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Table of contents Unit 1:Nouns Exercise 1. Exercise 2 . Exercise 3 . Exercise 4 . Exercise 5 . Exercise 6 . Exercise 7 . Exercise 8 . Exercise 9 . Exercise 10 .

Unit 1
Nouns

Noun - a word that names a person, place, things, ideas or an event. The term noun comes from the Latin word nomen (name).

Generally speaking, there are two kinds of noun, namely the proper noun and the common noun.

Types of noun
Proper noun- is a word or a sequence of several words which names particular individual, place, event or thing. Typically, English proper nouns spelt beginning with capital letter. Proper nouns are definite. They are almost singular Examples: Marvin, Bulacan, Christmas, Honda Civic, etc. On the other hand, a common noun is used to refer to a member of classes of people, places or things. Examples: parents, province, schools, books, etc. There are two subtypes of common nouns which differ grammatically, namely the count nouns and the mass nouns. A mass noun refers to objects that cannot be counted but can be measured. Mass nouns denote the following: Intangible things like gases, such as air, oxygen, etc. Abstract ideas like intelligence, truth, honesty, etc. Emotions like love, hatred, sympathy, etc. Natural phenomena like heat, sunshine, etc. Modes of behavior like laughter, recreation, etc. Material things that are not countable such as liquids, e.g. water, oil, tea, wine, etc. Material things that are too small to be counted like dust, rice, dirt, etc. Sciences like physics, phonetics, chemistry, etc. Other tangible things like knowledge, information,etc. A count noun is a type of common noun which can be used to refer an individual object or to objects in a countable collection like apple, envelope, mountain, house, etc. There are other kinds of nouns such as concrete nouns, abstract nouns, collective nouns, compound nouns and adjectives used as noun. Collective nouns refer to a number of people or to a group or animals or similar objects that come together and are taken as a unit Examples: congregation, crew, jury, club, council, crowd, etc. An abstract noun is used to name a quality or an idea that cannot be perceived by the senses Examples: love, happiness, kindness, and fear. Concrete noun in contrast to abstract noun have physical forms; they can be seen, touched, tasted heard, or smelled. They can occupy space. Examples: books, fruits, bags, computers, doll, fan etc. Compound noun is made up of two or more nouns or noun and the same other word/s, which form a unit idea. Examples: stairway, grandparents, housemaid, sister-in-law, and commander-in-chief. Adjectives used as noun. Forms of nouns I. Singular and Plural Forms

Rules: 1. Nouns ending in s, -x ch, or sh add es, to avoid a double sibilant. Examples match matches kiss kisses branch branches dish dishes radish radishes bench benches box boxes tax taxes 2. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s. Examples piano pianos radio radios rodeo rodeos 2. a Nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es. Examples Hero heroes Mosquito mosquitoes Mango mangoes 2.b A few ending in o take either an s or -es, Examples Buffalo buffalos or buffaloes Cargo -- cargo or cargoes 3. For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to I and add es. Examples family families duty duties baby babies library libraries lily lilies 3.a For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel add s only as in. Examples donkey donkeys key keys boys boys 4. Nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by changing f or fe to v ansd add es. Examples leaf leaves life lives elf elves 4.a A few nouns retain the f and add s. belief beliefs roof roofs dwarf dwarfs 5. A words keep the old English form and change the vowel Foot feet Ox oxen Goose geese Child children 6. Some nouns usually names of animals, have the same form in both singular and plural such are deer, fish, sheep, swine, salmon, trout, furniture, information etc. 7. Some nouns are plural in form require plural verbs although their meaning is singular. Examples: barracks, gallows, credentials, shears, auspices, etc. 8. The largest group of irregular plurals occur in nouns borrowed from foreign languages. Alumna alumnae Alumnus alumni Formula formulae Nucleus nuclei Fungus fungi Curriculum curricula Parenthesis parentheses Thesis theses Analysis analyses Criterion criteria

Beau beaux datum data 10. Compound words form their plural in several ways: Most compound nouns simply use the plural of the last and more significant unit, e.g. motorboats, raincoats If the most significant word comes first, it usually take the plural as in: sisters-in-law, passers by, justices of the peace, attorneys-in-law The significant words remain plural when preceded by assistant or deputy as in chiefs of staff, deputy ministers Compound nouns ending in ful as a unit of measure add s to the last unit: cupfuls, armfuls, spoonfuls 11. The following nationals are the same in both singular and plural forms: Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Swiss, Burmese, Vietnamese. 12. Letters, characters, and words spoken of as such form their plural by adding apostrophe andan s (s). e.g. 3 ms in mammal , answer the whys, cross your ts II. Gender of nouns Four types: masculine refers to the male sex , feminine refers to the female sex, common indicates either male or female sex , neuter it has no sex. Masculine man, brother, father, gentleman, uncle, nephew Feminine -- women, sister, mother, lady, aunt, niece Common -- doctor, teacher, engineer, nurse, judge, dean, employer, mayor,dancer Neuter -- lily, umbrella, flower, tree, house, chalk, board Guidelines to observe in determining the gender of nouns: A. Certain nouns especially those referring to people may have different forms to indicate masculine and feminine usage. Man women gentleman - lady Brother sister uncle - aunt Father mother nephew - niece The same case can be said of certain male and female animals: Buck doe ram - ewe Bull -- cow stallion mare Fox vixen III. Cases of nouns Nouns have three cases the nominative which is the case of the subject, the objective which is the case of the object and the genitive or the possessive. A noun in nominative case may function as a subject, a predicate nominative, an appositive, a nominative of direct address, or nominative of exclamation. Julie Ann studies her lessons every night. (subject) His most difficult subject, Calculus, caused him of sleepless nights. (appositive) Elisa, you are so generous. (nominative of direct address) Alex is my bestfriend. (predicate nominative) Spiders! They make my hair on the end. (nominative of exclamation) A noun in the objective case may function as a direct object, an object of the preposition, an indirect object, subject of the infinitive, an appositive, a cognate object, or an adverbial phrase.

Rocelle sends money to her family regularly. (direct object) Jill gave chris a beautiful gift last Christmas. (indirect object) This letter came from Fe, my cousin. (appositive) Let us send this message to Ellen. (object of the preposition) The dean wants Minda to organize the fieldtrip. (subject of the infinitive) Millions of people all over the world drink softdrinks everyday. (cognate object) The passengers paid ten pesos for the ride. (adverbial phrase) Nouns in the possessive forms (usually formed by the addition of an apostrophe and a letter s), nouns do not change forms. To show ownership or possession, remember the following pointers: 1. If a singular noun does not end in s, add s. The delivery boys truck was blocking the driveway. 2. If a singular common noun ends in s, add s unless the next word begins with s, add an apostrophe only. (this includes words with s and sh sounds.) The bosss temper was legendary among his employees. 3. If s singular proper noun endsin s, add an apostrophe. Chris exam score were higher than any other other students. 4. If a noun is in form and end in an s, add an apostrophe only, even if the intended meaning of the word is singular (such as mathematics and measles.) The instructors reports have been submitted. 5. If a plural nouns does not end in s, add s. Many activists in Manila are concerned with childrens rights. 6. If there is joint possession, use the correct possessive for only the possessive closest to the noun. Conde and Gonzalos campaign was successful. 7. If there is a separate possession of the same noun, use the correct possessive form for each word. The owners and the bosss excuses were equally false. 8. In a compound construction, use the correct possessive form for the closest to the noun. Avoid possessives with compound plurals. My father-in-laws BMW is really fun to drive. Exercise 1. Pick out all the nouns on the song "My Favorite Things" from The Sound of Music. Raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens Bright copper kettles and warm woolen mittens Brown paper packages tied up with strings These are a few of my favorite nouns Cream colored ponies and crisp apple streudels Doorbells and sleigh bells and schnitzel with noodles Wild geese that fly with the moon on their wings These are a few of my favorite nouns Girls in white dresses with blue satin sashes Snowflakes that stay on my nose and eyelashes

Silver white winters that melt into springs These are a few of my favorite nouns When the dog bites When the bee stings When I'm feeling sad I simply remember my favorite nouns And then I don't feel so bad. Apologies to Oscar Hammerstein II, lyricist of "My Favorite Things" from The Sound of Music

Exercise 2 Match the words on the first column with the words on the second column with the words on the second column to form a compound noun. A B 1. arm wife 2. cup weight 3. basket cake 4. dish store 5. sauce paste 6. bed chair 7. bath bug 8. house lace 9. news tub 10. panty paper 11. neck pot 12. road ball 13. flower life 14. drug hose 15. tooth pan 16. night ground 17. paper lady 18. key washer 19. play chain 20. sales block

Exercise 3 Pick out all the singular nouns in the following sentences and change them to the plural form. 1. The beach here is safer than the other beaches in the country 2. Here is a paragraph for you to fill in with the words above each. 3. A passerby was hit by a stray bullet. 4. In class, the teacher gives a quiz everyday. 5. Every phenomenon has an explanation 6. A child is very precious to his parents. 7. I bought a loaf of bread for breakfast this morning 8. An Ilocano is known to be the thriftiest Filipino. 9. Treat your fungus in your body immediately. 10. There is a only one agendum discussed in the meeting 11. The researcher formulated her hypothesis carefully. 12. Add only a teaspoonful of sugar to my coffee. 13. I admire the generosity of my sister-in law. 14. A modern parent shows a pragmatic approach to the problem of his adolescent child. 15. His argument was laconic but convincing.

Exercise 4 Fill in the blanks with the correct plural form of the nouns in parentheses. 1. The ______ (calf) have muddy ________ (hoof). 2. Those __________ (goose) belong to Nonas three ________ (child). 3. There are _________ (mouse) in my friends _________ (house). 4. Four ________ (consultant) made different __________ (analysis) of the problem. 5. All the ________ (alumnus) visited the six ___________ (alumna). 6. These ________ (sheep) are cared for by the two _________ (manservant). 7. How many ______ (deer) did the three (Chinese) shoot?

8. Most _______ (child) love to attend ___________ (party). 9. These _________ (gladiolus) were sent by my two _________ sister-in-law) 10. The different ballroom ________ (dance) will be demonstrated by the three (pair) of dancers.

Exercise 5 Underline the correct words in the following sentences. 1. Mr. Angeles is the (principal, principle) of the school. 2. The country was under (martial, marital) law. 3. The (boarder, border) between two countries was irregular. 4. The man parked his car at an (angle, angel). 5. The (cavalry, calvary) made its last march. 6. He couldnt (breath, breathe) because of cold. 7. They travel across the Nevada (desert, dessert). 8. A (horde, hoard) of adventures assaulted the castle. 9. The fortunetellers (prophecy, prophesy) came true. 10. Some animals have short and furry (tails, tales). 11. Canada and the United States were (allies, alleys) in the war. 12. One needs (capitol, capital) for such an investment. 13. He joined the police (corps, corpse). 14. The lady received a lovely (complement, compliment) for her singing.

15.The (assent, ascent) to the mountain was gradual.

Exercise 6. Give the opposite gender of the nouns uin parentheses to make the sentence correct. 1. The (best man) _________ is the brides best friend of Mary. 2. The (hostess) _______ of the event was Martin. 3. The (patron) _________ of the town is St. Therese of the Child Jesus. 4. (Sir) _________ , your slip is showing. 5. He is like a (cow) _____________ in the China shop. 6. My (mother) ________ worked as a laborer to be able to send us to school. 7. We are am\waken each morning by the crowing of the (hen) __________. 8. The (God) __________ of love is Venus. 9. Her (fiance) _________ gave her a diamond ring. 10. Marriane is studying to be an (aviator). 11. Mang Pedro has many (sows) ___________ for hire. 12. A (priestess) _________ observes vow of purity. 13. The (prince) ________ saved the damsel in distress. 14. We are (alumni) __________ of an exclusive school for girls. 15. The (bride) _____________ is very much in love with his future wife.

Exercise 7 Determine the gender of the following nouns. Give the opposite forms of the nouns that are masculine and feminine. 1. 2. 3. 4. aviatrix spinster orchid hind parasol

5. abbess 6. god 7. judge 8. master 9. queen 10. dancer 11. vessel 12. flower 13. professor 14. lily 15. landlord 16. jockey 17. stag 18. monk 19. wizard 20. wolf 21. widow 22. employer 23. dean 24. administrator 25. stallion Exercise 8 Write the possessive form of the nouns on each sentences. 1. The student attempts to solve the problem were rewarded. 2. The boss sister arrived from the province yesterday. 3. Lotis answer were very clear. 4. It is hard to endure the marine corps style of discipline. 5. Everyone was disappointed with the Philippine media. 6. Betty and Chad appeal is absolutely lost on me. 7. The shop and the salon owners were in the city when the fire broke out. 8. The forest ranger truck is painted in all blue. 9. The elves mined a gold yesterday. 10. Monster house is on fire. 11. Fiona and Shrek house is so adorable 12. Baby restaurant is 24 hours open 13. Maroon 5 concert was postponed. 14. Shiela bakery opens in early morning 15. Beowulf enemy was Grendel. 16. The farmer hat is very native 17. Santa Claus sleigh flys so high 18. Sisa sons were lost. 19. Hannah Montana acts were very controversial. 20. Mario wallet is missing.

Exercise 9 insert an apostrophe and an s (s) or just an apostrophe () where it is necessary to form the possessives of the nouns in the following sentences. 1. The teacher schedule is written on the board. 2. The peoples hair rarely grows longer than four feet. 3. Have you ever read any of Edgar Allan Poe masterpieces? 4. In the earlier times, women clothes were fancy and beautiful. 5. The twin sisters picture was in Saturday paper. 6. Are men works heavier than women? 7. Joseph amazing skill made him the season best player. 8. My cousin report is in hour drive from Manila. 9. Do you want a year subscription to a boys magazine? 10. The children choir is planning a two days tour. Exercise 10 Determine how the underlie noun is used in each of the following sentence. Encircle the correct answer. 1. Would you donate a month's salary to our cause? a. direct object preposition b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the

2. Kathy buried her money in the yard. a. direct object preposition b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the

3. The students watched a video about the Civil Rights Movement. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 4. Will Steve present the team leader a list of instructions? a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object preposition 5. We heard that the new director is a scientist from Argentina. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object preposition 6. The clue did not help the contestants with the puzzle.

d. object of the

d. object of the

a. direct object preposition

b. predicate nominative

c. indirect object

d. object of the

7. Katie gave her daughter money for lunch. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object preposition 8. You will find the spices in the stove under the sink. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object preposition 9. The dog that Dennis gave his brother is a beagle. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object preposition

d. object of the

d. object of the

d. object of the

10. The announcement said that Ellen would be the new director of the department. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 11. Grace called to the girl who lives across the street. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 12. Bruce is often mistaken for the actor John Malkovich. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 13. Does Heather offer the customers ideas for how to solve the problems they face? a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 14. After waiting for Tom for an hour, Trishia decided to go to the movie alone. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 15. The deputy wrestled the criminal to the ground. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 16. Karen left the house without her watch or keys. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 17. The man who got arrested last week is the coach of the hockey team. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 18. Rich became the latest casualty of the slow economy. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 19. Altoids, a curiously strong peppermint, are made in England. a. direct object b. predicate nominative c. indirect object d. object of the preposition 20. Some of the contestants used tactics that seemed unethical.

a. direct object preposition Answer key 10 1. a 2.d 3. a 4.c 5.b 6.d 7.c 8.d 9.b 10.b

b. predicate nominative

c. indirect object 11.d 12 d 13a 14d 15a 16b 17b 18d 19d 20.a

d. object of the

Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun. The substantive which is replaced by a pronoun is its antecedent. Types of Pronoun

1. Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns can be the subject of a clause or sentence. They are: I, he, she, it, they, we, and you. Example: They went to the store. Personal pronouns can also be objective, where they are the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase. They are: me, her, him, it, you, them, and us. Example: David gave the gift to her. Possession can be shown by personal pronouns, like: mine, his, hers, ours, yours, its, and theirs. Example: Is this mine or yours?

Nominative Sing Plural person

Objective Sing Plural

Possessive Sing Plural

first

We

Me

Us

My

our

Mine ours

second

You

you

You

you

Your Yours

your yours their

third

He They She It

Him Her It

them

His Her Hers Theirs its

2. Indefinite Pronouns
These pronouns do not point to any particular nouns, but refer to things or people in general. Some of them are: few, everyone, all, some, anything, and nobody. Example: Everyone is already here.

3. Relative Pronouns
These pronouns are used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. Example: The driver who ran the stop sign was careless.

4. Intensive Pronouns
These pronouns are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun. These are: myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, and ourselves. Example: He himself is

his worst critic.

5. Demonstrative Pronouns
There are five demonstrative pronouns: these, those, this, that, and such. They focus attention on the nouns that are replacing. Examples: Such was his understanding. Those are totally awesome.

6. Interrogative Pronouns
These pronouns are used to begin a question: who, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, and whatever. Example: Who will you bring to the party?

7. Reciprocal Pronouns This is used to denote an interchange of action- one another, each other. Examples: Cely and Martin used to love each other Community members must help one another. 8. Extensive Pronouns
There is one more type of pronoun, and that is the reflexive pronoun. These are the ones that end in self or "selves." They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and the object are the same noun.

I told myself not to bet all my money on one horse. The bookie hurt himself chasing me through the alley. We also use them to emphasize the subject. Usually, bookies send an employee to collect their money for them, but since I owed so much, he himself came to my house.

Verbs
Verb denotes an action, condition, but it can also express a state of being. Examples: Nora cooks all our meals. Jeremy plays the piano. Mel is reading an interesting novel. The king made his wishes known. In the above examples, verb cooks, plays, is reading, and made denote all actions. Observe following examples: Sonia is the company accountant. Herman was the president of the club last year. The girls were responsible for the stage decorations. Anna and Leah are sisters. The verbs is, are, were and was denote states of being and not actions. s