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8. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUS: Viruses are grouped under Acaryota.The classification proposed by Andrew Lowff (1966) included all viruses under the phylum Vira and classified them on their physic-chemical properties. It is divided into two subphylum, five classes, eight orders and twenty-one families. 9. Viruses have characters common to living organisms and also some characters which make them close to non-living objects. Living characters of virus: a.Virus contain nucleic acid either DNA or RNA b.They are obligate parasite and cause infection in higher organisms and bacteria. c.They can undergo mutation. d.They can reproduce within the host cell. Non-Living characters of virus: a.Viruses are acellular. b.They do not posses life processes like respiration, metabolism, excretion etc. c.They form crystal in very low temperature. d.They dont response to external stimuli. Characters in between Living and Non-living: Virus can reproduce inside the living host and can not reproduce and behave as non living object outside the host cell.This character implies that viruses are entity in between living and non-living object. 10. SIZE OF VIRUS The smallest known plant viruses are the nucleoprotein plant viruses, e.g. the satellite of Tobacco Necrosis Virus with spherical particles of 17 nm in diameter .The smallest animal virus is Foot and Mouth virus with 10 nm size The longest (largest) known plant virus is rod shaped Citrus tristeza with particles 20,000 nm in size (or 0.02 mm) The animal virus, Parrot fever virus is as large as 400nm. 11. VIROIDS They were discovered by T.O. Diener and coworkers who isolated them as causative agent for Potato Spindle Tuber (PST) disease. They have following features: They have naked RNA molecule without no protein covering They have ssRNA with molecular weight 80,000-90,000 The ssRNA molecules are capable of repllcation It can multiply in plant cells.It consifts of only nucleotidesIt does not contain the initiation codon AUG for protein synthesis. (b) Viroids differ from virus in two respects 1. The dormant phase virion is absent 2, The genome is much smaller. 12. VIRUSOID J .W. Randles and his associates discovered virusoids in 1981. Virusoids have the following characters: I, They are structurally similar to viroids. They are small circular RNA

CHAPTER.3

VIRUS

1. Virus are acellular, ultra-microscopic, obligate parasite composed of protein and nucleic acid 2. The term virus means poison and was coined by Louis Pasteur 3. The first person to discover the existence of a Viral disease in plants (TMV Tobacco Mosaic Virus) was a Russian Scientist, Dmitri. Iwanowksi (1892) who could demonstrate that TMV could be transmitted to healthy plants through the sap from diseased plant even though the sap had been passed through the filters fine enough to hold back bacteria. 4. In 1898, Beijerinck found that the filterable, invisible and noncultivable infections entity could diffuse through agar gel like a fluid. He, therefore, called the living infections fluid as "contagium vivum fluidum". 5. In 1892 Louis Pasteur indicated that rabies is caused by a virus. 6.Viruses have some unique characters A. They are obligate intracellular parasites. B. They are non-cellular living molecules C. They are highly infectious. D. They have a single nucleic acid ie either DNA or RNA but never both E. They do not have capacity to grow and divide independently. F. Reproduction from genetic material only G. Absence of enzymes for energy metabolism, i.e. they have no metabolic activity of their own H. Absence of ribosomes I. Absence of information for the synthesis of ribosomal proteins J. Absence of information for the synthesis of ribosomal RNA and soluble transfer RNA. K. Viral genome consists of DNA or RNA but never both, surrounded by a protein sheath called the capsid. DNA or RNA of a virus may either be linear or
circular and may be single stranded (ss) or double stranded (ds).

7. HISTORY OF VIRUS * Vaccination was introduced against small pox by ---------- Edward Jenner (1796 ) * Tobacco mosaic disease was reported first by ------------ Adolf Mayer (1880) * The existance of virus was scientifically proved by and Viral disease in planty(TMV) was discovered by-------------Dimitri Ivanowski (1892) * Tobacco mosaic virus was coined by ------------------------Beijernick (1898) * Bacteriophage was discovered by ---------------------------- Felix d Herelle * First to crystallize virus----------------------------------------- Stanley * It was proved that DNA is the genetic material for bacteriophage by --Harshey and Chase

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2. They are always associated with larger viral RNA 13. PRIONS Stanley Prusiner et.al discovered an organism while studying scrapie a fatal disease of the nervous system of sheep. They called the organism-prions. Prion, are the smallest of living things, sometimes 100 to 1000 times smaller than the smallest known organism. They are the organism made up exclusively proteins with 254 amino acids. Prions have been involved in some diseases such as : (i) Senile demensia (ii) Amytrophic lateral sclerosis (iii) Parkinsonism (iv) Multiple sclerosis (v) Kuru (vi) Jakob disease. 14. Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) TMV is a rod-shaped virus. Each virus particle is about 300 nm (3000 A) long and 18 nm (180 A) in diameter. It is made up of protein coat and RNA The protein coat consists of 2130 identical protein subunits called capsomeres. RNA is single stranded and can alone be infective by itself. 15. DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUS Plant diseases: TMV Tobaco mosaic disease Wheat yellow mosaic Virus Yellow mosaic Virus Human disease: HIV AIDS Poliomyelitis virus Polio (Infantile paralysis) Influenza virus Influenza Rabbis virus Rabbis SARS Severe acute respiratory SARS virus syndrome Mumps, Measeals Mumpsvirus , Measeals virus 16. VIRAL REPLICATION: Viral reproduction is also known as replication. It consists of six major stages. 1.Invasion or absorption 2.Penetration 3.Biochemical stage 4.Maturation 5.Assembly 6.Lysis LYTIC CYCLE: 1.It is exhibited by T4 bacteriophage or virulent phage 2.Here viral DNA destroy the bacterial DNA 3.No prophage is formed 4.In a single attack a single bacteria is destroyed LYSOGENIC CYCLE: 1. It is exhibited by lamda() or avirulent phage 2. Here viral DNA get incorporate with bacterial DNA 3. Prophage is formed (the viral DNA get incorporated in

the bacterial DNA which is called prophage) 4. In a single attack more bacteria are destroyed 17. DISEASE CAUSING VIRUSES AND THEIR GENOME A.Double-stranded DNA Examples: smallpox (variola) ; varicella-zoster (causes chicken pox ); Herpes viruses ; Adenoviruses ; SV40 (a virus that causes primate tumer ) Hepatitis B ("serum hepatitis") ; T2 and T4 and Lambda phage() B.Single-stranded DNA Examples: X-174, (infects E. coli) Adeno-associated virus (AAV) RNA Viruses 1.Single-stranded RNA virus Examples: Measles; Mumps; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), para-influenza viruses (PIV), and human metapneumo virus; rabies; Ebola; influenza, polioviruses ; rhinoviruses (frequent cause of the common "cold") ;corona viruses (includes the agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) ;rubella (causes "German" measles); yellow fever virus ;West Nile virus ;dengue fever viruses ;equine encephalitis viruses ;hepatitis A ("infectious hepatitis") and hepatitis C viruses ;tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 2. Double-stranded RNA virus: Examples: reovirus and several plant viruses MONERA BACTERIA: 1. Characters of Monera. A. Monera includes unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which do not contain true nucleus and lack nuclear membrane, nucleolus and nuclear pore. B. The nucleoid or gonophores contain genetic information. C. They are devoid of mitochondria, golgibody, plastid and other important membrane bound cell organelles. D. Their predominant mode of nutrition is absorption but a few are photosynthetic or chemosynthetic. E. Reproduction is primarily asexual. It takes place by binary fission, fragmentation and budding. F. They are non-motile except few bacteria which contain flagella. G. Cyclosis do not occur in Monera 2. The organisms which are included in Monera are 1.Bacteria ( Both archaebacteria and true bacteria)

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2.Cyanobacteria or Blue green algae (BGA) or Myxobacteria. 3.Mycoplasma or PPLO or MLO or MLB 4.Chlamydae 5.Rickettceae and 6.Actinomycetes 3. Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1719) discovered bacteria and Ehrenberg (1828) coined the term bacteria. 4. STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA 1.Coccus: Spherical , non-motile and often occur in chain. Depending upon the number of cells in a cluster they may be mono-coccus ( occurs singly), Diplo-coccus ( occurs in pairs), Staphylo-coccus (occurs in groups) and Streptococcus (occurs in chain) 2.Basillus: These are elongated and rod-shaped bacteria. Eg. Lactobacillus bulgaricus 3.Vibrio: They are curved or comma-like and has flagella at one end eg. Vibrio cholera 4.Spirillum: In this type cells are spirally coiled on screw like and contain more than one flagellum at each end. 5. BACTERIAL FLAGELLA: 1.Atricus: No flagelaa eg. Lactobacillus 2.Monotrichous: Single flagella at one end eg. Vibrio cholarae 3.Amphitrichous: Two flagella, one at each end eg. Rhodospirillum 4.Sephalotrichous: Tuft of flagella at one end eg. Pseudomonous 5.Lophotrichous: Tuft of flagella at one end. Eg. Pseudomonous 6.Peritrichous: Whole surface is surrounded by flagella eg. Salmonella typha. 6. CHARACTERS OF BACTERIA NOT PRESENT IN OTHER ORGANISM A. Bacteriochlorophyll is present only in photosynthetic bacteria. B. Plasmid and mesosome are found only in bacteria C. Bacteria can change their shape according to environment. This property is known as polymorphism. D. Double stranded DNA or haploid bacterial chromosome is characteristic to bacteria only. 7. PLANT LIKE CHARACTERS OF BACTERIA A. Presence of a definite and rigid cell wall. B. Production of spores like plant C. The ability of some autotrophic bacteria to synthesize their own food by photosynthesis. D. Bacteria can synthesize enzyme and vitamins Due to the above mention characters F. J. Cohn (1854) considered bacteria as plant 8. GRAM STAINING Christian Gram (1884) developed a staining process by which bacteria can be grouped into two categories. This stain is called gram stain.

The gram stain is also called a differential stain since it differentiates between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria that stain purple with the gram staining procedure are termed gram-positive and those bacteria which do not retain purple colour and take red colour of safrenin are said to be gram-negative. The gram staining procedure involves four basic steps: 1. The bacteria are first stained with the basic dye crystal violet. 2. The bacteria are then treated with gram's iodine solution. 3. Gram's decolorizer, a mixture of ethyl alcohol and acetone, is then added. This is the differential step. Gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet-iodine complex while gram-negative are decolorized. 4. Finally, the counter stain safranin is applied. Since the gram-positive bacteria are already stained purple, they are not affected by the counterstain. Gram-negative bacteria, that are now colorless, become directly stained by the safranin. Thus, gram-positive appear purple, and gram-negative appear pink. 9. STRUCTRE OF BACTERIA AS SEEN UNDER ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 1.Cell wall: In gram negative bacteria the cell wall is made up of two layers. Viz. inner layer is made up of murein or peptidoglycan and outer membrane is made up of lipo-polysaccharide. Whereas the cell wall of gram positive bacteria is single layered and made up of peptidoglycan only. In some bacteria the cell wall is bounded by slime layer or a thick capsule layer. 2.Cytoplasm: Internal to the cell wall the bacterial cell membrane is present. It contains respiratory enzymes and componenet of electron transport system In some gram negative bacteria the cell membrane becomes invaginated to form a folded structure called mesosome. It increases the surface area for respiration and also helps in DNA replication.In the matrix 70S ribosomes are scattered in the cytoplasm. Some photosynthetic bacteria contain thyllakoids. Gas vacuoles, poly-ribosome, fat granules etc present in the cytoplasm. 3.Nucleoid: A single chromosome made up of double stranded DNA lies at the nucleoplasm and form Nucleoid. Besides an additional ring of DNA called plasmid is present in bacteria.

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10. DIFFERENCE IN CELL WALL COMPOSITION NO2,CO2 a.Chemolithotropic: These bacteria use energy by GRAM (+) oxidation of inorganic substances. 1.Cell wall is single layered but thick i. Nitrifying bacteria like Nitrosomonous and Nitrobacter 2.Peptidoglycan is very high get their energy by oxidizing ammonia into 3.Teichoic acid is present nitrite 4.Cell wall is straight and 100Ao-200Ao in thickness NH3 OR NH4+ +2O2 --------------NO2+2H2O+Energy 5.Lipid content in cell wall is very low ii. Ammonifying bacteria: They release ammonia in soil 6.Mesosomes are absent eg. Bacillus ramosus GRAM (--) iii.Sulphur bacteria: Beggiaota converts H2S to S to 1. Cell wall is two layered but thin obtain energy 2. Peptidoglycan is very low 2H2S+O2-----------2H2O+2S+Energy 3. Absent iv.Hydrogen bacteria and Iron bacteria: They derive 4. It is wavy and 170Ao-200Ao in thickness energy from H2 containing and Iron containing 5. High substances. 6. Present 11. EXAMPLES OF GRAM POSITIVE AND GRAM b.Chemorganotrophic bacteria: They oxidized organic substances for energy.eg. Methanobacteria like NEGATIVE BACTERIA Methanococcus. GRAM POSITIVE CH4+2O2 --------2CO2+2H2 O+Energy Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13. REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Vegetative methods: and Clostridium species. 1.Binary fission: GRAM NEGATIVE Salmonella species, Shigella species, Neisseria It is the most common method of bacterial reproducgonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus tion which takes place under favorable condition. Here influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, firstly the nucleoid divides into two with the help of mesosome followed by division of the cytoplasm into Proteus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. two equal halves. After that deposition of cell wall 12. NUTRITION IN BACTERIA material takes place at the middle which form septum 1.Autotrophic bacteria: These bacteria are non-pathogenic, free living and prepare and gradually two daughter bacteria are form. They their own food utilizing solar radiation or organic compound. later become separated 2.Budding: Autotrophic bacteria are of two types: Certain rod shaped bacteria grow mainly at one end A.Photoautotrophic: Photoautotrophic bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll, which afterwards cut off as the cell divides. This bacterioviridin and chlorobium chlorophyll and can process is known as budding. prepare their own food utilizing solar energy and CO2. Here 3.Segmentation: the electron donour is H2S instead of H2O and produce mo- In this case protoplasm divides to form very tiny bodies called gonidia which liberate after rupture the cell wall lecular S instead of O2. a.Photolithotropic: Here Hydrogen donour is an inorganic and give rise to new bacterial cell. Sexual reproduction in bacteria substance i.Green sulphur bacteria: In this case bacteria use H2S as In case of bacteria typical sexual reproduction is abhydrogen donour in presence of chlorobium chlorophyll. Eg. sent. They exhibit genetic recombination. Here recombination of the genes of two different individual Chlorobium takes place. Genetic recombination takes place 6CO2+H2S--------------C 6H12O6+6H2O+12S ii.Purple sulphur bacteria: Such bacteria obtain energy from by following methods: sulphur compound in presence of bacterial chlorophyll. eg. 1.Conjugation 2.Transformation and Chromain 6 C O 2 + 1 5 H 2 O + 3 N a 2 H 2 O 3 - - - - - - - - - 3.Transduction A. Conjugation: C6 H12 O6+6H2O+6NaHSO4 It is a physiological process by which genetic b.Photorganotropic: Such bacteria use non-sulphur organic material is transferred from one bacterium to other by compounds(organic acid, alcohol etc) as hydrogen donour. means of conjugation tubes takes place. This process i.Purple non-sulphur bacteria: Rhodospirillum was discovered by Lederberg and Tatum (1946). The B.Chemoautrotophic: conjugation is established between a donour and The bacteria which prepare their food by deriving the recipient strain. The donour strain is called F+ or energy from oxidation of inorganic substance like
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or male.They contain F factor or fertility factor or sex donar to recipient bacterial cell during conjugation. factor.It contain an extra nuclear circular DNA. The re- R-plasmid (resistance transfer factors) carry genes for cipient strain is also called female or F as they donot resistance to antibiotics or other antibacterial drugs Col plasmid are the factors which can convert baci.eria to contain the fertility factor. During the process a conjugation tube is killer strains and are also called colcinogenic. C. MESOSOME: formed between the two cell. The F factor replicates in the male and slowly migrates to the female through con- Mesosome are the infoldings of plasma membrane which help in DNA replication, septum formation and stores jugation tube. One copy of the factor remain in the donour and the other copy is migrated to the respiratory enzymes. D. EPISOME female and the later converted into F+ strain. They remain attached to the plasma membrane. They B. Transformation: The transformation can be defined as the incorpo- are larger than the main chromosome, about 1 cm in diameter. They get easily incorporated to the lliain chroration of DNA from one bacterium into another which results in the development of new genotype. It was mosome of nucleoid region. discovered by Griffith in 1928 in Diplococcus pnemonae 15. BENIFICIAL ASPECTS OF BACTERIA: 1.Bacteria in agriculture causing pnemonae disease. In this process when a donour DNA comes A.N2 Fixation: Bacteria are capable of fixing atmoin contact with a recipient bacterial cell, it penetrates in to spheric nitrogen hence increase the soil fertility. It may the later. The double stranded DNA converted into single be free living bacteria like Clostridium, Azotobacter etc stranded DNA. After that the pairing of DNA between or symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria like R h i z o b i u m donour and recipient cell takes place and a transformed leguminosae, found in the root nodules of leguminous plant. B.In pest control: The bacteria like Bacillus bacterium is formed. thuringiensis produces a toxin called Bt toxin which is C. Transduction: It is the process of transfer of DNA fragment from usedas biopesticides. Now a day the toxin producing gene is transferred to the crop plant by genetic engineering one bacterium into the other with the help of bacteriophage. This process was discovered by Laderberg method and the plants become automatically resistant to the specific insect pest. et.al. in 1952 in Salmonella typhimurium. In this process the bacteriophage invades a b C.In decompositions of chemical herbicides, pestiacterial cell and utilizes the host DNA and protein synthesis cides , insecticides etc Bacteria like Corynebacterium decomposes 2,4-D, DDT2. machinery to synthesize the phage particle. After that the phage particle release from Bacteria in industry: Varieties of bacteria are used in the dead bacterial cell where the DNA fragment of the preparation of many kinds of industrial products. bacteria attached with the DNA of the bacteriophage. When a.Diary industry: Some bacteria like Lactobacillus, this bacteriophage containing DNA invades another bacte- Streptococcus are use in the preparation of milk product rium, the DNA get incorporated into the new bacterial DNA. like cream, cheese etc. Thus recombination takes place.Transduction is two types. b.Alcoholic industry: The preparation of different alviz. Generalized transduction and specialized transduction. coholic product like wine, beer etc is produced by 14. IMPORTANT STRUCTURES OF BACTERIA fermentation of malt apples grapes by bacteria like acetobacter. A. PILI Pili are numerous and smaller than flagella. they c.Production of organic acid: Various types of organic are made up of protein called pillin. They have no role in acid like Lactic acid, acetic acid etc are produced by motility, but help in sexual reproduction by acting as tube for fermenting with bacteria like lactobacillus, Acetobacter acetiid.Antibiotic production: Bacteria placed an imporpassing the dna from one to another bacteria tant role in manufacturing of antibiotics like Streptomycin B. PLASMID They are extra chromosomal circular DNA present (Produced from Strptomyces griseus), Terramycin etc. out side the nucleioid.It is also called as mini chromosome e.Enzyme production: Different enzymes like amylase containing 3-4 genes .It is the unit of genetic material protease etc are obtained from bacteria like capable of independent replication. They are dispensable. Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus. etc f.Vitamin production: Different vitamins are also proAccording to their functions they are divided into: duced from bacteria like Vit-K is obtain from Streptosex plasmid, coccus haemolyticus, Vit-C from Glucanobacter col plasmid and suboxidants R plasmid. Sex plasmid (F or F' plasmids) are conjugation fertility fac- 3.Preparation of Single cell protein: Bacteria like E. tors which are required to pass the genetic information from coli are capable of producing protein rich cell called
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called SCP 4.Biomining: Bacteria are uses full in separating matellic ores from their complex are called biominning. Thiobacillus thioxidants are useful in leaching of metals like copper and iron 14. HARMFULL ROLE OF BACTERIA: a.Plant diseases caused by bacteria: Citrus canker in Citrus is caused by Xanthomonus citri Angular leaf spot of cotton caused by Xanthomonus sp b.Animal disease: Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthrasis c.Human disease: Pneumonia caused by Diplococcus pnemonae Tetanus caused by Clostridium tetanae (gram +) Diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diptharae Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhi (gram--) Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholareae Plague caused by Yersinia pestis Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Leprosyis caused by Mycobacterium leprae 2.Food poisoning: The saprophytic bacteria grow in the common food substance and they release toxic substances and make the food poisoning. Clostridium botulinum produce a exotoxin called botulin BLUE GREEN ALGAE OR CYANOBACTERIA
1. GENERALCHARACTERS OF CYANOBACTERIA

A. Cyanobacteria are commonly known as Blue green algae (BGA). They are the simplest prokaryotic, photosynthetic microorganism placed under the class myxophyceae or cyanophyceae. B. They are probably the first oxygen evolving organisms. C. They are unicellular, colonial or filamentous; grow in every possible kind of habitat. D. The main Pigments present in cyanobacteria are chlorophyll-a(green), c-phycocyanin(blue) and cphycoerythrin(red). E. They reproduce asexually by means of akinet, endospore, heterocyst and vegetatively by fragmentation and hormogonia formation. F. Cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan and covered by slimy layer. G. The reserved food materials are cyanophycean starch, trehalose etc H. Sexual reproduction is entirely absent. 2. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Beneficial role: 1.Cyanobacteria and soil fertility: Some members of cyanobacteria can fix the atmospheric nitrogen, thus increase the soil fertility. They may be free-living like Aulosira, Tolypothrix etc or symbiotic like Nostoc, Anabaena etc. In rice field Aulosira fertilisima, Tolypothrix

are used to increase soil fertility. 2.As food: Some cyanobacteria are cultivated in tank for protein rich animal food. Harmful role: 1.Microsystis toxica releases toxin which is harmfull to aquatic fauna. 3. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BACTERIA AND CYANOBACTERIA BACTERIA 1.Bacteriochlorophyll is present 2.Mesosomes are present 3.Plasmids are present 4.Teichoic acid is present in Gram + bacteria 5.Reserve food material is glycogen 6.Bacteria never evolved O2 during photosynthesis 7.Asexually reproduce by endospore formation CYANOBACTERIA 1. Absent 2. Absent 3. Absent 4. Absent 5. Cyanophycean starch 6. Evolve O2 7. Endospore, akinet, heterocyst are formed 4. SIMILARITIES BETWEEN BACTERIA AND CYANOBACTERIA A.They are prokaryotic and donot contain membrane bound nucleus. B.The DNA are double stranded and histone protein are absent C.Membrane bound cell organelles are absent. D.Their cell wall contain diaminopimellic acid and muromic acid, which is absent in all other groups of organisms. E.Peptidoglycan is present in both. ACTINOMYCETES GENERAL CHARACTERS (a) They are commonly called as mycelial eubacteria and also called streptomycetes. (b) Actinomycetes are mesophillic and aerobic in nature. (c) They release extracellular enzymes to decompose organic matter and can synthesize vit. BI2 (cyanocobalamin) if grown in cobalt rich medium. (d) They reproduce only asexually by conidia. (e) Eg. Streptomyces somaliensis causes Actinomycetoma disease of man Actinomyces bovis causes Lumpy Jaw disease of cattle Streptomyces scabies causes Scab disease of potato and sugarbeet e) The antibiotics extracted from them are divided into four classes. Inhibitor of cell wall synthesis: Cycloserine and Vancomycin Damage to cytoplasmic membrane

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Nystatin and Amphotericin Inhibitor of nucleic acid and protein synthesis: Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin .Inhibition of specific enzyme systems: Sulphonamides RICKETTSIAS Charles Rickett discovered 'rocky mountain spotted fever' which is caused by Rickettsia. This group of bacteria is the connecting link between virus and bacteria. They are similar than bacteria because they have both DNA and RNA in them. synthesis). Human diseases caused by them include the following: Rocky mountrin spotted fever ,Scrub typhus ,Trench fever Query fever. CHLAMYDIAE They are also called as PLTvirus or basophillic virus or energy parasites (as they are not capable of ATP They are pathogenic only to birds and domestic or wild mammals. They mainly cause keratoconjunctivitis and trachoma (leading to blindness). MYCOPLASMA 1. Mycoplasma are prokaryotic, smallest, selfreplicatinl organisms. 2. They are pleomorphic i.e. they can change shape. They can be identified as fried egg like colony. 3. Earlier mycoplasma was called PPLO (Bovine pleuropneumonia like organisms) as they caused pleuropneumonia in cattle and were first isolated from sheep. 4. In 1929 Novak for the first time termed them as 'mycoplasma'. 5. Mycoplasma are unicellular. Cell wall is absent. 6.Ribosomes are randomly scattered and 70s type. 7. DNA is circular double helix and not bound by nuclear membrane. Genome size is 1/5 to 1/2 the size of bacterial genome. 8. They are transmitted by aphids, leaf hoppers, plant hoppers and psyllids. 9. They are found in phloem cells, sieve tubes, phloem parenchyma and companion cells of higher plants. 10. Reproduction takes place by budding or binary fission. 11. They are included in class mollicutes 12. These organisms are Gram negative, non motile and can be cultured. 13. They are resistant to penicillin and may be parasitic or saprophytic. 14. They are incapable of synthesizing cell wall material or its precursors. 15. Mycoplasmas can be destroyed by heat at 50C for 6 hours. 16. They pass through bacterial filter. Thus they are sup[posed to be organism inbetween virus and bacteria 17. They cause several plant disease like little leaf of brinjal, potato witches broom etc.

PROTISTA GENERAL CHARACTERS OF PROTISTA 1.Protista includes aquatic unicellular eukaryotic microorganism. 2.Cell division become associated with definite process of chromosome duplication i.e. mitosis and meiosis 3.Some are photosynthetic (eg diatom) others predatory or parasitic and some are saprophytic (eg Slime molds) 4.They contain all membrane bound cell organelles. 5.They contain either cilia or flagella 6.They reproduce both sexually or asexually CLASSIFICATION OF PROTISTA 1.Photosynthetic protists: This includes all motile or nonmotile unicellular photosynthetic aquatic organisms. Eg. Dinoflagellates like Diatom, Euglena etc. 2.Slime molds: These are consumers and decomposers and may be cellular or acellular. Their body is called plasmodium. Eg. Physarum 3.Protozoan protists: This includes zooflagelates, sporozoans and ciliates. Eg. Amoeba, plasmodium and paramecium etc DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERS OF DIATOM Diatom are photosynthetic protista which are included in Bacillariophyta. They are also known as Golden brown algae Characters: 1.Diatoms are microscopic, mostly unicellular and eukaryotic organisms occur in colonies and found in both fresh and marine water. 2.The cell wall is called frustules or shell 3.Cell wall is composed of cellulose along with cilia. It is constructed in two overlapping halves which fit together like two parts of a soap box (pinate type) or pairs of petridishes (centric type) 4.They lack flagella and float due to deposition of lipid in them. 5.They posses photosynthetic pigments like chll-a, chllo-c, together with fucoxanthin and diatoxanthin. 6.They reproduce by a special type of sexual spore called auxospore. 7.They form large deposit of silica on ocean floor called diatomaceous earth. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF DIATOM 1.In diatoms the storage product are mainly oil and volutin. It generally held that petroleum is derived from the oils of diatoms that livrd in the past. 2.It is used in dynamite manufacture and insulating agent of refrigerator. 3.It is used in polishing material and in manufacture of tooth paste and cosmetics. 4.Diatom constitute major plankton of the sea.

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