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JOURNAL OF ROMAN MILITARY EQUIPMENT STUDIES


Dedicated to the Study of the Weapons, Armour, and Military Fittings of the Armies and Enemies of Rome and Byzantium

VOLUME 10 1999

Late Roman Belts in Hispania


Joaquin Aurrecoechea Fernandez*
The study of Late Roman belt-fittings in Hispania is quite complex. There are many types but they can be summarized into three main categories, according to the origin of the model: non-Hispanic, pseudo-Hispanic and Hispanic type cingula. The non-Hispanic type cingula are the cingula militae used by the troops posted on the Limes. Such items were brought here by armed military personnel dispatched to combat zones. The pseudo-Hispanic type cingula typology belts are inspired by the cingula militae mentioned above, but the decoration and the system used to attach them to the belt leather varies because, for instance, they use rivets instead of shanks. Pseudo-Hispanic belts are thus a regional variation of the late-Roman types used throughout the Empire, and will thus be considered along with the non-Hispanic. Finally, Hispanic type cingula are an indigenous fashion whose types have not been documented outside the Iberian Peninsula. These are the remnants of a local culture, the Culture of the Duero cemeteries. They actually represent continuity from the Early Empire military world, and show a retrograde taste which is exclusive to this society. The principal aim of the present paper is to propose a system of classification for these belts, to discuss the evidence for their chronology, the likely area of their manufacture and the identity of those for whom they were intended The three main categories described can in turn be subdivided into as many different types. We have made an exclusive typology for the pseudo-Hispanic belts and a different one for the Hispanic. This typology complements other classifications of non-Hispanic cingula like that of Sommer.1 We will thus respect the terminology used by other authors when referring to non-Hispanic items except when no name at all has been assigned. To name our types, we have followed Sommers criteria: he names some of the prototypes in his work after the names of the find spots: Colchester, Gala, etc. Southern Gaul, whose morphological features are identical to those of pseudo-Hispanic cingula; likewise the bronzes from Argeliers, Saint Clment (Gard), Nmes (?) and Montpellier Museum.3 It should be noted that the decoration of that from Argeliers4 shows very pronounced Hispanic features, for this belt was decorated with shanked non-riveted studs, identical to those usually found on the Spanish Meseta.5 Remarkably, the pseudo-Hispanic pieces can also be inscribed in the tradition of opus interrasile ornamented plates and dolphin-shaped buckles; thus they seem to have similar origins. In the second half of the 4th century, belts appear with zoomorphic loops and pierced plates decorated with the key-hole motif. The morphological variety of Late Roman belts with openwork plates in the Empire is almost endless, as confirmed by the local manufacture evidenced in Mauritania Tingitana similar to our Totanes type, but with an oval buckle.6 The pseudo-Hispanic add a remarkable number of models of regional diffusion types known so far. Buckles with a triangular plate and pelta-shaped buckles (Teba type) are also a part of this heterogeneous period. These buckles, called in German Delphinschnallen mit durbrochenem Beschlg, are dated between 350 and 380 and are partially contemporary to horizonte kerbschnitt. The different categories have been listed by Sommer (1984), while the location has been treated more in depth by Bhme.7 In Spain, such non-Hispanic belts are inextricably linked for we only know the samples from Palacios del Sil and Irua. Nevertheless, as can be seen, pseudo-Hispanic specimens are remarkably numerous. Perhaps linked to non-Hispanic cingula are simpler ones with a plate with non-hinged decoration, such as the buckles from San Josep (Castelln), La Olmeda (Palencia), Castillo Billido (Soria), Villarubia de Santiago (Toledo) and Can Bosch de Basea (Tarragona).8 The complete example from Palacios de Sil (Len) 9 is ascribed to Sommers Sorte 3, Typ b;10 similar buckle plates have been documented in grave 770 at Krefeld, Avoise (Sarthe), Sleaford, Wye, Richborough, Pipinsburg, Andernach and Le-Mont-de-Lausanne.11 For its part, the Irua buckle12 is one of Hawkes type I-B,13 or Sommers Sorte 1, Form C, Typ d, Variant 6.14 The chronology is somewhat problematical for most of the findings are without a context, although the presence of

I.A. Belts with Animal-Decorated Buckles and Openwork Plates

Non-Hispanic Dolphin Belts (Fig. 1, Nos. 12. Fig. 2, Nos. 1217)

I. NON-HISPANIC AND PSEUDO-HISPANIC TYPE BELTS

The main feature distinguishing pseudo-Hispanic belts is the presence of shanks on the rear for attachment to leather, instead of rivets. This phenomenon is not to be found solely in Spain. Most Late Roman cingula in the rest of the Empire are always riveted but some pieces with shanks can be found. Such non-Hispanic belt-sets with shanks always belong to the family o f belts with dolphi n-s ha p e d b u ckle s a nd op e n wo r k frame-plates, for chip-carved and stamped fittings never have studs. In this context, gold and silver work should be mentioned, for many belt-fittings have shanks like the ones found in Tns,2 etc. Other items are a group of bronzes from

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Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 10 1999 buckle is a symbiosis of the pieces with dolphins and four knobs-buckles, typical of the Bienvenida type we will be considering later. The ideal complement for the Santome belts decorated with cynegetic motifs are the studs of our N type, like those discovered at Borox (Toledo), Sanlucarejo (Cdiz) and Mengibar (Jan). The Mainz Museum buckles39 are very peculiar for they concentrate decoration on a human face. No parallels have been recorded for such pieces, either within or outside Spain, or which might have been produced at the same workshop. This models main feature is the plate of the first propeller, for we find throughout the belt propeller-shaped stiffeners with the very same shape. We know of three fragments of plates found in Borox, Ocaa40 and Villarrubia de Santiago. The plates exhibit uniformity in the manner and styles of their decoration; if we consider this while bearing in mind they were all found in findspots in the province of Toledo, it might actually hint at the presence of local manufacture. Our Borox type would actually be the Spanish adaptation of the non-Hispanic hinged belts of the Champdolent or Gala types;41 or the hingeless ones like the Muids type.42 The Champdolent and Muids are mainly distributed within Gaul, particularly in the North of the province; actually, an item found at Niederbreising is an excellent parallel to the Borox item. The Gala type is typical of the Danubian type. Although none of the Spanish examples preserved a buckle, they probably had Dolphin-buckles, given the restricted distribution of the Gala type and the connections our pseudo-Hispanic bronzes show with Gaulish counterparts. Other belt-fittings related to these plates might be the shanked studs belonging to our D type, found in Titulcia (Madrid), Totanes (Toledo) and Villarubia de Santiago (Toledo). 4 3 The D-type studs only achieved a limited geographical distribution, which coincides fully with the distribution of Borox type belts. We might dare to say that such decorative garments were never used in Hispania in Borox belt sets and were never used with other Dolphin belts. Outside Hispania, such studs have only been found in the belt set from Argeliers, regardless of the fact that propeller-shaped stiffeners with rivets (not shanks) are to be found in substantial numbers everywhere else in the Empire. So far only a pair of items with rectangular buckle-loop and openwork plates decorated with transverse key-hole motif have been found. We do not believe any of them to be related directly with the belt sets from the Danube area with similar buckles. Nevertheless, the similarity of those pieces and that from Paredes de Navas is rather suggestive. Its morphology seems to merge two different influences, the influence of Simancas type cingula horned buckles44 and the ornamental tradition of the opus interrasile with key-holes. San Miguel type hinged belts find their prototype in grave 26 at San Miguel del Arroyo45 which seems to be an adaptation of the Salona type. The Paredes de Nava hingeless type with belt-plates cast in one piece with the loop shows a similarity with the

three items from Anglo-Saxon graves dated to the first half of the 5th century support the theory of their use in this period.15 The Irua Spanish item was found in a 5th century archaeological level confirming the former chronology. In Hawkes area of distribution, type I-B is exclusively British. Outside of England, we only know of the Spanish buckle and a belt set from the Westerwanna necropolis. 16 The Westerwanna specimen is supposed to have been owned by a Saxon mercenary who would have brought the piece to his homeland after having served in the Roman army.17 We can mention some close parallels with our Irua sample, mainly the buckles from Tripontium Mucking, Wycomb,18 Alwalton and Richborough.19 There are three amphora-shaped strap-ends the attribution of which to non-Hispanic or pseudo-Hispanic categories is somewhat problematic, although we assume they were part of the first of these. They are from Mazarambroz (Toledo), Villarubia de Santiago20 and one now at Mainz Museum.21 The first two belong to the Keller A shape,22 or to Sommers B-a variant.23 Usually, such strap-ends are part of belts-sets with dolphin-buckles and propeller-shaped stiffeners. Such bronzes are very common in Gaul where we find many parallels for our items, like the ones from Evreux,24 Loupian, Bziers,25 etc. The dating within the second half of the 4th century is confirmed by countless funerary contexts like the Saint-Marcel burial (Paris)26 and the Pannonian necropolis.27 Most of the samples known have openwork plates with key-hole motifs, as in the Tirig bronzes,28 Lidana (Navarra), Castro de Yecla (Silos. Burgos), 29 Mainz Museum 30 and province of Toledo. Of all the non-Hispanic parallels with rivets we could mention for Lidana and Toledo belt-fittings we shall choose one found in Colchester.31 These two Spanish plates are the ones more closely linked with the Southern Gaulish cingula with shanks we mentioned before.32 The Tirig specimen also has interesting parallels outside our country in the Lydney Park piece.33 The belt-fittings are similar to the one we considered but hingeless. Complete examples come from Totanes (Toledo), and it was re-used in the Visigothic era. The specimen, found in Totanes, has its closest parallels as far as the shape of the dolphins is concerned in two belt sets from the Gobelins necropolis (second half of the 4th Century). 3 4 Dolphin buckle-plates with circular holes have been found in Richborough.35 A heterogeneous group consisting of belt fittings with figural decoration. They are directly related to the goldwork belts. Two main iconographic motifs exist: horses and human faces. The first one is related to the hunt, an iconographic theme characteristically enjoyed by landowners. Examples decorated with horses are those of Argeliers, 36 Santom 37 and one deposited at Santiago de Compostela.38 This last item shows such precise features it must be considered as unique. The

Pseudo-Hispanic Propeller Belts: Borox Type (Fig. 2, nos. 911)

Pseudo-Hispanic Hinged Dolphin Belts: Tirig Type (Fig. 2, nos. 17)

Pseudo-Hispanic Dolphin Belts with Plate and Loop Cast in One Piece: Totanes Type (Fig. 2, no. 8)

Pseudo-Hispanic Belts with Rectangular Loops: San Miguel and Paredes de Nava Types (Fig. 3, nos. 1011)

Pseudo-Hispanic Dolphin Belts with Figural Decoration: Santome Type (Fig. 3, nos. 19)

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We know of six fittings of the Bhme A type. A rectangular Tongern type. This type is very varied, for the prototype has dolphin-shaped buckle; notwithstanding other examples are plate from Paredes de Nava (Palencia)65 is identical to another known with oval46 and peltate buckles.47 one found in Vermand.66 We do not know the exact origin of another Spanish rectangular plate but it is believed to have been Non-Hispanic Belts with Plate and Pelta-Shaped Buckle found in Andalusia, and is currently in Mainz Museum.67 In two places, Paredes de Nava and in the villa of La Olmeda Cast in One Piece: Teba Type (Fig. 1, nos. 412) Included in Sommers Sorte 2, Form D48 they are mainly (Palencia)68 a similar number of triangular plates decorated with contemporary with Dolphin belts. They are defined by a loop, spirals have been found. Both have parallels in Houdan, St. typically peltate, together with extremely fine open-work, the Plten, etc.69 The spread of Bhmes A type Spanish chip-carved only reason for which is functional: providing a clasp for fittings is completed with another two unpublished triangular uniting the buckle-plate and the leather. Such a form of plates, one of which presents an exceptional decoration in the fastening is usually finished with a shanked stud holding the form of a bird with spread wings (an eagle?), no similar pieces to belt together, as is proved by the belt set found in grave no. 10 which have been reported.70 Nevertheless, other chip-carved at San Miguel del Arroyo (Valladolid).49 The buckle can also bronzes such as the Muthmannsdorf and Misery types do show be fastened by a metal plate, folded back over the hinge-bar of animals decorating the plates. They were probably part of the loops, as in one of the bronzes in Mainz Museum.50 Bhmes A type belt sets: the strap-slide from El Roc dEnclar The morphological variations existing throughout the Empire (Andorra), the cut plate from La Olmeda and the re-used plate can only be put down to local manufacture of such objects, as is from the Hornillos del Camino necropolis.71 Strap-slides with proved by Moroccan specimens from Thamusida, Volubilis and lunate terminals, like the one from Andorra, are presumed to be Banasa51 or by individual pieces like one in Bonn Museum.52 The from the transition from 4th to 5th Centuries. This item has two roots of the Teba type are to be found in the cingula militae with identical parallels in Vermand72 and Richborough.73 peltate buckles used at the beginning of the Empire. In Hispania, Four examples have been found in Hispania of Bhmes B nine examples were discovered: San Miguel del Arroyo, Cueva type belt-fittings.74 The plates discovered at La Morterona del Pany (Barcelona),53 Puig Rodom (Gerona),54 four, possibly (Palencia) and in a grave in Pompaelo (Pamplona) are very Andalusian, in Mainz Museum,55 as well as those found at Teba similar.75 The ornamental composition of these is very similar to (Mlaga) and Jauja (Crdoba). The geographical distribution of the belt sets from Celei (Sucidaba) and Tournai.76 Another the Teba type differs from the other Spanish belt-fittings as it is Spanish plate is deposited in Mainz Museum and reported to more widely dispersed, although Andalusia seems to be the main have come from Andalusia. 7 7 Finally, another Spanish focus. The Spanish specimens are closely linked with similar ones buckle-plate, unprovenanced, shows ornamentation similar to in Southern Gaul, as in grave 452 at Frnouville,56 and the the one in Paredes de Nava and is paralleled at Bad-Kreuznach.78 Complementary to the belts we have seen are the strap-ends. cemetery at Chemin des Romains (Frontignan), La Brche We know of three such items, found in Villarubia de Santiago (Laudun), Montpellier?,57 etc. (Toledo) and Andalusia? (Mainz Museum).79 The strap-end from Villarubia decorated with a pelta motif is assigned to Non-Hispanic Belts with Triangular Plate Cast in One Piece with the Buckle: Mainz Type (Fig. 1, no. 3) Sommers Form B, Typ c, Variant 1b,80 to Hawkess V-A type81 58 Included within Sommers Sorte 3, Typ e, the geographical or to Bhmes 2 type.82 Similar chip-carved fittings are the ones distribution of such cingula is quite vast, from Britannia to from Abbeville,83 Lambaesis,84 grave 3 in Oudenburg, Houdan,85 Pannonia, as shown in the inventory recently published by Leicester,86 Trier and Annaba.87 According to Bhme, such Boube.59 The chronology comprehends all the 4th Century.60 fittings are from circa AD 400. 88 We know specimens of In Hispania only an item currently in Mainz Museum is strap-ends analogous to the one in Mainz Museum in Ixworth89 presumed to be of Andalusian origin, 6 1 and the best and in grave 1 at Liebenau.90 Finally, another strap-end found in parallelisms with are in Furfooz,62 Sala y Tamuda.63 Villarrubia de Santiago has an excellent parallel in grave 6 at Oudenburg91 and in Samson.92

I.B. Chip-Carved and Stamped Belt-Fittings (kerbschnitt und punzvezierte Grtelgarnituren)

This is one of the most interesting groups of non-Hispanic bronzes, because of the historical and social connotations its study will enable. Around 30 examples of this class have been found. The Kerbschnittgrtelgarnituren were fashionable from the reign of Valentinian I (364375) to Honorius (393423). The distribution area ranges from Britannia to the Danube and the main concentration is to be found in Northern Gaul as well as in the provinces of Germania I and II, Belgium I and II.64 In Hispania sixteen such examples are documented. Zoomorphic buckles separated from their plates have not been included amongst these and will be considered later.

Non-Hispanic Chip-Carved Belts: Kerbschnittgrtelgarnituren (Fig. 4)

Stamped belts are related to the chip-carved belts from which they are derived. They are both part of the same family notwithstanding the fact that stamped belt sets appeared somewhat later than Kerbschnittgrtelgarnituren, for their chronology belongs to the first half of the 5th Century. Punzierten Garnituren are typically found in the regions of the upper Rhine and Danube.93 Nine such items have been found in Hispania. A grave with a complete belt set was found in Hornillos del Camino. A buckle, three propeller-shaped stiffeners and a circular-shaped strap-end94 comprised the set. This buckle is typical of Bhmes Verigenstadt Form. 95 Circular-shaped strap-ends, like the Hornillos and the Verigenstadt buckles, are to be found mainly in the provinces of Germania I, Maxima

Non-Hispanic Stamped Belts: punzierten Garnituren (Fig. 5, nos. 19)

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Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 10 1999 Simancas type cingula, also find their origin in the military world of 1st century AD.113 The same might be said of peltate buckles, whose more direct prototypes are also the aforementioned hinged belts. Such a phenomenon is not exclusive to Hispania. In Britannia, we can also find this same influence in Hawkes local types I- A and I- B.114 But, on the other hand, from a decorative point of view, Simancas belts are connected with non-Hispanic belt-sets with open-work plates ornamented with the key-hole motif. This connection with European cingula militae mit durbrochenen Beschlg was also established by Sommer, who includes the Simancas type in his Sorte 2, Form B, Typ e.115 Belt-sets with horned buckle have been found in Fuentespreadas, La Morterona (Saldaa, Palencia), Castillo de Carpio Bernardo (Salamanca), Castillo de Soria and Penadominga (Lugo)116 and perhaps individual plates like those found in Carpio de Tajo,117 grave 52 of Simancas (Valladolid)118 and Villarubia de Santiago (Toledo). Belt sets with a peltate buckle have been found in grave 133 at Simancas,119 province of Burgos (MAN n 83845)120 Hornillos del Camino (Burgos)121 and the province of Valladolid.122 Belt sets with D-shaped buckle have been found in grave 26 of the North necropolis of La Olmeda,123 Penadomina,124 and La Nuez de Abajo (Burgos).125 Individual plates for which we can not determine the type of buckle associated are those from Castro de Viladonga (Lugo),126 or a pair from La Morterona (Saldaa)127 and Villasequilla de Yepes.128 Individual horned buckles, a characteristic element of those Simancas belt sets are from: Castillo de Capio Bernardo (Salamanca), Castillo de Soria, La Morterona (Saldaa, Palencia), tomb 354 of la Olmeda (unpublished, on display at the Museum of Saldaa), Penadomina (Lugo), Carpio de Tajo (Toledo), Santo Tom del Puerto (Segovia), Puebla de Montalbn (Toledo), Villarubia de Santiago (Toledo), Arcobriga (Monreal de Ariza, Zaragoza), Palencia, Collado de los Jardines (Santa Elena, Jan) and the National Archaeological Museum.129 We should include in this list those unpublished in Huete (Cuenca) and the Museum of Linares and also Aloria.130 About the geographical distribution, Simancas belts are typical of the classical necropolis of the Culture of the Duero cemeteries and are mainly concentrated in the Northern and Southern Plateaus of the Iberian Peninsula, in what are currently the provinces of Palencia and Toledo. Their chronology coincides with the first half of the 4th century, as is proved by the belt set found in grave 26 of La Olmeda. Nevertheless, the maximum distribution hald already been achieved in the second half of the 4th and the beginning of the following century, the period to which the Fuentespreadas tomb is attributable. It is probably in this last period that horned buckles became fashionable. Simancas belts are frequently to be found in graves with knives for, among others, one of their uses was to transport such knives. Hinged belts with plates which are never decorated with open-work motifs. They possess D-shaped buckles and rectangular plates doubled over to form a back-plate. Typically the plates are ornamented with the familiar ring-and-dot motif. Eight specimens of the Cabriana type have been reported so far. Three complete examples come from the Cabriana necropolis (Burgos), 131 Lugo and Las Murallas (Huerta de Abajo, Burgos). Detached buckles were found in tomb 51 of the northern necropolis of La Olmeda,132

Sequanorum and Raetia II, as well as in neighbouring Barbarian territories occupied by Alamans and Burgundians.96 The three propeller-shaped stiffeners found at Hornillos are of Bhmes Trier-Muri shape. Also in Hispania, another two Trier-Muri stiffeners have been found at Pamplona97 and Castro Ventosa (Cacabelos, Bierzo).98 The item from Pompaelo is actually a variant of the Trier-Muri form as is proved by the four central appendages. The best parallel is from Hessheim.99 The fragment from Castro Ventosa is also linked with the garments of the Kln-Weinheim form mainly due to the central circular-shaped opening.100 The area of distribution of such fittings is very restricted as Bhmes map shows. This area actually consists of the central eastern part of Gaul, the area of the Upper Rhine and the Mosel,101 which make these Spanish Trier-Muri stiffeners more interesting. The occasional discovery of similar fittings in Britannia, North of Gaul, Panonnia and Dalmatia is always connected with the dispatch of troops from the Upper Rhine zone. 1 0 2 Finally we have two Spanish bronzes of the Tongern-Wessling form:103 a buckle-plate and a rectangular plate, both in Totanes (Toledo). The edges of the buckle-plates are deliberately cut but can still be compared to specimens as the one in Kostheim104 or Vieil-Atre (Bolougne-sur-Mer).105 The Tonger-Wesslings form and Verigenstadt buckles belt-sets usually complement each other. Nevertheless, the latter have achieved a wider geographical diffusion.106 Such buckles were used in chip-carved belts as well as in stamped belts, but were also associated to other belt sets. In Hispania they have been found at the Cueva de los Murcilagos in Zuheros (Cordoba),107 Can Bosch de Basea,108 Monsanto, 109 grave 141 in Simancas 110 and La Bienvenida (Ciudad Real).111 Since all those examples were found without plates, it is not clear to which belt sets they belonged, although some items, like the one found in La Bienvenida, are more like stamped belt-sets. Such buckles do not only coincide chronologically with Kerbschnittgrtelgarnituren and Punzverzierte Grtelgarnituren, but also as with the main distribution area. This area comprises all the north of Gaul, Rhineland, Northwest of Germany and Britain.112

Buckles with Animal-Heads Opposed Across the Hinge-Bar (Fig. 5, nos. 1013)

II. HISPANIC TYPOLOGY BELTS

Belt sets of the Hispanic type have always been thought to be related with an indigenous culture called the Culture of the Duero cemeteries, as has been mentioned. There are nevertheless regional differences in the different types used.

II. B. Simancas Belts (Fig. 6 and 7)

These are hinged belts with open-work plates. The plates are attached to the ends of leather belts by shanks (not rivets). The buckles show three variants: peltate, horned and D-shaped. One of the features of the plates is their narrowness, which imposes a decoration based on seriated subjects, mainly longitudinal key-holes and interleaved tendrils. Simancas belts are a consequence of two influences. From the morphological point of view, they follow the tradition of hinged belts with rectangular plates used by soldiers at the beginning of the Empire. An interesting feature is that Spanish horned buckles, so far always thought of as related with

II.C. Cabriana Belts (Fig. 8, nos. 18)

Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 10 1999 Lidana (Navarra) 133 and Astorga. And a detached plate comes from Monte Mzinho (Oldroes, Penafiel). 134 With regard to chronology, the first examples from Astorga were found in archaeological levels dated from the 4th century to the first half of the following century,135 while the buckle from La Olmeda may date to the first half of the 4th century. The geographical distribution of the Cabriana type is somewhat different from that of the Simancas type for it is concentrated in the west and north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. With the exception of La Olmeda, they are not normally found in graves of the necropolis of the Culture of the Duero cemeteries. A variant is the type Villasequilla. They are similar to the previous ones, but the buckle is joined to the plate with a hinge formed from rings (and not by the sheet bent back in a U shape). We only know of plates from Villasequilla of Yepes (Toledo)136 and one in the National Archaeological Museum n 86/84/67.137 The limited data does not allow their geographical distribution or their chronology to be determined. Belts with a concave-shaped plate, the corners of which are usually finished in small terminals and never display open-work decoration. The most distinctive ornamentation of this class of belt equipment is the ring-and-dot motif, as in that from La Bienvenida, 1 3 8 Totanes (Toledo), Almendros (Cuenca)139 and the province of Segovia, among others. The plates may also have been decorated with incised lines, like the one found in Puebla de Montalbn (Toledo),140 or lack the decoration, as in the ones from Villasequilla de Yepes (Toledo)141 and one found in the province of Cuenca.142 The typical buckle of the Bienvenida belts is rectangular in shape, and the corners have spherical terminals and have thus been named four knob-buckles.143 We once again find a connection between our Hispanic type cingula and Roman military equipment of the beginning of the Empire. Bienvenida plates are related to military studs used from the end of the 2nd century and in the following century found in Germania,144 Morocco 145 and Gaul. The buckles are also linked to the tradition of the Rechteckschnallen analysed by Poux.146 Four knob-buckles have been reported in Hispania since the Republican period and have been found for instance in the Cceres el Viejo camp (circa 80 BC). Outside our territory, such buckles are associated with military contexts of the 2nd and 3rd century, as at South Shields147 and Straubing.148 From a geographical point of view, the distribution of the Bienvenida type differs somewhat from that of the Simancas and Cabriana types. The Bienvenida type is typical of the South Plateau of the Iberian Peninsula and finds clearly concentrate in the centre of the Peninsula. No Bienvenida belt-fittings have been found in the necropolis of the Culture of the Duero cemeteries. The only information we possess about their chronology is the re-use of a plate in the Visigothic necropolis of El Espirdo (Segovia).149

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Olmeda belts are there to remind us once again of the endurance of anachronistic fashions in our territory. A great number of Olmeda items have been found in the Northern Necropolis of the type site where they are the kind of belt set most often represented in this cemetery (tombs 11, 12, 28, 32, 36, 38, 62, 64, 84, 91).150 This last fact stresses the idea that this type was still fashionable in Hispania during the first half of 4th century, while they were already considered old-fashioned in the rest of the Empire. During the 4th century, belt becomes important because it turns into an essential part of the uniform and a symbol of the social ranks. The idea of classifying these pieces as military items has led to a controversy with, obviously, poponents and opponents.151 We currently consider such belts originally to have been worn by military men, either Romans or Barbarians, Germanic or non-Germanic, as well as by Roman government officers. The proliferation of fittings of Late Roman cingula in Hispania, a province distant from combat zones and with a reduced military presence, needs to be explained, especially since the theory of a Limes hispanus152 was dismissed. Non-Hispanic belt-fittings were brought to Hispania by armed men posted at the Limes in the transition from the end of 4th to the beginning of 5th century. The date coincides with the period of the usurpation by Constantine III (407411), a brief period when armed clashes in Hispania have been reported by classical texts. Some of these bronzes have been found on military sites and others are related to settlements occupied by such troops in the Notitia Dignitatum. The Hawkes I-B type buckle found at Veleia (currently Irua) might have been owned by a Saxon mercenary posted to the cohors prima Gallica. Fittings such as the ones from Palacios del Sil and Castro Ventosa, both found in the province of Len, may have some connection with the Legio VII . Chip-carved and Trier-Muri fittings from Pompaelo (Pamplona) were found in a city where comitatenses troops where posted at the beginning of the 5th century, as we know from the letter Emperor Honorius sent them. The strap-slide from El Roc dEnclar, a castellum, which controlled a strategic route from Hispania to Gaul, would thus be an item related to a military site. During this period, we may then quote the presence of comitatenses troops in civilian locations. These comitatenses troops might possibly have been billeted in villae and were the reason for the finds in the cemetery at Hornillos del Camino (Burgos), where a passing Alaman soldier may have died. The finds of cingula militae in villae like La Olmeda and Paredes de Nava, deposits found in the campi palantini, might be related to the repeated looting of Gerontius honoriaci. Finally, we should not forget that some finds from rural settlements might be due to the owner of the villa having pursued a military career as a part of their cursus honorum. Such potentiores might have brought cingula militae with them as a memento of their professional life on the Limes.153 Pseudo-Hispanic belts are regional variations of the cingula militae used throughout the rest of the Empire in the 4th century. We believe pseudo-Hispanic belts may be related to the troops posted in Hispania, still operational in the middle of the century, while non-Hispanic belts would be those brought in by mobile troops (comitatenses) at the beginning of the following century.

III. CONCLUSIONS

II.D. Bienvenida Belts (Fig. 9, nos. 19)

II.E. Olmeda Belts (Fig. 9, nos. 1314)

Ring-buckles generally made of iron. Such pieces are typical of the 3rd century but nevertheless are frequently found in Hispanic cemeteries of the Culture of the Duero cemeteries. The fact that such buckles are found recurrently in Spanish tombs can not be explained just by residual use of such buckles.

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27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 KELLER, 1971. ROSAS, 1976. PALOL, 1969, 146, 149, fig. 25, 3, 25bis. RIPOLL, 1993, 594, 14. BHME, 1986, fig. 8, 1. FEUGERE, 1993a, 253. HAWKES, 1961, 52, fig. 18, a. BONNET ET ALII, 1989, 192193, n 168 and 170. HAWKES, 1961, 57, fig. 19, a. ZEISS, 1934, fig. 32, 9. FARIA ; RODRIGUEZ, 1995, fig. 46. PALOL, 1969, 147, fig. 25, 1. RIPOLL, 1993, 596. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/1996, fig. 1, 10 and 11. SOMMER, 1984, 36, figs. 14, n 56. SOMMER, 1984, 38, plate 16, 7. AURRECOECHEA, 1996a, fig. 6, nos. 101103. AURRECOECHEA, 1997, 1519. PALOL, 1969, 128, fig. 24, 1 and fig. 19. HAWKES, 1974, 389, fig. 3, 7. BHME, 1974, fig. 104, 9. SOMMER, 1984, 37. AURRECOECHEA, 1996a, 109, fig. 19. RIPOLL, 1993, 592, n 3. BOUBE-PICCOT, 1994, n 63, 6569. HEURGON, 1958, plate 23, 2. PEREZ, 1991, n 4. CASAS, 1985/86, 7389. RIPOLL, 1993, 592, n 35, 594, n11. PILET, 1990, 125. FEUGERE, 1993b, fig. 14. SOMMER, 1984, fig. 16. BOUBE-PICCOT, 1994, List 1, n 123, Carte 2. BHME, 1986, 486. RIPOLL, 1993, 594, n 13. NENQUIN, 1953, plate 8, D-11. BOUBE-PICCOT, 1994, n 162163. BHME, 1986, 472. AURRECOECHEA, 1998a, 15. BULLINGER, 1969a, ab. 29, 1, ab. 60. SCHULZE-DRRLAMM, 1989, 784785, plate 75. AURRECOECHEA, 1996b, 15, fig. 1, 1. BULLINGER, 1969a, ab. 28. These pieces come from the antiquity market and the actual whereabouts is unknown. They were offered to the British Museum in 1992 and their Spanish origin was reported. They actually were part of a set including Bhmes B type buckle of fig. 4,1. AURRECOECHEA, 1996b, 18, fig. 1, 2, 5 and 6. BHME, 1974, fig. 136, 9. BHME, 1986, fig. 6, 7. BHME, 1974, fundliste 11, karte 11. AURRECOECHEA, 1996b, 18, fig. 1, 34. BULLINGER, 1969a, fig. 21, 1, fig. 23, 1. SCHULZE-DRRLAMM, 1989, 784785, plate 75. See note 1. SOMMER, 1974, fig. 10, 2. AURRECOECHEA, 1996b, fig. 1, 78. SOMMER, 1984, 52, plate 20. HAWKES, 1961, 6364, fig. 23. BHME, 1974, fig. 28. BULLINGER, 1969b, 149159, fig. 4 and 8.

This would account for the distribution of out-dated fashions in our territory during the second half of 4th century, and also the survival of shanks against rivets. Hispanic belts are contemporary with pseudo-Hispanic and share a similar geographical distribution. Nevertheless, some of those Hispanic type belts are specific to a local culture called the Culture of the Duero cemeteries and have an anachronistic style more like the 2nd3rd centuries, while pseudo-Hispanic are not to be found in the cemeteries of this culture and have a more contemporary style. The fact that troops stayed in Hispania for centuries, especially the Legio VII may be the key to the interpretation of our pseudo-Hispanic and Hispanic late Roman belts. 154 Old-fashioned tastes having lasted with troops established long ago is a trend which has been studied in other areas of the Empire. In its area of influence, the Iberian Peninsula Plateau, this legion might have been responsible for a phenomenon similar to the Mischzivilisation which took place in Northern Gaul. The result of such Mischzivilisation is the meeting of two worlds: military and civilian. This symbiosis has been recorded in other areas such as Pannonia (Sgvr),155 or the former Dacia.156 Hispanic Mischzivilisation would thus be the result of mingling of conservative tastes (very likely in an old legion) and the local Hispano-Roman tradition. The most obvious proof of this Mischzivilisation would be the Culture of the Duero cemeteries, defined by the cemetery whose graves contained Simancas belts, knives, spears, iron tools, bronze tableware, etc. The similarities between such Spanish grave goods and those found in Gallic and German graves, like no. 127 in Chouy157 or no. 1330 at Krefeld-Gellep158 constitute a line of investigation that requires careful examination in the future.

NOTES
* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

jaurreco@uma.es SOMMER, 1984. HEURGON, 1958, 3146, fig. 67, fig. 34. FEUGERE, 1993a, 253. ZEISS, 1934, fig. 32, 9. AURRECOECHEA, 1996a, 97146. BOUBE-PICCOT, 1994, 101102, n166168. BHME, 1986, 482485. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, 60. PEREZ, 1991, n 15. SOMMER, 1984, 38. BHME, 1986, 482, note 22. AURRECOECHEA, 1996c, 265270. HAWKES, 1961, 2326. SOMMER, 1984, 25, fig. 4, 8. BHME, 1986, 507. QUILLFELDT Y ROGGENBUCK, 1985, fig. 122, 701b. BHME, 1986, 508. BHME, 1986, fig. 27, 1, 7 and 16. HAWKES, 1961, fig. 15, a and f. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/1996, fig. 1, 7 and 9. RIPOLL, 1993, 595, 12. KELLER, 1971, 4546, fig. 18, 711. SOMMER, 1984, 4951, fig. 19. FAUDUET, 1992, 115, n 874. FEUGERE, 1993a, 253, n 17 and 18. BONNET ET ALII, 1989, 197, n 175.

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

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84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 BISHOP; COULSTON, 1993, fig. 128, 3 and 9. BULLINGER, 1969a, fig. 24, 2, fig. 28, 2. HAWKES, 1961, 63, fig. 23, a. SOMMER, 1984, plate 20, 9, 11. BHME, 1986, 473. HAWKES, 1961, 65, fig. 23, g. BHME, 1974, fig. 28, 19. YPEY, 1969, fig. 3. BHME, 1974, fig. 100, 5. BHME, 1986, 500501. PEREZ, e.p. BHME, 1974, 71. BHME, 1974, 92; BHME, 1986, 499500, Abb. 23. MEZQURIZ, 1978, 121, fig. 112. FARIA; RODRGUEZ 1995, 5859, fig. 46. BULLINGUER, 1969, fig. 52, 1, plate 35, 2. BHME, 1986, 501. BHME, 1986, fig. 24. SOMMER, 1984, 103; BHME, 1986, 501. BOHME, 1974, Fundliste 14, karte 14. WERNER, 1958, fig. 20. VV.AA., 1990, 65, 1e.8c. BHME, 1974, Fundliste 15, karte 15. VERA, 1994, 69-71. MORRAL ET ALII, 1980, 13, fig. 26. SANTOS; PONTE, 1980, 6061. PALOL, 1969, 141, fig.26, 3. AURRECOECHEA ET AL., 1986, 253, fig. 1, 9. BHME, 1986, 473. AURRECOECHEA, 1997, 1519. HAWKES, 1961, 4150. SOMMER, 1984, 35. AURRECOECHEA. 1997, 17. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 3, 2. PALOL, 1969, 139, fig. 24, 3. PALOL, 1969, 141, fig. 24, 2. PALOL, 1969, 149, 24, 6. PALOL, 1969, 144, fig. 24, 4. AURRECOECHEA, 1996a, fig. 22. ABASOLO; CORTES; PEREZ, 1997, 2425, fig. 17. NUEZ, 1976, 286287, fig. 3. PALOL, 1969, 145, fig. 25, 5. ARIAS, 1997, A70172. ABASOLO ET AL., 1984, 1112, fig. 3, 23. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 3, 1. AURRECOECHEA. 1997, 17. Personal communication from Aitor Iriarte. AURRECOECHEA, 1996a, fig. 20, plate. 7. ABASOLO; CORTES; PEREZ, 1997, 55, fig. 37. PEREZ, 1991, n 20, fig. 15,3. SOEIRO, 1984, fig. 143, 8. We would like to thank Ms Romana Erice and Mr Angel Morfigo the data regarding Astorga and the chronology derived from the doctoral thesis of the latter. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig.. 3, 3. RIPOLL, 1986, 64, fig. 4, 1. AURRECOECHEA; ET AL., 1986, 253, fig.1, 8. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 2, 12. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 2, 9. AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 2, 10. 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154

61

ABASOLO, J.A. ET ALII. 1984: Excavaciones en el yacimiento de La Morterona, Saldaa (Palencia). Palencia. ABASOLO, J. ; CORTES, J ; PEREZ, F., 1997: La necrpolis norte de La Olmeda (Pedrosa de la Vega, Palencia). Palencia. ALLASON-JONES, L., MIKET, R. 1984: The catalogue of small finds from South Shields Roman Fort. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. ARIAS VILAS, F., 1997: Apliques y botones de bronce para personas y caballeras en el Castro de Viladonga. CROA, 7. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1994: Los botones de bronce en la Hispania romana. Archivo Espaol de Arqueologa, 67. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1995/96: Las guarniciones de cinturn y atalaje de tipologa militar en la Hispania Romana, a tenor de los bronces hallados en la Meseta Sur. Estudios de Prehistoria y Arqueologa Madrileas, 10. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1996a: Roman studs in Spain: a survey. Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies, vol. 7. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1996b: Chip-carved fittings in Late Roman Hispania. Arma, vol. 8, nos. 1 & 2. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1996c: Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los contingentes militares tardorromanos en Hispania: la guarnicin de cinturn de origen britnico encontrada en Irua. Veleia, 13. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1997: Roman horned buckles: the evidence from Hispania. Arma, vol. 9. AURRECOECHEA, J., 1998: New finds of chip-carved fittings in Spain. Instrumentum Bulletin, winter 98. AURRECOECHEA, J. ; FERNANDEZ, C. ; CABALLERO, A., 1986: Mobiliario metlico del yacimiento ibero-romano de La Bienvenida, en la provincia de Ciudad Real. Oretum, 2. BISHOP, M. C.; COULSTON, J. C. N., 1993: Roman military equipment. Londres. BLACK, E.W., 1994: Villa-owners: romano-british gentleen and officers. Britannia, 25. BHME, A., 1974: Germanische Grabfunde des 4. Bis 5. Jahrhunderts zwischen unteren Elbe und Loire. Mnchen.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

155 156 157 158

AURRECOECHEA, 1995/96, fig. 2, 6. AURRECOECHEA, 1997, 1718. OLDENSTEIN, 1976, fig. 59, 733736. BOUBE, 1994, 574. POUX, 1998. ALLASON-JONES; MIKET, 1984, 194, n 623. OLDENSTEIN, 1976, fig. 59, 736. MOLINERO, 1971, 65, plate 1971, 65, plate 103. ABASOLO; CORTES; PEREZ, 1997, 139. BHME, 1974; 1986. SOMMER, 1984. The extensive bibliography the hypothetical limes has inspired will not be considered in this work. The most recent synthesis will be quoted instead (SAYAS, 1996). BLACK, 1994, 99109. Legio VII Gemina is reported as settled in Spain in that time according to the Notitia (XLII, 1, 25). The legion, in the late Roman era, would be about 6000 men strong; nevertheless, a part of it was posted to the comitatensan army in the Eastern provinces of the Empire (ARCE, 1988, 73). BURGER, 1979. MITREA; PREDA, 1964, 211237. KAZANSKI, 1995, fig. 4, 1017. PIRLING, 1978, FIG. 3, 3.

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PALOL, P. DE, 1969: La necrpolis de San Miguel del Arroyo y los broches hispanorromanos del S. IV. Boletn del Seminario de Arte y Arqueologa, 3435. PEREZ RODRIGUEZ-ARAGON, F., 1991: Los broches de los cinturones tardorromanos y el inicio de la presencia germnica en la Pennsula Ibrica. Codex Aquilarensis, 4. PEREZ RODRIGUEZ-ARAGON, F., (e.p.): Un nuevo cinturn militar tardorromano tipo Trier-Muri, procedente de la necrpolis de Hornillos del Camino. I Congreso de Arqueologa Militar Romana en Hispania (Segovia, 1998). PILET, C., 1990: Militaires et barbares sur le limes saxonicum. Atila, les influences danubiennes dans louest de lEurope au Ve sicle. Caen PIRLING, R., 1978: Chronologie du cimetire de Krefeld-Gellep. Problemes de Chronologie relative et absolute concernant les cimentires mrovingiens dentre Loire et Rhin. Bibliothque de Lcole des Hautes tudes. Paris. POUX, M., 1998: Puits funraire dpoque gauloise Paris (Snat): un cavalier auxiliaire rpublicain chez les Parisii. Cahiers de La Rotonde. Paris. QUILLFELDT, J.V.; ROGGENBUCK, P., 1985: Westerwanna II. Die Urnenfriedhfe in Niedersachsen. RIPOLL LOPEZ, G., 1986: Bronces romanos, visigodos y medievales en el M.A.N.. Boletn del Museo Arqueolgico Nacional, 4. RIPOLL LOPEZ, G., 1993: Larchologie funraire de Btique daprs la collection visigothique du Rmisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum de Mayence. Paris. Atelier de Thses de lUniversit de Lille, microfiche n 0741.15226/93. ROSAS ARTOLA, M., 1976: Peces indites dun enterrament tardorrom procedente de Tirig (Castell), dipositades en el Mus. Prov. de Belles Arts de Castell. Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueologa Castellonenses, 3. SANTOS, C ; PONTE, S. DA, 1980: Fibula anular romana e fivela da cinturo romana do Museo Eduardo Malta (Covilh). Arqueologa, 2. SCHLZE-DRRLAMM, M., 1989: Arbeitsberich, Sptromische Grtelbeschlge mit Kerbschnitmuster aus Sdspanien. Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum zu Mainz, 36. SOEIRO, T., 1984: Monte Mzinho. Apontamentos sobre a ocupaao entre Souza y Tamega em epoca romana. Penafiel, 1. SOMMER, M., 1984: Die Grtel und Grtelbeschlge des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts im rmischen Reich. Bonner Hefte zur Vorgeschichte, 22. Bonn. VERA, J.C., 1994: Un nuevo testimonio arqueolgico sobre la presencia efectiva de contingentes militares centroeuropeos en la Hispania bajoimperial: una hebilla de cingulum militia procedente del sur de Crdoba. Antiquitas, 5. VV.AA., 1990: Milano capitale dellImpero Romano (286402 d.C.). Miln. WERNER, J., 1958: Kriegergrber aus der ersten Hlfte des 5. Jahrhunderts zwischen Schelde und Weser. Bonner Jahrbuch, 158. YPEY, J., 1969: Zur Tragweise frhfrnkischer Grtelgarnituren auf Grund niederlndischer Befunde. Ver. R.O.B., 19. ZEISS, H., 1934: Die Grabfunde aus dem spanischen Westgotenreich. Berlin-Leipzig.

BHME, A., 1986: Das Ende der Rmerherrschaft in Britannien und die Angelsachsische Besiedlung Englands im 5. Jahrhundert. Jahrbuch des Rmisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum zu Mainz, 33. BONNET, J. ET ALII, 1989: Les bronzes antiques de Paris. Collections du Muse Carnavalet. BOUBE-PICCOT, C. 1994: Les bronzes antiques de Maroc, IV. Lequipement militaire et larmement. Paris. BULLINGER, H., 1969a: Sptantike Grtelbeschlge. Typen, herstellung, trageweise und datierung. Dissertationes Archaelogiae Gandense, 12. BULLINGER, H., 1969b: Une garniture de ceinturon du Bas-Empire a Abbeville (Somme). Gallia, 27. BURGER, A.S., 1966: The late Roman cementery at Sgvr. Acta Archaeologica Hungrica, 18. CABALLERO, L. 1974: La necrpolis de Fuentespreadas (Zamora). Excavaciones Arqueolgicas en Espaa, 80. CASAS I GENOVER, J., 1985/86: Excavacions a la vil.la romana de Puig Rodon (Cora, Baix Empord). Sector 1, 19851983. Annal de lInstitut dEtudis Gironins, 28. FARIA, F. ; RODRGUEZ, X., 1995: Museo Arqueoloxico Ourense, La Corua. FAUDUET, I., 1992: Muse dvreux, bronzes gallo-romains. Argenton-sur-Creuse. FEUGERE, M., 1993a: Les armes des romains de la Rpublique lAntiquit tardive. Paris. FEUGERE, M., 1993b: Lvolution du mobilier non cramique dans les spultures antiques de Gaule mridionale (IIe sicle av. J.-C. dbut du Ve sicle ap. J.-C.). Rmerzeitliche Grber als Quellen zu Religion, Bevlkerungsstruktur und Sozialgeschichte. Mainz. HAWKES, C.S., 1961: Soldiers and settlers in Britain, fourth to fifth century.Medieval Archaeology , 5. HAWKES, C.S., 1974: Some recent finds of Late Roman Buckles. Britannia, 5. HEURGON, J., 1958: Le trsor de Tns. KAZANSKI, M., 1995: Lequipement et le matriel militaires au Bas-Empire en Gaule du Nord et de lEst. Revue du Nord-Archeologie, 313. KELLER, E., 1971: Die sptrmischen Grabfunde in Sudbayern. Mnchner Beitrge zur Vor-und Frhgeschichte, 14. Mnchen. MEZQUIRIZ, M. A., 1978: Pompaelo II. Pamplona. MITREA, B.; PREDA, C., 1964: Quelques problmes ayant trait aux ncropoles de type Sntana-Tcherniakhov dcouvertes en Valachie. Dacia, 8, 1964. MOLINERO PEREZ, A. 1971: Aportaciones de las excavaciones y hallazgos casuales (19411959) al Museo Arqueolgico de Segovia. Excavaciones Arqueolgicas en Espaa, 72. MORRAL, E. ET ALII, 1980: Excavacions a la villa romana de Can Bosch de Basea (Terrassa). Tarrasa. NENQUIN, J., 1953: La necropole de Furfooz. Dissertationes Archaeologicae Gandenses, 1. Brugge. NUEZ, M. 1976: Las artes metlicas de la Galicia prerromnica. Boletn de la Comisin Provincial de Monumentos Histricos y Artsticos de Lugo, v. 9, nos. 8586. OLDENSTEIN, J. 1976: Zur Ausrstung rmischer Auxiliareinheiten. Bericht der Romische-Germanischen Komision, 57.

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Figure 1: Non-Hispanic Dolphin belts: Palacios del Sil (1), Irua (2). Mainz Type: Mainz Museum (3). Teba Type: Mainz Museum (47), Cueva del Pany (7), Puig Rodom (9), Teba (10), Jauja (11), San Miguel del Arroyo (12).

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Figure 2: Tirig Type: Tirig (1), Lidana (2), Province of Toledo (3), Nimes? (4), Saint-Clment (5), Montpellier Museum (6), Castro de Yecla (7). Totanes Type: Totanes (8). Borox Type: Ocaa (9), Villarrubia de Santiago (10), Borox (11). Dolphin buckles: Villarubia de Santiago (12), Sant Josep (13), La Olmeda (14), Castillo Billido (15). Strap-ends: Mainz Museum (16), Mazarambroz (17).

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Figure 3: Santom Type: Argeliers (1), Santom (2), Borox (3), Santiago de Compostela? (4), Mengibar (5), Sanlucarejo (6), Province of Burgos (7), Mainz Museum (89). San Miguel Type: San Miguel del Arroyo (10). Paredes de Nava Type: Paredes de Nava (11).

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Figure 4: Chip-carved fittings: La Olmeda (9, 16), Paredes de Nava (7, 8), La Morterona (5), Hornillos del Camino (15), Villarrubia de Santiago (13, 14), Pamplona (4), Roc dEnclar (3), Mainz Museum (2, 11, 12), Spanish (1, 6, 10).

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Figure 5: Stamped fittings: Hornillos del Camino (15), Cacabelos (6), Pamplona (7), Totanes (8, 9). Buckles with animal heads: Monsanto (10), Simancas (11), La Bienvenida (12), Can Bosch (13).

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Figure 6: Simancas Type: Fuentespreadas (1, 6), La Morterona (2), Castillo de Capio Pernardo (3), Carpio de Tajo (4, 12), Simancas (5), Villarrubia de Santiago (7, 8), National Archaeological Museum (9, 15), Puebla de montalban (10), Museo de Linares (11), Arcobriga (13, 14), Palencia (16), Huete (17), Santo Tom del Puerto (18). Early Empire horned buckles: Province of Toledo (19), Oberstimm (20), Richborough (21, 22), Bank East (23).

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Figure 7: Simancas Type: Nuez de Abajo (1), La Morterona (2, 5), Viladonga (3), Hornillos del Camino (4), La Olmeda (6), Villasequilla de Yepes (7), Simancas (8), Province of Valladolid (9).

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Figure 8: Cabrina Type: Cabriana (1), Lugo (2), Huerta de Abajo (3), Monte Mzinho (4), Lidana (5), Astorga (6, 8), La Olmeda (7). Villasequilla Type: National Archaeological Museum (8), Villasequilla de Yepes (9). D buckles with L section: Villarrubia de Santiago (10), Borox (11).

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Figure 9: Bienvenida Type: Mengibar (1), El Quinto (2), Ocaa (3), Totanes (4), La Bienvenida (5), Almendros (6), Province of Segovia (7), Puebla de Montalbn (8), Villasequilla de Yepes (9). Rectangular buckles: Simancas (10, 11), Castro de la Oliva (12). Olmeda Type: La Olmeda (13), La Morterona (14).

Minat Terkait