Timorese in the diaspora and gradually we

146
Emilia Pires

lost most of our talented people who returned to their host


countries because they were not able to sustain themselves and
their families in two different countries. These technical people
could have played a critical role as senior managers while others
were sent abroad for training.
The lack of senior managers is now a very clearly identified
problem within the administration, which it is trying to
address. Nonetheless, the current way we are addressing the
problem will not be sustainable for the country. What we are
doing is sending some East Timorese on scholarships to be
trained outside the country and meanwhile we fill in the positions
where we lack human resources with foreign technical
assistance. It is a very expensive method. What we really should
do is try to recruit our own people, from whatever political
party or coming from whatever country. In recognition of
their skills and professionalism, we should reward them
accordingly, which would still never be as much as what a
foreign expert would charge.

Practical recommendations:
- Identify your best people and invest in them.
- Ensure the public sector is depoliticised and served by the
best of professionals, no matter which political party they
come from. Reward them accordingly.
- There should be trust between technical people and
politicians. There is a high risk that politicians will trust the
international experts more.
- Ensure different perspectives are represented. Don't
confine yourself to the people from your own political
parties. Use all available resources.
- To avoid educated locals being absorbed by the international
institutions and NGOs, make an agreement with
international organisations to set the same wages for all
local staff.

147
Another Development for Burma

Planning and coordination


It is crucial that planning and coordination between the differ-
ent donors are in the hands of the government. Coordination
can easily be done by, for example, the World Bank - but
don't rely on them to do this! Develop your own policy in
dealing with different donors and institutions. It is a big chal-
lenge to assure that grants are actually spent in the country.
Usually much is spent on technical assistance, meaning pay for
their consultants - and then the money goes out of the country.

Practical recommendations:
- Establish a unit within government for planning and
coordination. Choose your best human resources - people
with excellent negotiation skills and whom you trust to work
there.
- Maintain good and close relations with all donors and ensure
good knowledge of donors' systems and procedures. In
this way your people will be able to get information from
the donors and recommend which donors to turn to for
different projects.
- Develop a good database to track and capture the aid flow
and output in the country. Otherwise there will be duplications.
- Ensure capacity-building in projects. Make explicit demands
for what you want to be part of the projects.
- Ensure job creation in projects. Sometimes a project can
be done slowly but in a labour-intensive way, sometime
fast with big machinery. You need to balance this. The
decision is yours.

Summary of group discussions


Participants asked questions regarding how the citizens were
persuaded to join in national planning. Emilia Pires explained
that in East Timor they had gone through the positive elements
in society and used the media to communicate the importance

148
Emilia Pires

of participating now when the country had gained independence.


In the consultations at the village workshops, for example,
results from the poverty assessment study were presented so
that all would understand the current situation. The results of
the consultation have been fed back to the people through
booklets among other means.
Participants acknowledged the importance of recruiting
good human resources but also saw the potential conflict
between politicians and the technical people. Emilia Pires
explained that East Timor had lost many of its capable technical
staff due to the conditions they were asked to work under
and the pay they were offered. Many expatriates did not stay,
even if at first they had tried to come back. A good technical
person is someone who is able to balance the system, is open
to all ideas and can communicate both with the politicians and
the administrators. A good technocrat should not be visible.
These people are rather scarce and therefore you need to pay
them well to keep them working for you.

149
International Resource Persons
Appendix

Walden Bello
Walden Bello is the founding director of Focus on the Global
South, a policy research institute based in Bangkok, Thailand.
Prior to that, he was executive director of the Institute for Food
and Development Policy (Food First) in Oakland, California.
Educated at Princeton University, where he did his
doctorate in sociology in 1975, he subsequently taught at
University of California, Berkeley, where he was a research
associate with the Center for South East Asian Studies.
A renowned campaigner for international justice and
development and one of the leading independent critics in the
South of current global economic arrangements, he is the
author of numerous books, including:
Development Debacle: The World Bank in the Philippines (1982)
Brave New Third World? Strategies for Survival in the Global
Economy (1990)
Dragons in Distress: Asia's Miracle Economies in Crisis (with
Stephanie Rosenfeld) (1991)
People and Power in the Pacific: The Struggle for the Post-Cold
War Order (1992)
Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment and
Global Poverty (with Shea Cunningham) (1994)
A Siamese Tragedy: Development and Disintegration in Modern
Thailand (with Shea Cunningham and Li Kheng Poh) (1999)
Deglobalization: Ideas for a New World Economy (2002).

153
Another Development for Burma

Sheila Coronel
From 1989 to the present, Executive Director of the Philippine
Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), an independent,
nonprofit agency that specialises in investigative reporting. As
head of the agency, supervises journalists doing investigative
reports, edits and markets their articles, oversees book and
documentary projects, and administers a staff of 16 people.
Also acts as editor of a quarterly investigative reporting maga-
zine published by the Center.
From 1995 to the present, conducted training on
investigative reporting for journalists in Thailand, Indonesia
and Nepal.
From 1987 to 1995, Manila correspondent of The New
York Times and The Guardian of London and Manchester.
From 1986 to 1988, special reports writer and columnist,
The Manila Chronicle. Wrote reports, features and analyses on
current Philippine affairs.
From 1982 to 1986, political affairs writer, Philippine
Panorama Magazine. Wrote magazine articles on Philippine
politics and society.

154
Appendix

Kjell-Ake Nordquist
Kjell-Ake Nordquist is Associate Professor and Head of the
Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala Uni-
versity, Sweden. His research has dealt with conditions for
durable boundary agreements, autonomy as a conflict-solving
mechanism and social and political reconciliation after civil wars.
Since 1997 Kjell-Ake Nordquist has been involved in the
process towards independence for East Timor, first as an
expert on autonomy and conflict resolution for a bi-partisan
East Timorese study group, and since the referendum 1999
and until today, as a mediator/facilitator between the two main
groups in the conflict, i.e. originally CNRT/Falintil and pro-
Indonesian/militia groups, respectively. He has also served as
an adviser to Swedish mediators in international conflicts, and
arranged a number of seminars between groups in ongoing
armed conflicts through the Department of Peace and Conflict
Research.

155
Another Development for Burma

Emilia Pires
Emilia Pires, born in East Timor and the oldest of a family of
seven, was a refugee in Australia for 25 years - from 1975 to
2000. Graduated from Latrobe University with a Bachelor of
Arts degree in Statistics in 1983, and completed in 1994 a
Graduate Diploma in Government Law at the University of
Melbourne, Australia. Worked for over 15 years as Victorian
Public servant for the Human Services Department (Housing).
Then moved on to work for Xanana Gusmao, as his
development officer in 1999. In 2000 Emilia Pires was
nominated by Sergio Vieira de Mello as the Head of the
National Planning and Development Agency of the first
Transition Government of East Timor, under the United
Nations. During the 2nd Transition Government of East Timor,
she became the Secretary of the Planning Commission and
was responsible for the first National Development Plan for
East Timor. At the time of the seminar she worked as Senior
Advisor to the Ministry of Planning and Finances of the
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Her responsibilities
included the monitoring of the implementation of the
National Development Plan and the Management of
External Assistance to East Timor. She has since left East Timor
to study at the London School of Economics, where she
intends to document and analyse her experiences from East
Timor further.

156