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Module10

GenitoUrinarySystem

MAINFUNCTIONOFTHEGENITOURINARYSYSTEM
Mainhomeostasisandremovewasteproductsfrombody Andtomaintainconstantbodyfluidvolumeandcomposition Urinaryandgenitalsystemconsideredtogetherbecausetheysharemanyorgans

ComponentsUrinarySystem
Kidney Ureters Bladder Urethra

1.1

Kidney
Kidneybeanshape Liesonposteriorabdominalwall o Behindperitoneum Locatedeithersideofvertebrae Rightkidneylowerthanleft Renalcapsulesurroundskidney Kidneydividedinto o Outercortex o Innermedulla Medullaconsistsofrenalpyramids Renalpyramidsextendintocortex Papillaisinnermostendofpyramid Calyxextendstorenalpelvis

1.1.1

Nephron
Nephronsaretinyfilteringunitsthatarefoundwithinkidneys Madeupofbloodvessels(glomeruli)andtubules Anephronreferstothebasicstructuralandfunctionalunitofthekidney Nephronsconsists o Renalcorpuscle(Bowmanscapsule&glomerulus) o Proximalconvolutedtubule o LoopofHenle o Anddistalconvolutedtubule Distalconvolutedtubuleemptiesintocollectingduct o Carriesurinefromcortextocalyces o Terminalendofnephronisenlarged o Calledbowmanscapsule o Occupiesnetworkofcapillaries KnownasGlomerulus

1.1.1.1 Themainfunctionofthenephron
Regulatewaterconcentrationandsolublesubstanceby o Filteringtheblood o Reabsorbingwhatisneeded o Andexcretingwhatisnotneededasurine.

1.2

Ureters
Extendsfromrenalpelvistourinarybladder Transportsurinefromkidneytobladder

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Module10 1.3

GenitoUrinarySystem

UrinaryBladder
Hollowmuscularorgan Liesinpelviccavity Posteriortopubicsymphysis

1.4

Sphincter
Junctionofurethrawithurinarybladder o Smoothmuscleofbladderformsinternalsphincter Externalurinarysphinctersurroundsurethraasurethraextendsthroughpelvicfloor Theycontrolflowofurinethroughurethra

1.5

Urethra

Meanshowurineleavesthebody Normaladultform1.5L2Lofurineaday Male o Urethrapassesfromanteriorbaseofbladderthroughpenis Female o Urethraopensatfrontofvagina o Openintovestibuleanteriortovaginalopening

GenitalSystem
Genitalsystemcontrolsreproductiveprocessbywhichlifeiscreated Maleandfemalereproductiveorganshavecertainsimilaritiesandbasicdifferences Theyallowproductionofspermandeggcellsandappropriatehormones Usedintheactofsexualintercourseandreproduction

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Module10 2.1

GenitoUrinarySystem

FemaleGenitalia
Femalereproductiveorgansconsistsof: o Ovaries o Fallopiantubes o Uterus o Cervix o Vagina Ovariesproducesexhormonesandspecializedcellsforreproduction(ovum) Femalesexhormonesareabsorbeddirectlyintobloodstream Specializedovum(eggcell)producedregularlyduringadultfemalereproductiveyears Ovariesreleasematureovum+every28days Ovum(eggcell)travelsthroughfallopiantubestouterus Fallopiantubesconnectwithuterusandcarryovum(eggcell)intocavityofuterus Uteruspearshaped,holloworganwithmuscularwalls Narrowopeningfromuterustovaginacalledcervix Vagina(birthcanal)ismusculardistensibletubeconnectstouteruswithvulva o Vulvaexternalfemalegenitalia Vaginareceivespenisduringsexualintercoursewhensemendepositedinit Sperminsemenmaypassintouterus o Andfertilizeanovum(eggcell)causingpregnancy Ifcompletionofpregnancy o 9monthsbabywillpassthroughvaginaandbeborn o Vaginaalsochannelsmenstrualflowoutofbody

2.2

MaleGenitalia
Malereproductivesystemconsistsof: o Testes(Orchi) o Vasadifferentia(ducts) o Seminalvesicles o Prostategland o Urethra o Penis Malegenitalialieoutsidepelviccavity o Exceptforprostateglandandseminalvesicles

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Module10

GenitoUrinarySystem

Eachtesticlecontains: o Specializedcells o Ducts o Someproducehormones o Someproducesperm Hormonesabsorbeddirectlyintobloodstreamfromtesticles Vasadifferentiaareducts o Travelfromtesticlesupbeneathskinofabdominalwallforshortdistance o Thenpassesthroughopeningintoabdominalcavityandintoprostategland o Toconnectwithurethra o Vasadifferentiacarryspermfromtesticlestourethra Seminalvesiclessmallstoragesacsforspermandseminalfluid o Vesiclesalsoemptyintourethraatprostate Semen(seminalfluid)containspermscells o Carriedupeachvasfromeachtesticle o Tobemixedwithfluidfromseminalvesiclesandprostategland Prostateglandsurroundsurethrawhereitemergesfromurinarybladder o Fluidfromprostategland&seminalvesiclesmixduringsexualintercourse o Duringintercourse:Specialmechanismsinnervoussystempreventpassageofurineintourethra o Onlyseminalfluid,prostatefluidandspermpassfrompenisintovaginaduringejaculation Peniscontainsspecialtissue: o Erectiletissue o Tissueislargelyvascularandwhenfilledwithbloodcausespenistodistend Causingstateoferection o Asvesselsfillunderpressfromcirculatorysystem Penisbecomesalargerigidorganthatcanenteravagina CertainSpinalinjuries/somediseasescausepainfulcontinuouserection o CalledPriaprism

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Module10

GenitoUrinarySystem

GenitourinaryClinicalconditions/disorders
UTI(urinarytractinfection)/Cystitis/BladderInfection BladderStones Pelvicinflammatorydisease(PID) Dysmenorrhea Ectopicpregnancy Testiculartorsion

3.1

UTI(urinarytractinfection)/Cystitis/BladderInfection
Infectionthathappensanywherealongurinarytract/kidneys/ureters/bladder/urethra

3.1.1

UTIcauses,incidenceandriskfactors
Bacteriaentersurethraandbladderfromanus Morecommoninwomanshorterurethra Pregnancy/menopause Sexualintercourse Notdrinkingenoughfluids Kidneystones Prostateinflammation/enlargement Immobility Bowelincontinence Catheterization

3.1.2

UTISignsandSymptoms
Pain/burningwithurination Frequent/urgetourinate Needtourinateatnight CloudyurineorBloodinurine Foul/strongurineodour Flank(side)painandorPressureinpelvis Fever/chills(kidneyinvolvement) Vomiting

3.1.3

UTITreatment
Antibiotics Anatomicalabnormalities:surgicalrepair

3.2

BladderStones
Alsourinarytractstones/bladdercalculi Bladderstoneshardbuildupsofmineralthatforminurinarybladder

3.2.1

Bladderstonescauses
UTI Enlargedprostate(male) 95%casesreportedinmen

3.2.2

Bladderstonessignsandsymptoms
Frequenturgetourinate Interruptioninurinestream Difficultyinurinating Bloodinurine Abdominalpain/pressure Abnormalcoloured/darkcolouredurine incontinence

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Module10 3.3

GenitoUrinarySystem

Pelvicinflammatorydisease(PID)
AlsoSalpingitis PIDgeneraltermforinfectionofliningofuterus,fallopiantubesorovaries

3.3.1

PIDcauses
STDs(sexuallytransmitteddisease)bacteria IUD(intraurinarydevice)insertion Childbirth Spontaneousabortion Electiveabortion

3.3.2

PIDriskfactors
Sexuallyactiveduringadolescence Multiplesexualpartners PasthistoryofPID PasthistoryofSTD Useofnonbarriertypescontraceptives Irregularmenstrualbleeding(spotting) Increasedmenstrualcramping Amenorrhea Chills Lowbackpain Fatigue Nauseawith/withoutvomiting

3.3.3

PIDsignsandsymptoms
Frequenturination Painwithurination Pointtenderness

3.3.4

PIDtreatment
Antibiotics(IV) Surgerycomplicatedcasesrefractorytoantibiotics ComplicationsofPID:increaseriskofectopicpregnancyandinfertility

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Module10 3.4

GenitoUrinarySystem

Dysmenorrhea
Painfulmenses Morecommoninwomanwhohavenothadchildren

3.4.1

Dysmenorrheasignsandsymptoms
Headache Faintness Dizziness Nausea Diarrhoea Backache Legpain

3.5

Ectopicpregnancy
Pregnancythatdevelopsoutsideuterus Commonlyinfallopiantubes Mayimplantinovary Rarelyinabdominalcavity/cervix Mostlydiscoveredbefore2monthsGA

3.5.1

Ectopicpregnancysignsandsymptoms
Severeabdominalpain Vaginalspotting Rupture Internalhaemorrhage Sepsis Shock

3.5.2

Ectopicpregnancytreatment
Prehospital o Oxygenation/ventilationasrequired o Intravenoustherapy:largeboreIVaccessifpt.hypothesize(shock) o Calmandreassure o Transporttohospital Inhospital o Surgicalremovaloffetus/placenta

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Module10 3.6

GenitoUrinarySystem

Testiculartorsion
Testiclestwistonspermaticcord o Disruptingownbloodflowandsupply Mayresultfrombluntforcetraumatoscrotalarea(strenuousexercise,athleticevent) Oftenoccursspontaneously Commonagegroup: o 1yearoflife o puberty

3.6.1

Testiculartorsionsignsandsymptoms
Tenderepididymis Painfulswellingofscrotalsac Suddenonsetpain Painissevere,unrelievedbyrest/orscrotalelevation Nausea/vomiting

3.6.2

Testiculartorsiontreatment
Prehospital o Applicationoficepacktoscrotum o Transporttohospitalasap Inhospital o Surgicalrepairwithin46hoursofonsetoftorsion

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