Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 15
Teknillisen korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 15 Espoo 2000
TKKTER15
Seminar on Steel Structures:
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED STEEL STRUCTURES
Jyri Outinen, Henri Perttola, Risto Hara, Karri Kupari and Olli Kaitila
Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures Publications 15 Teknillisen
korkeakoulun teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorion julkaisuja 15
Espoo 2000
TKKTER15
Seminar on Steel Structures:
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED STEEL STRUCTURES
Jyri Outinen, Henri Perttola, Risto Hara, Karri Kupari and Olli Kaitila
Helsinki University of Technology Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory of Steel Structures
Teknillinen korkeakoulu Rakennus ja ympäristötekniikan osasto Teräsrakennetekniikan laboratorio
Distribution:
Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Steel Structures P.O. Box 2100 FIN02015 HUT Tel. +3589451 3701 Fax. +3589451 3826 Email: srt.sihteerit@hut.fi
” Teknillinen korkeakoulu
ISBN 9512252007
ISSN 14564327
Otamedia Oy
Espoo 2000
FOREWORD
This report collects the papers contributed for the Seminar on Steel Structures (Rak 83.140 and Rak83.J) in spring semester 2000. This time the Seminar was realized as a joint seminar for graduate and postgraduate students. The subject of the Seminar was chosen as Design of ColdFormed Steel Structures.
The seminar was succesfully completed with clearness in presentations and expert knowledge in discussions. I will thank in this connection all the participants for their intensive and enthusiastic contribution to this Report.
Pentti Mäkeläinen
Professor, D.Sc.(Tech.) Head of the Laboratory of Steel Structures
DESIGN OF COLDFORMED STEEL STRUCTURES
CONTENTS
1 Profiled Steel Sheeting… J. Outinen
…………………………………………………………1
2 Design of Cold Formed Thin Gauge Members………………….……………….14
R. Hara
3 Design Charts of SingleSpan ThinWalled Sandwich Elements……….………34
K.Kupari
4 Numerical Analysis for ThinWalled Structures……….……………………… 45 H Perttola
5 ColdFormed Steel Structures in Fire Conditions…………………………….….65
O. Kaitila
1
PROFILED STEEL SHEETING
Jyri Outinen
Researcher, M.Sc.(Tech) Laboratory of Steel Structures Helsinki University of Technology P.O. Box 2100, FIN02015 HUT  Finland Email: jyri.outinen@hut.fi (http://www.hut.fi/~joutinen/)
ABSTRACT
The ligthness of
feature and therefore they were used mostly in products where the weight saving was of
great importance, This kind of products were naturally needed in especially transportation industries e.g. aircrafts and motor industry.
A wide range of research work during many decades has been conducted all over the
world to improve the knowledge about the manufacturing, corrosion protection, materials and codes of practise of thinwalled steel structures. This has led to a constantly
increasing use of coldformed thinwalled structures. Profiled steel sheeting is used in various kind of structures nowadays.
In this paper, a short overview of the manufacturing, products, materials and structural
design of profiled steel sheeting is given. Also a short overview of some current research projects is given.
coldformed thinwalled structures was formerly their most important
KEYWORDS
Profiled steel sheeting, sheet steel, coldformed, thinwall, corrugated, steel, structural design, steel materials, cladding, roof structures, wall structures, floor structures.
2
INTRODUCTION
There is a wide range of manufacturers making different kind of profiled steel sheeting products. The manufacturing processes have beensignificantly developed and different shapes of sheeting profile are easy to produce. Steel sheeting is also easy to bend to different shapes e.g. curved roof structures., cylindrical products e.g. culvers etc. The products are delivered with a huge range of possible coatings. Normally the coating is done by the manufacturer and so the products are ready to be used when delivered.
Coldformed steel sheeting can be used to satisfy both structural and functional requirements. In this paper, the structural use is more thoroughly considered. Profiled steel sheeting is widely used in roof, wall and floor structures. In these structures, the
profiled steel sheeting actually satisfies both the structural and functional requirements.
In floor structures the steel sheeting is often used as part of a composite structure with
concrete. In northern countries the roof and wall structures are almost always built with
thermal insulation. The sound insulation and the fire insulation have also to be considered, when designing structures.
There are several codes for the design of profiled steel sheeting. Almost every country has a national code for this purpose, e.g. DINcode in Germany, AISIcode in USA, etc. The structural design of profiled steel sheeting in Europe has to be carried out using the Eurocode 3: part 1.3, though there are several national application documents (NAD), where the national requirements are considered with the EC3. An extensive amount of tests has been carried out and analyzed to gather together the existing design codes, and there are numerous formulae in these codes that are based partly on theory and partly on experimental test results. Some of the important aspects of structural design of cold formed profiled steel sheeting is presented in this paper.
Numerous different kind of fastening techniques are developed suitable for thinwalled structures. Suitable fasteners are bolts with nuts, blind rivets, self tapping screws, self drilling screws and some other kinds of fasteners.
The materials used in coldformed thinwall members have to satisfy certain criteria to be
suitable for coldforming and usually also for galvanising. The yield strength is normally
in the range of 220…350 N/mm ^{2} , but also some highstrength sheet steels with yield
strength of over 500 N/mm2 are used in some cases. The practical reasons i.e. transportation, handling etc., limit the range of thickness of the material used in profiled sheeting.
A lot of interesting research projects have been carried out concerning the behaviour of
profiled steel sheeting all over the world. Some of the current researches are shortly described in this paper. In different parts of the world the focus of the research is naturally on the regional problems. An example of this is Australia, where the main research area of coldformed steel structures is concentrated on the problems caused by highwind and storm loads.
3
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROFILED SHEETING TYPES
The profiled sheeting types have been developed significantly since the first profiled steel sheets. The first plates were very simple and the stiffness of these was not very high. The manufacturing process and the materials limited the shape of the profiles to simply folded or corrugated shapes. The height of the profile was roughly in between 15 and 100 mm. Two types of typical simply profiled steel sheet forms are illustrated in figure 1.
Figure 1: Simple forms of profiled steel sheeting
From the early 1970's the shape of the profiling in steel sheeting developed considerably. This naturally meant possibilities for their widerange usage especially in structural uses. The stiffeners were added to flanges of the profile and this improved notably the bending resistance. The maximum height of the profile was normally still under 100mm. In Figure 2 a profile with stiffeners in flanges is illustrated.
Figure 2: More advanced form of profiled steel sheeting. Stifferners in flanges.
From the mid 1970's, the development of the shapes of sheeting profiles and also better materials and manufacturing technologies lead to possibilities to provide more complex
profiles. This improved
profiled steel sheets. In figure 3 is shown an example of
this kind of more complex
profile.
substancially the loadbearing capacities of the developed new
4
Figure 3: Modern form of profiled steel sheeting. Stiffeners in flanges and webs.
A huge range of profile types are available nowadays used for structural and other kind of purposes. The thinwalled steel structures and profiled steel sheeting is an area of fast growth. In the next chapter, a few typical examples where coldformed profiled steel sheeting is used are presented.
USE OF PROFILED STEEL SHEETING IN BUILDING
Coldformed profiled sheeting is able to give adequate load bearing resistance and also to satisfy the functional requirements of the design. This aspect is considered in this chapter briefly in relation to the common usage of coldformed sheeting in floor, wall and roof structures.
Floor structures
Profiled steel sheeting in floor structures have sheeting, e.g. trapezoidal or cassettes, as load bearing part, either alone or in composite action with other materials such as different kind of board, plywood decking or cast insitu concrete. In the first case, the composite action is provided by adhesives, and mechanical fasteners, in the second by means of indentation and/or special shear studs. The bending moment resistance is the main requirement, and so the profiles used for flooring purposes are similar to those for roof decking.
Figure 4: A Steelconcrete composite floor slab with profiled steel sheeting
5
Wall structures
In wall structures, the structure is comprised of an outer layer, the facade sheeting that is usually built with relatively small span, and a substructure which transmits the wind loading to the main building structure. The substructure can be a system of wall rails or horizontal deep profiles, or cassettes with integrated insulation. Another solution combines the loadbearing and protecting function in a sandwich panel built up by metal profiles of various shapes and a core of polyurethane or mineral wool.
Figure 5: A facade made with profiled steel sheeting
Roof structures
The roof structures using steel sheeting
has an outer waterproof skin with internal insulation if required. The main requirement of preventing the rain water or the melting snow leads to shallow profiles with a sequence of wide and narrow flanges. Sheets fixed using fasteners applied to the crests or the valleys of the corrugations.
A cold roof
can be built as cold or warm roofs
Figure 6: A roof structure made with profiled steel sheeting of a subway station in Finland
6
The use of few points of fastening means that the forces are relatively high and therefore the spans are usually quite small. A wide range of special fasteners have been developed to avoid the failure of the fasteners or the sheeting e.g. pullthrough failure at that point. This is a problem in especially highwind areas, e.g. Australia.
Warm roof includes insulation and water proofing and it is built up using a loadbearing profile, insulation and an outer layer e.g. metal skin, as mentioned before. The load bearing profiled sheeting in this type of roof normally has the wider flanges turned up in order to provide sufficient support for the insulation. Fasteners are placed in the bottom of the narrow troughs. In this case, the tendency is towards longer spans, using more complex profiles of various shapes and a core of polyurethane.
Other applications
The highly developed forming tecnology makes it possible to manufacture quite freely products made of profiled steel sheets with various shapes. Such are for example curved
roof structures., cylindrical products e.g. culvers etc. There are not too much limitations
anymore concerning the shape of the presented.
product. In Figure X. a few examples of this are
Figure 7: Profiled sheet steel products in different shapes
7
MANUFACTURING
Coldformed steel members can be manufactured e.g. by folding, pressbraking or cold rolling. Profiled steel sheets are manufactured practically always using coldforming. Also the cylindrical products are manufactured by cold cold rolling from steel strips. In figure 8, a steel culvert and a profiled steel sheet is manufactured by coldrolling.
Figure 8: Coldrolling process of profiled steel products
Coldrolling technique gives good opportunities to vary the shape of the profile and therefore it is easy to manufacture optimal profiles that have adequate load bearing properties for the product. The stiffeners to flanges and webs are easily produced.
During the coldforming process varying stretching forces can induce residual stresses. These can significantly change the loadbearing resistance of a section. Favourable effects can be observed if residual stresses are induced in parts of the section which act in compression and, at the same time, are susceptible to local bucling.
Coldforming has significant strainhardening effects on ductility of structural steel. Yield strength, ultimate strength and the ductility are all locally influenced by an amount which depends on the bending radius, the thickness of the sheet, the type of steel and the forming process. The average yield strength of the section depends on the number of corners and the width of the flat elements.
The principle of the effect of coldforming on yield strength is illustrated in Figure 9.
8
Figure 9: Effect of cold forming on the yield stress of a steel profile
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF PROFILED STEEL SHEETING
Because of the many types of sheeting available and the diverse functional requirements and loading conditions that apply, design is generally based on experimental investigations. This experimental approach is generally acceptable for mass produced products, where optimization of the shape of the profiles is a competitive need.
The product development during about four decades has been based more on experience of the functional behaviour of the behaviour of the products than on analytical methods. The initial "design by testing" and subsequent growing understanding of the structural behaviour allowed analytical design methods to be developed. Theoretical or semi empirical design formulae were created based on the evaluation of test results. This type of interaction of analytical and experimental results occurs whenever special phenomena are responsible for uncertainties in the prediction of design resistance (ulimate limit state) or deformations (serviceability limit state).
At the moment there are several codes for the structural design of coldformed steel members. In Europe, Eurocode 3: Part 1.3 is the latest design code which can be used in all european countries. Still, almost every country has a national application document (NAD), in which the former national code of practice is taken into account. In Other parts of the world e.g. in USA (AISIspecifications), Australia, (AS) there are several different codes for the design. All the design codes seem to have the same principles, but the design practices vary depending on the code.
9
The design can basicly be divided in two parts: 1.) Structural modelling and analysis which is normally quite a simple procedure and 2.) Checking the resistances of the sheeting. The values that are needed in the design are: moment resistance, point load resistance and the effective second moments of area I _{e}_{f}_{f} corresponding to the moment resistances. The deflections have to be also considered. The deflections during construction e.g. in steelconcrete composite floors are often the limiting factor to the structure.
The loadbearing properties, i.e. moment resistance, point load resistance etc., are almost always given by the manufacturer.
Profiled sheeting has basically the following structural functions:
1. To transfer the surface loads (wind, snow,etc.) to the substructure.
2. To stabilise the substructure and the components of it.
3. Optionally to transfer the inplane loads (e.g. wind load in roofs to the end cables) "Stressed skin design"
One important weak point of profiled steel sheeting is the low resistance against transverse point loads as mentioned earlier. The reason is that the load is transmitted to the webs as point loads that create high stress peaks to it. The web is then very vulnerable to lose the local stability at these points. All the manufactures have recommendations for the minimum support width, which has a notable effect on the previous phenomenon.
The fire design of cold formed structures is basicly quite simple using the existing codes, but the methods are under new consideration in various research projects, from which a short description is given in chapter "Current research projects".
The design for dynamic loading cases is constantly under development in countries, where the wind and storm loads are of high importance. For example in Australia, a large amount of experimental research has been carried out on this subject. Most of this research is concentrated on the connections. Different types of fasteners have been developed to avoid the pullthrough, pullover or pullout phenomena under dynamic highwind loading.
Figure 10: Examples of pullthrough failures under dynamic loading. Local pullthrough by splitting and fatigue pullthrough (highstrength steel).
10
MATERIALS
The most common steel material that is used in profiled steel sheets is hot dip zinc coated coldformed structural steel. The nominal yield strength R _{e}_{h} (See Fig. 4) is typically 220…550N/mm ^{2} . The ultimate tensile strength is 300…560 N/mm ^{2} . The modulus of elasticity is normally 210 000 N/mm ^{2} . The mechanical properties of lowcarbon cold formed structural steels have to be in accordance with the requirements of the European standard SFSEN 10 147.
The mechanical properties are dependent on the rolling direction so that yield strength is
higher transversally to rolling direction
delivered with the material, the test results are for transversal tensile test pieces.
In the inspection certificate that is normally
In Figure 4, typical stressstrain curves of coldformed structural sheet steel with nominal yield strength of 350 N/mm2 at room temperature both longitunidally and transversally to rolling direction are shown. The difference between the test results for the specimens taken longitudinally and transversally to rolling direction can clearly be seen. The results are also shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Strain ee [%]
Figure 11: Stressstrain curves of structural steel S350GD+Z at room temperature. Tensile tests longitudinally and transversally to rolling direction
11
TABLE 1
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TEST MATERIAL S350GD+Z AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. TEST PIECES LONGITUDINALLY TO ROLLING DIRECTION
Measured property 
Mean value (N/mm ^{2} ) 
Standard deviation (N/mm ^{2} ) 
Number of tests (pcs) 

Modulus of elasticity E 
210 120 
13100 
5 

Yield stress 
R _{p}_{0}_{.}_{2} 
354.6 
1.5 
5 
Ultimate stress 
R _{m} 
452.6 
2.3 
5 
TABLE 2
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TEST MATERIAL S350GD+Z AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. TEST PIECES TRANSVERSALLY TO ROLLING DIRECTION
Measured property 
Mean value (N/mm ^{2} ) 
Standard deviation (N/mm ^{2} ) 
Number of tests (pcs) 

Modulus of elasticity E 
209400 
8800 
4 

Yield stress 
R _{p}_{0}_{.}_{2} 
387.5 
1.3 
4 
Ultimate stress 
R _{m} 
452.5 
1.9 
4 
The thickness of the base material that is formed to profiled steel sheets is normally 0.5…2.5 mm. The thickness can't normally be less than 0.5 mm. If the material is thinner than that, the damages to the steel sheets during transportation, assembly and handling are almost impossible to avoid. The thickness of the sheet material is not normally over 2.5 mm because of the limitations of the rollforming tools.
The base material coils are normally 1000…1500 mm wide and that limits the width of profiled steel sheets normally to 600…1200 mm.
Steel is naturally not the only material that profiled sheeting is made of. Other materials, such as stainless steel, aluminium and composite (plastic) materials are also widely used.
Stainless steel products are under development all the time and the major problem seems to be the hardness of the material, i.e. there are problems in rollforming, cutting and drilling. On the other hand, excellent corrosion resistance and also fire resistance give it big advances.
Aluminium profiles are easy to rollform and cut because of the softness of the material. On the other hand, the ductility is quite restricted, especially at fire conditions.
The composite (plastic) materials are also widely used e.g. in transparent roofs, but not usually in structural use.
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CURRENT RESEARCH WORK
A wide range of different kind of research activities concerning profiled steel sheeting is
going on in several countries. Most of the studies are based on both experimental test results and usually also modelling results produced with some finite element modelling programs. Usually the aim is to increase the loadbearing capacity of the studied product. Also the materials, coatings and the manufacturing technology are developed constantly.
In Finland, there are a lot of small resarch projects concerning the steelconcrete composite slabs with profiled steel sheeting. In these projects, which are mainly carried out in Finnish universities, e.g. Helsinki University of Technology, and in the Technical Research Centre of Finland, the aim is simply to increase the load bearing capacity. This
is studied using different profiles and stud connectors. The experiments are normally
bending tests, but also some shear tests for the connection between steel sheeting and concrete with pushout tests have ben carried out. During the next few years, several research projects are starting in Finland concerning the design of lightweight steel structures. In these projects, the fire design part is of great importance.
In Australia, e.g. in Queensland University of Technology, and also in several other universities, there are numerous ongoing research projects concerning mainly the behaviour of the connections of steel sheeting under windstorm loads e.g. "Development of design and test methods for profiled steel roof and wall claddings under wind uplift and racking loads" and "Design methods for screwed connections in claddings." are
recently completed projects. The current situation can be found on their wwwsite (given
in 
next chapter: References). 
In 
these projects a significant amount of smallscale and also large scale tests have been 
conducted. The smallscale tests are usually carried out to study the pullout or pullover
phenomena of screwed connections. The largescale tests aim to study the behaviour of the profiled steel sheeting in wall and roof structures under highwind loading cases.
The research work that is carried out concerning coldformed steel in USA can be found from the American Iron and Steel Institutes wwwsite (given in next chapter:
References).
In this paper, just a few examples of the research work that is currently going on were
mentioned. Different research programs concerning the coldformed profiled steel sheeting are going on in Europe and other parts of the world. A major conference, "The International Specialty Conference on Recent Research and Developments in Cold Formed Steel Design and Construction", where the latest research projects are presented regurarly, is held in St. Louis, Missouri.
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REFERENCES
Eurocode 3, CEN ENV 199313 Design of Steel Structures Supplementary rules for Cold Formed Thin Gauge Members and Sheeting, Brussels, 1996
Standard SFSEN 10 147 (1992): Continuously hotdip zinc coated structural steel sheet and strip. Technical delivery conditions. (in Finnish), Helsinki
Outinen, J. & Mäkeläinen, P.:
Behaviour of a Structural Sheet Steel at Fire Temperatures. LightWeight Steel and Aluminium Structures (Eds. P. Mäkeläinen and P. Hassinen) ICSAS'99. Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK 1999, pp. 771778.
Kaitila O., Postgraduate seminar work on "Cold Formed Steel Structures in Fire Conditions", Helsinki University of Technology, 2000.
Helenius, A., Lecture in short course: "Behaviour and design of lightweight steel structures" , at Helsinki University, 1999
Tang, L.,Mahendran, M., Pullover Strength of Trapezoidal Steel Claddings, . Light Weight Steel and Aluminium Structures (Eds. P. Mäkeläinen and P. Hassinen) ICSAS'99. Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK 1999, pp. 743750.
ESDEP Working Group 9
Internetsites concerning coldformed steel:
http://www.rannila.fi
http://www.rumtec.fi
http://www.civl.bee.qut.edu.au/pic/steelstructures.html
http://www.steel.org/construction/design/research/ongoing.htm
14
DESIGN OF COLD FORMED THIN GAUGE MEMBERS
Risto Hara M.Sc.(Tech.) PIConsulting Oyj Liesikuja 5, P.O. BOX 31, FIN01601 VANTAA, FINLAND http://www.pigroup.fi/
15
INTRODUCTION
In this presentation, cold formed thin gauge members (for simplicity: ‘thinwalled members’) refer to profiles, which the design code Eurocode 3 Part 1.3 (ENV 199313) is intended for. These profiles are usually cold rolled or brake pressed from hot or cold rolled steel strips. Due to the manufacturing process, sections of cold formed structural shapes are usually open, sin gly, point or nonsymmetric. Most common crosssection types of thinwalled members (U, C, Z, L and hat) are shown in Figure 1.1, see ref. (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.). Other forms of sec tions i.e. special single and builtup sections are shown e.g. in ENV 199313, Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1 Typical crosssection types of thinwalled members.
Thinwalled structural members have been increasingly used in construction industry during the last 100 years. They are advantageous in lightweight constructions, where they can carry tension, compression and bending forces. The structural properties and type of loading of thinwalled members cause the typical static behaviour of these structures: the local or global loss of stability in form of different buckling phenomena. To have control of them in analysis and design, sophisticated tools (FEA) and design codes (ENV 199313, AISI 1996, etc.) may have to be used. Unfortunately, the complexity of these methods can easily limit the use of thinwalled structural members or lead to excessive conservatism in design. However, some simplified design expressions have been developed, see refs. (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.), (Roivio, P.).
The main features of the design rules of thinwalled members are described in this paper. The present Finnish design codes B6 (1989) and B7 (1988) are entirely omitted as inadequate for the design of cold formed steel structures. However, the viewpoint is ‘FinnishEuropean’, i.e. the main reference is the appropriate Eurocode 3 (ENV 199313) with the Finnish transla tion (SFSENV 199313) and National Application Document (NAD). The paper concen trates on the analytical design of members omitting chapters 810 of the code (ENV 199313) entirely. Reference is made also to a seminar publication (TEMPUS 4502), where theory and practice for the design of thinwalled members is presented in a comprehensive way. The ref erence contains also a summary of Eurocode 3 – Part 1.3.
ABOUT THE STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF THINWALLED MEMBERS
The crosssections of thinwalled members consist usually of relatively slender parts, i.e. of flat plate fields and edge stiffeners. Instead of failure through material yielding, compressed parts tend to loose their stability. In the local buckling mode, flat plate fields buckle causing
16
displacements only perpendicular to plane elements and redistribution of stresses. In this mode the shape of the section is only slightly distorted, because only rotations at plane ele ment junctures are involved. In the actual distortional buckling mode, the displacements of the crosssection parts are largely due to buckling of e.g. flange stiffeners. In both buckling modes, the stiffness properties of the crosssection may be changed, but the member probably still has some postbuckling capacity since translation and/or rotation of the entire cross section is not involved. In the global buckling mode, displacements of the entire crosssection are large, leading to overall loss of stability of the member. Global buckling modes depend primarily on the shape of the crosssection. Flexural buckling usually in the direction of minimum flexural stiffness is common also for cold formed members. Low torsional stiffness is typical for open thinwalled members,so buckling modes associated with torsion may be critical. Pure torsional buckling is possible for example in the case of a point symmetric cross section (e.g. Zsection), where the centre of the crosssection and the shear centre coincide. In torsional buckling, the crosssection rotates around the shear centre. A mixed flexural torsional buckling mode, where the crosssection also translates in plane, is possible in the case of single symmetric crosssections (e.g. U, C and hat). Due to the low torsional stiffness of open thinwalled crosssections, lateral buckling is a very probable failure mode of beams. Analogy with flexural buckling of the compressed flange is valid in many cases, but does not work well with low profiles bent about the axis of symmetry or with open profiles bent in the plane of symmetry, when the folded edges are compressed (e.g. wide hats). Naturally, plastic or elasticplastic static behaviour of compressed or bended members are possible when loaded to failure, but with normal structural geometry and loading, stability is critical in the design of thinwalled members. Structural stability phenomena are described in more detail e.g. by (Salmi, P. & Talja, A).
BASIS OF DESIGN
In cold formed steel design, the convention for member axes has to be completed compared with Structural Eurocodes. According to ENV 199313, the xaxis is still along the member, but for single symmetric crosssections yaxis is the axis of symmetry and zaxis is the other principal axis of the crosssection. For other crosssections, yaxis is the major axis and zaxis is the minor axis, see also Figure 1.1. According to the ENV code, also uaxis (perpendicular to the height) and vaxis (parallel to the height) can be used ”where necessary”.
Depending on the type of contribution to the structural strength and stability, a thinwalled member belongs to one of two construction classes. In Class I the member is a part of the overall stiffening system of the structure. In Class II the member contributes only to the indi vidual structural strength of the element. The Class III is reserved for secondary sheeting structures only. However, this classification for differentiating levels of reliability seems not to have any influence in design. In ultimate limit states (defined in ENV 199311), the value of partial safety factors (g _{M}_{0} and g _{M}_{1} ) needed in member design are always equal to 1.1. Factor g _{M}_{0} is for calculation of crosssection resistance caused by yielding and factor g _{M}_{1} is for cal culation of member resistance caused by buckling. The serviceability limit states are defined in form of principles and application rules in ENV 199311 and completed in ENV 199313 with the associated Finnish NAD. The partial factor in both classes g _{M}_{s}_{e}_{r} has a value equal to
1.0.
17
The design of adequate durability of cold formed components seems to require qualitative guide lines according to base code ENV 199313, but also much more exact specifications according to the NAD.
The structural steel to be used for thinwalled members shall be suitable for cold forming, welding and usually also for galvanising. In ENV 199313, Table 3.1 lists steel types, which can be used in cold formed steel design according to the code. Other structural steels can also be used, if the appropriate conditions in Part 1.3 and NAD are satisfied. In ENV 199313 Ch. 3.1.2, exact conditions have been specified about when the increased yield strength f _{y}_{a} due to cold forming could be utilised in load bearing capacity. Fortunately for the designer, Ch. 3.1.2 has been simplified in the NAD: nominal values of basic yield strength f _{y}_{b} shall be applied everywhere as yield strength (hence in this paper f _{y}_{b} is replaced in all formulas by f _{y} ). This can be justified, because on the average, the ratio f _{y}_{a} /f _{y}_{b} ª 1.05 only. Normally yield strengths f _{y}_{b} used in thinwalled members lay in the range 200400 N/mm ^{2} , but the trend is to even stronger steels.
TABLE 3.1
TYPICAL STRUCTURAL STEELS USED IN COLD FORMED STEEL STRUCTURES.
18
Obviously, other material properties relevant in cold formed steel design are familiar to de signers: e.g. modulus of elasticity E = 210 000 N/mm ^{2} , shear modulus G = E/2(1+n) N/mm ^{2} = 81 000 N/mm ^{2} (Poisson’s ratio n = 0.3), coefficient of linear thermal elongation a = 12 ¥ 10 ^{}^{6} 1/K and unit mass r = 7850 kg/m ^{3} .
The draft code ENV 199313 is applicable only for members with a nominal core thickness of 1.0 < t _{c}_{o}_{r} < 8.0 mm. In the Finnish NAD, however, the material thickness condition is changed: 0.9 < t _{c}_{o}_{r} < 12.0 mm. Up to 12.5 mm core thickness is reached in rollforming proc ess in Finland by Rautaruukki Oy. The nominal core thickness can normally be taken as t _{c}_{o}_{r} = t _{n}_{o}_{m} – t _{z}_{i}_{n} where t _{n}_{o}_{m} is the nominal sheet thickness and t _{z}_{i}_{n} is the zinc coating thickness (for common coating Z275 t _{z}_{i}_{n} = 0.04 mm).
Figure 3.1: Determination of notional widths.
Section properties shall be calculated according to normal ‘good practice’. Due to the com plex shape of the crosssections, approximations are required in most cases. Specified nomi nal dimensions of the shape and large openings determine the properties of the gross cross section. The net area is reached from gross area by deducting other openings and all fastener holes according to special rules listed in Ch. 3.3.3 of the Eurocode. Due to cold forming, the corners of thinwalled members are rounded. According to the design code, the influence of rounded corners with internal radius r £ 5 t and r £ 0.15 b _{p} on section properties may be ne glected, i.e. round corners can be replaced with sharp corners. The notional flat width b _{p} is defined by applying the corner geometry shown in Figure 3.1, extracted from the code. If the above limits are exceeded, the influence of rounded corners on section properties ‘should be allowed for’. Sufficient accuracy is reached by reducing section properties of equivalent crosssection with sharp corners (subscript _{‘}_{s}_{h}_{’} ) according to the formulas:
A _{g} ª A _{g}_{,}_{s}_{h} (1d) 
(3.1a) 
I _{g} ª I _{g}_{,}_{s}_{h} (12d) 
(3.1b) 
I _{w} ª I _{w}_{,}_{s}_{h} (14d), 
(3.1c) 
19
Where A _{g} is the area of the gross crosssection, I _{g} is the second moment area of the gross crosssection and I _{w} is the warping constant of the gross crosssection. Term d is a factor de pending on the number of the plane elements (m), on the number of the curved elements (n), on the internal radius of curved elements (r _{j} ) and notional flat widths b _{p}_{i} according to the for mula:
n
d = 0.43 Â r _{j} /
j = 1
m
Â b _{p}_{i} ,
i = 1
(3.2)
This approximation can be applied also in the calculation of effective crosssection properties. Due to the chosen limits, typical round corners can usually be handled as sharp corners.
In order to apply the design code ENV 199313 in design by calculation, the widththickness ratios of different crosssection parts shall not exceed limits listed in Table 3.2. In conclusion, they represent such slender flat plate fields that the designer has rather ‘free hands’ in the con struction of the shape of the crosssection. However, to provide sufficient stiffness and to avoid primary buckling of the stiffener itself, the conditions 0.2 £ c/b £ 0.6 and 0.1 £ d/b £ 0.3 for the edge stiffener geometry shall be satisfied.
TABLE 3.2
M AXIMUM WIDTH TOTHICKNESS R ATIOS OF PLATE FIELDS.
20
LOCAL BUCKLING
One of the most essential features in the design of thinwalled members is the local buckling of the crosssection. The effects of local buckling shall be taken into account in the determi nation of the design strength and stiffness of the members. Using the concept of effective width and effective thickness of individual elements prone to local buckling, the effective crosssectional properties can be calculated. The calculation method depends on e.g. stress levels and distribution of different elements. The code ENV 199313 Cl. 4.1. (46) states that in ultimate resistance calculations, yield stress f _{y} ‘should’ be used (on the ‘safe side’) and only in serviceability verifications, actual stresslevels due to serviceability limit state loading ‘should’ be used. Thus the basic formulas for effective width calculations of flat plane ele ment without stiffeners in compression could be presented in the general form, in accordance with the complex alternative rules of ENV code, compare to (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.):
r 
= 1, when l _{p} £ 0.673 
(4.1a) 

r 
= (l _{p} – 0.22) / l _{p} ^{2} , when l _{p} > 0.673 
(4.1b) 

l _{p} = ÷ (s _{c} / s _{e}_{l} ) = 1.052 (b _{p} 
/ t) ÷ (s _{c} / E / k _{s} ) 
(4.1c) 

s _{e}_{l} = k _{s} p ^{2} E / 12 / (1  n ^{2} ) / (b _{p} / t) ^{2} , 
(4.1d) 
where r is the reduction factor of the width, l _{p} relative slenderness, b _{p} width, s _{c} maximum compressive stress of the element and k _{s} buckling factor. For compressed members s _{c} is us u ally the design stress (cf _{y} ) based on overall buckling (flexural or flexuraltorsional). For bent members, in an analogical way, s _{c} is usually the design stress for lateral buckling (cf _{y} ). In special cases, s _{c} really can have the value f _{y} in compression or bending. Obviously, the safe simplification s _{c} = f _{y} may always be used and to avoid iterations, it is even recommended. The reduction factor r shall be determined according to Table 4.1 for internal and Table 4.2 for external compression elements, respectively.
The design of stiffened elements is based on the assumption that the stiffener itself works as a beam on elastic foundation. The elasticity of the foundation is simulated with springs, whose stiffness depends on the bending stiffness of adjacent parts of plane elements and the bound ary conditions of the element. A spring system for basic types of plate fields needed in analy sis is shown in Table 4.3. The determination of spring stiffness in two simple cases is pre sented in Figure 4.1. For example, in the case of an edge stiffener, the spring stiffness K of the foundation per unit length is determined from:
K = u / d,
(4.2)
where d is the deflection of the stiffener due to the unit load u:
21
d = Q b _{p} + u b _{p} ^{3} / 3 12
(1  n ^{2} ) / (E t ^{3} ),
(4.3)
Typically for complex tasks, it is not shown in the code how to calculate exactly the rotational spring constant C _{Q} required in the formula Q = u b _{p} ^{3} / C _{Q} . The spring stiffness K can be used to calculate the critical elastic buckling stress s _{c}_{r}_{S} :
s _{c}_{r}_{S} = 2 ÷ (K E I _{s} ) / A _{s} ,
(4.4)
where I _{s} is the effective second moment of area of the stiffener taken as that of its effective area A _{s} . In the simplified method of (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.), I _{s} and A _{s} have been replaced by their fullcross sectional dimensions in consistence of general principles in calculation of elastic buckling forces. The general iterative as well as simplified procedures according to the code to determine the effective thickness of the stiffener t _{e}_{f}_{f} are in their complexity hard to apply in practical design. Hence, only the simplified, conservative method of (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.) is presented here:
t _{e}_{f}_{f} = c _{S} t,
(4.5)
where c _{S} is the reduction factor for the buckling of a beam on an elastic foundation. The fac tor is determined according to the buckling curve a _{0} (a = 0.13, see also Figure 6.1) from the equations:
c _{S} = 1, when l _{s} £ 0.2 
(4.6a) 

c _{S} = 1 / ( f + ÷ (f ^{2}  l _{s} ^{2} )), when l _{s} > 0.2 
(4.6b) 

l _{s} = ÷ (s _{c} / s _{c}_{r}_{S} ) 
(4.6c) 

f 
= 0.5 [1 + a (l  0.2) + l _{s} ^{2} ], 
(4.6d) 
In this study, distortional buckling is considered as a local stability effect. This buckling mode is included in clause 6 of ENV 199313, where design rules for global buckling are intro duced. Distortional buckling is handled only qualitatively in the design code, without any equations. Implicitly it may mean, that FEA is required to be used to analyse this buckling mode in design. However, if in the case of a section with edge or intermediate stiffeners the stiffener is reduced according to the code, no further allowance for distortional buckling is required. Fortunately, distortional buckling mode should not be very probable in thinwalled members with ‘normal’ dimensions.
22
TABLE 4.1
DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE WIDTH FOR INTERNAL P LATE FIELDS.
23
24
TABLE 4.3
MODELLING OF ELEMENTS OF A CROSSSECTION.
Figure 4.1 Determination of spring stiffness in two simple cases.
25
LOCAL RESISTANCE OF CROSSSECTIONS
Axial tension
The design value of tension N _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the corresponding resistance of the cross section N _{t}_{R}_{d} :
N _{s}_{d} £ N _{t}_{R}_{d} = f _{y} A _{g} / g _{M}_{0} £ F _{n}_{R}_{d} ,
(5.1)
where F _{n}_{R}_{d} is the netsection resistance taking into account mechanical fasteners.
Axial compression
The design value of compression N _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the corresponding resistance of the crosssection N _{c}_{R}_{d} :
N _{s}_{d}
N _{s}_{d}
£ N _{c}_{R}_{d} = f _{y} A _{g} / g _{M}_{0} , when A _{e}_{f}_{f} = A _{g} 
(5.2a) 
£ N _{c}_{R}_{d} = f _{y} A _{e}_{f}_{f} / g _{M}_{1} , when A _{e}_{f}_{f} < A _{g} 
(5.2b) 
In the equations A _{e}_{f}_{f} is the effective area of the crosssection according to section 4 by as suming a uniform compressive stress equal to f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} . If the centroid of the effective cross section does not coincide with the centroid of the gross crosssection, the additional moments (N _{s}_{d} e _{N} ) due to shifts e _{N} of the centroidal axes shall be taken into account in combined com pression and bending. However, according to many references this influence can usually be considered negligible.
Bending moment
The design value of bending moment M _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the corresponding resistance of the crosssection M _{c}_{R}_{d} :
M _{s}_{d} £ M _{c}_{R}_{d} = f _{y} W _{e}_{l} / g _{M}_{0} , when W _{e}_{f}_{f} = W _{e}_{l} 
(5.3a) 
M _{s}_{d} £ M _{c}_{R}_{d} = f _{y} W _{e}_{f}_{f} / g _{M}_{1} , when W _{e}_{f}_{f} < W _{e}_{l} 
(5.3b) 
In the equations W _{e}_{f}_{f} is the effective section modulus of the crosssection based on pure bending moment about the relevant principal axis yielding a maximum stress equal to f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} . Allowance for the effects of shear lag to the effective width shall be made, if ‘relevant’ (nor mally not). The distribution of the bending stresses shall be linear, if the partial yielding of the crosssection can not be allowed. In case of monoaxial bending plastic reserves in the tension zone can generally be utilised without strain limits. The utilisation of plastic reserves in the compression zone is normally more difficult because of several conditions to be met. The
26
procedures to handle crosssections in bending have been explained e.g. in the code ENV 199313 and in the paper (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.). For biaxial bending, the following criterion shall be satisfied:
M _{y}_{S}_{d} / M _{c}_{y}_{R}_{d} + M _{z}_{S}_{d} / M _{c}_{z}_{R}_{d} £ 1,
(5.4)
where M _{y}_{S}_{d} and M _{z}_{S}_{d} are the applied bending moments about the major y and minor z axes.
M _{c}_{y}_{R}_{d} and M _{c}_{z}_{R}_{d} are the resistances of the crosssection if subject only to moments about the
major or minor axes.
Combined tension or compression and bending
Crosssections subject to combined axial tension N _{s}_{d} and bending moments M _{y}_{S}_{d} and M _{z}_{S}_{d} shall meet the condition:
N _{s}_{d} / (f _{y} A _{g} / g _{M} ) + M _{y}_{S}_{d} / (f _{y} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{t}_{e}_{n} / g _{M} ) + M _{z}_{S}_{d} / (f _{y} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{t}_{e}_{n} / g _{M} ) £ 1,
(5.5)
where g _{M} = g _{M}_{0} or = g _{M}_{1} depending on W _{e}_{f}_{f} is equal to W _{e}_{l} or not for each axis about which a bending moment acts. W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{t}_{e}_{n} and W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{t}_{e}_{n} are the effective section moduli for maximum ten sile stress if subject only to moments about y and zaxes. In the ENV code there is also an additional criterion to be satisfied, if the corresponding section moduli for maximum com pressive stress W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{c}_{o}_{m} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{t}_{e}_{n} or W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{c}_{o}_{m} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{t}_{e}_{n} . The criterion is associated with vecto rial effects based on ENV 199311.
Crosssections subject
M _{z}_{S}_{d} shall meet the condition:
to combined axial compression N _{s}_{d} and bending moments M _{y}_{S}_{d} and
N _{s}_{d} / (f _{y} A _{e}_{f}_{f} / g _{M} ) + M _{y}_{S}_{d} / (f _{y} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{c}_{o}_{m} / g _{M} ) + M _{z}_{S}_{d} / (f _{y} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{c}_{o}_{m} / g _{M} ) £ 1,
(5.6)
where the factor g _{M} = g _{M}_{0} if A _{e}_{f}_{f} = A _{g} , otherwise g _{M} = g _{M}_{1} . In the
W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{c}_{o}_{m} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{z}_{t}_{e}_{n} , an additional criterion has again to be satisfied. In this occasion, reference
is also made to the basic steel code ENV 199311 for the concept of vectorial effects. For simplicity, in the expression above the bending moments include the additional moments due
to potential shifts of the centroidal axes.
case W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{c}_{o}_{m} W _{e}_{f}_{f}_{y}_{t}_{e}_{n} or
Torsional moment
In good design practice of thinwalled open members, torsional effects should be avoided as far as practicable, e.g. by means of restraints or ideal crosssectional shape. If the loads are applied eccentrically to the shear centre of the crosssection, the effects of torsion “shall be taken into account”. The effective crosssection derived from the bending moment defines the
27
centroid as well as the shear centre of the crosssection. Probably, design problems will be expected, because the following criteria have to be satisfied:
s _{t}_{o}_{t} = s _{N} + s _{M}_{y} + s _{M}_{z} + s _{w} £ f _{y} / g _{M}
t _{t}_{o}_{t} = t _{V}_{y} + t _{V}_{z} + t _{t} + t _{w} £ (f _{y} / ÷3) / g _{M}_{0}
÷ (s _{t}_{o}_{t} ^{2} + 3 t _{t}_{o}_{t} ^{2} ) £ 1.1 f _{y} / g _{M} ,
(5.7a)
(5.7b)
(5.7c)
where s _{t}_{o}_{t} is the total direct stress having design stress components s _{N} due to the axial force, s _{M}_{y} and s _{M}_{z} due to the bending moments about y and zaxes and s _{w} due to warping. The stress t _{t}_{o}_{t} is the total shear stress consisting of design stress components t _{V}_{y} and t _{V}_{z} due to the shear forces along y and zaxes, t _{t} due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion and t _{w} due to warping. The factor g _{M} = g _{M}_{0} if W _{e}_{f}_{f} = W _{e}_{l} , otherwise g _{M} = g _{M}_{1} . To be taken on note that only the direct stress components due to resultants N _{S}_{d} , M _{y}_{S}_{d} and M _{z}_{S}_{d} should be based on the respective ef fective crosssections and all other stress components i.e. shear stresses due to transverse shear force, uniform (St. Venant) torsion and warping as well as direct stress due to warping, should be based on the gross crosssectional properties.
Shear force
The design value of shear V _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the corresponding shear resistance of the cross section, which shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling resistance V _{b}_{R}_{d} or the plastic shear resistance V _{p}_{l}_{R}_{d} . The latter should be checked in the case l _{w} £ 0.83 (f _{v}_{b} / f _{v} ) (g _{M}_{0} / g _{M}_{1} ) = 0.83 (according to NAD) using the formula:
V _{p}_{l}_{R}_{d} = (h _{w} / sinf) t (f _{y} / ÷3) / g _{M}_{0} ,
(5.8)
where h _{w} is the web height between the midlines of the flanges and f is the slope of the web relative to the flanges, see Figure 3.1. The shear buckling resistance V _{b}_{R}_{d} shall be determined from:
V _{b}_{R}_{d} = (h _{w} / sinf) t f _{b}_{v} / g _{M}_{1} ,
(5.9)
where f _{b}_{v} is the shear buckling strength, which depends on the relative web slenderness l _{w} and stiffening at the support according to the Table 5.2 in ENV 199313. The relative web slenderness l _{w} is e.g. for webs without longitudinal stiffeners:
l _{w} = 0.346 (h _{w} / sinf) / t ÷ (f _{y} / E)
28
Local transverse forces
To avoid crushing, crippling or buckling in a web subject to a support reaction or other local transverse force (for simplicity: ‘concentrated load’) applied through the flange, the point load F _{s}_{d} shall satisfy:
F _{s}_{d} £ R _{w}_{R}_{d} ,
(5.10)
where R _{w}_{R}_{d} is the local transverse resistance of the web. If the concentrated load is applied through a cleat, which is designed to resist this load and to prevent the distortion of the web, the resistance for concentrated load needs not to be checked. Thinwalled members normally used can be designed for concentrated load according to ENV 199313 Cl. 5.9.2. The resis tance formula to be used in the case of single unstiffened web depends on the number (one or two), the location and the bearing lengths of the concentrated loads. In addition, the resistance depends on the geometry (h _{w} , t, r and f) and material of the web (f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} ). In the case of two unstiffened webs, the approach is totally different, although the same parameters affect the point load resistance. As a result, only one formula with supplementary parameters is needed. The equations for stiffened webs enforces more the impression that the background of the point load resistance evaluations is rather empirical.
Combined forces
A crosssection subject to combined bending moment M _{s}_{d} and shear force V _{s}_{d} shall be checked for the condition:
( M _{s}_{d} / M _{c}_{R}_{d} ) ^{2} + ( V _{s}_{d} / V _{w}_{R}_{d} ) ^{2} £ 1,
(5.11)
where M _{c}_{R}_{d} is the moment resistance of the crosssection and V _{w}_{R}_{d} is the shear resistance of the web, both defined previously. A crosssection subject to combined bending moment M _{s}_{d} and point load F _{s}_{d} shall be checked for the cond itions:
M _{s}_{d} / M _{c}_{R}_{d}
F _{s}_{d} / R _{w}_{R}_{d}
£
£
1
1
M _{s}_{d} / M _{c}_{R}_{d} + F _{s}_{d} / R _{w}_{R}_{d} £ 1.25,
(5.12a)
(5.12b)
(5.12c)
where R _{w}_{R}_{d} is the appropriate value of the resistance for concentrated load of the web, de scribed previously.
29
GLOBAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE OF MEMBERS
Axial compression
A member is subject to concentric compression if the point of loading coincides with the cen troid of the effective crosssection based on uniform compression. The design value of com pression N _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the design buckling resistance for axial compression N _{b}_{R}_{d} :
N _{s}_{d} £ N _{b}_{R}_{d} = c A _{e}_{f}_{f} f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} ,
(6.1)
Where, according to ENV 199313, the effective area of the crosssection A _{e}_{f}_{f} is based con servatively on uniform compressive stress equal to f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} . The cfactor is the appropriate value of the reduction factor for buckling resistance:
c = min ( c _{y} , c _{z} , c _{T} ,c _{T}_{F} ),
(6.2)
where the subscripts y, z, T and TF denote to different buckling forms i.e. to flexural buckling of the member about relevant y and zaxes, torsional and torsionalflexural buckling. The calculation of factor c according ENV 199313 Cl. 6.2.1 is formulated in (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.):
c 
= 1, when l £ 0.2 
(6.3a) 

c 
= 1 / ( f + ÷ (f ^{2}  l ^{2} )), when l > 0.2 
(6.3b) 

l 
= 
÷ ( f _{y} / s _{c}_{r} ) 
(6.3c) 
f 
= 0.5 [ 1 + a ( l  0.2 ) + l ^{2} ], 
(6.3d) 
where a is an imperfection factor, depending on the appropriate buckling curve and l is the relative slenderness for the relevant buckling mode.
30
Figure 6.1 Different buckling curves and corresponding imperfection factors.
In Figure 6.1 is shown the clrelationship for different buckling curves and corresponding values of a. The buckling curve shall be obtained using ENV 199313 Table 6.2. The selec tion of crosssection types in Table 6.2 is very limited. However, the correct buckling curve for any crosssection may be obtained from the table “by analogy” (how?). As a conclusion from the tables (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.), in the case of typical C and hat profiles European buckling curve b (a = 0.34) for flexural buckling about both principal axes shall be chosen. In the case of other profiles buckling curve c (a = 0.49) shall be used. Regardless of the open crosssection form, the buckling curve b shall be chosen in the case of torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes. The critical buckling stress in any mode shall be determined in a traditional way, using equations e.g. from the code ENV 199313 or reference (Salmi, P. & Talja, A.). These equations for critical buckling stresses are more suitable for everyday de sign, especially because the crosssectional properties (i _{y} , i _{z} , I _{t} , I _{w} etc.) can be calculated for gross crosssection. Naturally, in the case of complex crosssections or support conditions, handbooks or more advanced methods are required. One problem in design may be the deter mination of buckling length in torsion taking into account the degree of torsional and warping restraint at each end of the member.
Lateraltorsional buckling of members subject to bending
The design value of bending moment M _{s}_{d} shall not exceed the design lateraltorsional buck ling resistance moment M _{b}_{R}_{d} of a member:
M _{s}_{d} £ M _{b}_{R}_{d} = c _{L}_{T} W _{e}_{f}_{f}
f
_{y} / g _{M}_{1} ,
(6.4)
31
where W _{e}_{f}_{f} is the effective section modulus based on bending only about the relevant axis, calculated by the stress f _{y} / g _{M}_{1} according to code ENV 199313 or e.g. c _{L}_{T} f _{y} (Salmi, P. & Talja A.). Analogically to compressive loading, the reduction factor c _{L}_{T} for lateral buckling is calculated by means of buckling curve a (a _{L}_{T} = 0.21):
c _{L}_{T} = 1, when l _{L}_{T} £ 0.4 
(6.5a) 

c _{L}_{T} = 1 / ( f _{L}_{T} + ÷ ( f _{L}_{T} ^{2}  l _{L}_{T} ^{2} )), when l _{L}_{T} > 0.4 
(6.6b) 

l _{L}_{T} = ÷ ( f _{y} / 
s _{c}_{r} ) 
(6.6c) 
f _{L}_{T} = 0.5 [ 1 + a _{L}_{T} ( l _{L}_{T}  0.2 ) + l _{L}_{T} ^{2} ], 
(6.6d) 
where the relative slenderness l _{L}_{T} is calculated using elastic buckling stress s _{c}_{r} . This stress is the ratio of the ideal lateral buckling moment M _{c}_{r} and section modulus of gross crosssection. The elastic critical moment M _{c}_{r} is also determined for the unreduced crosssection. The fo r mula for critical moment M _{c}_{r}_{y} for singly symmetric sections is normal buckling description, but determination of critical moment M _{c}_{r}_{z} as well as handling of complex sections yields problems for sure.
Bending and axial compression
In addition to that each design force component shall not exceed the corresponding design resistance, conditions for the combined forces shall be met. In the case of global stability, the interaction criteria introduced in the code ENV 199313 are extraordinarily complex. For practical design purposes, a more familiar approach for combined bending and axial compres sion represented by (Salmi, P. & Talja, A) is more practical:
N _{s}_{d} / N _{b}_{R}_{d} + M _{y}_{s}_{d} / M _{y}_{R}_{d}
/ (1  N _{s}_{d} / N _{E}_{y} ) + M _{z}_{s}_{d} / M _{z}_{R}_{d} / (1  N _{s}_{d} / N _{E}_{z} ) £ 1.0,
(6.7)
where the meanings of the symbols have been described previously, except the elastic flexural buckling forces N _{E}_{y} and N _{E}_{z} corresponding to the normal Euler flexural buckling formula. In accordance with the code the effective crosssectional properties can be calculated separately. Naturally, the resistance value shall be taken as smallest if several failure modes are possible. Here again, the additional moments due to potential shifts of neutral axes should be added to the bending moments. For simplicity and for the fact that they usually can be omitted, no ad ditional moments are shown in the formula. Interaction between bending and axial compres sion are considered thoroughly in Cl. 6.5 of the code, but without any explanations of the backgrounds.
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES
In the design code ENV 199313, serviceability limit states have been considered on one page only. The deformations in the elastic as well as in the plastic state shall be derived by
32
means of a characteristic rare load combination. The influence of local buckling shall be taken into account in form of effective crosssectional properties. However, the effective second moment of area I _{e}_{f}_{f} can be taken constant along the span, corresponding the maximum span moment due to serviceability loading. In the Finnish NAD a more accurate approach is pre sented, where the effective second moment of area may be determined from the equation:
I _{e} = ( 2 I _{e}_{k} + I _{e}_{t} ) / 3,
(7.1)
where effective second moments I _{e}_{k} and I _{e}_{t} are to be calculated in the location of maximum span moment and maximum support moment, respectively. On the safe side, ultimate limit state moments may be used. Plastic deformations have to be considered, if theory of plasticity is used for ultimate limit state in global analysis of the structure. The deflections shall be cal culated assuming linear elastic behaviour. In stead of strange limit value (L/180) for deflec tion in the ENV draft code the NAD has defined reasonable limits for different thin gauge structure types. For example, the maximum deflection in the serviceability limit state for roof purlins is L/200 and for wall purlins L/150.
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, the main design principles of cold formed thin gauge members (‘thinwalled members’) have been considered. The manufacturing process results in typical features of thinwalled members: quite slender parts in very different open crosssections and conse quently many local or global failure modes. The desired properties (usually strength to weight ratio) of the members can be reached by optimising crosssections, but as a byproduct, the design procedures can be extremely complicated. The total lack of design codes seems to have been tranformed into a situation, in which some guidelines are available, but they are hard to adapt in practical design. The theoretical background for analytical design should be rather well known, but according to comparative tests, the accuracy of predicted resistance values is still often very poor  sometimes the deviation can even be on the ‘unsafe side’. However, taking into account several parameters affecting to analytical and test results, this inaccuracy can be expected and kept in mind in every day design. Complex structural behaviour of thin walled members has produced inevitably complex design codes (e.g. ENV 199313). Hence all efforts to derive simplified design methods are naturally welcome. Because all manual methods are probably still to laborious, FEA is too heavy a tool and some design programs ‘already’ available may not guarantee sufficient results in practice, the biggest contribution at the moment should be made to reliable calculation programs, which are as simple as possible to use. This challenging task should preferably be carried out by the same institutions, which produce these comprehensive design codes.
33
REFERENCES
ENV 199313. 1996. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1.3: General rules. Sup plementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting. European Committee for Standardisation CEN. Brussels.
SFSENV 199313. 1996. Eurocode 3: Teräsrakenteiden suunnittelu. Osa 13: Yleiset sään nöt. Lisäsäännöt kylmämuovaamalla valmistetuille ohutlevysauvoille ja muotolevyille. Vahvistettu esistandardi. Suomen Standardisoimisliitto SFS ry. Helsinki. 1997.
NAD. 1999. National Application Document. Prestandard SFSENV 199313. 1996. Design
of steel structures. Part 1.3:
General rules. Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge
members and sheeting. Ministry of Environment. Helsinki.
ENV 199311. 1992. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings. European Committee for Standardisation CEN. Brussels.
TEMPUS 4502. Cold formed gauge members and sheeting. Seminar on Eurocode 3 – Part 1.3. Edited by Dan Dubina and Ioannis Vayas. Timisoara, Romania. 1995.
Salmi, P. & Talja, A. 1994. Simplified design expressions for coldformed channel sections. Technical Research Centre of Finland. Espoo.
Roivio, P. 1993. Kylmämuovattujen teräsavoprofiilien ohjelmoitu mitoitus (Programmed de sign of coldformed thin gauge steel members). Thesis for the degree of M.Sc.(Tech.), Hel sinki University of Technology. Espoo.
34
DESIGN CHARTS OF A SINGLESPAN THINWALLED SANDWICH ELEMENTS
Karri Kupari
Laboratory of Structural Mechanics Helsinki University of Technology, P.O.Box 2100, FIN02015 HUT, Finland
ABSTRACT
There are four different criteria, which must be determined in order to design a capacity chart for a singlespan thinfaced sandwich panel. These criteria are bending moment, shear force, deflection and positive or negative support reaction. The normal stress due to bending moment must not exceed the capacity in compression of the face layer. The shearing stress due to shear force must not exceed the shearing capacity of the core layer. The maximum deflection can be at the most one percent of the span and the reaction force from external loads has to remain smaller than the reaction capacity. This paper presents some details of an investigation using fullscale experiments to determine the estimated level of characteristic strength and resistance of the sandwich panel.
KEYWORDS
Thinwalled structures, metal sheets, mineral wool core, shear modulus, deflection, normal (Gaussian) distribution, flexural wrinkling, shear failure of the core.
INTRODUCTION
A typical thinfaced sandwich panel consists of three layers. The top and the bottom surface are usually 0.5 … 0.8 mm thick metal sheets and covered with a coat of zinc and preliminary paint. The outer surface is coated with plastic. The most commonly used core layers are polyurethane and mineral wool.
35
h = 100…150 mm
Figure 1: The crosssection of a typical sandwich panel.
Sandwich panels are usually designed to bear only the surface load, which causes the bending moment and the shearing force. The bending moment causes normal stress to the top surface. The core layer must bear the shearing stress and the compression stress from the reaction force.
STRUCTURAL FORMULAS AND DEFINITIONS
The surface layer is presumed to be a membranous part and its moment of inertia insignificant compared with the moment of inertia for the whole sandwich panel. This gives us the simplification that the compression and tension stresses are uniformly distributed across the surface layer. The value of the modulus of elasticity for the surface layer is more than ten thousand times larger than the value of the modulus of elasticity for the core layer. The influence of the normal stresses across the core layer equals zero when considering the behavior of the whole sandwich panel.
The normal stress of the surface layer is
ó
1,2
= ±
M
eA
f (1,2)
and the shearing stress of the core layer is
M
Q
e
b
A _{f}_{(}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{)}
ô _{s}
=
Q
eb
= bending moment
= shear force
= the distance between the surface layers center of gravity
= the width of the sandwich panel = the area of the surface layers cross section
(1)
(2)
36
e
Figure 2: The approximation of normal and shear stresses.
When calculating the deflection in the midspan of a simply supported sandwich panel we concentrate on two different load cases: Load case A is uniformly distributed transverse loading (Eq. 3 and Fig. 4.) and load case B consist of two symmetrically placed line loads (Eq. 4 and Fig. 5.).
w
w
(
L
2
(
L
2
)
)
=
5
4
qL
1
gL
2
+
384
B
8
Geb
=
23
3
FL
FL
+
1296
B
6Geb
DEFINING THE SHEAR MODULUS
(3)
(4)
At the beginning of the testing procedure we can determine the shear modulus. Assuming that the load deflection curve is linear and using the Hooke´s law we can write F = kw + C. After differentiation we get
deflection [w]
Figure 3: The loaddeflection curve.
(5)
37
The experimentally defined parameter k leads to the formula that gives us the shear modulus for load case A
and respectively for load case B
G
G
=
=
È
Í
Í
Î
È
Í
Í
Î
8eb
Ê
Á
Á
Ë
6eb
Ê
Á
Á
Ë
1
2
5L

2
kL
384B
1
2
23L

kL
1296B
ˆ
˜
˜
¯
˘
˙
˙
˚
ˆ
˜
˜
¯
˘
˙
˙
˚


1 

(6) 

1 

(7) 
where B = ½EA _{f} e ^{2} is the bending stiffness. e is the distance between the centers of the surface layers as shown in the Fig. 2. The value of the modulus of elasticity is E = 210 000 N/mm ^{2} and the area of the surface layer A _{f} = 0.56 * 1230 mm ^{2} . The width of the core layer is 1200 mm.
q
L
Figure 4: Load case A. Uniformly distributed transverse loading.
Figure 5: Load case B. Two symmetrically placed line loads.
38
FULL SCALE EXPERIMENTS
A vacuum chamber was used to produce a uniformly distributed transverse loading of the panels,
enabling flexural wrinkling failures to occur in bending. All these experiments were done at the Technical Research Center in Otaniemi, Espoo. Once the panels were positioned in the chamber, the measuring devices for force and deflection were set to zero. A polyethylene sheet was placed over the panel and sealed to the sides of the timber casing. The compression force was produced by using a vacuum pump
to decrease the air pressure in the chamber. A total of twelve panels were used in this experiment. This
procedure models the distributed load caused by wind. The results of these tests give us the capacity in compression of the surface layer.
Polyethene sheet
Sandwich Panel
Timber Casing
Supports
Vacuum Chamber
Figure 6: Experimental Setup and the positioning of the measuring devices (Vacuum Chamber).
For the load case B, two symmetrically placed line loads, all experiments were made at the Helsinki University of Technology in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. From the results of these tests we can calculate both the shearing and reaction capacity. Altogether 28 panels were used in this part. The loading was produced by two hydraulic jacks with deflection controlled speed of 2 mm/min. The testing continued until the sandwich panels lost their load bearing capacity.
39
Force
Figure 7: The loading history of load case B.
THE CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTHS
Defining the characteristic strengths is based on the instructions from “European Convention for Constructional Steelwork: The Testing of Profiled Metal Sheets, 1978”. It is assumed that all testing results obey the Gaussian distribution
The Formulas used in defining the characteristic strengths
The value of characteristic strength M _{K} can be calculated from the equation
M
K
=
M
m
(1

cä)
(8)
where 
M _{m} 
= average of the test results 
c 
= factor related to the number of test results (From Table 1) 

d 
= variation factor 
TABLE 1 The relation between factor c and the number of test results n
n 
3 
4 
5 
6 
8 
10 
12 
20 
• 
c 
2.92 
2.35 
2.13 
2.02 
1.90 
1.83 
1.80 
1.73 
1.65 
The square of the variation factor is
40
where
n
M
M
_{i}
_{m}
ä
2
=
n Â i 1 = 
Ê M Á Á Ë M 
i i 
ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯ 
2 
 
1 n 
Ê Á Á Ë n Â i 1 = 
M M i m 
ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯ 
2 

n 
 
1 
= the number of test results = the value of test number i = average of the test results
(9)
The characteristic strengths are calculated based on the test results.
The factor related to aging and defining the factor related to temperature
The mineral wool core material was tested in three different temperatures. First test was made in normal room temperature +20 ^{o} C with the relative humidity RH of 4550 %. Second test was made after the material was kept for 36 hours in a +70 ^{o} C temperature with the relative RH of 100 %. The final part included 36 hours of storage in a +80 ^{o} C temperature before testing.
The factor related to aging, degradation factors df _{t} and df _{c} can be calculated from the formulas
where
s _{t}_{2}_{0}
s _{t}_{7}_{0}
s _{c}_{2}_{0}
s _{c}_{7}_{0}
df
t
=
ó
t 70
ó
t
20
and df
c
=
ó
c70
ó
c20
= tensile strength at +20 ^{o} C temperature, average value = tensile strength at +70 ^{o} C temperature, average value = compression strength at +20 ^{o} C temperature, average value = compression strength at +70 ^{o} C temperature, average value
The factors df _{t} and df _{c} are divided into two groups
df
t
, df _{c}
Ï 0.7 (I)
Ó Ì · 0.7 (II)
(10)
(11)
For the case (I) test results of characteristic strengths for the capacity in compression of the surface layer and the shearing and reaction capacity of the core layer are valid. For the case (II) test result must be multiplied by the following reduction factors
F
ttd
=
df
t
+
0.3 and
F
tcd
=
df
c
+
The factor related to temperature can be calculated from
F
Tt
=
E
t80
E
t 20
and
F
Tc
=
E
c80
E
c20
0.3. 
(12) 
(13) 
41
where
E _{t}_{8}_{0}
E _{t}_{2}_{0}
E _{c}_{8}_{0}
E _{c}_{2}_{0}
= Modulus of elasticity in tension at +80 ^{o} C temperature, average value = Modulus of elasticity in tension at +20 ^{o} C temperature, average value = Modulus of elasticity in compression at +80 ^{o} C temperature, average value = Modulus of elasticity in compression at +20 ^{o} C temperature, average value
The connection between bending moment and capacity in compression
The connection can be given as
ã
k
(
ó
fw
+ *
0.5
ó
f
D
T
)
£
F
ttd
* f
fcK
ã
m
(14)
where
g _{k}
s _{f}_{w}
s _{f}_{D}_{T}
F _{t}_{t}_{d}
f _{f}_{c}_{K}
gm
= the partial safety factor of external load = the normal stress caused by external load = the normal stress caused by the temperature difference between inner and outer surface layers = the reduction factor related to aging = the characteristic strength of the face layers capacity in compression = the partial safety factor of material
In case of a single span, statically determined structure, the term s _{f}_{D}_{T} = 0. The normal stress caused by external load can be calculated from the formula
ó _{f}_{w}
=
2
qL
8ebt
(15)
where 
e 
= the distance between the surface layers' centres of gravity 
b 
= 1 [m] 

t 
= the thickness of the surface layer 
The connection between shear force and shearing capacity
The connection can be given as
ã
k
(
ô
Cw
+ *
0.5
ô
C
D
T
)
£
F
ttd
* f
CvK
ã
m
(16)
where
g _{k} = the partial safety factor of external load t _{C}_{w} = the shearing stress caused by external load t _{C}_{D}_{T} = the shearing stress caused by the temperature difference between inner and outer surface layers
42
F _{t}_{t}_{d}
f _{C}_{v}_{K}
gm
= the reduction factor related to aging = the characteristic strength of the face layers shearing capacity = the partial safety factor of material
In case of a single span, statically determined structure, the term t _{C}_{D}_{T} = 0. The shearing stress caused by external load can be calculated from the formula
ô _{C}_{w} =
qL
2eb
(17)
where 
e 
= the distance between the surface layers' centres of gravity 
b 
= 1 [m] 
The connection between reaction force and reaction capacity
The connection can be given as
ã
k
(
R
wp
+
0.5
*
R
D
T
)
£
F
tcd
* R
K
ã
m
(18)
where
g _{k}
R _{w}_{p}
R _{D}_{T}
F _{t}_{c}_{d}
R _{K}
gm
= the partial safety factor of external load = the reaction force caused by external load = the reaction force caused by the temperature difference between inner and outer surface layers = the reduction factor related to aging = the characteristic strength of the reaction capacity = the partial safety factor of material
In case of a single span, statically determined structure, the term R _{D}_{T} = 0. The reaction force caused by external load can be calculated from the formula
R
_{w}_{p}
=
1
2
qL
The boundary conditions concerning deflection
(19)
The maximum deflection must remain less than one percent of the span. From external load and temperature difference between inner and outer surface we get two equations:
ã
ã
k ( q
w 0.5
+
k
(
0.5
*
w
q
*
+
w
w
D
D
T
T
)
)
£
£
L 

100 
(20) 
L 

100 
(21) 
43
where
g _{k}
w _{q}
w _{D}_{T}
= the partial safety factor of external load in serviceability limit state (=1.0) = the deflection caused by external load = the deflection caused by the temperature difference between inner and outer surface layers
The deflection caused by external load is mentioned in Eq. (3) and Eq. (4). The deflection caused by the temperature difference between inner and outer surface layer is
where
w
D
T
=
á
*D
T
*
2
L
8e
a 
= coefficient of linear thermal expansion for surface layer material, 
12 
* 
10 
DT 
= temperature difference between inner and outer surface layers, 60 ^{o} C 
 6
[
o
(22)
C
]

1
From equations (20) and (21) we choose the one that gives the larger deflection.
DESIGN CHARTS
From the four criteria we can construct the design chart by drawing four curves from the equations (14), (16), (18) and (20)&(21). The Xaxis represents the span L [m] and the Yaxis represents the external load q [kN/m ^{2} ]. The area located under all four curves represents the permissible combination of external load and span.
44
Design Chart of a singlespan thinwalled sandwich element (example)
Span L [m]
Deflection
Bending moment
Reaction force
Shear force
REFERENCES
European Convention for Constructional Steelwork, The testing of Profiled Metal Sheets, 1978.
CIB Report, Publication 148, 1983.
Rakentajain kalenteri (in Finnish), 1985.
McAndrew D., Mahendran M., Flexural Wrinkling Failure of Sandwich Panels with Foam Joints, Fourth International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures, Finland, Proceedings book: LightWeight Steel and Aluminium Structures, edited by Mäkeläinen and Hassinen, pp. 301308, Elsevier Science Ltd, 1999.
Martikainen L., Sandwichelementin käyttäytyminen välituella, Masters Thesis (in Finnish), 1993.
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