Anda di halaman 1dari 41

PROSES REDUKSI LANGSUNG

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bambang Suharno

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department University of Indonesia 2009

University of Indonesia

PROSES REDUKSI LANGSUNG


DEFINISI
Reduksi bijih besi dengan menghindari fasa cair

REDUKTOR
Padat (batubara / coal) Cairan (minyak bumi) Gas (CH4)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Ciri-Ciri Reduksi Langsung (RL)


Menggunakan batubara/gas bumi sebagai pengganti kokas Produk kualitas tinggi
Bersaing dengan harga besi tuang Mengandung sedikit elemen Cu, Sn, Zn

Pada beberapa proses , dengan menggunakan fine gas (fluidized bed)


Tidak memerlukan aglomerasi mengurangi cost

Kapasitas produksi bisa rendah , sesuai permintaan pasar


Investasi dapat kecil

Lingkungan hidup lebih baik


Emisi CO2 rendah
Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Prinsip Reduksi Langsung (RL)


Berbeda dengan tanur tinggi , pada RL terdapat sisa oksida dalam bijih besi pada akhir proses reduksi Pada tanur tinggi , sebagian besar oksida yang ada akan tereduksi , bahkan terjadi karburisasi (peningkatan C) dalam besi mentah
ini akan dikeluarkan dalam proses oksidasi (di BOF)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Produk Akhir Reduksi Langsung


BESI SPONS
Fetotal C P&S Sisa : 91-97 % : 1-2,5 % : 0,01 % : 2 % gangue di oksida besi

Bahaya reoksidasi dari besi spons Biasanya dibriketasi atau secara langsung (dalam keadaan panas) di charge ke agregat peleburan (mis:EAF)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Hot Briquette Iron

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Jenis Reduksi Langsung


Dibagi berdasarkan Jenis reduktor : padat , cair , gas Jenis produk : padat , cair ,plastis Jenis reaktor :
shaft rotary kiln Fluidized bed

Retorte Shaft Fluidized bed Rotary kiln Rotary Hearth

: HYL I : Midrex , HYL III : Fior,Iron Carbide,Circofer : SL/RN : Inmetco

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

2008 DRI Production = 68.5 Juta Ton 2008 Steel Production = 1.326 Juta Ton

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Produksi DRI

2004 = 50 Jt Ton 2005 = 60 Jt Ton


Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

67.22 million tonnes (2007)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Dikembangkan oleh Midrex Corporation Prinsip Umpan (USA)

Reaktor

gas reduksi CH4 + CO2 2 CO + 2 H2


Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Ore feed

Proses Midrex
University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Reduksi berdasarkan prinsip berlawanan arah Top gas direcycling
untuk mengcracking CH4 pemanasan

Reforming CH4 & CO2 berlangsung kontinu produk didinginkan sampai temperatur kamar

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Pada zona reduksi
Diameter shaft = 6 meter Umpan turun dari atas ke bawah
Fe2O3 + 3 H2/CO 2 Fe + 3 H2O/CO2

Di bawah zona reduksi terdapat zona pendinginan


sponge iron akan didinginkan

Bekerja pada tekanan normal

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Gas Penghalang Agar udara tak masuk ke reduktor berasal dari top gas Gas reduksi cracking CH4 dan CO2 atau H2O yang berasal dari top gas crakcing terjadi di reformer gas reduksi (after reduksi) = 900 OC Gas reduksi di shaft = 800 OC setelah melalui reduksi keluar dari reaktor dalam bentuk top gas

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Gas reduksi H2 CO H2O CO2 CH4 N2 Temp Tekanan 55 % 34 % 5 % 2 % 2 % 2 % 800 oC 0,9 bar Top gas 38 % 20 % 22 % 16 % 2 % 2 % 400 oC 0,6 bar

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
Kegunaan top gas : pemanasan awal gas bumi untuk reformer untuk mengcracking gas metan Proses reduksi T = 800 OC jika sponge iron langsung dikeluarkan reoksidasi perlu pasivasi cara : mendinginkan dengan gas pendingin gas pendingin naik ke atas panas keluar reaktor dicuci & didinginkan diinjeksikan kembali

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Midrex
metalisasi : 92 96 % C : 0,7 2 % Produk Akhir Berupa : besi spons (Direct Reduced Iron) briket (Hot Briquet Iron) untuk briket (ada hot briquetting unit) Keuntungan bentuk briket : tahan terhadap reoksidasi & tahan terhadap sifat fisik (tidak mudah pecah) mudah dihandling & aman untuk dikapalkan

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses HYLSA
Hojalaya Y Lamina SA (HYLSA) Plant pertama : di Monterrey 1957 1994 HYL I : 11 modul (dunia) HYL III : 6 modul Peralatan fix bed reaktor : umpan tidak bergerak utama terdiri dari: gas reforming unit 4 buah reaktor vessel PT Krakatau Steel 2 modul HYL I + 10 EAF 2 modul HYL III produksi 1995 = 2.600.000 ton / tahun

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Pembuatan Besi Baja di PTKS


University of Indonesia
Pelet CO, H2 Gas Alam Reformer Hyl-III, 1.350 jt T DRI EAF:6x120T Slab Caster Skrap LF

CCM

Slab 1.8 jt T Slab

Reheating Fce.

Vac Degasser

Hot Strip Mill Skrap

2 jt T Hot Strip

Cold Rolling Milll

0.950 jt TCold Rolled

Shipment CCM

EAF4x60T

LF

Billet: Caster

0.650 jt T Billet:

RHF

Wire Rod Mill

0.450 jt T Wire Rod

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Proses HYLSA I
University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses HYLSA I
Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Proses HYLSA I
University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
Gas reforming unit tube Ni-Cr alloy katalis Ni Reaksi : CH4 + H2O CO + 3 H2 Bahan baku lump ore and ore pellet ukuran optimal
terlalu kecil penyumbatan timbul kanal terlalu besar reduksi belum sempurna , terutama bagian dalam pellet metalisasi rendah

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
Cara kerja terdapat 4 reaktor @ 3 jam operasi total 12 jam reaktor pendinginan reaktor reduksi akhir (primary reduction) reaktor reduksi awal (secondary reduction) reaktor pengeluaran / pengisian umpan Tahap pendinginan gas yang terbentuk dari reformer dialirkan ke atas reaktor pendinginan komposisi gas : H2 : 75 % CO : 14 % CO2 :7% CH4 : 4 %

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
proses ini berlangsung di reaktor reduksi akhir gas yang telah dipergunakan pada reaktor pendingin , selanjutnya didinginkan dalam quencher (dehumidifier) Tujuan :

memisahkan uap air (H2O) yang tak bereaksi selama di reformer , dengan metan agar gas reduktor yang masuk lebih baik kualitasnya
gas lalu dipanaskan s/d 850 OC di heat exchanger dan 10001300 OC pada combustion chamber gas reduktor tersebut lalu masuk ke atas reaktor reduksi akhir Fe2O3 + 3 H2 = 2 Fe + 3 H2O H : 858 MJ/ton Fe Fe2O3 + 3 CO = 2 Fe + 3 CO2 H : -246 MJ/ton Fe

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
disebut secondary reduction , karena menggunakan gas reduksi yang telah digubakan pada tahap reduksi akhir . (gas yang telah kehilangan reduction powernya) gas buang pada tahap reduksi akhir diquench uap air rendah dipanaskan pada heat exchanger s/d 800-850 OC dibakar sampai 1050-1150 OC di combustion chamber masuk ke atas reaktor reduksi awal pada tahap ini 40 % proses reduksi terjadi top gas pada reduksi awal di quench sebagai fuel gas untuk : generator uap/steam memanaskan heat exchanger

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
merupakan proses RL pertama berbasis gas alam kebutuhan energi spesifik tinggi
17-19 GJ/ton DRI

karenanya banyak dimodifikasi menjadi HYL III HYL II : pengembangan HYL I pemanasan gas reduktor lebih tinggi reduksi baik
digunakan high temperatur alloy tube pada reaktor 4 unit reaktor 2 reaktor

kurang berkembang

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa I
Persamaan HYL I & III
Pembuatan gas reduktor di reformer gas H2 : CO tinggi (lebih banyak H2) temperatur proses tinggi (850-930 OC) tekanan tinggi (5,5 bar)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


digunakan single shaft furnace (moving bed) pengganti four fixed bed reaktor dikembangkan oleh : Hojalaya Y Lamina SA Monterrey,Mexico) merupakan pengembangan HYL I umpan : pellet atau lump ore direduksi menjadi sponge iron

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


sama seperti Midrex
shaft gas reformer gas reheater

umpan bergerak dari atas ke bawah terdapat 2 zona zona reduksi zona pendingin gas reduksi panas masuk ke reaktor & mengalir berlawanan ke arah atas

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


TOP GAS (400-450 OC)
masuk ke reformer untuk mengcracking gas bumi (kebanyakan dengan H2O = uap air) CH4 + H2O CO + 3 H2 dan untuk pemanasan gas reduktor direcycling dan dicampur dengan gas reduktor yang baru diproduksi

GAS REDUKTOR (850 930 OC)


dimasukkan ke reaktor dengan tekanan 5,5 bar ada special pressure lock system pada charging (top) & discharging (bottom)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Komposisi Gas Reduktor Hylsa III


H2 CO H2O (uap) CO2 CH4 N2 Temp Tek 74,1 % 13,0 % 1,4 % 3,3 % 7,0 % 1,2 % 930 oC 5,5 bar

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


Reduksi Fe2O3 dengan H2 endoterm Fe2O3 dengan CO sedikit endoterm

Fe2O3 + 3 H2 2 Fe + 3 H2O Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2

H = -858 MJ/ton Fe H = -246 MJ/ton Fe

pada HYL III dibanding midrex ratio H2/CO tinggi karenanya temp masuk reaktor boleh tinggi

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


ZONA PENDINGINAN
gas yang terjadi (500-550 OC) didinginkan

dibersihkan alirkan kembali ke reaktor Temperatur sponge iron yang dikeluarkan 40 OC PT KS


terdapat 2 HYL III-reaktor kapasitas masing-masing 675.000 ton DRI/tahun

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses Hylsa III


HYL juga mengembangkan Hytem-Proses tanur digabungkan dengan sistem transport , dimana besi spons panas (650 OC) langsung di charging ke EAF transport gas = digunakan gas hasil proses kebutuhan energi :
HYL I HYL III : 17-19 GJ/ton DRI : 11,65 GJ/ton DRI

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Bijih Besi di Indonesia

Indonesia Iron Ore resource (Table 7) , especially lateritic iron type is abundant. Nevertheless due to technical and economical reasons, the utilization of this type for domestic steel industry is still low, more for export commodity. Common challenge faced by Indonesia steel industry nowadays is seeking for the right tachnology process which is technically and economically able to : Use local Indonesia coal for reductor/energy source. Optimally use local ores (especially lateritic type Indonesia biggest deposit ) as Fe source

Tabel 7. Iron Ore Resources of Indonesia (Status 2007) Type of Mineral Iron Sand Primary Iron Lateritic Iron Millions Tons 165.108.793,97 368.493.173,95 1.565.195.899,30
Source : BP Statistical Review 2008

Main constraints in using local raw materials (iron ore of lateritic type and coal): Uninvented technology process benefitting lateritic iron ore which is so efficient and economical that Fe content can be increased. Moreover, most Indonesia coal reserves are non coaking coal type not suitable for Blast Furnace route.

Halaman 12 dari 18

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Masalah Penggunaan Bijih Besi Laterit Untuk Bahan Baku Pembuatan Baja

Kadar Fe relatif rendah (<67%) Kandungan Nikel dan Chrom relatif tinggi Kandungan Al2O3 dan SiO2 relatif tinggi

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Tipikal Komposisi Kimia Bijih Besi Laterit


University of Indonesia PARAMETER %
SEBUKU KALSEL (SUPER FINE) Fe Total SiO2 CaO MgO Al2O3 TiO2 V2O5 Cr2O3 MnO P S Ni 50.50 3.35 0.50 1.20 8.90 0.19 1.01 0.82 0.071 0.141 0.18 SEBUKU (KALSEL) GRAVEL 57.05 0.78 0.076 0.11 3.58 0.253 0.048 1.40 0.33 0.035 0.06 0.082

LOKASI
GERONGGANG KALSEL (SUPER FINE) 43.12 3.92 0.13 0.25 13.68 0.48 0.056 0.71 0.56 0.012 0.153 0.182 GERONGGANG KALSEL (GRAVEL) 56.91 2.30 0.11 0.23 4.17 0.16 0.040 1.025 0.116 0.405 0.052 0.143

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Komposisi Kimia Besi Spons Ex Bijih Besi Laterit


University of Indonesia

Unsur
Fe total Fe metal Fe Oksida SiO2 CaO MgO

% Berat
84,97 73,59 11,38 1,18 0,34 0,34

Unsur
Al2O3 Cr2O3 C Ni P S

% Berat
4,36 4,64 0,02 0,46 0,031 0,034

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

TYPICAL PRODUCT IRON SPECIFICATION


University of Indonesia

Lump Ore
Fe (total) 52-53 % Fe2O3 81.0 % (min) SiO2 3.5 % (max) Al2O3 5.0 % (max) Ca O 1.0 % (max) Mg O 1.0 % (max) Ni 0.5 % Cr 1.5 % P 0.06 % (max) S 0.08 % (max) LOI 8 12 % Size distribution 10 35 mm (90% min) 10 mm minus, 35 mm plus (10% Max)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

LUMP ORE

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

TYPICAL PRODUCT IRON SPECIFICATION


University of Indonesia

Coarse Fine
Fe (total) 52.0 % (min) Fe2O3 80.0 % (min) SiO2 3.0 % (max) Al2O3 5.5 % (max) Ca O 1.0 % (max) Mg O 1.0 % (max) Ni 0.5 % Cr 1.5 % P 0.06 % (max) S 0.08 % (max) LOI 8 15 % Size distribution 10 mm minus (90% Min) 10 mm plus (10% Max) 100 mesh minus (30% Max)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

COARSE FINE

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Flowchart of SL/RN DRI Production Process


University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses SL-RN (Rotary Kiln)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses SL-RN (Rotary Kiln)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses SL-RN (Rotary Kiln)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Rotary Kiln PT. Krakatau Stell

pilot plant 5 ton/hari Agustus 2006 50 ton/ hari Mei 2007 150 ton/ hari di Kalimantan

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Batu besi1.jpg

TRANS-SHIPMENT BIJIH BESI LOKAL UNTUK DI EKSPOR KE CHINA


Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

TRIAL BIJIH LATERIT SKALA PABRIK DI PTKS


University of Indonesia

Lump Ore Laterit

Batu Bara Lokal

Peleburan di Dapur Listrik

Hot Rolling / Cold Rolling Pengecoran Baja Cair Baja Siku, Baja beton Baja Kawat Baja HRC Baja tipis CRC

Reduksi di Rotary Kiln

Besi spons / DRI


Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Slab / Bilet Baja

University of Indonesia

Bahan Baku & Produk Rotary Kiln PT Krakatau Steel


Unsur Pokok Chemical Fe, Total Fe, Metallic Metallisation Sulphur Phosphorus Carbon Physical Size Lump Fines +3 mm -3 mm 90-92 81-84 90 (2) 0.03 max 0.05 max 0.10 max Prosentase

1. Coal Reduktor = batu bara, mulai jenis antrasit sampai lignite. Untuk kandungan kalori rendah, diperlukan tambahan bahan bakar seperti gas alam atau bahan bakar cair, untuk menjaga profil temperatur yang dibutuhkan 2. Iron Ore berupa iron ore pellet, lump ore, atau pasir besi. Kandungan Fe minimum 53% dan kandungan gangue maksimum 5%. 3. Dolomite Batu kapur berfungsi sebagai penyerap belerang dari campuran bahan baku selama proses reduksi.
Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Rotary Hearth
University of Indonesia Beneficiation Coal Concentrate (Fe>65%) Pelletizer Binder Pelletizer Briquette Machine Dryer Cok e Coal Grate-Rotary Kiln Indurator Low Grade Crushin g Grinding Binder Lump 6-25mm Iron Ore High Grade Crushin g Screen <6m m Sintering

Mixer

Pellet

Rotary Kiln ITmk3 Iron Nugget FASTMET DRI DRI

Blast Furnace Pig Iron

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN BIJIH BESI MENGGUNAKAN ITmk3


University of Indonesia

Iron Ore Low Grade


Size: 0.08-0.17mm Crushing

High Grade
Crushing Screen Lump 6-25mm <6mm

Beneficiation

Concentrate (Fe>65%)

Grinding Coal

Mixer

Binder

Pelletizer

RHF Iron Nugget

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

Slag

University of Indonesia

Third Generation of Iron Making Technology (ITmk3)


Slag dan Fe terpisah dalam satu tahap Batubara sebagai reduktor Kapasitas dapat disesuaikan High Grade Iron Ore dan Low Grade dapat digunakan (Pasir Besi dan Laterit) Biaya investasi setengah dari Investasi Blast Furnace untuk kapasitas yang sama (US$90-100 juta)
Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Rotary Hearth

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Briquetting Machine

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Perbandingan Antara Pellet Sebelum dan Sesudah Di Proses di Dalam RHF

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Produk RHF dikeluarkan oleh Rotary Screw

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses FIOR (Fluidized Bed) Venezuela

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses FIOR

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI

University of Indonesia

Proses COREX (Smelting Reduction)

Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department UI