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Secondary 2 Exp / NA / NT
Design & Technology 2009
Design Process Module

Name : _________________________

Index No. : ____________

Class : ____________

Teacher : __________________________
Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

A Design Process….

Designing involves thinking critically and creatively in a clear and logical way.
Designing is iterative (Iterative: repeating).

Designing requires a continual interaction between the designer, object/product and

the user. (The designer should speak to the person who will be using the designed
product. Make modification when necessary).

Form of designer: architect (building), Interior (rooms, office), Fashion (Clothing) etc.

Main stages in Design Process/Method

A design process comprises of various design stages that would assist us in

designing a project systematically and logically.


Realization Research Ideation


The design stages are:

• Analyze and identify of problems or user needs
• Design consideration and constraints
• State design problem and design brief clearly
• Keeping records of tests, survey
• Research is done when additional information is required
• Research when in doubts
• Essential information required
• Data collection
• Decision making

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

• Make design looks good, appealing
• Inspiration
• Sketches and selection of ideas
• Ergonomics (Related to human bodies)
• Anthropometric (Related to human sizes)
• Sizing (Related to product usage)
• Modelling
• Selection of suitable idea/method
• Develop details of idea/Product architecture
• Plan and make the product
• Tools and processes
• Working drawings

Design is dynamic. The arrows in the design model means each stage is linked and
design requires frequent looping between the stages. It is often necessary to loop
back to earlier stages to modify a design.

Design Problem/Situation

You are the group of student designers who will be designing a desktidy for a
selected company.
The company wishes to give the desktidy to their customers as part of their business
You will be allocated a company brand. Each company is different in their identity.
Each company has their own traits to differentiate from the competition. The design
of the desktidy must reflect part of the company identities.

Based on the selected brand/company: My company brand is (Circle one)

Apple, Ferrari, BMW, Adidas, Nike, Billabong, Nokia

Singapore Tourism Board, Liverpool club, Manchester
United cub, Sony Ericsson, Internet (Yahoo,
Friendster, MSN, Google, AOL, Lycos, Firefox,

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

Design Problem / Situation – Desk Tidy

 What do you think is the problem/situation?

 Who are you designing for?

Ideation - Desk Tidy

You would have chosen your own company (choose one only)

For you to understand the company better, you will need to do a research and create
your own image board. The image board that you are making must include pictures
of product or images related to the company

An image board is a collection of pictures such as cut-outs from magazines

and photos that relate to a specific individual or group.

It is used to interrogate/investigate a given situation, theme and context. It is a

visual reference.

• You will need to have at least 5 to 8 different images.

• You will paste the images onto the worksheet

• You will create 3 ideas for your company

o For each ideas, you need to annotate / indicate the parts
o Explain what which part mean

Development / Evaluation – Desk Tidy

You should have 3 designs/ideas and need to choose one as your final idea. You
need to evaluate the ideas

Evaluation is about asking questions on an idea or solution to find out whether

it works as expected. Through an evaluation, you can find out the good and
bad points about an idea.

This information can be used to decide how to proceed and how to improve
the solution. During the evaluation, you need to list the strengths and
weakness of the solution

Based on your own designs:

- Why did you choose this design?

- How to use?
- Is it easy to use?
- Is it appealing?
- Any improvement to this design?

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

• Relevance of information [5]

Paste your images in the space provided.

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

• Drawing of ideas [3] each

• Annotation of ideas [4] each
Produce and annotate the 3 designs
• Evaluation of ideas [5] each

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

Further Development of the Chosen Idea – Considering the Machineability

Based on the discussion with your teacher, you need to prepare a planning
sheet on how are you going to make your design. For ease of planning, you
need to indicate the Part Number.

E.g. Step 1: Mark out Parts

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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

Workshop Process

In the workshop processes, there are 3 main sections:

- Marking out: Measuring of the parts
- Manufacturing: Cutting and Assembly of shape based on the marked
out dimensions
- Finishing: Making the surface and appearance attractive and

Some examples of workshop processes and tools required: this list is not exhaustive.

PVA Plastic:

Wood: Buffering:
Chiseling Polishing of

Scroll saw: cutting and shaping of

plastic and wood

Sanding by

Drilling of wood
and plastic

Filing to
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Sec 2 Design & Technology 2008 Design Process Module

Production Planning – Refer to Marking Rubic

You need to record down the necessary steps of making your product.
Consider the steps:
• Marking out – By Part, Dimensions
• Cutting – Using machines/tools to make the product
• Finishing – Polishing of product
• Assembly of product – Joining/combining of parts

Step 1:

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