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00 Editorial

01 Editor’s Mail Box


02 Campus Update ............................................../ Surjya Chutia
07 Academic World Around
08 Panorama
Personality
14 An Engineer from IIT, now a Farmer
Exam and Education
16 "‹¸Ú> ëA¡ïź δšìA¢¡ ....../ ³èº : ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡Wô¡¤à\¢à¹; ">å : ¹àoà W¡à}³àÒü
Career
19 ëA¡[¹Ú๠ë\¸à[t¡ .............................................../ >ã[º³ ë\¸à[t¡ ëÎ>àš[t¡
24 Advice for students Entering XI
25 Exam Schedule - 2009
26. Career Tabloid
Science and Tech.
27. Greatest Total Solar Eclipse of the Century ......../ Uday Narayan Deka
30. Total Solar Eclipse-2009 : How to Observe it Safely.../ Dr. Rajib Bordoloi
33. Waste Management at Personal Level........................../ Anirban Ghosh
35. št¡}K¹ "Š±ét¡ \ã¯>îźã .................................../ ¹ç¡‰ >à¹àÚo ¤¹A¡àA¡t¡ã
39. [ÅÇ¡¹ [¤A¡àÅ "à¹ç¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡ ............................................../ l¡0 ¹ê¡šàºã KîK
Language and Literature
41 A Perspective of the Assamese Language .................../ Rajen Barua
45 My Rendezvous with Prague : ........ Czech Rep../ Dr. Rajib Bordoloi
50 šøoÚ>¹ ƒåÅ ¤á¹¹ šàát¡ ...‘¹ç¡[W¡>à= A¡à³¹ê¡šã’(?)¹ ŦìA¡àÈ / l¡0 냯¤øt¡ ų¢à
54 šì=¹ šòàW¡àºã ................................................../ l¡0 "[\t¡ A塳๠[Î}Ò
59 Wå¡[i¡ K¿ : *®¡à¹ i¡àÒü³ ................................/ ³èº : "\”zà ">å : ÎåÅà”z A¡¹
64 Wå¡[i¡ K¿ : "š¹à‹ã............................................................/ ¹[gt¡à ų¢à
69 A¡[¤t¡à : ë>೺ ³àÒàt¡à, ">å¹ê¡š ¤¹à, i¡³àW¡ ëÎàìoà¯àº
Social Science
71 State, Patriarchy and Women .................../ Dr. Swarna Lata Baruah
78. Indian Philosophy — Some Reflections ................/ Dr. Bandana Puzari
83 Health Issues in Developing Countries ......................./ Anita Baruwa
Students’ Column
85 A¡[¤t¡à : ÎåÅà”z ëAò¡à¯¹, ºÛ¡ì\¸à[t¡ ¤¹ç¡¯à, \Ú”z[\; ¤¹ç¡¯à
86 Wå¡[i¡ K¿ : ëÎl¡ü\ãÚà ¹ê¡³àºJ> .............................................../ "´¬¹ ³¹ào¡

Editorial Board
Patron : Dr. Bhuban Gogoi
Adviser : Dr. Achyut Borthakur, President, ACTA, Tinsukia College Unit
Editor in Chief : Rana K. Changmai
Executive Editor : Sushanta Kar
Editors : Monika Devi, Rashmi Dutta, Mayuri Sarma Baruah, Manashi
Rajkhowa, Nilimjyoti Senapati, Surjya Chutia, Dr. Kamalesh Kalita
Students’ Representatives : Pankaj Gohain, (Magazine Secretaty, TCSU)
Published by : Secretary, Assam College Teachers’ Association (ACTA),
Tinsukia College Unit, Tinsukia College, Tinsukia - 786125
Contact : Web : http://sites.google.com/site/pragyan06now
Cell : 9954226966
email : pragyan_tsc50@yahoo.co.in, pragyan.tsc50@gmail.com
Printed at : The Assam Computers (Govt. app ‘A’ Category Press)
email : assamcomputer@gmail.com
Tinsukia - 786125 (Assam)
It’s very meaningful for the North East I’ll try to be a contributor
Finally, I was able to read the magazine (online). It is a very nice and
professional publication. Coming out of Tinsukia, I think it is very I will try to contribute
meaningful for all in the North East. I will send some literary contribution valuable article on North East
in Assamese and English in near future. I’m delighted to see the report Region. I am sorry to see my
of the visit of two students to the Space Talk event at St Anthony’s name being mistakenly typed
college in Shillong. Please, thank them on behalf of Friends of Assam wrongly. It is written as
and Seven Sisters. Please send me full names and the classes of the Mohem Naorem. It must be
students as well as of the teacher who attended there so that FASS may Mohen Naorem. Anyway,
issue a Certificate to each of them. Please keep up the good work. what’s in a name? Our
Thanks mission is to promote and
Rajen Barua work for welfare of our
Chairman, Friends of Assam and Seven Sisters, HQ, Houston, USA region. I will read the journal
email : rajen.barua@gmail.com and try to be a regular
contributor if possible in
I salute your effort ! every issue now.
This was easy to open (on-line) and read. Very fine job! That must I also publish a magazine
have been a lot of work. I salute your effort. Keep it up.... to promote our culture,
Chandan Mahanta language and identity. I
St. Louis, Missouri State, USA; e-mail : cmahanta@charter.net would like to send some
copies for the college and
This time it’s a bit different editorial staffs, do send me
Heartiest congratulations to the whole team of Pragyan for the your mailing address.
successful completion of six years long journey. Long live Pragyan! Mohen Naorem
Pragyan this time is little different from its previous issues. Like to Editor
read the cover story which is quite appropriate as we hardly remember The Manipur Journal
the great people who contributed a lot for the development of our Imphal, Manipur-795004
culture and society. e-mail:themanipurtimes@gmail.com
Tanusree Sarker
Lecturer in Political Science,
(Editor’s Note: We are sorry
Women’s College, Tinsukia.; email : sarkertanusree19@gmail.com
for the mistakes we have
made with Mohen’s name in
Totally fit for all
his article “North East Girls
I’ve just downloaded (and read) the (March, 09) issue....and trying to are Very Beautiful”
download the other issues of Pragyan. But I can say that the issue is published in the March,09
totally fit for all kinds of students as well as General Readers....I’ll issue of Pragyan. We simply
try my best to make it more popular... regret for that. We’ll be
* Partho Gogoi cautious next time. )
Ex-H.S. Student,2004-06 batch

1/ /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


It has scholarly articles
I got your Pragyan sent by post. Magazine has scholarly articles.
‘šø`¡à>’ "γãÚà
It is good looking and well composed. Îà[Òt¡¸t¡ &A¡ >tå¡>
MB Qasmi, Mumbai
e-mail:manager@markazulmaarif.org
>à³ íÒ ¹*A¡¡
>³ÑH๠"à¹ç¡ [¤×¤¤ãÚà *ºK
It’s really nice \>àìºòà¡ú ¤×[ƒ>¹ š¹à Òü-ë³Òüº
>A¡[¹ Òàìt¡ì¹ [º[J³ ¤å[º* [º[J¤îº
I’ve visited the Pragyan’s site. It is really a nice journal. I’ve visited
¤àA¡ã =à[A¡ ™àÚ¡ú ... "àìšà>àìºàA¡¹
your personal orkut profile as well. It’s great to know that you are
a Bengali literature teacher in our college. Please, give my respect
‡à¹à šøA¡à[Åt¡ ‘šø`¡à>’& >tå¡> ™åK¹
to Sri Rana Changmai sir and all other teachers of my college. áày-áàyãA¡ "à¹ç¡ `¡à> [ƒÚA¡¡ú ®¡àº
Thank you. ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ >àK[¹A¡ A¡[¹ K[Øn¡ ët¡àºA¡¡ú
* Anirban Ghosh – an alumni ®¡àº >àK[¹A¡¹ "à¹ç¡ šøAõ¡t¡ ë>tõ¡â«¹
Chittaranjan Loco Works, West Bengal "®¡à¯¡ú ëƒl¡üt¡à¹ (Ѭà‹ã>t¡à Î}Nøà³ã
e-mail: ringmaster_ind@yahoo.co.in šà>ã¹à³ ƒàΠδš[A¢¡t¡ Î}¤àƒ, ³àW¢¡
2009, šø`¡à>) A¡=à "à¹ç¡ ë³à¹
Provide more current tips (">å¤àƒ) A¡[¤t¡à šøA¡àÅ A¡¹à¹ A¡à¹ìo
¤×ìt¡à ‹>¸¤àƒ¡ú
As a regular reader of Pragyan I hope to get some new and useful
information from this. If we get some current study and career tips
P¡¯àÒài¡ã ë¤à³à¹ >K¹ã¡ú t¡àt¡
then the usefulness of Pragyan will increase and the market value `¡à>¹ Îå-W¡ZW¢¡à¹ "®¡à¯¡ú >¹A¡àÎå¹¹
of this will increase. This journal will serve as the Gita of students γÚì¤à¹ ®¡àº "à[ạú ÒüÚ๠š¹à
and ex-students. Òü}¹à\ã Å¦ì¹ ®¡¹à "àW¡[¹t¡ "γãÚà¹
* Biki ( nick name) ƒÒAå¡[¹³à> "àìºàW¡>ã *ºàÚ¡ú t¡à¹
B’com 2nd year "à‹à [¤W¡[ºt¡ ë™ï¯> δšA¢ ¡ ãÚ¡ú
[t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚ๠[>[W¡>à "¯ìÒ[ºt¡ k¡àÒü¹
I’ll contribute š¹à *ìºà¯à `¡à> γõ‡ý¡ ‘šø`¡à>’ &A¡
>tå¡> šƒìÛ¡š¡ú γÚt¡ ³Òü [ƒAô¡ƒÅ¢ã
I’m an ex-student of Tinsukia College. I had Major in History. It’s [A¡áå ëºJà [º[J =à[A¡³¡ú ([W¡[A¡;Îà
really nice to see this college journal (on-line). I will definitely try ÅàÑ|, ëÎ>à-¤à[Ò>ã "à[ƒ δšìA¢¡)¡ú
to contribute something to Pragyan. Best of luck. ‘šø`¡à>’ "γãÚà Îà[Òt¡¸t¡ &A¡
* Mamoon – an Alumni >tå¡> >à³ íÒ ¹*A¡¡ú ‘šø`¡à>’¹ γèÒ
΃θ-΃θàîº ë³à¹ "à”z [ ¹A¡
Prochesta Ashadharon Aõ¡t¡`¡t¡à `¡àš> A¡[¹ìºà¡ú
l¡à@ [¤A¡àÅ A塳๠ƒàÎ
Prochesta Ashadharon ! Antorikata Nirvejal ! Antorik Shubheccha ! šøàv¡û¡> ®¡à¹t¡ãÚ [¤³à> ¤à[Ò>ã¹ [W¡[A¡;A,¡
Paramita (Prajna) Bhowal ¹àÒüì>à \à}Kº &l¡ô쮡e¡à¹,
an Alumni of 1984 batch
¤à}Kàºå¹ç¡-37
commented in Pragyan’s website.
* Scribed in Pragyan’s Orkut Profile

Readers may choose whatever language they feel comfort with to write in mail box. But for better
communication we prefer English and Assamese. – Editor

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/2
1 CWSD Observed International Women’s Day
As per the guidelines of U.G.C, the ‘Cell for International Women’s Day. A group of members
Women Studies and Development’ (CWSD) of of the cell felicitated Dr. Swarnalata Boruah,
Tinsukia College was set up in the year 2005. Retired Prof. & HoD of History department,
Since its inception, the cell has been organizing Dibrugarh University, Ex-president of Indian
various programmes and workshops for bringing History Congress (2006) — Mediaeval period,
awareness among the womenfolk in different renowned feminist of the state, and also one of
aspects such as health and hygiene, social equality, the pioneers of the women movement in the
self dependence etc. in different times. The cell country, at her residence at Dibrugarh, who has
also observes International Women’s Day been suffering illness since long days. She was
regularly. felicitated with a Muga Shawl and a Maan-patra
This year (2009), besides its normal by Bontimala Devi President, CWSD, Tinsukia
programmes, the cell also organized a special College. The other members in the group were
felicitation programme on the occasion of Anjana Goswami, Roshmi Dutta, Dr. Sanjukta

3/ /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Gohain Boruah, Dr. Meenakshi Chamua, relegates them to a lower status. She also pointed
Dr Rupali Gogoi, Anita Boruah, Dr. Achyut out that women were in no way less than men in
Borthakur and Sushanta Kar. their ability and capacity to work. She suggested
Dr. Boruah praised the women’s cell for the members to organize more seminars,
its various deeds and hoped for milestones in workshops, projects etc. in women related issues
the future. She expressed distress at the fact that, specially in the remote areas of the state. She
despite constituting half of the world’s also suggested to submit projects to the National
population, women are still deprived of their and International organizations related to the
rights and privileges in a patriarchal society that issues for its funding.

2 Dr. Rajib Bordoloi Attended International Seminar at Prague


Dr. R Bordoloi, HoD, Physics department, Tinsukia
college participated and presented paper at the international
conference on ‘Photonics’ that was held at Prague, Czech
Republic from 20-23 April, 2009. The Seminar was organized
by the Society for photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
– U.S.A, a pioneering organization devoted to most advanced
photonics research in the world. Total six hundred scientists and
technological wizards from all over the world took part in the
seminar. Dr. Bordoloi’s Paper had two parts – theoretical and
experimental, presented on 21st & 22nd April, respectively.
It may be mention here that very recently Dr. Bordoloi Dr. Rajib is in the middle of the picture
has been conferred Ph.D Degree by Dibrugarh University for his with two co-participants, one of them is
Research Work entitled ‘A Study on a Laser Induced Non-linear Prof. Kato (right) of Japan, who heads the
Phenomena in Molecular Media’. Photonics Dept. of Photonics Lab, Japan.

3 Science Day Observed


National Science Day was celebrated by the — a New Horizon of Science’ was held at Jatiya
Assam Science Society, Tinsukia branch on 28 Vidyalaya, Tinsukia, where Dr. Kamalesh Kalita
February, 2009, with a day long programme. The delivered a thought provoking lecture. A Science
programme started with the hoisting of the Exhibition was also part of the day’s programme
society’s flag by Sri Dilip Kalita, president of the held at Jatiya Vidyalaya, Tinsukia. The day long
branch in the morning in front of its office at programme ended with vote of thanks offered by
Tinsukia college. The others programmes of the Dr. Dipika Bhattacharjee. Secretary, Assam
day were a seminar on ‘Remote Sensing and GIS Science Society, Tinsukia branch.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/4
4 Mathletics Competition, 2009
Ma t h e m a t i c s d e p a r t m e n t o f
Tinsukia college successfully conducted the
Mathletics Competition, 2009 on 31st May at
the Tinsukia College Centre among the students
of Class V to Class XII from different
institutions of Tinsukia district. The
competition was held in 39 different centres
all over the state. Assam Academy of
Mathematics was the main organizer of the
Competition. Altogether 60 teams participated
Mathematics Olympiad, 2009 on September 6,
in the competition from 10 different schools
which will also be held at Tinsukia College
at the Tinsukia College Centre
Centre. Interested candidates may contact the
It may be mentioned here that the Assam
Mathematics Dept. during the last part of August
Academy of Mathematics will organize
for its application forms.„

5 World Environment Day Observed


The World Environment Day 2009 was planet needs you – UNite to combat climate
observed at Tinsukia College on 5th June 2009, change !’
with a day long programme, which was organised Sit and draw, poster with the slogan contest,
jointly by Assam Science Society, Tinsukia open house nature game cum quiz contest on
branch, Department of Zoology, Tinsukia College environment issues for students were organized
and ‘Ed-en’ (A society for environment education) on the day. A lecture on the topic ‘Role of Civil
Tinsukia. World Environment Day has been Society in Bio Diversity Conservation’ was
observed all over the world since 1972. The theme delivered by Dr. Rishi Das, HoD, Zoology dept.
of the World Environment Day’ 2009 was ‘Your of the college, Students from different schools
took part actively in the programmes.„

6 Campus Recruitment Drive at the College


Emergency Management and Research Placement Cell, IQAC, Tinsukia College
Institute (EMRI), Assam in association with conducted a campus interview at Tinsukia college

5/ /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


on 3rd June 2009 for selecting candidates for
Emergency Medical Technician. The selection
procedure was in two phases – written test
examination and personnel interview (Viva).
More than 50 candidates from the students of the
college appeared in the selection test. Finally six
qualified candidates have been selected to employ
for EMT. They are – 1. Dheraz Moran, 2. Jagya
Phukan, 3. Gukul Nanda Boruah, 4. Santonu
Saikia, 5. Joyanta Boruah and 6. Prabhat Boruah
Moreover, some B.Sc. appeared candidates who reach them in an average of 15 minutes in urban
had cleared the written test examination will be called area and 20 minutes in rural area. It handles all
for personnel interview at Guwahati later on. kinds of Medical emergencies like acute
The EMRI is a non profit organization in abdomen illness, respiratory disorders, asthma
the PPP (Public Private Partnership) model. It attacks, heart attacks, suicide, and pregnancy
has tie-up with over 55 private and govt. related cases, road accidents etc. It also handles
hospitals in Assam to ensure immediate patient police emergencies like theft, bodily offence,
stabilization on admission to the hospitals. A free property offences etc. Having started its
service, anyone, any where in the operational operation in the state on 6th Nov. 2008, EMRI –
area can call the toll free number 108 for any Assam today operates with over 102 Ambulances
emergencies (Medical, Police, Fire) and help will serving a population of nearly three crores.

7 Ph.D Awarded to Rajib Konwar


Dr. Rajib Konwar, Senior Lecturer, Physics Department, Tinsukia College
has been conferred Ph.D Degree by Dibrugarh University for his Research Work
entitled ‘Optical and Spectroscopic Studies of Some Stratified Media’.
He has been working the guidance of Prof. G.D. Baruah, Emritus Fellow,
AICTE, Dept. of Physics, Dibrugarh University.
(The Updater teaches Economics in the College)
(Contd. from Page 7)

Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh


Career Counseling Session Organized
Po s t - g r a d u a t e St u d e n t s ’ U n i o n o f The counseling session was also chaired
the Dibrugarh University recently organized a by chief manager, SBI regional office,
career counseling session Dibrugarh, Bimal Debroy,
at Rang Ghar auditorium. and Branch manager, SBI,
More than 500 students Dibrugarh University
of the university attended Branch, Sanjeev Kumar.
the session. Career They discussed at
counselor Gauranga Kr length various career
Sharma informed the opportunities in the
students about the financial services sector
emerging sectors of the 21st century. and ways to build careers. [PEB]

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/6
Tripura University, Agartala
Conference of Physics Academy Held
The Sixth National Conference of Physics Biswajit Saha of Jadavpur University
Academy of the Northeast was recently held at bagged the Syeda Kainat Memorial Award for best
the department of Physics, Tripura University. oral presentation on condensed matter physics.
The conference provides a platform for The Amiyabala Devi Award for best oral
information and dissemination of knowledge in presentation in other than condensed matter
the emerging areas of physics was given to Sanjeev
physics as well as of its Kalita for his paper on “Late
interdisciplinary Time Cosmic Acceleration of
relevance. a Flat Matter Dominated
Altogether 79 Universe with a Constant
participants presented Vacuum Energy”. The best
their papers in various poster award went to Mizoram
branches of physics like University. A Technoquest
nuclear physics, festival was part of the
astrophysics and the like. proceedings. [PEB]

Assam University, Silchar


CISCO and HCL Comnet for Campus Wide Network
With an aim to provide a campus- CISCO’s campus wide network earlier, now Cisco
wide network that would enable students and is carrying on a campus upgrade process with the
faculty to access the internet and internet based latest Cisco equipments at the University.
resources, Assam Assam University, a
University, Silchar has teaching cum affiliating
selected CISCO and HCL University, established in
Comnet for widening the 1994, has nine different
network to offer schools (including major
uninterrupted disciplines such as Social
connectivity to its Sciences, Humanities,
academic community, i.e. Languages and others)
faculty and students. This with 29 departments. The
uninterrupted five districts under the
connectivity will surely enrich learning and jurisdiction of the University have as many as 51
teaching experiences there. undergraduate colleges. ©Assam Tribune, and
Though the university has deployed Pradeep Dutta, (pradipdutta200@yahoo.co.in)
(Contd. on Page 6)

7/ /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


in the FITA Meteksan Archery World
Cup at Porec, Croatia.
The May, 09th’s performance was
his and his team’s second consecutive
team gold after bagging the first at
Archer Jayanta Bagged Gold in Croatia Santo Domingo World Cup Stage 1 on
April 5, 2009. India had beaten Great
Jayanta Talukdar clinched the men’s individual gold Britain in Stage 1 final. The trio had
and helped India win the team event in the Archery World bagged India the first team gold in
Cup Stage 2 at Porec, Croatia, on 9th May,09. Talukdar, an World Cup series winning at Antalya
Assamese youth, upset Athens Olympic gold medalist (Turkey) in 2008. This was followed
Marco Galiazzo of Italy by 110-108 in the final to clinch by two more already this year.
his second gold. Earlier, the trio of Talukdar, Rahul Banerjee Talukdar also won his third head-
and Mangal Singh Champia won India the men’s recurve to-head contest against the Italian
team gold. Galiazzo, all played at Porec. He first
Born in 1987, Talukdar’s journey from a promising tamed Galiazzo in 2006 on way to the
youngster to India’s top archer has been nothing less than gold medal, and again beat him in 2008
remarkable. Jayanta was picked up by archery coaches at a and now in the final on May 9th.
talent hunting camp in Guwahati, his native place. At the Talukdar held the lead in the first two
subsequent training camp in Tata Archery Academy, ends of three arrows each at 55-52. He
Jamshedpur, Jayanta impressed the coaches with his physical surprisingly conceded two points in the
strength and focused attitude. third end to allow the Italian to narrow
In 2004, Jayanta emerged as the top the gap to 81-82. When Galiazzo hit an
performer of the Indian team which made history eight with his second arrow
by winning the silver medal at the junior Worlds of the final end of
in Britain. It was the country’s first medal at a t h e
World championship.
In 2005, Jayanta became India’s
top archer when he upstaged a few
seasoned stars to clinch the Olympic
round at the 25th Senior
Nationals in Kochi. The same
year, Jayanta made history as
he became the first Indian
archer to win the gold medal

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/8
three arrows, the Indian needed a nine to win. the lead in the third end at 164-162. Russia showed
Talukdar hit a 10 to take the second crown in Porec. their best in the last end, but it was not enough to
In the men’s team summit clash, Russia beat the Indians.
trailed by one point (54-55) in the first end, Archery Association of India president V.K.
recovered in the second end to tie the match at Malhotra and secretary general Paresh Nath
108 points at halfway mark.However, India took Mukherjee congratulated the winners. [PEB]

The Manipur Journal – A Different Initiative


A monthly journal on promotion of culture, promote and spread their culture and tradition
language and identity of the North East Region to other parts of the world, The Manipur Journal
was launched on Feb 15, 2009 at the Manipur lamented that North East Regions are still unable
Press Club in Manipur. A function to mark to showcase their culture, tradition and identity
launching of the journal was held at Manipur to other nations. The Journal will focus on
Press Club here on that day with DIPR Director exposing the culture and tradition of the North
T. Sitlhou as Chief Guest, President in-charge East Region. It will also feature articles and
of the Editor’s Forum Manipur P. Ibochouba as stories on culture, traditions and national
functional president and former news Editor of identities of different nations of the world.
AIR Imphal Seram Mangi and College of Mohen Naorem is the editor of the Journal.
Agriculture, CAU Consulting editors include Yuichi Imoue for
Dean Dr N. Iboton Japan, Stephen Christopher and Adrienna Rose
as guests of honour. Block for Korea, Rajen Barua and Shanti
Observing Thokchom for the USA.
that larger It might be mentioned here that Mohen has
communities included his name as one of the distinguished
of India member of the Pragyan family, as one of his write
and the ups, ‘North East Girls Are Very Beautiful’ got
world published in the March,09 issue of Pragyan and
work he was kind enough to help to improve Pragyan’s
t o website well.

Now it’s Non-Resident North East Indian’s Turn


Indian Diaspora has played a major role in Internation Meet – 2010 (NEIIM-2010) is organized
shaping India’s political and economic history. to tap the vast “knowledge bank” of the NR-NEIs.
The influence is such that a ministry (Ministry of The event will take place on 11 & 12 January, 2010
Overseas Indian Affairs) has been created to look at Guwahati. The dates have been chosen so that
after their affairs. In contrast to states like Kerala, NR-NEIs travelling to India to attend the Pravasi
Punjab and Gujarat, the number of NRIs from Bharatiya Divas on 7-9 January will find it
Assam and the entire North East is miniscule and convenient to attend NEIIM-2010 in Guwahati.
of relatively recent origin. Moreover, they are Moreover for visiting Assamese NRIs Magh Bihu
mostly professionals. Hence it would be uruka falls on 13 January.
unrealistic to assume huge investments from NR- The NR-NEIs can act as catalysts in the
NEIs. development of the region through the transfer of
Keeping this in mind, the North East India their knowledge and skills and by facilitating

9/ /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


investments from large foreign corporates. started the process of Preliminary Registration
NEIIM-2010 will be a one & half day from 1st June, 09 . NR-NEI’s are being requested
programme with a number of sessions so that to send their names to Bidyananda Barkakoty ,
maximum number of delegates can participate in Organising Committee Member, NEIIM-2010. He
their area of expertise & interest. can be contacted on : Cell : +91-9435046211,
The Organising committee has already Email : barkakoty@yahoo.co.in. [PEB]

Silchar Railway Station Renamed Bhasha Sahid Station


Prime Minister Manmohan Singh instructed rechristening the station. Chief Minister Tarun
the Railway Ministry to rechristen the Silchar Gogoi agreed and promised to do the needful.
Railway Station as ‘Bhasa Sahid Station, Silchar’. Now, after one year the New Union Government
The Ministry will announce its decision in forth has decided to honour the language martyrs who
coming Union Rail Way Budget. sacrificed their lives for their language on
It’s a achievement of ‘Sammilito Samskritik May 19, 1961.
Mancha’, a platform of various cultural The Union Railway Minister Mamata
organizations of Silchar town, and Bhasa Sahid Banerjee might personally visit Silchar after
Station Sahid Smaran Samiti. Under the Railway Budget to formally inaugurate the new
leadership of these two organizations the people name-plate.
of the Barak valley
fought for last two
year to
rechristened the
station and the
newly launched
Silchar-Agartala
train. Last year, in
the month of June,
both the organization collected 1,44,000 It may be mention here that it’s not only the
signatures from the people of various section of people of Barak Valley that demanded the renaming.
the society, irrespective of caste-creed-language The people and the Government of neighbouring
and religion, in an memorandum demanding the state of Tripura also joined with them. [PEB]

AMC Among the Top 10 in the Country


The Assam Medical College secured 10th rank and their performance in nine categories was
among government evaluated before the
medical colleges in a rankings were awarded.
nationwide survey done Dr Borbora said that
by Education Times-Gfk credit for the new
recently. Significantly, recognition was due to a
the AMC has also been number of people, including
recognised as the best the students, the staff and
among medical colleges those at the health
in the Eastern Zone. department who were
A total of 225 institutions were surveyed involved in giving a boost to the oldest medical college

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 10
of the region. “The turnaround of the AMC is a funds have been available to create new
collective effort, and everyone deserves praise,” he infrastructure and bring in a range of sophisticated
mentioned. equipment. The academic atmosphere has
Referring to new steps taken in the college, improved, and the morale of students, faculty and
Dr TR Borbora, the Principal of the college staff has gone up.
asserted in front of the media that the college The institution currently has an annual
was adopting a zero-tolerance approach towards intake of 170 students for the MBBS course and
ragging. Three female students, found 107 students for the PG programme. It has faculty
responsible for ragging, have already been strength of 381, and its 18 PG departments make
rusticated sending a strong message to all. it one of the bigger medical colleges in the
The AMC is now in the middle of an country. © Buljit Buragohain (buluassam@yahoo.co.in),
ambitious expansion programme. From 2007, Assam Tribune

Amrit Pritam Won IIFA Award


Amrit Pritam of Assam has won the International Indian Film
Academy (IIFA) Awards, 2009 for best sound designing of the film
Ghajini. He won the award jointly along with Oscar-famed Resul Pookutty.
Pritam, who hails from Jorhat, is the first person from Assam and the
entire Northeast to have won an IIFA award. Currently Pritam and Resul
Pookutty have been jointly working on actor/director Saurabh Shukla’s
Pappu Can’t Dance Saala.

Assamese Writer Wins British Scholarship


Aruni Kashyap, who earned fame in the Assam, with the “secret
Assamese literary scene with his essay ‘The killings phase” of the
Identity Crisis of Assamese Youth’ (Asomiya Juva nineties as background. He
Prajanmar Poricitir Xonkot), published in wants to write a novel soon
‘Satsori’, has won the prestigious Charles Wallace on the harrowing Assam
India Trust Scholarship to participate in a creative Agitation since he
writing course at the University of Edinburgh. feels that the
The angry personal essay argued that the shoddy new generation
literature syllabi in Assam schools gradually of Assamese
reduce the interests of the Assamese youth on doesn’t know
Assamese literature. much about this
Aruni debuted with a popular monthly nationalist
column in the Assamese daily ‘Amar Asom’, movement and the national and international
when he was a young undergraduate student at media has not presented its true picture to the
St. Stephen’s College, Delhi. Since then he has world; the history textbooks are also silent about
published short stories, essays, literary essays and this phase that changed Assam forever.
poems in English and Assamese magazines. His Under this scholarship, he will be attending
stories and poems are mostly set in Assam and a creative writing course during the month of
the violence that plagues his state finds expression August, under some well known British authors.
in them in complex ways. Currently he is lending The Scottish Universities International Summer
finishing touches to his novel ‘The House with a School organises this program every year. The
Thousand Novels’, a family saga set in rural 2008 summer school was once again a truly

11 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


international affair, with participants from 27 playwright Douglass Maxwell, Man Booker Prize
different countries and Man Booker Prize short short listed author James Robertson and many
listed author Philip Hensher teaching a master others.
class in fiction. This year the creative writing © Buljit Buragohain (buluassam@yahoo.co.in)
courses will be taught by authors such as popular Assam Tribune

Gate’s Grant to Assamese Doctor


Dr. Bikul Das, an original resident of Grand Challenges Explorations initiative, which
Sualkuchi near Guwahati and a graduate of Gauhati aims to develop a pipeline of creative ideas that
Medical College, has got the prestigious Bill and could change the face of global health.
Melinda Gates Foundation grant to explore “bold One of the new grants was awarded to Dr
and largely unproven ways” to improve health in Bikul Das of Stanford University Medical
developing countries. Dr. Das, at his late forties School, who has studied cancer stem cell biology
working with Stanford University Medical School for the last decade but maintains an interest in
in California, will explore the potential role of stem infectious diseases due to his clinical training in
cells in treating latent tuberculosis infection. India and Bhutan. The new grant will enable him
His name for the $100,000-grant figured to explore the potential role of stem cells in latent
among 81 researchers from 17 countries in the list TB infection.
that was announced on Monday in Seattle. The © The Times of India,
endowment was awarded through the foundation’s Buljit Buragohain (buluassam@yahoo.co.in)

Lijjat Papad Celebrated 50th Anniversary


Eighty-year-old Jaswantiben Jamnadas terrace of an old building in a crowded South
Popat is the only survivor of a group of semi- Mumbai locality and rolled out four packets of
literate Gujarati housewives who founded Lijjat papads to sell. The ‘seven sisters’, started
Papad 50 years ago. She celebrated the Lijjat production with the princely sum of 80 rupees
golden jubilee on 15 March, 09 with 45,000 other (now $1.50), borrowed from a good Samaritan,
women who are part of the women-only co- Chaganlal Karamsi Parekh, a social worker with
operative. Mrs. Popat cannot believe that what entrepreneurial brains. It was Chaganlal, who
started as a desperate move to ‘supplement the advised them that if they wanted to experience
family income’ 50 years ago has come so far. success, never accept donations. They have never
When seven housewives of them, popularly ignored his advice. Soon the entrepreneurship
known as ‘seven sisters’, started their business it expanded in Mumbai’s overcrowded and poverty-
was not meant to become so big.It is indeed a big stricken shanty towns. Three months later the
business today, with an annual turnover of nearly business had 25 women. The trade began to
$100m and a flourishing exports account to boot. expand as a co-operative. In a few years they had
It’s as if a real life fairy tale turned to be true.
The Lijjat trade began when seven Gujarati
housewives decided to exploit the only skill they
knew – cooking. They were semi-literate which
restricted their chances to get jobs. But they
realised their papad-making expertise could be
used to earn small amounts of money to help their
husbands reduce their financial responsibility.
On 15 March 1959, they gathered on the
/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 12
branches all over Mumbai and in subsequent Most of the 45,000-strong female workforce
years all across India. live in slums or one-room hutments, with
The women received one award after communal bathrooms and toilets. They are still
another. Exports flourished. They were on a roll part of what is known as the working class. But
- from poppadoms they branched out into soaps, working for Lijjat Papads gives them financial
savouries, chutneys and pickles. security. They are now capable of taking
Now after fifty years Lijjat papads are a perfect decisions, sending their children to schools and
example of how a sustainable business can be built, keeping their men on the straight and narrow.
providing large-scale employment to rural women, The Lijjat women have proved that success
who are illiterate but skilled. And when such skills does not necessarily need money and
are given an organisational structure on a co-operative infrastructure, as long as there is determination.„
basis a long term sustainable model assures success. © http://news.bbc.co.uk

Astrometry Nabs Another Exoplanet


Researchers for half a century have tried — records the positions of stars as they slowly drift
and failed — to use the motion of stars moving across the sky, pins down the exact mass of a planet.
across the sky to discover planets that lie beyond The method favors massive planets that lie far from
the solar system. Now a team has finally used the a parent star, since such planets cause a star to move
method, known as astrometry, to find one of these by the largest amount across the sky. Researchers
orbs. The newfound extrasolar planet, six times have previously used astrometry to measure the
heavier than Jupiter, orbits the low-mass star VB precise mass of planets found with the wobble
10 some 20 light-years from Earth, report Steven method, but this is the first time the technique has
Pravdo and Stuart Shaklan of NASA’s Jet been used to discover an extrasolar planet.
Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California in The planet found by Pravdo and Shaklan lies
the July Astrophysical Journal. about as far from its star as Mercury, the solar
The traditional method of identifying system’s innermost planet, lies from the sun. Yet
extrasolar planets, which now number more than the newly discovered body, unlike Mercury, is
350, relies on tracking the velocity of a parent star relatively cool since its parent star is only one-twelfth
along the line of sight to Earth — rather than across the mass of the sun and therefore produces much
the sky. Because an orbiting planet pulls its parent less radiation and heat.
star ever so slightly to and fro, the star’s line-of- The researchers say that because the
sight motion speeds up and slows astrometric technique finds massive planets that
down periodically, revealed by orbit far from parent stars, the
telltale shifts in the color of method could identify stars that
starlight recorded from Earth. might be examined in follow-up
This technique, known as the studies for smaller, Earth-mass
wobble or Doppler shift method, planets with tighter orbits. A
detects heavyweights that lie search for those close-in bodies
close to their star most easily, might best be examined with the
since such planets produce the wobble method. Should VB 10
largest changes in that star’s speed harbor a rocky planet that lies
along the line of sight to Earth. much closer in, it might be
But the method can only reveal habitable — or at least contain
the minimum mass of a planet. liquid water.„ ©Ron Cowen./
In contrast, the astrometric method, which www.sciencenews.org

13 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


(One of
the most interesting
themes at last year’s Pan-IIT
event was the session on rural
transformation. IITians who have chosen an
offbeat career hogged the limelight at the event. The
star at the event was R Madhavan, an alumnus of IIT-Madras.
This is Madhavan’s success story as a farmer as he told to the
audience...)
Passion for agriculture:I had a passion uninterrupted.
for agriculture even when I was young. I don’t My first farm land: After 4 years, I saved enough
know how my love for agriculture started. I money to buy six acres of land. I bought land at
only know that I have always been a nature Chengelpet near Chennai. I chose that land
lover. I used to have a garden even when I because the plot had access to road and water.
was a teenager. So, from a home garden, a Back in 1989, a man in a pair of trousers aroused
kitchen garden, I gradually became a farmer! curiosity among the farming community. That
My mother used to be very happy with the was not the image of a farmer!
vegetables I grew. Tough beginning as a farmer : I became a full
Studying at IIT-Madras: My family was fledged farmer in 1993. It was tough in the
against my ambition of becoming an beginning. Nobody taught me how to farm. There
agriculturist. So, I had to find a livelihood for was no guidance from the gram sevaks or the
myself. I wrote IIT-JEE and got selected to study University of Agriculture. I ran from pillar to post
at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. I but couldn’t find a single scientist who could help
enjoyed studying mechanical engineering.My me. I burnt my fingers. My first crop was paddy
intention was to transform what I study into what and I produced 2 tonnes from the six acres of
I love; mechanisation of farming. I felt the land, it was pathetic.When I lost all my money,
drudgery in farming is much more than in any my father said I was stupid. I told him, it didn’t
other industry, and no one had looked into it. matter as I was learning. It was trial and error for
Working for ONGC after IIT : I started my me for three years. Until 1997, I was only
career at the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation experimenting by mingling various systems.
(ONGC). My father refused to give me any Going to Israel to learn : In 1996, I visited Israel
money to start farming. So I asked the officials because I had heard that they are the best in water
to let me work at the offshore sites, on the technology. Take the case of corn. They harvest
rigs. The advantage was that I could work on 7 tonnes per acre whereas we produce less than a
rigs for 14 days and then take 14 days off. I tonne. They harvest up to 200 tonnes of tomatoes,
chose to work on the rigs for nine years, whereas here it is 6 tonnes, in similar area of land.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 14
I stayed in one of the kibbutz, which is a co- like sesame and groundnut, which are drought-
operative farm for 15 days. I understood what we resistant, till May. During May, I go on trips to learn
do is quite primitive. It was an eye opener for me. more about the craft. I came back in June-July and
They treat each plant as an industry. A plant started preparations on the land to get ready for
producing one kilo of capsicum is an industry that August. In 1999, I bought another four acres. My
has 1 kilo output. I learnt from them that we abuse target is a net income of Rs 100,000 per annum per
water. Drip irrigation is not only for saving water acre. I have achieved up to Rs 50,000.
but it enhances your plant productivity. We Selling the products : I sell my produce on my
commonly practice flood irrigation where they just own. I have a jeep and bring what I produce to my
pump water. As per the 2005 statistics, instead of house and sell from there. People know that I sell
1 litre, we use 750 litres of water. at home. I don’t go through any middle man.I take
Dr Lakshmanan, my Guru : I met Dr paddy to the mill, hull it and sell it on my own. In
Lakshmanan, a California-based NRI, who has the future, I have plans to have a mill too. These
been farming for the last 35 years on 50-60,000 days, people tell me in advance that they need rice
acres of land. He taught me farming over the last from me. I have no problem selling my produce.
one decade. Whatever little I have learnt, it is Engineering helps in farming : More than any
thanks to him. I knew a farm would give me much other education, engineering helps in farming
better returns in terms of money as well as because toiling in the soil is only 20 per cent of
happiness. Working for money and working for the work. About 80 per cent of farming needs
happiness are different. I work and get happiness. engineering skills. Science is a must for any
What more do you need? farming. I have developed a number of simple,
No guidance in India : I said at one platform that farmer-friendly tools for farming areas like
we have to change the curriculum of the agricultural seeding, weeding, etc. as we don’t have any tools
universities. What they teach the students is not how for small farmers.If I have 200 acres of land, I
to farm, but how to draw loans from a bank! What can go for food processing, etc. My next project
they learn cannot be transformed to reality or to the is to lease land from the small farmers for
villages. The problem in the villages is not agriculture. The village will prosper with food
mentioned in the university. There is a wide gap and processing industries coming there. My yield will
it is getting worse. also be more with more land.
Making profits : After burning my fingers for four Abdul Kalam visits the farm : Dr Abdul Kalam
years, from 1997 onwards, I started making profits. visited my farm when he was the President, after
Even though it took me four years, I did not lose hearing about what I was doing. He spent around
hope. I knew this was my path even though I didn’t two hours on my farm. During his visit, he said:
have any guidance from anyone. In those days, “We need not one, but one million Madhavans!” If
communication was slow. Today, I can get I am able to inspire or create even one entrepreneur,
guidance from Dr Lakshmanan on Skype or Google I will be very happy, because that is what Dr Kalam
Talk, or through e-mail. I send him the picture of wished me to do.
my problem and ask his guidance. In those days, it Experimental farming : Every acre of my land has
took time to communicate. There was no Internet ten cents of experimental farming. I have done this
or connectivity. That was why it took me four years for the last 15 years. This is a part of my research
to learn farming. Today, I would not have taken and development. Some of it may fail, but even if I
more than six months or even less to learn the trick! succeed at one thing, that is enough for me.
The farming cycle: I started crop rotation after 1997. Entrepreneurship in the village : I feel that the
In August, I start with paddy and it is harvested in number of people engaged only in farming should
December. I plant vegetables in December itself and come down. Instead of ten people, there should
get the crops in February. After that, it is oil seeds Contd. on Page 18

15 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


[ºJA¡¹ δšìA¢¡ : "àì³[¹A¡à¹ [³ì>W¡’i¡à šøìƒÅ¹ ëW¡–i¡
š’º (City of St. Paul, Minnestota, USA) >K¹¹ "[‹¤àÎã
ë™àìW¡ó¡ ëóø¡S¡ ëºr¡Wô¡¤à\¢àì¹ (Joseph Frank Landsberger)
¤t¢¡³à> Î}J¸à¹ š¹à &Òü [Åt¡à>t¡ &A¡ >tå¡> ‹à¹à¤à[ÒA¡ "๴±
A¡[¹ìº¡ú ë™àìW¡ó¡, [™\> ë\à’ >àì³ì¹* \>à\àt¡, &\>
[¤Å«[¤J¸àt¡ "‹¸Ú> š¹à³Å¢ƒàt¡à (Study Counsellor) 1981
"à¹ç¡ 1991 W¡>t¡ Curriculum and Education Systems
"à¹ç¡ International Management [¤ÈÚt¡ Ñ•àt¡ìA¡àv¡¹
ë\à’¹ šàá¹ \ã¯>¹ Kì¯Èo๠[¤ÈÚ "à[ẠLearner Char-
acteristics and Attributes; Established
Sabbatical Precedent for Professional Staff¡ú
"‹¸Ú> A¡àºì¹ š¹à ët¡*ò γNø [¤Å« °³o A¡[¹ìá "à¹ç¡
šõ[=¯ã¹ ¤× [¤J¸àt¡ [¤Å«[¤ƒ¸àºÚ "à¹ç¡ [ÅÛ¡àšø[t¡Ë¡à>t¡ &Òü [¤ÈìÚ ¤v¡ûõ¡t¡à [ƒ "à[Òìá¡ú ëÎÒü ¤v¡ûõ¡t¡àγèìÒì¹ ët¡*ò Î\àÒü
tå¡[ºìá ët¡*ò¹ 믤-áàÒüi¡ : Study Guides and Strategies (www.studygs.net)¡ú ¤× šå¹ÑHàì¹ì¹ Ζµà[>t¡
ë\à’ "‹¸Ú> δš[A¢¡t¡ ¤× Nø”‚ "à¹ç¡ 믤-áàÒüi¡¹ ¹[W¡Út¡à¡ú ët¡ìJt¡¹ š[¹A¡[¿t¡ &J[> l¡üìÀJì™àK¸ W¡àÒüi¡¹ >à³ History
of Romani Emigration From India &Òü šøàW¡ã> Nø”‚J> "àW¡ºìt¡ ët¡*ò W¡ã>¹ \å [ó¡ "à¹ç¡ c¡à} [c¡Úà>ìÒà}-¹ (Xu Fie
and Zhang Tianhong) ºKìt¡ ™åi¡ãÚàîA¡ ">åÎÞê¡à> A¡[¹ δšàƒ>à A¡[¹ šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹ìá¡ú &Òü Nø”‚Jì>Òü šø³ào ë™ W¡ã> "à¹ç¡
®¡à¹t¡¤È¢¹ [¤ÈìÚ* ë\à’¹ ®¡àìº[J[> "‹¸Ú> "àìá¡ú
ë\à’¹ ºKt¡ "à³à¹ ë™àKàì™àK "àA¡[ͶA¡¡ú ët¡*ò¹ W¡àÒüi¡¹ ÎÞê¡à> ëšà¯à¹ šàát¡ "à[³ ëšà>ìšài¡ãÚàîA¡ ët¡*òA¡
‘šø`¡à>’¹ ¤àì¤ [ºJà š[k¡Úà¤îº ">åì¹à‹ \>à*ò, "à¹ç¡ &ìA¡ºìK &Òü [¤ÈÚt¡ A¡à³ A¡¹à¹ ÒüZáà šøA¡àÅ A¡ì¹òàú"à³à¹ šøt¡¸àÅà
³ìt¡Òü ët¡*ò "à³àîº [™ìi¡à ë³Òüº š[k¡Úàìº ëÎÚà íÒìá :
Greetings Sushanta !
Thank you for writing, the compliments, and your request.
I am glad that you value presenting your content in Assamese and perhaps we can collabo-
rate on a project. Generally I resist duplication of my English on othet websites, mostly because
of the problem with duplication, as well as the administrative challenge of keeping track of who
has used my content when I upgrade sites. Also the interactive exercises cannot be duplicated.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 16
However, if you translate the content you find valuable into Assamese, then you can also cite the
English source on my Website. I could then take that translation and make it available on my Website,
include it in interactive exercises, and include a link to both your college and magazine. My Website
is very prominent in international education, and this will further raise the profile of your effort.
This is a thought. If you do not want to translate, then I suggest a descriptive link to my subjects
and my Website. This has worked very well with other educational institutions.
Thank you again for all.
Regards.
Joe
Educationally inclined
Wisdom to discern the right path
Courage to take it
Discipline of joy to encounter it
jos f landsberger; mail to jft@studygs.net
t¡à¹ ºKìt¡ ët¡*ò &Òü ÎèW¡>à "‹¸àÚ[i¡ ëšø¹o A¡ì¹¡ú &Úà "๴±[o¡ú ët¡*ò¹ šø¯Þê¡ì¤à¹ "à[³ "γãÚàîº ">å¤àƒ A¡[¹
‘šø`¡à>’t¡ šøA¡àÅ A¡[¹ ™à³¡ú ët¡*ò ÒüÚ๠šø[t¡ìi¡à "‹¸àÚ [>\¹ W¡àÒüi¡t¡ l¡üšÑ‚àš> A¡[¹ ™à¤¡ú t¡àt¡ "à³à¹ ‘šø`¡à>’¹ [>\à W¡àÒüi¡ì¹à
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: ">å¤àƒA¡ "à¹ç¡ ‘šø`¡à>’¹ ³åJ¸Î´šàƒA¡ - ¹àoà W¡à}³àÒü

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"à¤õ[v¡ A¡[¹¤îº? ¤¸àJ¸à A¡[¹¤îº (to interpret)? A¡[¹¤ šà[¹³ ë>?
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17 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
[A¡ìÒ šø®¡à[¯t¡ A¡[¹ìá? ³Òü í¹ ™à*ò ë>[A¡ "à¹ç¡ &Òüìi¡à ™å[v¡û¡šèo¢ íÒìáì>
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šøA¡i¡ íÒ š¹à ³èº Ŧ (Key words) ëA¡à> [W¡”zà A¡[¹ šå>¹ [¤ÈÚìi¡àîº l¡ü®¡[i¡ "à[Ò¤ šàì¹à ?
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³Òü ëA¡¯º &i¡à l¡ü;Îìt¡ (ë™ì> šàk¡¸šå[=) [>®¢¡¹ šå>¹ãÛ¡o K[Øn¡ ët¡àºà :
A¡[¹³ ë>? ³Òü ëA¡à>[J[> Î[k¡A¡îA¡ A¡[¹ìºà?
"[t¡[¹v¡û¡ l¡ü;ι "à¯Å¸A¡ Ò’¤ ë>[A¡? ³Òü ëA¡à>ìi¡à ë¤[á ®¡àºîA¡ A¡[¹¤ šà[¹ìºàìÒìt¡>?
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šàÒüìáàì>’ ¤å[º [>\ìA¡ ëÅàì‹àì> ? íÎìt¡ ë³à¹ "òàW¡[>J> [³º JàÒüìáì>? ³Òü Î[k¡A¡
³Òü t¡t¡àît¡ÚàîA¡ ë™à¯à l¡ü[W¡t¡ ë> ºàìÒ ºàìÒ ë™à¯à W¡t¢¡Î³èÒ ¤à[W¡ íº[áìºàì>?
l¡ü[W¡t¡? ³Òü ®¡àºƒì¹ ë³àJ[> ³à[¹ìºà ë>? ³Òü [>\¹ šø[t¡
™[ƒ [A¡¤à &i¡à ¤å[\ >àšà*ò, ët¡[t¡Úà [A¡Ú ¤å\à >àÒü [>Ú³à>å¯t¢¡ã "à[áìºàì>?
&Òü A¡=àìi¡à ëÅàì‹àì>? ³Òü Aõ¡t¡àA¡à™¢¸ Ò’ìºà ë>?
š[Øn¡ =àìA¡àìt¡ í¹ [ƒ* "à¹ç¡ Îà¹à}Å šøÑñt¡ A¡ì¹à &[t¡Úà ë³à¹ Aõ¡t¡A¡à™¢¸t¡à l¡üƒ™ô àš> A¡[¹¤ šàì¹à ë>?
ë>[A¡? (yû¡³Å@)

* &Òü >tå¡> ‹à¹à¤à[ÒA¡ šø¤Þê¡[i¡¹ šø[t¡ìi¡à "‹¸àÚ ‘Ê¡à[l¡ KàÒül¡Wô¡ &r¡ ëÊ¡öìi¡[\’¹ 믤W¡àÒüi¡t¡ Ñ‚à> šà¤ ¤å[º ÒüÚ๠®¡àÈà*
ëÎÒü ƒì¹ š[¹A¡[¿t¡¡ú ‘ášà A¡¹A¡’ Ŧ ƒåi¡àA¡ šàk¡ìA¡ ‘šø[t¡[º[š šøÑñt¡ A¡¹A¡’ ¤å[º* š[Øn¡¤ šà칡ú
(">å¤àƒA¡ Òü}¹à\ã ®¡àÈà "à¹ç¡ Îà[Òt¡¸¹ [ÅÛ¡A¡)

(Contd. from Page 15)

An Engineer from IIT, now a Farmer


only be two people. I am not saying the eight should bring down the cost? By producing more food. So,
go jobless. What we should do is, create my intention is to make more food.
employment in the villages based on other agro Food insecurity in India : The United Nations says
activities like value addition, processing, etc.We 65 per cent of the world population suffers from food
can go for mechanisation in large areas so that the deficiency, and India ranks first in the list. About 49
cost per acre goes down. In India, the cost per every per cent of our children are undernourished. This
meal is very high. So, my next concern is, how do means our future generation will be affected. If we
you make it cheap. In America, the unskilled are not going to give attention to this area, we are in
working for one hour can earn three meals a day. for real trouble. Food insecurity is more threatening
Here, in the rural areas, even if they work for one than an atom bomb!
day, they can’t get one meal a day. How do you © http://theheadlinestoday.com/2008/12

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 18
&Òü¤á¹ ëA¡–ƒøãÚ ëºàA¡ìίà "àìÚàK¹ "Îà³[¹A¡ "à[‹št¡¸ &A¡ [>Ú³ãÚà Qi¡>àt¡ š[¹ot¡ Ò’ìºìÒ "àW¡ºìt¡
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"γ¹ áày- š¹ãÛ¡à
áàyãÎA¡º¹

19 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


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"à¹ç¡ šå}Jà>åš}å J®¡àì¯ "‹¸Ú> A¡¹à¹ "®¡¸àÎ A¡[¹¤ ºàìK¡ú ™à¹ ëƒÅ [¤ìƒÅ¹ [¤[®¡Ä A¡³¢ìÛ¡yt¡ [>\¹ šà¹ƒ[Å¢t¡à ëƒJå¯à¤îº
"®¡à¯t¡ ¤× Aõ¡[t¡ áày* šàát¡ ³åJ ë=ìA¡W¡à JठºKà ÒÚ¡ú ÎÛ¡³ íÒìá¡ú ¤t¢¡³à> "γ t¡=à l¡üv¡¹ šè¤à¢ e¡ºt¡ šøàÚ ÎA¡ìºà
/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
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"à‹å[>A¡ [¤ÈÚ¹ l¡üZW¡ [ÅÛ¡à ºà®¡¹ ¤àì¤ [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à> "àìá¡ú K[Øn¡ l¡ü[k¡ìá¡ú =à[A¡º š[¹ì¤Å¡ú "γ¹ [Åۡ๠š[¹ì¤Å ™[ƒ
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nology, Biotechnology, BA.LLB, MASSCOM "à[ƒ tå¡[º¤ ºà[K¤¡ú š[¹[Ñ‚[t¡¹ š¹à šºàÚ> A¡¹à¹ š[¹¤ìt¢¡ "à³à¹
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š¹ãۡ๠¤àì¤ šø[ÅÛ¡o ëA¡–ƒø* "γt¡ (P¡¯àÒài¡ãt¡) "àìá¡ú ëÎÒüìÛ¡yt¡ "à[³ l¡üìÀJ A¡[¹¤ šàì¹òà "³õt¡ šøãt¡³¹ A¡=à¡ú
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®¡[¯È¸t¡¹ ëA¡[¹Úà¹
š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à> : Environmental Science
Îà´ß[t¡A¡ ³à>¯ γàì\ ΖµåJã> ëÒà¯à ®¡Úà¤Ò γθà
γèÒ¹ ">¸t¡³ íÒìá š[¹ì¤Å šøƒèÈo¡ú šøƒèÈo¹ ó¡ºt¡ "à³à¹
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‹¹à t¡=à ÒüÚ๠\ã¯A塺¹ ®¡[¯È¸t¡ "[Ñzâ« "à[\ [¤šÄ íÒ
š[¹ìá¡ú š[¹ì¤Å šøƒÈè o¹ ó¡ºt¡ Îõ[Ê¡ ëÒà¯à γθ๠®¡Úà¤Òt¡à
">å‹à¯> A¡[¹ "à[\ [¤Å« \å[¹ š[¹ì¤Å Î}¹Û¡o¹ ¤àì¤
Î\àKt¡à ¤õ[‡ý¡ šàÒüìá¡ú ÒüÚ๠¤àì¤ š[¹ì¤Å Î}¹Û¡o "à¹ç¡
t¡à¹ ºKt¡ \[Øl¡t¡ "à>åÈ}[KA¡ [¤ÈÚγèÒ "‹¸Ú>¹ ¤àì¤ &A¡
ÎåA¡ãÚà "‹¸Ú> [¤ÈÚ KØn¡ íº l¡ü[k¡ìá "à¹ç¡ t¡à¹ P¡¹ç¡â« "à¹ç¡
\>[šøÚt¡à yû¡³àt¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡ šàÒüìá¡ú [¤Å«¹ l¡üÄt¡ ëƒÅì¤à¹t¡
Òü[t¡³ì‹¸ š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à>¹ ‰ç¡t¡ [¤A¡àÅ Q[i¡ìá "à¹ç¡ ëÎÒü
[¤ÈÚ¹ áày Kì¯ÈA¡ ÎA¡º¹ ¤\๠W¡à[Òƒà* ¤õ[‡ý¡ šàÒüìá¡ú
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A¡à¹o š[¹ì¤Å¹ "¯Û¡Ú [™ Òà¹t¡ Q[i¡¤îº íºìá ™’t¡ γNø
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š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à>¹ (Environmental Science) [ÅÛ¡à
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šà¤¡ú t¡à¹ ó¡ºt¡ "ƒè¹ ®¡[¯È¸t¡t¡ š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à>ãÎA¡º¹
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šøƒÈè o [>Ú”|o t¡=à š[¹ì¤Å Î}¹Û¡o [¤ÈÚt¡ P¡¹ç¡â« [ƒ¤îº
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[>\¹ ¤àì¤ &A¡ [¤Å«\>ã> ëA¡[¹Ú๠(Global Career)
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K[Øn¡¤ šà칡ú Kt¡à>åK[t¡A¡ ëÛ¡y γèÒ¹ š¹à "àtò¡[¹ "à³à¹
&Òü[¤ºàA¡ [ƒÅ t¡â«à¤‹à> A¡¹à¹ ¤àì¤ šøìÚà\> íÒìá
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šàk¡¸yû¡³ "à¹ç¡ [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à> @
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š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à>¹ Ñ•àt¡A¡ (B. Sc) "à¹ç¡ Ñ•àt¡ìA¡àv¡¹
/ ë¤W¡¹A¡à¹ã l¡ü®¡Ú Jr¡ìt¡ A¡³¢ Î}Ñ‚àš> šà¤ šà칡ú ¤t¢¡³à>
(M. Sc), l¡ü®¡Ú š™¢àÚt¡ "‹¸Ú> A¡[¹¤ šà[¹¡ú ë¤[ᮡàK
γÚt¡ &ì> [¤ÈÚ "‹¸Ú> A¡[¹ Îà‹à¹oìt¡ t¡ºt¡ [ƒÚà ëÛ¡y
[ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>t¡ &Òü [¤ÈÚ¹ Ñ•àt¡ìA¡àv¡¹ šàk¡¸yû¡³ (M. Sc in
γèÒt¡ ëA¡[¹Ú๠K[Øn¡¤ šà[¹¡ú
EV Sc.) "àK¤ìØn¡à¯à ÒÚ ™[ƒ* ¤× [ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>t¡ ÒüÚàA¡ Ñ•àt¡A¡
1¡ú l¡ü샸àK (Industry)
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šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ >à³®¡[v¢¡ A¡[¹¤¹ ¤àì¤ šøà=¢ã [¤`¡à>¹ Ñ•àt¡A¡
3¡ú Îà³à[\A¡ l¡üÄÚ> (Social development)
(B. Sc) ëÒà¯à šøìÚà\>¡ú
4¡ú š[¹ì¤Å Îà}¤à[ƒA¡t¡à (Environment journalism)
t¡ºt¡ &Òü [¤ÈÚ¹ "‹¸Ú>¹ Îå[¤‹à =A¡à ëA¡ÒüJ>³à>
Òüt¡¸à[ƒ¡ú
[ÅÛ¡à>åË¡à>¹ >à³, šàk¡¸yû¡³ "à¹ç¡ ë™àK¸t¡à l¡üìÀJ A¡¹à Ò’º :
š[¹ì¤Å [¤`¡à>¹ W¡à[Òƒà "à¹ç¡ \>[šøÚt¡à ¤õ[‡ý¡¹ šø[t¡
1) Delhi University, Delhi.
21 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
Course : B.Sc. Ev.Sc. Aurangabad-431004, Maharashtra
Eligibility : 10 + 2 with Physics. Course : M.Sc. Ev.Sc
2) Jamia Hamdard University Eligibility : B.Sc. Duration : 2 years
M. Sc. Ev.Sc (Eligibility : B.Sc) 10. Shivaji University, Vidyanagar,
3) Delhi College of Engineering. Kolhapur, Maharashtra
(M.Sc. Ev.Sc) Course : M.Sc. Environmental Geology
4) JNU, New Delhi (M.Sc. Ev.Sc) Eligibility : B.Sc. Duration : 2 years
5) Sambalpur University, Orissa. 11. Assam University,Dargakona, Silchar-11
Course : PG Dip. in Environmental Courses :
Education and Management. i] M.Sc. (by course work).
Eligibility : Degree / PG in any Discipline. Duration : Two Years (Four Sem).
6. Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of No. of seats : 31
Environment Education & Research ii] M.Phil ( by course work and dissertation).
Bharati Vidyapeeth University Duration : Three Semesters.
Katraj-Dhankawadi, Pune 411 043 No. of seats: 13
Maharashtra. iii] Ph.D. (by research work)
Course : B.Sc/ M.Sc on Ev. Sc iv] D.Sc.
7. SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai v] PGDTM (by course work)
Course : Environmental and Development Duration : Two Semester
(Post Graduation) 12. Gauhati University, Guwahati
Duration : 1 Year Courses : M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph.D
Eligibiliy : Only female candidated with 13. Tezpur University, School of Energy,
graduation or post graduation in any Environment and Natural Resources.
subject. i] Dept. of Energy
8. Marathwada University, Maharashtra ii] Dept. of Environmental Studies
Course : M.Sc. Ev.Sc. iii] M.Sc in Environmental Science
Eligibility : BSc. Duration : 2 years For more information visit :
9. B.R. Ambedkar Marathwada University, www.indicareer.com.

[>[ÆW¡t¡ ëA¡[¹Úà¹
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CA Ò’º [ÒW¡à¤ ¹Û¡à, [ÒW¡à¤ š¹ãÛ¡à (Auditing) "à¹ç¡ "àìá @ -ÿ- (i) Compe-
A¡¹ Î}yû¡à”zãÚ [¤ÈÚ¹ [¤ìÅÈ`¡¡ú ëÎìÚìÒ Î¹ç¡, l¡àR¡¹ ÎA¡ìºà tency Professional test
¤¸¯Îà[ÚA¡ šø[t¡Ë¡à>ìt¡ CA ÎA¡º¹ ëί๠šøìÚà\>¡ú (CPT) (ii) Professional
ëA¡à´šà>ã "àÒü> ">åÎ[¹ [™ ëA¡àì>à ëA¡à´šà>ã¹ [ÒW¡à¤ competency Exam (PCE) (ii) Final Exam.
š¹ãۡ๠¤àì¤ CA [>™å[v¡û¡ [ƒÚà ¤à‹¸t¡à³èºA¡¡ú ëÎìÚìÒ CA l¡üZW¡t¡¹ ³à‹¸[³A¡ (10 + 2) l¡üv¡ão¢ ¤à "¯t¡ão¢ áày-
ÎA¡º¹ W¡à[Òƒà ™ì=Ê¡ "àìá "à¹ç¡ Òü yû¡³àt¡ ¤õ[‡ý¡ šàÒüìá¡ú áàyãìÚ CA šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ (CPT) >à³ ®¡[t¢¡ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú
CA Ò’¤¹ ¤àì¤ &\> ¤¸[v¡û¡ (Institute of Char- ëKàìi¡Òü ¤á¹ \å[¹ &Òü šàk¡¸yû¡³t¡ >à³ ®¡[t¢¡ W¡[º =àìA¡¡ú

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 22
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3. Asansol Branch of EIRC of ICAI,
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23 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


skills. Later you can go for journalism
course during your graduation.
Likewise, if you have a penchant for music
or acting or modeling then you can choose
subjects that may help you in pursuing
these careers after your XII. For a list of
career options in music or acting or
modeling please visit our site.
Entering high school is perhaps the most If you like pursuing a particular sport then
crucial phase in the life of a teenager. This is do not feel shy or awkward about it. On
the time when you will have to make concrete the other hand, pursue your studies along
plans about your future. This will determine with sports. Chose such subjects which
the course for the rest of your life. may give you ample time to practice that
The moment you enter XI standard, particular sport.This helps you in several
you should take utmost care in the ways . It makes it easier for you to pursue
choice of your subjects. An ideal thing a career in sports.There is no alternative
to do is to consult academicians, to formal education.Formal education
relatives and guardians. Today, options equips you better to handle the nuances
are not limited to science, of the sports. Formal education prepares
mathematics, commerce or arts. If you you, for life, after your sporting career is
are good in mathematics, physics and over.It provides you a chance to display
any of the fields related to these your skills at the pre- University and the
subjects appeal to you only then opt University levels. This increases your
these subjects. If you scored good chances of selection in the National team.
marks in mathematics but were poor Therefore, it becomes imperative that you
in physics or you did not find the chose your subjects in XI very wisely and
laboratory of physics appealing, there careful deliberation. For a choice of
are other options for you. careers in sports please visit our site.
There are options available for jobs Of course, you should give due
after X for students in Army, Navy or consideration to the circumstances, social
Coast Guards. You can also refer to a status, priorities of your family, your
list of institutes for courses in ITI, physical attributes, your own limitations
provided on our site vocational and capabilities and so forth. However,
institutes in India. you should keep in mind your own
If you have a flair for writing and have priorities. Academic competence increases
a good command over language then if you are able to devote your energies
you can go for arts in XI standard and towards the field of your choice. You
simultaneously develop your writing should keep an open mind. You should not
go for the traditional careers just because

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 24
somebody suggested or somebody tried to information as possible on diverse
convince you. professions and educational opportunities.
You can go for your SWOT analysis i.e. In no way you should be prejudiced about
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and a job and end up attaching unqualified
Threats. You should build on your strong superiority for professions like medicine,
points, try to minimize your weaknesses, engineering, and the civil services, though
try to grab the opportunities that may come one can always have preferences for.
your way and be wary of perceived threats. Remember at the end of the day all it
You may consult a professional matters is how much you excel in a
Psychologist if you so feel like. profession and the rest follows.
These days there is a plethora of The list of careers is perhaps again like the
information. Do a crosscheck about a given imagination of a poet, endless. Every body
career option. Research well in advance has a place under the sun even if the sun is
over career options. Do not feel shy of not benign, you can still make your mark
seeking the help of a professional Career under it by choosing a career option close to
Counselor. Feel free to consult National your heart. Never mind, you are not good at
Network of Education. mathematics or science, you can still choose
You should never doubt your own from a plethora of options from the
capabilities. Half the battle is lost when you commerce stream, humanities, and
start doubting your own vocational courses. You name it and we have
capabilities.Remember that there is no short it. Here we at National Network of Education
cut to success. At the same time, if your are trying a role, howsoever insignificant it
field of hobby becomes your field of career, may seem, to simplify things for you. With
chances of success increase manifold. the help of National Network of Education,
Arriving at your best career option is each career option seems like the grains
possible, only if you gather as much appear as a pearl on the golden beach.
© www.indiaeducation.net/CareerCenter/Advice

Exam Schedule - 2009-10


Sl Noti- Last Noti- Last
fica- date Sl fica- date
No Exams No Exams
tions of tions of
appln appln
1. UPSC Civil Services Oct Dec May 8. SSC Combined graduate Oct Nov Feb
Exams (Prelims) level Exam (Prelim)
2. UPSC CDS (1) Sept Oct Feb 9. Indian Economics June July Dec
3. Indian Forest Services Feb Mar July Service Exam (IES)
Exam 10 FTI, Pune Entrance Mar Apr Jun
4. Spl. class Railway Feb Mar July 11 IIMC, New Delhi Mar Apr May
apprentics Exam (Entrance)
5. NDA (I) Oct Nov Apr 12 JNU - Biotechnology Jan Mar May
6. NDA (II) Mar Apr Aug Entrance
7. Central Police Forces May June Oct 13 IRMA entrance Aug Oct Nov
(Asstt. Commandants)

25 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


NE States will have one NIT each
Six of the nine new National Institutes NITs were also allocated reserved seats at other
of Technology promised by the UPA NITs, based on their population.
government will be set up in the Northeast, The rationale for the reservation was that
one in each state without an NIT at present. most of the NITs were initially set up as Regional
The human resource development ministry Engineering Colleges (RECs) aimed at developing
had asked the chief ministers of Manipur, technical education in specific states. A key
Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal precondition placed by states for the transfer of
Pradesh and Sikkim allocate land for the NITs . these institutes to the Centre as NITs was the
The move follows controversial changes continuation of reservation for students belonging
to the institutes’ admission policy last year that to the respective states.Last year, the HRD ministry
the northeastern states termed as changed the admission policy for the NITs. The
discriminatory against regions traditionally move was considered controversial for two reasons
backward in technical education. : The institutes are officially autonomous bodies
The NITs admit students on the basis of and it is their apex decision making body, the NIT
their performance in the All India Engineering Council, and not the HRD ministry, that is
Entrance Examination (AIEEE), a national- empowered to alter the admission process.
level test conducted by the CBSE. Till last Secondly, the new admission policy also ended
year, 50 per cent of the seats in the NITs were state-specific reservations, stipulating that all seats
filled by domiciled candidates of the state in would be filled up on the basis of a student’s merit
which the NIT is located. The states without determined by performance in the AIEEE.
The end of reservations at the NITs was
discriminatory against relatively less developed
states, chief ministers of the northeastern states
had complained to Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh, a Rajya Sabha MP from Assam.
They feared that students from their states
would no longer find minimum proportional
representation at the NITs. The New initiative
will resolve the issue for ever in a way which
was unthinkable even before a year or two. [PEB]

B.Tech at Dibrugarh University


The Dibrugarh University will be and Technology has been set up on the varsity
offering four-year BTech degree from this campus for this purpose. The necessary clearances
academic session. An Institute of Engineering (Contd.on Page 40)

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 26
Uday Narayan Deka

On We d n e s d a y J u l y 2 2 , 2 0 0 9
a n exceptionally long duration total eclipse
of the Sun will be visible in eastern part of
the globe. The path of Moon’s umbral shadow o f
begins in India and crosses through Nepal, totality
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and China. The will have lesser
instant of greatest eclipse occurs in the Pacific duration of 2 minutes 41 seconds & 3 minutes 38
Ocean at 02:35:19 (U.T.). The maximum seconds respectively as both the places are away
duration of totality here will be 6m39s. from central line.
In Assam the eclipse will start around Total eclipses of the Sun draw solar astronomy
5:30 a.m. and will end around 7:40 a.m. The enthusiasts to the far corners of the globe. Amateurs
totality will be around 6:30 a.m. in Lower are attracted by expectations of the breathtaking
Assam and around 6.31 a.m. in Upper Assam. beauty of the eclipsed Sun during the few minutes
The duration of totality will vary from place of totality. The sky is then as dark as twilight. Only
to place. Guwahati being on the Latitude of in the darkness of totality, the solar corona, the
26011’ (N), will be just out of southern limit outer atmosphere of the Sun, can be viewed with
of path of totality, which will touch southern the unaided eye. A total eclipse of the Sun is one
limit at 26013’ (N). Northern limit here will of the grandest natural phenomena and the most
be at 27054’(N) and width of path of totality spectacular celestial event. A total eclipse of the
will be around 225 kms. in entire Assam, Sun occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun
Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh. Totality will and Earth and obscures the Sun completely.
begin around 6.30 a.m. in this region. Central A total eclipse, which is a life time
line between northern & southern limit will experience, is a fascinating phenomenon – our Sun,
have maximum duration of totality. Pasight which is so normally so reliable, is suddenly
in Arunachal Pradesh is just south of central stained black by the Moon. Any solar eclipse is an
line in path of totality. Places away from interesting event, but a total solar eclipse is the
central line on either side will have lesser time most spectacular astronomical phenomenon that
of duration of totality. (Places on either side you’ll ever see.
of path of totality will see only partial solar During the last 500 years, only three total
eclipse.) solar eclipses had swept Assam. The T.S.E. of
Dhubri in the west & Dibrugarh towards 17.10.1762 swept Barak Valley. The eclipse of
east in Assam although will be inside the path 04.06.1788 swept Brahmaputra valley and third

27 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


one on 17.07.1814 touched Arunachal Pradesh & the same from such terrain. As the eclipse will
Dibrugarh, Tinsukia in Brahmaputra Valley. occur in morning elevation of the Sun during
In the last century, three total solar eclipses totality in Lower Assam will be only about 200. In
occurring in 1980, 1995 & 1999 were visible from Dibrugarh, Tinsukia, the Sun’s altitude will be
Indian soil. However totality of none was visible around 260 during totality. So observation from
from N.E.Region.The next total solar eclipse plain without obstruction in the eastern horizon will
occurring on 22nd July 2009 will dramatically pass only be useful.
over Assam, Bhutan & Aruanachal Pradesh in A total solar eclipse is dramatic event. The
morning starting from Gujarat. The duration of sky begins to darken, the air temperature falls, the
totality in central line in N.E. Region will be more winds increase as the Moon’s umbra races toward
than 4 minutes i.e. longest duration in recent times. us. All nature responds; the birds go to roost,
Prominent places like Dhubri, Kokrajhar, flowers close their petals, crickets begin to ring as
Bongaigaon, Pathsala, Barpeta, Sarthebari, Tihu, if evening had occurred. As totality approaches the
Nalbari, Rangia, Tangla, Kalaigaon, Mangaldai, landscape is bathed in shimmering bands of light
Kharupetia, Rowta, Udalguri, Dhekiajuli, Tezpur, and dark and the last few rays of sunlight peak out
Balipara, Jamuguri, Sootea, Bishanath Chariali, from behind the edge of the Moon. And finally
Gohpur, Narayanpur, Banderdewa, Bihpuria, pearly white corona blazes forth in a star studded
Laluk, North Lakhimpur, Gogamukh, Dhemaji, midday sky. It is an awesome sight.
Silapathar, Jonai, Murkongselek, Sibsagar, The total phase of the eclipse is accompanied
Dibrugarh, Tinsukia, Doomdooma, Digboi etc. in by the onset of rapidly darkening sky whose
Assam will be very convenient to observe the appearance resembles evening twilight about half
event. All these places will be within path of totality an hour after sunset. The effect presents an
and few of them more or less closer to central line. excellent opportunity to view planets and bright
Here in N.E.Region, central line will pass through star in the daytime sky. The brightest and most
mostly hilly region making it difficult to observe conspicuous planet will be Venus. It is located in
Taurus. During the
totality on 22.07.09, the
sun’s background
constellation will be
Cancer near its border
with Gemini.
Solar eclipses
result from the
alignment of the Sun,
Moon, and Earth on the
day of New Moon. Total
solar eclipses - in which
the Sun is completely
blocked by the Moon -
are a spectacular and
rare sight to witness. It
is the most beautiful
celestial event in the sky.
Path of Totality in Bhutan, Assam & Arunanchal Pradesh indicating central The total phase of
line of totalty,where totality will be maximum & also indicating duration of an eclipse can and should
totality in certain prominent places. be seen without any filter.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 28
actively to scientific research
– observation of contact
timings at different locations
along the eclipse path are
useful in refining our
knowledge of the orbital
motions of the Moon and the
Earth and sketches and
photographs of the solar
corona can be used to build a
three-dimensional picture of
the Sun’s extended
atmosphere during the
eclipse.
Caution : The partial
phases of the total solar
eclipse upto the display of
‘Diamond Ring’ or any
partial or annular solar
eclipses must be observed
with proper solar filter only.
Sky during Total Solar Eclipse on 22nd July 2009 showing some planets The totality can be observed
(Mercury, Venus, Mars & Jupiter) and some brilliant stars (Sirius, Rigel, directly without any aid. It
Betelgeuse, Aldebaran, Procyon, Pollux, can also be photographed
Capella & Deneb) easily without any filter.
The brightness by corona is
It is completely safe to do so. Certainly the most slightly more than brightness of a full moon. As
spectacular and awe-inspiring phase of the eclipse is soon as totality ends, again filter should be used to
totality. For a few brief minutes or seconds, the sun’s protect our eyes. We should feel fortunate enough
pearly white corona, red prominences and to have a longest duration total solar eclipse in our
chromospheres are visible. Photograph of the corona life time. Let us be ready for the event.
must be made without filter. As the event will be occurring in the monsoon
A solar eclipse offers students a unique period, chance of enjoying the eclipse depends
opportunity to see a natural phenomenon that upon availability of clear sky in the morning of
illustrates the basic principles of mathematics and 22nd July 2009.
science taught through elementary and secondary In the public interest, Doordarshan has been
schools. Indeed many scientists (including requested to arrange live telecast of the event from
astronomers) have been inspired to study science as a Dibrugarh University Campus since Dibrugarh will
result of seeing a total solar eclipse. The rise and fall be most ideal place for observation in the south
of environmental light levels during an eclipse bank of Brahmaputra. During monsoon season,
illustrates the principles of radiometry and many places in north bank are generally cut off in
photometry, while biology classes can observe road communication.
associated behaviour of plants and animals. It is also It may be mentioned that there will not be any
an opportunity for children of school age to contribute total solar eclipse over Assam in next 900 years.
(The author Retired as Manager, Planning, Reserve Bank of India and these days he is the Secretary of
The Pragjyotish Amateur Astronomers’ Association, C/o Guwahati Planetarium)

29 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Dr. Rajib Bordoloi

On the 22nd July 2009, the world will


get to see a very special celestial event, the
Total Solar Eclipse. However all the world
population is not that lucky as the path of
totality (the umbra of the shadow of the moon)
will be passing through only a small belt on
the Globe. Luckily for us, the shadow will be
passing through the entire district of Tinsukia
and a major portion of Dibrugarh, Darrang and
Lakhimpur etc. As a result, we the people of
Tinsukia, Dibrugarh etc will be able to observe
the rare event, which has occurred here after a unauthorized vendors.
huge gap of more than 400 years and it will c) Using dark Goggles or any dark polymer
take more than hundred years for us to get films/ sheets.
another chance to observe such a phenomenon. d) Using photographic films (negatives).
Solar eclipse or for that matter any event e) Using used X-ray plates (the plates that
concerning the Sun has always been the source have already been used to take X-ray photo
of inquisitiveness for human since the early of a person).
days of civilization. Especially the eclipses are f) Using telescopes/ binoculars or cameras
always considered with awe and fear. But where proper solar filters are not fitted at
today we all know, thanks to the knowledge all or not fitted properly (always take the
and information provided by the great help of a trained person).
Astronomers since the days of early g) Using a mirror or a bucketful of water,
civilization, that the Solar eclipse is just a where the reflected image of the Sun
normal celestial event and it provides us with appears.
some breathtaking and divine scenes that one 2. Always obey the following rules while
can ever get to see in the nature. Another observing the Sun
important thing that we get to learn from the a) Use a pinhole camera to project the image
works of the great astronomers that we should of the Sun on a wall or floor; you can see the
take utmost care while observing the Sun as it exact view of the eclipse without harming
can damage our eyesight without giving us any your eyes (see illustration in fig. 1).
warning. Given below are some important b) Use proper solar filter marketed by reputed
rules that one must strictly obey while companies or provided by genuine
observing the Sun during eclipse. scientific organizations (properly trained
1. Never look at the Sun and authorized persons of the scientific
a) Directly, even for a very small time. organizations).
b) Using cheap solar filters supplied by c) Use welder’s glass (No. 14). The glass

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 30
used by the welders (No. 14) to protect their also. During totality the harmful radiations can’t
eyes while welding are recognized by the reach us as the Sun is totally covered by the moon.
concerned authorities as good solar filters However for that one must
and they are not very costly also. i) Know exactly when the totality begins and
d) Use mirror projection method. For detail ends. For that one must have the eclipse
please see the appendix box below. calendar at his/ her disposal, also their
There are many other sophisticated but costly clocks must be synchronized with the IST
methods available for observing an eclipse. While or the time followed in the Eclipse Calendar.
preparing this article the students and the enthusiasts ii) Normally for a group of people planning
of this region are only kept in mind and hence only to observe eclipse, there should be one
simple and less costly methods have been discussed. trained person (may be a teacher) as a guide
Another point to be noted that the x-ray plates can and a time keeper with a bell or a whistle.
also be used for safe viewing of the eclipse, but it As the totality starts, the keeper rings the
must be (i) unused and (ii) properly exposed to bell and the group of people observing the
ordinary light (under the supervision of a trained eclipse using solar filters would get rid of
person) before use. Even after that some times it their filters and look at the sun directly. As
has to be folded twice or thrice to ensure maximum the totality comes to end, the keeper will
cut off of the harmful radiations. again ring the bell and the group
Another truth about the eclipse is that during instantaneously would take their solar
‘Totality’ the Sun can be viewed with naked eye filters to view the rest part of the eclipse.
APPENDICES :
1. Pinhole Camera Method :
Fig. 1 : Observing the Eclipse using Pinhole
Camera. Make a pinhole on a plane cardboard
sheet hold it as shown in the figure using your
hand or using a stand so that it remains stationary.
You can see the image of the sun and the eclipse
on the opposite wall clearly.

2. Mirror Projection Method


Fig. 2: Take a small mirror, Cover its reflecting
surface with coloured paper and make a small round
hole (1 cm diameter) at the center of the paper so that
this small opening can reflect Sun rays. Place the
mirror on the ground as shown in the figure. If you
don’t have a wall nearby, bring a black board from
your class room with its stand, hang a white drawing
sheet from the board. It will serve as your wall, where
the beautiful image of the Sun will appear and you
guys can see the beautiful eclipse. But never look at
the hole on the mirror directly.

3. Eclipse Calendar (Data Source: NASA and DST, Govt of India):


Eclipse time table for some nearby places The readers can calculate the IST of their town
are also provided here along with Tinsukia town. by simply adding 5 hours 30 min to the UT
However there is always possibility of 1% to 2% provided in the tables. For example if the UT of a
error as 100% accurate prediction is not possible. town is 00:00:00, the corresponding IST will be
Also in some tables the IST could not be given. 05:30:00, i.e. 5-30 am.

31 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Old Tinsukia (Lat : 27.48560 N, Long : 95.3560E) Duration of Totality : 3 min 18.2s Magnitude : 1.012
Railway Station
Event Date Time (UT) Alt Azi
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:46.1 012.8° 073.6°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:01:24.0 025.6° 079.4°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:03:02.7 026° 079.6°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:42.2 026.3° 079.7°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:11:52.6 041.1° 086.3°
0 0
Makum (Lat : 27.4851 N, Long : 95.4393 E) Duration of Totality : 3 min 14.2 s Magnitude : 1.012
Event Date Time (UT) Alt Azi
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:47.4 012.8° 073.6°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:01:29.8 025.7° 079.4°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:03:06.5 026° 079.6°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:44.0 026.4° 079.8°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:11:59.5 041.2° 086.4°
Duliajan (Lat : 27.35590 N, Long : 95.32290E) Duration of Totality : 2 min 48.1 s Magnitude : 1.008
Event Date Time (UT) Alt Azi
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:41.6 012.7° 073.5°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:01:33.5 025.6° 079.3°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:02:57.2 025.9° 079.5°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:21.6 026.2° 079.6°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:11:46.7 041° 086.2°
Dibrugarh (Lat : 27.46560 N, Long : 95.9150E) Duration of Totality : 3 min 32.5 s Magnitude : 1.015
Event Date Time (UT) IST Alt Azi
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:39.0 5:31:39 012.3° 073.4°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:00:56.6 6:30:57 025.1° 079.2°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:02:42.5 6:32:43 025.5° 079.3°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:29.1 6:34:29 025.9° 079.5°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:11:16.1 7:11:16 040.6° 086°
0 0
Digboi (Lat : 27.3474 N, Long : 95.636 E) Duration of Totality : 2 min 22.2 s Magnitude : 1.006
: 27.34740 N, Long : 95.636
Digboi (Lat Event 0
DateE) Duration
Time of (UT)
Totality : 2 min
IST22.2 s Magnitude
Alt : Azi
1.006
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:39.0 5:31:39 012.3° 073.4°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:00:56.6 6:30:57 025.1° 079.2°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:02:42.5 6:32:43 025.5° 079.3°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:29.1 6:34:29 025.9° 079.5°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:11:16.1 7:11:16 040.6° 086°
Doomdooma (Lat : 27.56790 N, Long : 95.55360E) Duration of Totality : 3 min 26.5 s Magnitude : 1.015
Event Date Time (UT) Alt Azi
Start of partial eclipse (C1) : 2009/07/22 00:01:51.7 013° 073.7°
Start of total eclipse (C2) : 2009/07/22 01:01:31.7 025.8° 079.5°
Maximum eclipse : 2009/07/22 01:03:14.3 026.2° 079.7°
End of total eclipse (C3) : 2009/07/22 01:04:57.7 026.6° 079.9°
End of partial eclipse (C4) : 2009/07/22 02:12:10.9 041.3° 086.5°

(The author teaches Physics in the College)

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 32
Our home, the Earth is facing the worst a collective effort are necessary on a long term
environmental crisis. It ranges anywhere from basis. It is the time to react-else it could be too
Climate change, Global warming, Global late. Everyone will have to participate in this mass
dimming, Fossil fuels, Sea level rise, movement.
Greenhouse gases, to Species extinction, Managing waste is a big challenge in our
Poaching, Endangered species, Environmental civilised (so called) society. Huge amount of
impacts of dams, Genetic pollution, Genetically waste are generated at our home, office and other
modified food controversies. From places. Some simple steps, if taken by us, can
Overgrazing, Irrigation, Environmental effects reduce the production of waste to a great deal.
of meat production, to Land pollution, Adapt Reduce-Reuse-Recycle Policy :
Desertification, Soil erosion, Soil The critical fist step of waste prevention is
contamination, Soil salination. From Urban recycling. Please adapt Reduce-Reuse-recycle
sprawl, Habitat fragmentation, Habitat policy and create awareness about it in public. Ask
destruction, to Nanotoxicology, Nanopollution, your local retailers to stock more products made from
Nuclear fallout , Nuclear meltdown, recycled materials and buy products made from the
Radioactive waste, Overpopulation, Ozone highest recycled content whenever possible. In
depletion — CFC , pollutions – Air, Light, general, try to buy products/containers made from
Noise, Visual, Water, Acid rain, Eutrophication, recycled material as often as possible to support the
Marine pollution, Ocean dumping, Oil spills, recycled product market. When purchasing paper
Thermal pollution, Urban runoff, Water crisis, products, look for paper that has been recycled using
Marine debris, Ocean acidification, Ship a minimum of 50% post-consumer waste. Also,
pollution, Thermal pollution, Urban runoff, purchase from companies that do not use chlorine
Wastewater, Smog, Tropospheric ozone, to bleach their paper products (which creates dioxin
Volatile organic compound, and many more. waste). Use natural fertilizers for your flower garden
We will have a detailed discussion on each and and kitchen garden. Create a compost pit, dump the
every topic that our environment is facing in dry leaves and your vegetable wastes into that when
coming issues of Pragyan. Please read it is full, cover it with soil. The composts will be
regularly and suggest measures. ready by the next season. While in travel, you may
Finding a solution to all these problems not have recycle bins, pack your recyclables and
is the biggest challenge that humankind is carry back home.
facing today. The task is huge, most difficult Simplify your lifestyle as far as possible.
one but not impossible. A proper planning and The belongings that you use and enjoy on regular

33 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


basis, only keep them. Once when you’ll reduce trash avoided does make a difference!
your needs, you’ll purchase less and once you Stop Polythene Shopping :
purchase less, you’ll waste less. Polythene Shopping are one of the greatest
Try the 30-Day Rule : threat to the environment today. Carry your own
Before purchasing something, think — Do reusable shopping bags from home for shopping.
you really need it? Think about the product’s Refuse the articles given in plastic shopping bags.
impact on environment (also associated packaging Ask for paper bags while carrying small sized
material) and what impact on environmental will articles like dal, rice, sugar etc.
it have during its disposal. When you are thinking When staying at a hotel, let the management
about buying something, try the 30-Day Rule – know that you like to support businesses that adopt
wait 30 days after the first time you decide you environmentally responsible practices (including
want a product to really make your decision. This reducing waste). Suggest the management a Sustainable
will eliminate impulse buying. Solutions for Green Hotels environmental tips.
Adapt Use-Wash-Use Policy : Go for Veg-Food :
Minimise the use of tree and tree-products at One of the important steps to protect our
home as far as possible. Use cloth napkins / towels environment is to switch to vegetarian diet. Also
instead of paper napkins/towels. Adapt Use-Wash- ensure everyone has enough to eat. The United
Use policy. At work, edit your works on computer Nations recently released Livestock’s Long
itself. Take the printout only when you are done Shadow–Environmental Issues and Options, which
instead of taking printout-edit-do correction-take concludes that the livestock sector (primarily
final printout policy. Create and use note pads from chickens and pigs) emerges as one of the top two
once-used papers. Install a reusable notice board at or three most significant contributors to our most
home to leave message for your family members serious environmental problems, at every scale
and roommates instead of writing in a piece of paper. from local to global. It is one of the largest sources
Purchase in Bulk : of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the
Purchase the daily requirement commodities world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in
in bulk quantity in lieu of buying again and again. CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation
This will eliminate the gathering packaging emits 13.5% of the CO2. It produces 65% of
materials. Store the food items reusable containers. human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times
Avoid Creating Trash : the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of
Avoid creating trash wherever possible. when all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as
ordering food, avoid receiving any unnecessary warming as CO2). It also generates 64% of the
plastic utensils, straws, etc. (ask in advance), buy ammonia, which contributes to acid rain and
ice cream in a cone instead of a cup, don’t accept acidification of ecosystems. In addition, the
“free” promotional products, buy products with the enormous amounts of grain required to feed
least amount of packaging, etc. Every little bit of livestock reduces the amount of food available for
the world’s hungry. Buying organic, locally grown
food also reduces global warming
emissions and helps protect the
environment.
Think about becoming a lacto-
ovo vegetarian (no meat but some
eggs and dairy products) or vegan
(no animal products). (to be
continued)
(For more articles on other environmental issues, Please log on to http://sites.google.com/site/planetgreenactnow/ The
author is an alumni of Tinsukia College and now works at Chittaranjan Loco Works, West Bengal.
Photograph Courtesy: Papiya Shome )

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 34
‘¹³ºàÒü KàJã¹¹ W¡áìš>ìi¡à ëKá¹ Ê¡’®¡t¡ l¡ük¡àÒü ëA¡àì>à š[¹¯v¢¡> >Qìi¡¡ú ë™ì> : šå¹oà [A¡t¡àš-šy¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡
\åÒüA塹à [W¡³t¡ [ƒ º¹àº[¹îA¡ šàá[º A¡à[i¡¤îº ¤[Òº¡ú ëƒJà ëšà¯à ‘[Ắ¡à¹ [ó¡á’¡ú
¤à¹ãì¹ Î๠[>[ƒÚàîA¡ ë¹à¯à šàá[ºƒ¹à¹ š¹à 2) "δšèo¢ A¡àÚà”z¹o (Hemimetabola) @ št¡}K¹
[K[¹ìÚìA¡ "à[> ë=à¯à ¤Þê¡àA¡[¤ìi¡à t¡àÒü ³> A¡[¹ìº "št¡¸Ñz¹ì¤à¹ \º\ ÒÚ, ÒüÚàA¡ ‘>àÚàƒ’ (Naiad) ë¤àºà
-ÿ-ÿ- A¡[¤¹ šàt¡t¡ [A¡áå³à> Î¹ç¡ Î¹ç¡ Ò຋ãÚà ¤¹o¹ ÒÚ¡ú ë™ì> : {\d¡à¡ú
[JW¡ô[J[W¡Úà ³[>¹ ƒì¹ ¤Ññ¡ú šàt¡[Jºà P¡W¡àÒü [ƒìº 3) yû¡[³A¡ A¡àÚà”z¹o (Paurometabola) @ št¡}K¹
™[ƒ* [®¡t¡¹¹ t¡¹šìi¡àt¡ ëƒJà šàìº "à³à¹ &¹ã "št¡¸Ñz¹ì¤à¹A¡ ‘[>´£¡’ (Nymph) ë¤àºà ÒÚ¡ú ë™ì> :
ëºi¡àìi¡à¹ [>[W¡>à ëA¡Òüi¡à³à> ëºi¡à¡ú ëÎÒüìA¡Òüi¡à t¡àÒü šÒüt¡àìW¡à¹à¡ú
P¡áàÒü 뚺à캡ú t¡à¹ šàát¡ A¡[¤ìi¡à ƒåó¡àºîA¡ 4) δšèo¢ A¡àÚà”z¹o (Holometabola) @ A¡oã¹ š¹à
A¡àìi¡àìt¡ [®¡t¡¹t¡ [º¹[º¹àÒü =A¡à ÅA¡t¡ A¡’ºà ¤¹o¹ óå¡[i¡ *ìºà¯à šºåì¤à¹ ëºi¡à ¤àìÞê¡, šàát¡ šèo¢[¤A¡àÅ št¡}K¹
šºå ëƒJà šà캡ú Òàt¡t¡ šºå &l¡àº ºKàt¡ t¡àÒü Òàt¡ Îõ[Ê¡ ÒÚ¡ú ë™ì> : š[Jºà¡ú
‹åÒü 뚺à캡ú’ &Òü Qi¡>àìi¡àt¡ ¹³ºàÒü ëƒJà ëšà¯à št¡}K¹ ή¡¸t¡à [A¡³à> šøàW¡ã>?
¤Ññ ëA¡Òüi¡à "à[Ạ-ÿ-ÿ- št¡}K¹ A¡oã, ëºi¡à "à¹ç¡ [¤[®¡Ä št¡}K[¤ƒ¹ γãÛ¡à ">åÎ[¹ 350-500 [>™åt¡
šºå¡ú ³à>åÒ¹ \ã¯>t¡ [™ƒì¹ íÅů, íA¡ìÅà¹, ™å¯à ¤á¹¹ šè줢 [¤Å«t¡ št¡}K¹ "à[¯®¢¡à¤ íÒ[ạú ÑHi¡ìºr¡t¡
"à¹ç¡ ¤õ‡ý¡ "à[ƒ š[¹yû¡³à š¹Ñš¹ Î}K[t¡ ¹à[J δšÄ "à[¯ÍH๠ëÒà¯à ël¡®¡’[>Úà> (Devonian) ™åK¹ Rhyniella
ÒÚ [k¡A¡ ëÎÒüƒì¹ št¡}K¹ \ã¯> ¤å¹gãt¡ A¡oã, šºå, precursor (Pedigo, 2006) >à³¹ št¡}K¹ ó¡[áìºÒü Ò’º
ëºi¡à "à¹ç¡ šèo¢¤ÚÑH (š[Jºà, ³à[J ¤à P¡¤¹ç¡¯à) ίàìt¡àîA¡ šøàW¡ã> ³à>¯`¡àt¡ št¡}K¡ú l¡ü[Š±ƒ¹Î JàƒA¡
"à[ƒì¹ δšèo¢ ÒÚ¡ú &ì>‹¹ìoì¹ &i¡à Ñz¹¹ š¹à A¡ãi¡ì¤à¹¹ [¤¯t¢¡> íÒ "à‹å[>A¡ št¡}K
"à> &i¡à Ñz¹îº š[¹¯v¢¡> ëÒà¯à šø[yû¡ÚàA¡ Îõ [ Ê¡ Ò*ò ì t¡ [yû ¡ i¡à[W¡ÚàW¡
A¡àÚà”z¹o ( Metamorphosis) (Cretacious)
ë¤àºà ÒÚ¡ú ™å K îºìA¡ &A¡
A¡àÚà”z¹o ³àì>ì>à [A¡ @
A¡ãi¡-št¡}K¹
ëÛ¡yt¡ [t¡[>‹¹o¹ A¡àÚà”z¹o ëƒJà ™àÚ :
1) "A¡àÚà”z¹o (Ametabola) : št¡}K¹
"št¡¸Ñz¹ "à¹ç¡ šèo¢ [¤A¡[Åt¡ št¡}K¹
³à\t¡ "àA¡à¹ ¤õ[‡ý¡¹
¤àìƒ ">¸

35 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


t¡à[ºA¡à : 1) št¡}K¹ [¤[®¡Ä Ñz¹¹ ëÅøoã[¤®¡à\> t¡à[ºA¡à : 2) št¡}[¤ƒ¸à ">å™àÚã št¡}K¹ ¤K¢ãA¡¹o
Ñz¹ [¤[®¡Ä ®¡àK l¡üƒàÒ¹o ¤K¢ l¡üƒàÒ¹o
A¡oã -ÿ-ÿ- -ÿ-ÿ- A¡) Apterygota
šºå "šƒã (Apod) ³à[J 1) Thysanura Silverfish
"¿šƒã (Oligopod) P¡¤¹ç¡¯à 2) Collembola Springtail
3) Protura Telsontail
¤×šƒã (Polypod) š[Jºà
4) Diplura Japygids
ëºi¡à ÒüGàì¹i¡ (Exerate) P¡¤¹ç¡¯à J) Pterygota
"¯ìi¡C¡ (Obtact) ³= 5) Ephemeroptera Mayfly
yû¡àÒüìW¡[ºW¡ (Chrysalis) š[Jºà 6) Odonata [\òd¡à
A¡’¯A¢¡ìi¡i¡ (Coarctate) ³à[J 7) Plecoptera Stonefly
šøàœ¡¤ÚÑH 8) Grylloblatodia Rock Crawlers
9) Orthoptera ó¡[¹}, A塳[t¡
10) Phasmida Stick insect,
Leaf insect
11) Dermaptera Earwig
12) Embioptera Webspiner
13) Dictyoptera šÒüt¡àìW¡à¹à
14) Isoptera l¡üòÒü-š¹ç¡¯à
15) Zoraptera Zoraptean
16) Psocoptera [A¡t¡àš¹ *A¡[>
17) Mallophaga W¡¹àÒü¹ *A¡[>
18) Siphonculata ³à>åÒ¹ áຠl¡üA¡[>
19) Hemiptera KàÞê¡ã ëšàA¡
20) Thysanoptera Thrips
21) Neuroptera Antlion, Aphidlion
22) Mecoptera Scorpion fly
23) Lepidoptera š[Jºà
24) Trichoptera Caddisfly
25) Diptera ³à[J
26) Siphonaptera Fleas
27) Hymenoptera š¹ç¡¯à, ë³ï, ¤¹º
28) Coleoptera P¡¤¹ç¡¯à
29) Strepsiptera Stylopids
*30)Mantophasmatidae Gladiator
* >tå ¡ >îA¡ Ѭ ã Aõ ¡ [t¡ ëšà¯à ¤K¢ ¡ ú "γãÚàt¡ ëKàìi¡Òüì¤à¹ ¤K¢¹ >à³
ëšà¯à >à™àÚ ¤àì¤, Òü}¹à\ãìÚÒü ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡¹à íÒìá¡ú

[W¡y 1 [¤[®¡Ä št¡}K¹ [l¡´¬ (Pedigo, 2006)


[W¡y 2: š[Jºà \àt¡ãÚ št¡}K¹ šºå (Pedigo, 2006)
/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 36
[W¡y 3 : P¡¤¹ç¡¯à \àt¡ãÚ št¡}K¹ šºå (Pedigo, 2006) [W¡y 7 : št¡}K¹ δšèo¢ A¡àÚàÑz[¹t¡ [¤A¡àÅ ‘³à[J’
(Pedigo, 2006)

[W¡y 4 : št¡}K¹ "A¡àÚàÑz[¹t¡ [¤A¡àÅ ‘[W¡º®¡à¹ [ó¡á’


(Pedigo, 2006)

[W¡y 5 : št¡}K¹ "δšèo¢ A¡àÚàÑz[¹t¡ [¤A¡àÅ [W¡y 8 : [¤[®¡Ä št¡}K¹ ëºi¡à (A¡), (J) "à¹ç¡ (K)
‘‘ë³’ óáàÒü’’ (Pedigo, 2006) ëº[šl¡’ìŸi¡¹à; (Q) š¹ç¡¯à; (R¡) ³Ò (Pedigo, 2006)

[W¡y 6 : št¡}K¹ yû¡[³A¡ A¡àÚàÑz[¹t¡ [¤A¡àÅ [W¡y 9 : šøàœ¡¤ÚÑH P¡¤¹ç¡¯à \àt¡ãÚ št¡}K
‘[С}K ¤àK’((Pedigo, 2006) (Pedigo, 2006)

37 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


ÎåƒãQ¢ š[¹yû¡³à "[t¡yû¡³ A¡[¹¤ ºKàt¡ š[¹[ạú ³‹å [>™¢àι ¤àì¤Òü ë³à¯à-ëšàA¡A¡ l¡üv¡û¡ ëšàA¡¹
\ã¯\Kt¡t¡ št¡}K¹ šø®è¡â« : "àyû¡³o¹ š¹à ¹Û¡à A¡ì¹¡ú
šøàoã\Kt¡ìt¡Òü >ÒÚ Î³Nø \ã¯\Kt¡¹ &A¡ ¤×º "}Å, R¡) Òü ³à>åÒ¹ ƒì¹ ¤×ƒè¹ "[t¡yû¡³ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ‘³>¢àA¡
¤t¢¡³à> št¡}K¹ ƒJºt¡ "àìá¡ú "ƒ¸[š Î}`¡à[Út¡ 1.7 [>™åt¡ ¤ài¡à¹óáàÒü’ >à³¹ š[JºàÒü šøìt¡¸A¡ Åãt¡t¡ ëÒ\à¹
šø\à[t¡¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ 45,000 šø\à[t¡ 볹硃r¡ã, 2,50,000 ëÒ\๠³àÒüº Òül¡ü.&á.&.¹ š¹à šø¤ö\> A¡[¹¤
šø \ à[t¡ l¡ü [ Š± ƒ "à¹ç ¡ 9,50,000 šø \ à[t¡ št¡}K šà칡ú &Òü šø¤\ ö > l¡üš™åv¡û¡ š[¹ì¯Å ºà®¡¹ l¡üì„ìŸ
(Groombridge, 1992)¡ú \ã¯[¤ìƒ >à³àA¡¹o A¡[¹¤îº A¡ì¹¡ú
ÎÛ¡³ ëÒà¯à &Òü št¡}K γèÒ¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ A¡[º"’ìŸi¡¹à W¡) ‘ë¤K¯³¢’¹ šºå "à¹ç¡ ëºi¡à Îå¹[Û¡t¡ ë³à>๠[®¡t¡¹t¡
ëº[šl¡’ìŸi¡¹à, ÒàÒüì³>’ìŸi¡¹à "à¹ç¡ [l¡ìŸi¡¹à¤K¢¹, ™=àyû¡ì³ [¤A¡àÅ šàÚ¡ú
3, 1.1, 1.1 "à¹ç¡ 0.85 ºàJ šø\à[t¡™åv¡û¡ št¡}KÒü ³à>åÒ "Û¡³ št¡}K ÎÛ¡³ @
\ã¯\Kt¡¹ 56% k¡àÒü "[‹A¡à¹ A¡[¹ "àìá¡ú Òü³’W¡ (Imm's) A¡) št¡}KÒü [W¡»¡, ë³ï, ³³ "à¹ç¡ ºà šøÑñt¡ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú
>à³¹ št¡}K[¤ƒô K¹àA¡ãìÚ Î³Nø št¡}KA¡ 19 i¡à ¤K¢t¡ ¤K¢ãAõ¡t¡ J) "Î}J¸ Î¹ç¡ Î¹ç¡ ó塺¹ š¹à ³‹å Î}NøÒ A¡[¹¤ šàì¹,
A¡[¹ìá, ™[ƒ* ¤v¢¡³à> "à‹å[>A¡ [¤`¡à>ãγàì\ ѬãAõ¡[t¡ šøƒà> [™ìi¡à A¡à³ ³à>åìÒ "t¡¸à‹å[>A¡ ιgàì³ì¹* A¡[¹¤
A¡¹à "à> &i¡à >¤ã> ¤K¢ Ò’º ‘ë³si¡’ìó¡Í¶à[i¡[l¡’¡ú ë>à¯à칡ú
³à>åìÒìÒ šàì¹ì>[A¡¡? K) [>\Ѭ šà[Jì¹ l¡ü[¹¤ šà칡ú ³à>åìÒ ëÒ[ºA¡œ¡à¹ "à¹ç¡
A¡) ³à>åÒ¹ ƒì¹ [ÎÒòìt¡ "àÅøÚÑ‚º [>o¢Ú A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú &ì¹àìšÃì>ì¹ìÒ šà칡ú
l¡üƒàÒ¹o Ѭ¹¡ê ìš ë³ï-³à[JìÚ ë³ï-¤àÒ Îà[\¤ \àì>¡ú Q) [>ì\Òü ëšàÒì¹à Îõ[Ê¡ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ë™ì> : ë\à>àA¡ã
J) šø™å[v¡û¡ ëA¡ïź ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡[¹ "à¯àÎ Îà[\¤ \àì>¡ú š¹ç¡¯à¡ú
ë™ì> : l¡üòÒü ëšàìA¡ ¤× *J Òàó¡ºå [>\Ѭ A¡ºà- R¡) [>\Ѭ *\>t¡îA¡ ¤× P¡o K‹å¹ ¤Ññ ƒà[R¡¤ šàì¹ú
ëA¡ïÅìºì¹ šøÑñt¡ A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú ë™ì> : š¹ç¡¯à¡ú
K) ³à>åìÒ l¡üƒ¸à> Îì\à¯à¹ ëº[JÚàîA¡ [A¡áå³à> l¡üòÒüìÚ W¡) šøìt¡¸A¡ í\[¯A¡ šƒà=¢ - Wå¡[º, šà[J, $º, ³³,
ë®ò¡A塹 l¡üƒ¸à> [>³¢ào A¡ì¹¡ú l¡üƒàÒ¹o Ѭ¹ê¡ìš l¡üòÒüìÚ ëW¡ºåº’\, ÒàØl¡, ët¡\, l¡ü[Š±ƒ [>™¢àÎ, ³à}Î "à¹ç¡ \”ñ¹
Òàó¡ºå¹ *š¹t¡ ¤¹ >àóå¡ >à³¹ ë®ò¡A塹, Jàƒ¸¹ ë¹W¡> ‰¤¸ "à[ƒA¡ Jàƒ¸¹ ¹ê¡št¡ NøÒo A¡[¹¤ šà칡ú
l¡üì„ìŸ "à¹ç¡ ºKìt¡ "à‰t¡à¹ ®¡à¹Î೸ ¹Û¡à¹ ¤àì¤ "=¢î>[t¡A¡®¡àì¯ P¡¹ç¡â«šèo¢ Åθ, šøàoã "à¹ç¡ íƒ>[–ƒ>
K\àÒü ºÚ¡ú "à[Òºàšà[t¡ ‹ÿ¤}Î A¡[¹ &Å &¤å[¹ ¤ƒ>à³¹ ³à\ìt¡à št¡}K¹
Q) ³à>å ì Ò K¹ç ¡ ëšàÒ๠ƒì¹ [A¡áå ³ à> š¹ç ¡ ¯àÒü [A¡áå³à> l¡üšA¡à¹ l¡üìÀJ>ãÚ¡ú ëA¡[t¡Úà¤à ³Òà³à¹ã¹ l¡ü;Î
ë³à¯à-ëšàA¡A¡ ³‹å[>™¢àÎ "àÒ¹o¹ ¤àì¤ ëšàìÒ¡ú [ÒW¡àìš [yû¡Úà A¡¹à št¡}K¹ [A¡áå³à> šø\à[t¡ Jàƒ¸ [ÒW¡àìš*
‘ëº[l¡ ¤àl¢¡[¤i¡º’ >à³¹ ëšàA¡ [¤‹¹ &A¡ šø\à[t¡ìÚ ¤¸¯Ò๠ÒÚ¡ú \ã¯>A¡ "Š±ét¡‹¹ìo ‹à¹o A¡[¹¤ \>à šàîA¡t¡
ë³à¯à-ëšàA¡A¡ Jàƒ¸ [ÒW¡àìš ¤¸¯Ò๠A¡ì¹¡ú š¹ç¡¯àÒü [Å¿ã št¡}K¹ [¤ÈìÚ \à[> ëÅÈ A¡[¹¤ ë>à¯à[¹¡ú
šøÎ}K šå[=
1¡ú A Textbook of Applied Entomology by K.P. Srivastava (1996 Edition and 1st Vol)
2¡ú Insecta – An introduction by Raghumoorthi et al. (2003 Edition)
3¡ú Entomology and Pest Management by L.P. Pedigo (2006 Edition)
[˜¡o ѬãA¡à¹ : šàr¡[º[šìi¡à šøÑñ[t¡¹ γÚt¡ [¤[®¡Ä ‹¹ìo ÎÒàÚ "àK¤ìØn¡à¯à¹ ¤àì¤ Åøã³à> W¡yû¡šà[o "à¹ç¡
Åøã³à> ™å[v¡û¡ [·ý¡îº ‹>¸¤àƒ ™à[W¡ìºòà¡ú]

([ºJA¡ >Kà*ò W¡Ò¹¹ "[‹¤àÎã¡¡ú &Òü\> Aõ¡[È [¤`¡à>ã "γãÚà ®¡àÈàt¡ [¤`¡à> [¤ÈÚ¹ &\> º¦ šø[t¡Ë¡ ëºJA¡)

Don't keep your dreams in the eyes. they may drop down as tears. Keep
them in your heart. So that every heartbeat reminds you to fulfil your
desire. Paramita Prajna : Scribed in Pragyan’s Orkut Profile

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 38
\ã¯Î³èÒ¹ [®¡t¡¹t¡ ΃¸\àt¡ ³à>¯[ÅÇ¡ì¯Òü K[t¡t¡ ÒÚ¡ú šø=³ìt¡ [l¡[R¡ "à¹ç¡ ¤à×¹ [¤A¡àÅ ÒÚ, t¡à¹
ÎA¡ìºàt¡îA¡ "ÎÒàÚ "à¹ç¡ "îšot¡¡ú ΃¸\àt¡ &[i¡ [ÅÇ¡ šàát¡ìÒ l¡ü¹ç¡ "à¹ç¡ ®¡[¹¹ Kk¡>¹ [¤A¡àÅ Qìi¡¡ú ëÎìÚìÒ
Ѭà‹ã>®¡àì¯ \ãÚàÒü =A¡àìi¡à "δ±¯¡ú šø=³ "¯Ñ‚àt¡ &[i¡ [ÅÇ¡[i¡ìÚ ¤[Ò¤îº ëºà¯à¹ "àKìt¡Òü ëA¡àì>à ¤Ññ Jà³å[W¡
[ÅÇ¡ì¯ Jàƒ¸, ¹Û¡oàì¤Û¡o "à¹ç¡ [A¡áå ³¹³¹ l¡üš[¹* K๠‹[¹¤ šà칡ú [ÅÇ¡ l¡àR¡¹ ëÒà¯à¹ ºìK ºìK ³à}ÎìšÅãγèÒ
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š[¹šB¡t¡à ºà®¡ A¡ì¹¡ú íÅů "¯Ñ‚àt¡ Ź㹹 ">¸à>¸ ¤à[Øn¡¤îº ‹ì¹¡ú [t¡[>³àÒt¡ [ÎÒòt¡¹ W¡àº¹ Kk¡> \–µìt¡ =A¡à
"}K¹ t塺>àt¡ ³è¹ìi¡à¹ "àA¡à¹ "à>åšà[t¡A¡®¡àì¯ ë¤[á W¡àºJ>t¡îA¡ [A¡áå šõ=A¡ ÒÚ¡ú &Òü γÚt¡ìÒ šøAõ¡t¡ [ÅÇ¡¹
l¡àR¡¹ ÒÚ¡ú [ÅÇ¡¹ ëƒÒ¹ [¤A¡àÅ *š¹¹ š¹à t¡ºîº W¡àº ¤å[º A¡’¤ š¹àîA¡ W¡àºJ> ëA¡à³º "à¹ç¡ [³[Ò ÒÚ¡ú &Òü
ÒÚ¡ú [ÎÒòt¡¹ ¤à× ƒåJ>t¡îA¡ ®¡[¹ƒåJ>¹ ¤õ[‡ý¡ [A¡áå ³”‚¹ γÚìW¡à¯àìt¡ ¹v¡û¡ Î}¤Ò> t¡”|ìi¡à A¡à™¢Û¡³ ÒÚ ™[ƒ* k¡àr¡à
39 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
¤à K¹³ [>Ú”|o A¡[¹¤ š¹à Û¡³t¡àîº >àìÒ¡ú ëÎìÚìÒ [ÅÇ¡A¡ ³àtõ¡K®¢¡ìt¡ ëÅȹó¡àºîº ƒòàt¡ì¤à¹¹ [¤A¡àŹ šø[yû¡Úà "๴±
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[ÎÒòìt¡ ëKài¡à ¤Ññ ëW¡à¤à¤îº "à¹ç¡ [K[º¤îº [ÅìA¡¡ú &Òü Îà³NøãìÚ [ÎÒòt¡¹ A¡¿>àt¡ ¤à‹àìÒ \–µàÚ¡ú [¤ìÅÈîA¡ [t¡[>
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®¡àº¡ú ƒò à t¡¹ "àA¡à¹ Kk¡> Ò*òìt¡ ™ì=Ê¡ Î³Ú [ÎÒòìt¡ [t¡[>³àÒ¹ š¹àÒü ¤å[\¤ š¹à ÒÚ¡ú &¤á¹¹ š¹à º’¹à
ºàìK¡ú "à¹ç¡ ëáà¯àºã¹ ëJºà¹ ‹¹oì¤à¹ ºàìÒ ºàìÒ
ë¤ìºK ÒÚ¡ú
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(ëº[JA¡à šøàoã [¤`¡à> [¤®¡àK¹ [ÅÛ¡[Úyã)

(Contd. from Page 26)

Career Tabloid
from the AICTE have been already acquired by The University is also working on to introduce
the university. Courses would be like Computer several more professional courses for the benefit of
Sciences and Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, the students of the northeast. These include a
Electronic & Computer Engineering and proposed course in Petroleum Exploration
Mechanical Engineering. All the courses would Geophysics, PG courses in Philosophy and Hindi,
have the four year semester system, and successful B.P.Ed (Bachelor in Physical Education). Other
candidates would be conferred AICTE approved proposals include introduction of courses relating
B Tech degrees. to aviation, avionics, hospitality and tourism, etc.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 40
In the vast Indian sub continent, the Assamese is a very ancient language, a fact
Assamese stands out with its own unique not very well recognized by many
identity which is somewhat different in Assamese. Amongst the NIA languages, Assamese
character from the rest of India. This is bears some unique characteristics which are not
evident in many respects of the Assamese found in other Indian languages. The phonetics of
culture. Importantly, this is noticeable in the the Assamese language are somewhat different from
Assamese language which has the other IA languages in India (Sanskrit, Hindi, Punjabi,
characteristic guttural X (Î) sound. This Bengali etc) chiefly for four reasons. 1) Assamese
sound which is pronounced in between the language has developed, over the years, in
English sounds /s/ and /h/ is normally not comparative isolation from other IA languages in
found in any other modern Indian languages. India. 2) Assamese language was influenced heavily
It is the Assamese language which has given by the Tibeto-Burman and other languages of NE,
us not only our separate identity but also has while other IA languages in mainland India were
given us our delicate unity in this multi racial not. 3) The IA languages in mainland India, on the
Austric-Tibeto-Burman-Mongoloid-Aryan other hand, were influenced heavily by the Dravidian
labyrinth of North East India. languages while Assamese was not. 4) The branch
Assamese is the eastern-most member of Aryans that emigrated to Assam in pre-historic
of New Indo Aryan (NIA) languages in India, times, were basically pre-Vedic Aryans, because of
and is spoken in the Brahmaputra valley in which Assamese still retains some of the
Assam. It is also the easternmost member of characteristics of the original phonetics of the Indo-
the Indo-European group of languages which European group of languages which other IA
is the largest language group in the world with languages in India seem to have lost.
a total number of speakers of more than half One major difference is the absence of the
of the world population. All the modern cerebrals (murdhonyo swor) in the Assamese
European languages as well as those of Iran, language which are present in Sanskrit and other
India and Pakistan fall into this Indo- NIA languages. In the original pre-Vedic language
European group. Being the farthest outpost these cerebrals were not there and Sanskrit is said
of Aryan migration towards the east, to have acquired the cerebrals later due to the
Assamese falls in the outer belt or in the influence of Dravidian languages. Beside that,
peripheral Indo-Aryan languages. Assamese has the unique X (Î) sound which is
It is a multi-lingual column. Our valued writers can contribute write-ups in any of the four
languages — English, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. — Editor.

41 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


absent in Sanskrit and other NIA languages. What Hellenic and Celtic” In many languages this
is the characteristics of this Assamese X (Î) sound ? original Indo-European X (Î) sound was lost which
Where from and when did the Assamese acquire either evolved to s, kh or h. According to Kaliram
this X (Î) sound ? Is it an non Aryan sound ? Let Medhi, a great Assamese scholar, “The Assamese
us see what the scholars have to say about the pronunciation of the sibilants is peculiar in
Assamese X (Î) sound. Assamese, and evidently a relic of pre Vedic Aryan
Phonetically, this Assamese X (Î) sound is pronunciation.” Dimbeswar Neog another
Assamese scholar also agrees, “Next to the above
similar to the German sound /ch/ as pronounced in
the word ‘Bach’ or the Scottish sound as found in peculiarities is the Asamiya X (Î) pronunciation
the word ‘Loch’. Thus unlike Sanskrit and other of the sibilants which also must have been brought
NIA languages, in Assamese, all the three Indo- by the Early Aryans called the Mediterranean.”
Aryan Sibilants: s ( Î ), s’( È ) and s’’( Å ) are The X (Î) sound was there in the pre-Vedic Aryan
pronounced as X (Î) and not as ‘so’. This is a language also before the evolution of the classical
Sanskrit language. Dr Suniti Kumar Chatterjee,
unique characteristic of the Assamese language.
writes “It seems that in certain forms of OIA (Old
When the Baptist Missionaries in the early
nineteenth century encountered the Assamese Indo-Aryan) languages the X (Î) sound was the
language for the first time, they duly observed the actually one employed for S as can be inferred from
Assamese X (Î) sound and opined correctly that a medieval pronunciation of S as /kh/ being the
nearest approximation to the traditional X(Î)’’.
Assamese has the unique X (Î) sound which is
Dimbeswar Neog further writes, “When the Nordic
similar to the Greeks. It may be noted here that
of Vedic Aryan immigration into India took place
none of the non-Aryan languages in the North East
(Bodo, Tai, Meitei, Kuki and other Tibeto-Burman in the second millennium B.C., the X (Î) sound as
or Naga-Kuki languages) has any sound similar to in Asamiya was prominent. Chatterjee thinks that
this X (Î) sound. In fact many ethnic groups in the “tatax kim” was the actual pronunciation at the
time of the Rig Veda. It came to be pronounced as
North have problem in pronouncing the X (Î)
“tatah kim” in later times owing to the loss of X
sound correctly. In this context it may be mentioned
( Î ) sound due to non-Aryan influence
that the Sylheti language has this X sound which
predominating over the Aryan. But it remained
is pronounced as h. When Mr Benudhar Rajkhowa
almost intact in the Dardic or Pisaci speech which
was a magistrate in the district of Sylhet, he wrote
like the Asamiya is a language of the outer band.”
a book titled Notes on the Sylheti Dialect in 1913.
There he showed that the Sylheti language was Mr Neog shows that this X (Î) sound was
more similar to the Assamese than to the Bengali. there in the Bengali language till the eighteenth
He specially noted that the Sylheti people century. Citing an Benglo-Portuguese Dictionary
pronounce the sibilants S as X ( Î ) like the which was published in Lisbon in 1743 with the
Assamese. However, they lean towards /h/ and they spelling x for X (Î) pronunciation in the title, Mr
say hi (As. xi), hou (As. xou), heito (As. xeito) etc. Neog commented, “....the Asamiya X ( Î )
unlike the Bengalees. Mr Benudhar Rajkhowa also pronunciation lingered in Bengal until at least the
came across an old Sylheti manuscript of Padma middle of eighteenth century from the earliest times
Puran written in old Assamese script. even through the “Caryas” and “Krishna Kirtan”
About this X (Î) sound, Dr. Suniti Kumar etc. Perhaps even to-day the state of Bengal has
Chatterjee, the leading Indian philologist, two distinct cross currents of their speech - the
remarked, “The change of initial, intervocal and lower and deeper being that of old Asomiya or
final (sibilants) to the gluteral spirant X (Î) in Kamrupi, and the upper and the surface current
being that of modern or standard Bengali so called.
Assamese is something remarkable and is
paralleled by what we see in Singhalese and As for the X (Î ) pronunciation, it has mostly
Kashmiri. This is also noticeable in Iranian, changed to H as in East Bengal”.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 42
How this sound came to Assam ? According formless God. It is interesting to note that even today
to one theory, it was carried by the early immigrants Assamese culture has some striking correspondence
who were the Alpine Aryans from the with the old Persian culture as found in Zend-Avesta.
Mediterranean. “During the third millennium The Persian language has also some
B.C.the Alpine immigration poured into India, one correspondence with the Assamese language in
branch of them moving toward the western coast many respects including the common X (Î) sound
of India through the Indus valley and the other which is pronounced as /h/ like the Sylheti language.
branch pushing towards Eastern India.” They Scholars have now correctly identified this
must have come through the foothills of the unique Assamese sound to be a ‘veller fricative’
Himalayas bypassing the mainland India. sound. Dr. Banikanata Kakaoty, states that in
Assamese language bears some interesting Assamese it is an ‘unvoiced velar fricative’ sound.
correspondence to some languages of the Dr Golok Ch Goswami describes it as a “velar
Himalayan foothills. It is also probable that some voiceless aspirant’. The International Phonetic
of them came through one of the northern trade Association (IPA), has identified all the sounds of
routes thru Tibet and Bhutan, which were in all the languages in the world and have assigned
common use in those times. The X (Î) sound has some unique symbols. The IPA symbol of the ‘velar
also been retained by some people in Rajasthan fricative’ sound as found in Assamese and other
and other western states. languages is the Roman letter X. (See IPA Chart).
Thus we see
that this X ( Î )
sound in Assamese
is not something
which developed
in Assam, nor it is
a sound which was
inherited from any
of the non-
Aryan languages
in Assam, but it
simply marks an
earlier Indo-
European pre-
Vedic heritage.
Thus our
A s s a m e s e
language is a
unique language
which is one of the
few which still
retains this X (Î)
sound. It is
obvious that in
Assam we have this sound from the early days of Some of the Indo-European languages have
Narakaxura and before who belongs to an Axura retained this sound although today in each language,
(Sans : Asura) tribe which is an earlier pre-Vedic the actual pronunciation is slightly different. In the
Aryan group; the main branch of this group European languages this sound is spelled either as x
immigrated to Persia and later established the or ch. In the Greek language it is spelled as x as in
worship of the supreme deity, Ahura Mezda as the the word Xarish (meaning favor). In the Russian
43 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
language it is spelled as x as in the words Xrushchev to adopt a standard Roman letter for this sound. The
or Chexov. In the German language it is spelled as absence of a formal Romanized adoption of this sound
ch as in the words Dach (meaning roof) or Bach in Assamese has created a serious problem. It inhibits
(meaning brook). In Scottish language also this the Assamese to express this proper Assamese sound
sound is there, and is spelled, like the Germans, as through the Roman script. As a result, at present, all
ch as in the word Loch (meaning hole). Assamese proper names are being written and
However, that is not all. Philologists tell us pronounced in rather Anglicized form, the way the
that this X (Î) sound was there in our familiar British had presented these to us in the nineteenth
English language too. Commenting on this sound, century, than in Roman script. We therefore invariably
Mr Robert Claiborne states, “Just as English syntax write Sibsagar, Hukanguri, Simaluguri and
has changed over the centuries, so have English Hapekhati, not to speak of hundreds of other such
phonetics and English vocabulary. Thus the sound Assamese words. Not only that. Now a days, we even
we write as ch (as in “church”) appeared in English carry these Anglicized expressions further and write
only about fifteen hundred years back, while the words like Asom, Parishad, Satra etc for the
guttural sound /kh/ disappeared about five hundred Assamese words etc. Needless to say, none of these
years ago (except in Scotland where it is spelled ch words express the correct Assamese pronunciation.
as in : It’s a braw, bricht moonlight nicht).”(“Our We have already lost this sound from such words as
Marvelous Native Tongue”, p 17,). Other linguistics Das, Sharma, Saikia, Sibsagar, Satyen and others.
agree with Mr Claiborne. “There were other Unless the Assamese develop a keen awareness of
changes as well, most notably the loss of the Old the situation, I fear that within another few decades,
English sound /x/, which in technical terms, was a we will probably call ourselves proud Osomiya instead
voiceless labiodental fricative - or to you and me of Oxomiya.
the throat-clearing sound of /ch/ in Scottish “Loch” In order to retain this unique Assamese sound,
or German “Ach”. (“The Mother Tongue : English Assamese should take proper steps. First, in
& How it Got That Way” - Bill Bryson; p 93). keeping with the IPA (International Phonetic
From the ancient past, the Aryan roots of the Association) this sound should be represented by
Assamese language has retained the X (Î) sound even the letter X. Assamese should start writing this
after great assimilation with various other linguistic sound in their many words which have this sound.
groups of the Tibeto-Burman family. However, during Thus the correct spelling of the word Assam in
the last two hundred years, we are fast loosing this Assamese should be OXOM. There has been some
unique sound with the advent of the British since 1826. attempt to write the word with the spelling ASOM.
This is happening for several reasons. First under the Needless to say that the spelling ASOM does not
Anglicized western influence on one hand, and due represent the proper Assamese pronunciation and
to over Sanskritization of the Assamese language in this will be a sure way to kill one’s own language.
the modern period on the other, many educated Same applies to many other words such as
Assamese are confused about the real significance of Sankaradeva, Satriya and many others which
the X (xo) sound. The Assamese have therefore failed should be spelled a Xongkordeb, Xotriya etc.
References
1) Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language – Kaliram Medhi. 2) The Background of Assamese Culture
– R. M. Nath . 3) Oxomia Bhaxar Moulik Bisar – Debanad Bharali 4) Assamese-Its Formation and Development – Dr
Banikanta Kakoty 5) Structure of Assamese – Dr Golok Chandra Goswami 6) Origin and Development of Bengali
Language – S. K. Chatterjee 7) Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language – Kaliram Medhi. 8) The
Origin and Growth of Asomiya Language – Dimbeswar Neog 9) A History of India – A.F.Rudolf Hoernle & Herbert A.
Stark 10) Asamiya Barna Prakash – Dr Golokchandra Goswami. 11) The Mother Tongue : English & How it Got That
Way – Bill Bryson 12) Our Marvelous Native Tongue – Mr Robert Claiborne
(The author, an engineer by profession, is a freelance writer and writes on various cultural, linguistic and
religious issues of Assam and India. Sri Barua lives in Houston, Texas, USA. He is also the founder Chairman
of the NGO called, Friends of Assam and Seven Sisters (FASS). To know more about his works please visit :
www.friendsofassam.org)
/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 44
It was 8pm on 31 st Dec., 2008. My was time for me to initiate all the preparations that
daughter was busy with some of her friends were necessary for anyone embarking upon an
preparing for their night long celebration of the international trip. It started with a seven hour long
New Year eve. My wife was busy as usual in uninterrupted queue at the passport office,
her kitchen. I eased myself off in front of the Guwahati. One needs to go there to get an idea
TV with a cup of tea. Unfortunately the horrible about the plight of the passport seekers at the RPO,
programmes on the TV would not let me watch Guwahati. However most of the stuffs of the office
them and I have decided to sit in front of my were very sincere and hard working. It was just
PC instead to check if there was any important improper and inadequate infrastructure that made
mail coming. As I opened the mail box I hardly everyone’s life hell out there. After the passport it
realized that there was a big new year present was time for the VISA, advanced Hotel Booking,
waiting for me in the form of an acceptance Registration etc. The VISA rules for entry to any
letter from the organizers of the “SPIE European country are very strict, especially after
international Conference on Photonics” to be the 9-11 incident and if you are from a place not in
held at Prague, Czech Republic from 20 – 23 the good book of the international community, they
April, 2009. Initially I could not believe my would refuse you the visa at any pretext and that
luck. SPIE (Society for Photo-Optical was almost the case with me as well. Above all I
Instrumentation Engineers-USA) is a did not have enough money with me at that point
Pioneering organization devoted to most of time to meet with such huge expenses, had it
advanced Photonics research in the world and not been for some of my friends and also my wife
it sets such high standard for itself that it is I would never have availed this golden opportunity
almost next to impossible thing to get their nod coming my way. With financial help from them I
affirmatively. That way it was a big first got registered on-line for the conference.
achievement for me to get selected for Unlike in India the registration fee there was a huge
presentation of my paper in their conference. 545 Euro (≈ Rs. 37,000/-). Similarly the hotels
My joy knew no bound at that time. were very costly (about 80 to 100Euro per person
After the initial hangover of the news, it per night) and I had to book it in advance to meet

45 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


with the visa specifications. Then came the booking money exchanger would provide me with the
of air ticket. There is no direct flight to Prague from Czech currency, but then I had my VISA debit card
India, so after a detailed search I have opted for with me so I knew that once I get a money changing
the Delhi – Frankfurt – Prague flight route as it machine at Prague, I would have enough Czech
suited my travel plans. For the two way flight I Karuna for my use. All those formalities took
had to pay Rs. 51,000/- plus another Rs.14, 000/- almost four hours mostly due to my ignorance and
for Dibrugarh – Delhi and back journey. On 15th also to a certain extent due to heavy traffic even at
April I boarded the plane to Delhi as my Visa was that hour.
not ready yet and the Czech Embassy had asked After completion of my final security check
me to appear before them for an interview. it was time for us to wait in the lounge for the
In Delhi I stayed for couple of days at the departure. I was terribly exhausted mainly due to
flat of Mr. Malay Kishore Dutta, who happened to the heat of Delhi and pressure of going abroad
be one of my most talented and adorable students. alone for the first time to present paper on an
Malay and his wife Indu took great care of me international platform started telling on me. I was
during my stay at their place. On 20th April I got sitting alone in a corner of the suffocating lounge
the Visa and the same night I boarded my flight feeling pretty lonely and awed by the occasion.
for Frankfurt. In fact the Air India airbus to Starting from such a humble background to get
Frankfurt was scheduled to fly at 1-10 am next recognition at the international arena was
morning, but I arrived at the Delhi International something that I found really hard to believe at
airport (Indira Gandhi International Airport) well that time. At the same time I was really scared also.
in advance as that was for the first time I was What if I fail to convince the experts over there, or
boarding an international flight and I was basically what if they simply laugh at my work? All those
not familiar with the huge amount of the formalities thoughts and tiredness made me very sick and weak
that I had to go through at the airport. Slowly and from inside. But at the top of it I knew that I cannot
steadily I have tried to follow what the other go back empty-handed from here. At least I cannot
passengers had been doing and by frequently taking disappoint all those well wishers back home. So I
the help from the ever busy flight attendants, I went gathered strength and kept waiting. At last the call
through the processes like check–in, passport and for boarding the plane came and everybody hustled
immigration control, security check etc. Before towards the boarding gate. Here again after a long
that I had converted some Indian currencies to queue, of which I was the last, all of us finally
Euro. In Czech Republic they mostly use their own boarded the plane. It was a huge airbus, and my
currency “Karuna” but in the airports, Taxi stands seat was towards its wings. I was so tired that after
etc you can use Euros as well. In Delhi Airport no boarding the plane I fell deep asleep.
Our plane landed at Frankfurt at around 6
am. From Frankfurt my flight to Prague was in a

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 46
small plane of Lufthansa Airlines. I had two hours drinks to us. I took one burger and a bottle of apple
of transit time in my hand and normally it is juice and by the time we finished our breakfast the
sufficient enough time for a transit. Along with the pilot started preparing the plane for landing at
other transit passengers I had been guided by one Prague International Airport.
very smart German attendant in his twenties. He In Prague it was summer time but the normal
first briefed us about the formalities for transit temperature was a chilly 100C. I was told that in
passengers, then gave us the counter numbers, the winter the whole city is completely covered by
terminal gate numbers and finally showed us the snow and the temperature goes down to as low as
direction in which we needed to go to find the – 200C. After coming out of the airport I boarded
counters. He then left us with a bright smile. Once a share -taxi and the driver dropped me in front of
he left I was on my own, and then I started realizing my hotel after almost an hour. On my way to the
how big that Frankfurt Airport’s international hotel I could see the glimpses of the heavenly
terminal could be. I, along with other passengers beauty of the city and the landscape formed by the
virtually ran for almost twenty minutes through that Vtlava (Moldau) River, which is flowing down
endless building to arrive at the Passport and the heart of the city. After boarding the hotel room,
customs check counters. The tough and scary I straightaway went to the conference building,
looking customs officers very promptly cleared me which was just one metro stop away from my hotel.
after asking few questions and showed me the way The “Prague Congress Center”, in which the
to the security check gate. Looking around I again conference was going on, was a huge building and
realized that it was time for another sprint as my was in a very high security zone as it frequently
clock showed that almost one hour had elapsed hosts summits of European Union and NATO etc.
since my arrival at the airport. With many others I After entering the building and passing through
again started moving very fast through the tube the security-check, I completed the registration
like tunnels (air conditioned of course) and after formalities and entered the hall in which the
another ten – fifteen minutes of virtual running, presentation of my section (Nonlinear Optics) was
finally I saw the Security check gates at a very going on. The main theme of the conference was
distant corner of the building. By this time I have Photonics and it had nine sub themes. Nonlinear
realized what it takes to change a flight at an Optics was one of the subthemes. Total six hundred
international airport. Any way, at the security check scientists and technological wizards from all over
point it was a heavy rush and after an hour long the world took part in it and it was an awesome
queue I finally got through the security check with experience for me to be a part of the whole
a deep sense of relief we all boarded the plane extravaganza. I had two presentations, one was
st nd
meant for us. At 8-30 am the plane left for Prague. scheduled for 21 April and the other for 22 April.
Once the plane took off I eased off at my seat and The theoretical part of my paper was well
started looking appreciated by the
through the participants, especially by
window to get a Prof. Kato of Photonics
view of the lab. Japan; however my
Frankfurt city. It experimental works
was such a appeared to be not at par
beautiful and awe with the international
inspiring sight! In standard.
the mean time the After my
airhostess started presentation I received the
distributing certificate from the
breakfast and organizer and immediately

47 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


went out to explore the city. It was an extremely the language problem (everybody speaks their own
beautiful and well maintained city having small language only and have repulsion towards
population. The whole city is a major tourist English), I could cover only a small part of the city.
attraction having many famous tourist spots. During However I was lucky enough to visit some of the
summer the whole city is flocked by tourist from all most important historical spots and bring back their
over the Europe, mostly British and German. The memories in my camera.
people were very nice, fun loving and extremely Below I have given a very brief description
beautiful. Due to paucity of time and mainly due to of the sites that I have visited.

the original clockwork has been in operation from


the beginning to the present time for six centuries,
and even the astronomical dial shaped like an
astrolabe survives in the original form.
Here, I’m in the middle of the picture with
two co-participants, one of them is Prof. Kato
1. Tyn Cathedral : It
(right) of Japan, who heads the Photonics Dept. of
is a 12 century church
Photonics Lab, Japan.
at Prague Old Town
Square. It is basically 3.Mozart Museum : It
a huge brick structure is the place where
with two big identical Mozart lived for few
towers and a huge pure gold structure of Virgin years and created some
Mary that can be seen from miles away. of his famous
symphonies. It is now
2. Astronomical converted into a
Clock : It the most museum. However I
famous tourist could not go inside it as
attraction in the by the time I visited the
whole Czech place, it was closed.
Republic. It was built
in 1490 by the
4. The Belvedere Palace: It is an old palace
clockmaker Mikulas
renovated and beautifully maintained. I could not
of Kadan in
gather much
collaboration with
information
Jan Ondrejuv called
on this. The
Sindel, professor of
first picture
mathematics and astronomy of Prague Charles
is a photo of
University. At the turn of the hour it puts on a minute
the palace
long show with apostles moving out of the window
taken more
to the left of the clock. The four figures to either
than a
side of the top clock face represent Vanity, Greed (a
century
Jewish money-lender), Death, and a Pagan Invader
back and
(a Turk); around the bottom clock face are a
the second
Chronicler, Angel, Astronomer and Philosopher.
one (below)
It is one of the oldest European clocks of its
was taken
kind. It is unique in being the oldest of those where
by me.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 48
5. Vtlava (Moldau) River : It is the river that flows
through the entire city. With beautiful banks,
migratory birds, stealthily moving canoes and
Gorgeous motor launches it looked like a scenic
masterpiece of God. Despite flowing through the
entire city, it is totally free from any sort of pollution
that a big city can cause to a river. There are many
beautiful bridges built at different time on the river.
I could see the tourists and the locals relaxing with
a bottle of beer or juice almost everywhere on the
riversides – quietly, without making any noise.
After moving around the city for more than so much to tell them about my performance at an
one and half day finally it was time for me to say international platform! My plane left at morning 6-
good bye to the most beautiful place I have ever 30 am on 24th April from Prague and after changing
been to and after checking out of my hotel, I took a the flight at Frankfurt I finally boarded our Air India
taxi to the airport to board my plane back to India. flight to Delhi at 9-30 am the same day and finally
On my way back to the airport the taxi driver kept our flight touched down at Delhi at 9 pm.
talking to me in his own English about his country, If I someone asked me to choose from the
the Soviet dominance, the Vietnamese refugees and things that I have gathered from the brief stint at
so on, but I was absolved deep in my own thoughts, Prague, I would definitely list them according to
I just could not figure out if I was sad or happy, priority as: my research exposure at international
perhaps it was a mixture of both. I was sad as I had arena, the honesty and love that those people have
to part with this beautiful city, which gave me so for their country, strict adherence to rules and
much fame and recognition; at the same time I was regulations, utmost effort to maintain cleanliness
happy, as I was going back to my own people with and hygiene and love for their mother tongue.
(The author teaches Physics in the College)
(53 šõˡ๠š¹à)
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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 50
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®¡àÈà¹, 1800 Ŧ¹ &J> ŦìA¡àÈ¡ú [™ [A¡ >Ò*A¡, "à[³ "àKìt¡ íA¡ "Òà "γãÚà \àt¡ãÚ "[®¡‹à> [>³¢ào¹
ë\๠[ƒ¤ Jå[\ìáòà &Òü A¡=àt¡ìÒ ë™ 1940 W¡>¹ [®¡t¡¹ìt¡ l¡0 šø[yû¡Úàt¡ ¤øt¡ã Ò’¤îº íK ë¹®¡àì¹r¡ >à=à> ¤øàl¡ü>¹ Gram-
®è¡d¡à¹ Òàt¡t¡ ëÎÒü ŦìA¡àÈJ>¹ &i¡à šø[t¡[º[š š[¹[ạú matical Notices of the Assamese Language "¹ 1848
"à>Òàìt¡ ët¡ìJìt¡à "à[Ạ"γ Îà[Òt¡¸ ή¡à¹ ">¸t¡³ W¡>¹ šø=³ Î}ÑH¹o, Brief Vocabulary in English and
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51 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
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¤õ[i¡á W¡àÒà¤\ì> [º[J ë=à¯à¹ ƒì¹ Òü Vocabularies of 65); ¤¸¯ÎàÚ, ˜¡o Òüt¡¸à[ƒ (šõ@ 66-70); ëºJà δšA¢¡ãÚ
the Ashami and Kamrupa Languages >îÒ &J> (šõ@ 70-71); ‹à>ìJ[t¡ (72); [¤[®¡Ä ÅàA¡ (72-73);
Î}ÑHõ[t¡ "γãÚà "[®¡‹à> ¤à ŦìA¡àÈìÒ¡ú ¤õ[v¡Î³èÒ (šõ@ 73-77); tò¡àt¡Åຠ(77); "à[Òºà (78)
ŦìA¡àÈJ> ™å P ¡t¡à*ò ì t¡ Î}A¡ºA¡\>¹ A¡ì³* Òüt¡¸à[ƒ¡ú ÒüÚ๠¤à[Òì¹* ŦìA¡àÈJ>t¡ >à* "à¹ç¡ >à*Qài¡, ™å‡¡ý ,
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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 52
A¡ài¡º, ‹³¢-ƒÅ¢>, γÚ, Kãt¡-¤àƒ¸, ëJºà-‹èºà, [ÅÛ¡à-ƒãÛ¡à, ‘¹ç¡[W¡>à= A¡à³¹ê¡šã’¹ š¹à ëšà¯à ¤å[º [º[J ¹à[J[ạú [A¡”ñ
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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
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ºàó¡àÚ - t¡à "šå¹ A¡àìá &A¡ "àÆW¡™¢\>A¡ Qi¡>à¡ú ºà[ºt¡ Ѷõ[t¡Nø[=t¡ "ì”z¤àÎã \ã¤ì>¹ l¡üšA衺ìA¡ &A¡šàìÅ
"šåìA¡ ÑHæìº šØl¡àì>๠³t¡ Û¡³t¡à >à =àA¡ìº* [št¡à ëó¡ìº ë¹ìJ, ³à-¤à¤à¹ ÎìU Ѭ욗¹ 빺Kà[Øl¡ìt¡ W¡ìØl¡ ¤ìΡú
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\ã¤> š[¹Î¹ ë=ìA¡ ƒèì¹ =àìA¡¡ú ëáìºìA¡ "à‹å[>A¡ \ã¤> ƒå@J "šåìA¡ "àšÃåt¡ A¡ì¹¡ú t¡J> – ‘‘Òk¡à; "šå¹ ³> &A¡
®¡à¤>àÚ l¡üv¡¹ìo¹ "ƒ³¸ [ššàÎà ëƒJà ™àÚ¡ Ò[¹Òì¹¹ ³ì‹¸¡ú [¤[W¡y ">å®è¡[t¡ìt¡ ®¡[¹Úà ëKº¡ú ....A¡t¡ [A¡ ³ì> "à[κ
[A¡”ñ šøà[”zA¡à[Út¡ Îà³”zt¡à[”|A¡ ³à>[ÎA¡t¡àÚ [¤Å«àÎã Τ¢\Úà "¿ ³åÒèìt¢¡¹ ³ì‹¸....[ƒ[ƒ¹ A¡t¡ >à-ë³i¡à Îà‹.....¡ú’’
ëÎÒü [ššàÎà ë=ìA¡ "ì>A¡ ƒè칡ú t¡àÒü ëÎ ëáìºìA¡ l¡üš>¸àìι &Òü šøàì”z &ìÎ +š>¸à[ÎA¡ [¤®è¡[t¡®è¡Èo šè줢¹
¤øàÕ¡o¸¤õ[v¡ ëÅJàìt¡ l¡ü;ÎåA¡¡ú Τ¢\Úà "šå¹ [¤ìÚ, [®¡ìi¡ìt¡ ‹à¹à¤à[ÒA¡t¡à ë=ìA¡ Îì¹ [KìÚ "à‹å[>A¡ šì=¹ ™àyã "šå¹
šàA¡à¤à[Øl¡, ët¡àºà, íšìt¡ ëƒ*Úà -ÿ-ÿ- &Τ [A¡áå [>ìÚÒü A¡=à ¤ºìº* ëÎ t¡à¹ "t¡ãt¡ [ƒì>¹ A¡=à [A¡}¤à [ƒ[ƒ ƒåK¢àìA¡
Î¤Î³Ú [W¡”zà-®¡à¤>à A¡ì¹>¡ú [A¡”ñ šè줢Òü "à³à¹à ëƒJìt¡ ®å¡ºìt¡ šàì¹[>¡ú ëºJìA¡¹ ®¡àÈàÚ ¤ºà ™àÚ – ‘‘....."à[³
ëšìÚ[á, "šå K[r¡¤‡ý¡ γà\ ë=ìA¡ t¡à¹ [W¡”zà‹à¹àìA¡ ³åv¡û¡ W¡àÒü[> [ƒ[ƒ, "à[³ ët¡àìA¡ ®å¡[º[>, ÒüìZá A¡’ì¹ ëó¡ìº*
A¡ì¹ [>ìÚìá¡ú t¡àÒü ëÎ ®¡àì¤ – ‘‘ëÎ *Òü Τ \àÚKàÚ "à[Î[> -ÿ-ÿ- *¹à "à³àÚ [>ìÚ ™àìZá¡ú’’ [ƒ[ƒ¹ A¡=à
™àÒüì¤, *Òü Τ ëƒ[Jì¤, [¤ºàt¡ ™àÒüì¤, \àšà> ™àÒüì¤, [>[ÆW¡[–ƒšå¹ Nøàì³¹ A¡=à ®å¡ºìt¡ >à šà¹ìº* Î³Ú * š[¹Î¹
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[¤ìƒÅ γåì‰ Qå[¹ì¤, ... ëÎΤ ëƒìÅ ëA¡à=àÚ A¡àÒà¹à γàìºàW¡A¡ ¹ç¡= ë¹àì>ì>¹ &A¡[i¡ ³”z¤¸ l¡üìÀJ>ãÚ –
ë™> t¡àÒ๠\>¸ "ìšÛ¡à A¡[¹Úà "àìá¡ú ëÎJàì> ÒÒüìt¡ ‘‘Tense differentiation is not employed to mark vary-
t¡àÒà¹* l¡àA¡ "à[Îì¤ &A¡[ƒ> - ëÎ-* ™àÒü줡ú’’ "šå ing distances between the line of narration and the
K[r¡¤‡ý¡ \ã¤> ë=ìA¡ ¤õÒ; \ã¤ì>¹ [ƒìA¡ ™ày๠\>¸ time of the narrated but to indicate the degree of
ít¡[¹¡ú [A¡”ñ šè줢 &Òü "šå ¤øàÕ¡o¸¤àƒã [W¡”zà‹à¹àÚ [>³[ðt¡ actualization of the told events. ......the time line of
=àA¡à¹ ó¡ìº Åøà‡ý¡ ë=ìA¡ ³àìÚ¹ \>¸ áòàƒà [>ìÚ "àìÎ a story is not just the organization of events in a
&¤} ³à Τ¢\Úà* &ìt¡ Jå[Å Ò>¡ú t¡ì¤ A¡à캹 [¤¤t¢¡ì> specific order, but also the foreground of the story.’’
³èº¸ì¤à싹 A¡àk¡àì³à* t¡àØl¡àt¡à[Øl¡ ¤ƒìº ™àìZá – t¡à¹ šø³ào A¡àÅãìt¡ l¡üš[Ñ‚t¡ ÒìÚ "šå >tå¡> &A¡ šõ[=¤ã¹ ÎìU
¹ìÚìá Îå>ã캹 ³à¹ A¡=à¤àt¢¡à¹ ³ì‹¸¡ú Îå>ã캹 ³à * š[¹[W¡t¡ ÒÚ¡ú ÎUãÎà=ã샹ìA¡ [štõ¡šå¹ç¡ìȹ "[Ñzâ«Òã>
57 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
\[³ƒà¹ã¹ K¿ Ç¡>àÚ¡ú "šå¹ ³> A¡àÅã¹ >tå¡> Qì¹ ¤ìÎ ¤×ƒèì¹ t¡àÒà샹 [>[ÆW¡[–ƒšå¹¡ú’’ [t¡>¤á¹ šè줢 ëó¡ìº "àÎà
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Î¤Î³Ú l¡üØl¡æ l¡üØl¡æ =àìA¡¡ú ëÎ "à¤à¹ šàk¡ÅàºàÚ ®¡[t¢¡ ÒÚ¡ú šøàWå¡™¢ "šåìA¡ l¡àìA¡¡ú ÅÒì¹¹ +š[>ì¤[ÅA¡ š[¹ì¤Å ë=ìA¡
A¡àÅãìt¡ l¡üš[Ñ‚t¡ Ò*Ú๠[t¡> ¤áì¹¹ ³ì‹¸ "šå¹ ¤àº¸\ã¤ì> ³å[v¡û¡ šà*Ú๠\>¸ [>[ÆW¡[–ƒšåì¹¹ šøAõ¡[t¡¹ l¡àA¡ ëÎ Ç¡>ìt¡
Qìi¡ >à>à [¤Èàƒ³Ú Qi¡>à¡ú &Τ Qi¡>๠³ì‹¸ ¹ìÚìÎ [št¡à šàÚ – ‘‘..... [>[ÆW¡[–ƒšå¹ t¡àÒàìA¡ [ƒì>-¹àìt¡ ΤγÚ
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tå¡ìº¡ú [št¡à¹ "ÎåJ * ³õt塸 ¤àºA¡ "šåìA¡ Î}Î๠δ¬ìÞê¡ &Τ ëƒJ๠\>¸ "šå [¤ÈÄ ³ì> Îà³ì>¹ [ƒìA¡ &[KìÚ
"à¹* "[®¡`¡ A¡ì¹ tå¡ìº¡ú \ã¤ì>¹ W¡ºà¹ š= >à>à ¤òàA¡ ™àÚ¡ú ëÎ* \àì>- ‘‘\>Òã> [®¡i¡à¹ *k¡à>-®¡¹à A¡àºì³ìQ¹
[>ìº* ëÅÈ ÒìÚ ™àÚ[>¡ú šøAõ¡[t¡ [¤W塸t¡ "šå A¡àÅãìt¡ &A¡[i¡ \Uìº {c¡ {c¡ ëšàA¡à l¡à[A¡ì¤, ......Òºìƒ l¡à>à ët¡ìØl¡à
=àA¡à¹ Q¹ ëšìÚ* ³àtõ¡Òã> ®¡àì¤Òü t¡àìA¡ Qì¹ =àA¡ìt¡ Òt¡¡ú šàJãi¡à Aò¡à[ƒÚà Aò¡à[ƒÚà [ó¡[¹ì¤¡ú’’ t¡à Ѭìâ«* šì=¹ 냤t¡à¹
‹ãì¹ ‹ãì¹ t¡à¹ ³> K[r¡¤‡ý¡ Òìt¡ =àìA¡¡ú [>[ÆW¡[–ƒšåì¹¹ "àÔà> Ç¡ì> "šå – ‘‘³èJ¢ ¤àºA¡, š= ët¡à "à³à¹ ëÅÈ
šøAõ¡[t¡[>®¢¡¹ \Kìt¡ [Ạ"Î}J¸ ¤Þêå¡-¤àÞꡤ, ëJºà¹ ÎUã ÒÚ[> ët¡à³à샹 Nøàì³¹ ¤òàìŹ ¤ì>, ..... W¡º &[KìÚ
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3¡ú ¤ø\ƒåºàº ¤ì–ƒ¸àšà‹¸àÚ (">å¤àƒA¡) - Ѭà‹ã>t¡à Î}Nøೡú
4¡ú ƒåK¢àƒàÎ ¤ì–ƒ¸àšà‹¸àÚ - šì=¹ šòàW¡àºã ™åOµ γãÛ¡à¡ú¡
5¡ú šà=¢šø[t¡³ ¤ì–ƒ¸àšà‹¸àÚ - l¡üš>¸àÎ ¹à\î>[t¡A¡¡ú
6¡ú Ѭš>¤Îå * Òü–ƒø[\; ëW¡ï‹å¹ã (δšà[ƒt¡) - l¡ü[>Å Åt¡ìA¡¹ ¤àR¡à[º \ã¤> * Î}ÑHõ[t¡¡ú
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1¡ú [¤®è¡[t¡®è¡Èo ¤ì–ƒ¸àšà‹¸àÚ - ‘[¤®è¡[t¡ ¹W¡>ऺ㒠\–µÅt¡¤à[È¢A¡ã Î}ÑH¹o (1³ Jr¡)úú

(ëºJA¡ &.[l¡.[š A¡ìº\, >Kà*ò¹ ¤à}ºà ®¡àÈà * Îà[Òìt¡¸¹ šø®¡àÈA¡)


/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 58
l¡0 ™t¡ã> ë³Òt¡à¹ ³à}κ A¡ìk¡à¹ Òàt¡Jà>๠"à³àìA¡Òü ºÛ¡¸ A¡¹ìá¡ú ë¤à‹ÒÚ l¡0 ™t¡ã> ë³Òt¡à "à³à¹
뮡t¡ì¹ nå¡ìA¡ "à³à¹ >¹³, ë¹àKà Òàt¡Jà>à ³W¡ìA¡ ™à¤à¹ [ƒìA¡ &[KìÚ &ìÎ "à³àìA¡ ¹[R¡> NÃàÎ &[KìÚ [ƒìÚìá>
l¡üšyû¡³ Òìºà¡ú t¡ò๠Òàt¡Jà>à ë™> ƒ³¤Þê¡ A¡ì¹ ëƒì¤ ëƒìJÒü¡ú l¡0 ™t¡ã> ë³Òt¡à¹ \ì>¸Òü "à³à샹 [¹[ºó¡ &¸àr¡
&³> &A¡Jà>à JòàW¡à¡ú ëÎÒü JòàW¡àìt¡ ¤–ƒã ÒìÚ "ÎÒàÚ [¹ìÒ[¤[ºìi¡Å¸> [l¡šài¢¡ì³si¡ &Òü šà[i¢¡¹ "àìÚà\> A¡ì¹ìá¡ú
šà[J &A¡i¡à¹ ³ìt¡à "à³à¹ Òàt¡Jà>à ái¡ó¡i¡àìt¡ Ç¡¹ç¡ tò¡àìA¡ δ¶à> "๠䬋¢oà \à>à¤à¹ \ì>¸¡ú [t¡[> "à³à샹
A¡¹ìºà¡ú A¡¹³ƒ¢> A¡ì¹Òü [t¡[> "à³à¹ Òàt¡àJà>à ëáìØl¡ ¹àì\¸¹ "[t¡[=¡ú ëÊi¡ ëKÊ¡ú ëÎÒü ³à>åÈ[i¡ "à³à¹ ³ìt¡à &A¡
ëƒ> [>¡ú ">K¢º A¡=à ¤ìº ëKìá> -ÿ- Îà³à>¸ [š & "=¢à; šàì΢à>ຠ&¸à[ÎìÊsi¡ìA¡ NÃàÎ &[KìÚ
‘‘ÒàÒü "[®¡ºàÈà, ëÒàÚàÒü "๠Úå¸ ëÎà ëºi¡ ? [ƒìÚìá> -ÿ- "¤Å¸Òü ëƒJ¤à¹ ³ìt¡à ƒõŸ¡ú
Úå¸ ºåA¡ 뮡[¹ >àÒüÎ &¸àr¡ Ѷài¢¡ Òü> [ƒÎ ël¡öÎ !’’ ‘‘ëƒ> A¡à³ "> "[®¡ºàÈà¡ú ëºi¡Îô [Îi¡ &¸àr¡ i¡Aô¡
ël¡öìι "\åÒàìt¡ A¡à³>à ºåºåš ƒõ[Êìt¡ [t¡[> "à³à¹ A¡³ó¡ìi¢¡¤[º¡ú’’ ™t¡ã> ë³ìÒt¡à ¤ºìº>¡ú
"à>J[Ź ëƒìJ [>ìº>¡ú &Òüì¹ ! ™t¡ã> ë³ìÒt¡à "à³à¹ ÎìU "à¤à¹ A¡ã A¡=à
‘‘l¡üÒüº Úå¸ Ò¸à®¡ &¸à [l¡ö}Î, "[®¡ºàÈà ?’’ ¤ºì¤ ? [t¡[> ë™ "ì>A¡ ¤Øl¡ ³à>åÈ ! "[>Záà Îìâ«* "à[³
‘‘ë>à, ë=}G θ¹, "àÒü \àÐ ëÒl¡ &¸à A¡àš tò¡à¹ ëšá> &ºà³¡ú [t¡[> "à³àA¡ [¤[®¡Ä A¡=à [\ì`¡Î
"¤ [i¡¡ú’’ A¡¹ìº>¡ú tò¡à¹ ë¤[Ź ®¡àK A¡=๠\¤àì¤ "à³àìA¡ Ç¡‹å ÒüìÚÎ
™t¡ã> ë³Òt¡à¹ [>샢ìÅ *ìÚi¡à¹ &A¡i¡à ¹[R¡> θ¹- ë>à θ¹ ¤ìº ë™ìt¡ Òìºà¡ú Òk¡à;Òü ™t¡ã> ë³ìÒt¡à
NÃàìÎ ®¡¹à ëi¡ö [>ìÚ &[KìÚ &ìºà¡ú ™t¡ã> ë³Òt¡à [\ì`¡Î A¡¹ìº> -ÿ-
[>ì\¹ Òàìt¡ ¹[R¡> NÃàÎ &A¡Jà>à "à³à¹ [ƒìA¡ &[KìÚ ‘‘"à¹si¡ Úå¸ Ò¸à[š [ÒÚ๠"[®¡ºàÈà ?’’
[ƒìº>¡ú "ºÎ Òàt¡Jà>à &[KìÚ [>ìÚ "à[³ ‘‘"ó¡ìA¡à΢, "ó¡ìA¡à΢ "àÒü &³ θ¹ !’’
ëA¡àì>àyû¡ì³ NÃàÎi¡à tå¡ìº [>ìÚ ¤ººà³ -ÿ- "à[³ [A¡áåi¡à l¡üòWå¡ Ñ¬ì¹ ¤ìº l¡ük¡ºà³¡ú
‘‘ë=}G &¸à ºi¡ θ¹¡ú’’ ‘‘ëƒ> ëÒàÚài¡Î ƒ¸ ë³i¡à¹ l¡üÒü= Úå¸ "[®¡ºàÈà? Úå¸
ëºàìA¡¹ ®¡ãìØl¡ "à³à¹ ëW¡àJ ƒå’ìi¡à ÎÒA¡³¢ã ºåA¡Îô 뮡[¹ [l¡ìšøÎl¡¡ú’’
[šøÚà}A¡à, ˜¡tå¡, ¹ê¡š³ìƒ¹ ëJòà\ìt¡ Ç¡¹ç¡ A¡¹ìºà¡ú ‘‘>à[=} θ¹¡ú’’
Òi¡à;Òü "à³à¹ ³ì> Òìºà -ÿ- ëºàA¡P¡ìºà ë™> ‘‘"๠Úå¸ ëi¡[¹¤[º i¡àÚàl¢¡ ?’’
59 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
‘‘ë>à θ¹, ë>à¡ú "àÒü &¸à³ "º ¹àÒüi¡ θ¹¡ú’’ & "=¢à; šàì΢à>ຠ&¸à[ÎìСsi¡¡ú "[¹–ƒ³ W¡yû¡¤t¢¡ã &Òü
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61 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


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63 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 64
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65 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
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/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
/ 66
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67 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
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Aõ¡t¡A¡à™¢t¡àt¡ "à>[–ƒt¡ íÒ ! Åøã[>¤àÎ๠t¡ãÝ¡ [>¹ãÛ¡ìo ëÅ«t¡à¹ "š¹à‹ì¤àì‹ ët¡*òA¡ Jå[º Jå[º Jठ‹[¹ìº¡ú
ëÎÒü ³ì>஡àì¯à ‹¹à ë>ìšìºà¯àîA¡ =A¡à >àÒü¡ú Ѭ[Ñz¹ [>Å«àÎ &i¡à &[¹ l¡ìü v¡\>à šøų>¹ ¤àì¤ l¡0 ë¹m¡ãìÚ
Kì¤ÈoàKà¹ìi¡à¹ &i¡à ëA¡àot¡ ¹Jà ëÒº>ãÚà W¡A¡ãJ>t¡ "à¹à³ã W¡A¡ãJ>t¡ &[¹ [ƒÚà Źã¹ìi¡à "¯Îàìƒ "à¯[¹ ‹[¹ìº¡ú
(ëº[JA¡à l¡üÒüì³>Wô¡ A¡ìº\, [t¡[>Wå¡A¡ãÚ๠"γãÚà ®¡àÈà "à¹ç¡ Îà[Òt¡¸¹ [ÅÛ¡[Úyã¡ú)

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/ 68
Åãt¡º Òê¡ƒÚ ¹à\Ò}Î \àA¡
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ë™> &i¡à A¡o³à[>¹ 뤺å>, šàÒ[¹ =à[A¡ K’º ">å¹àK "=¤à [¤\Ú [ÎÒòt¡¹ ΃àÎÒW¡¹
[A¡”ñ ÒòàÚ ! [ÎÒòt¡ "”z[Ò¢t¡ Ò’º
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l¡ü[¹ P¡[W¡ ™à¤ [ÎÒòt¡ ƒè¹¹ "\à> ëƒÅîº ¤å[º¡ú
ë>೺ ³àÒàt¡à : "γ "à¹Û¡ã ëί๠(&.[š.&W¡) [¤ÈÚà¡ Åøã³àÒàt¡à A¡à¤¸ \Kt¡¹ &A¡ š[¹[W¡t¡ >ೡú
">å¹ê¡š ¤¹à, šøàv¡û¡> áày¡ú

69 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


[W¡[¹ìgàºàÚ[ºÚàt¡ ®å¡[Kìá
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Åàºã>t¡à ®¡}K¹ "š¹à‹t¡ =à>à W¡à[¹"à[º &[®¡ìÚ> Òü>óÃå¡ìÚgà : ¤àl¢¡ óÃå¡’¹ ">¸ >ೡú
i¡³àW¡ ëÎàìoà¯àº : ¹ÎàÚ> [¤`¡à> [¤®¡àK¹ 뺤ì¹i¡¹ã ÎÒàÚA¡ ú

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/ 70
[The present write up is the Presidential Address offered by Dr. Swarna Lata Baruah, Rtd. Prof.
and HoD, Dept. of History, Dibrugarh University at the LXVI Session of Indian History Congress held
at Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal from 28th to 30th January, 2006. We are grateful to her for
permitting us to reproduce the Address in ‘Pragyan’. We will present it serially in three consecutive
issues. – Editor]
Esteemed fellow Members of the Patriarchy and Women in Medieval Assam for my
Indian History Congress, Ladies and speech. Undoubtedly it is a theme of Women’ s
Gentlemen, Studies, which has now emerged as a serious and
I am extremely grateful to the Executive important discipline of Social Sciences and
Committee of the Indian History Congress for Humanities. Although ‘women are and have been
doing me the honour by offering me to preside central not marginal, to the making of society and
over the deliberations of the scholars in the to the building of civilization’, 1 historical
Medieval India section of the 66th session held scholarship till the recent past being confined to
at Viswa Bharati. My studies are confined to men alone, women’s role in the making of
medieval Assam and with my very limited civilizations remained by and large invisible.
knowledge of the Indian scene, I consider Considering women as actors and agents of history,
myself least worthy for the honour favoured together with men, is a new dimension to the
on me. My ill health being a continuous studies of the social development both in the past
obstacle to serious studies is something that I and the present, which widens our outlook and
have accepted but an accident three months inspires fresh interpretations and further research.
ago making me bed-ridden for two months Though women’s studies is not my field of
made it difficult for me to give enough of specialization, looking at certain problems of
necessary time for preparing this address. Assam history from this perspective enriched my
Inspite of the said limitations I own full knowledge, which I want to share with you.
responsibility for what it contains. The medieval period in the history of Assam
I may be said to have begun with the disintegration
I have selected the topic State, of the powerful and extensive kingdom of

71 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Pragjyotisha Kamrupa2 in the early part of the British, which marks the close of the medieval
twelfth century. Following its disintegration, there period of Assam history.
emerged a number of states in the eastern or upper Notwithstanding the traditional method of
Brahmaputra valley formed by aboriginal periodization based on dynastic rule, the medieval
Mongoloid tribes like the Chutiyas and the period of Assam history spanning over six hundred
Kacharis, while in the lower or western years is marked by certain important changes in
Brahmaputra valley, there grew up the state of the political and socio-economic life of the people.
Kamrup Kamata (briefly Kamata), which First, political integration brought about by the
continued to exist from the middle of the thirteenth Ahom kings among different tribes and
century to the beginning of the sixteenth century. communities including the neighbouring hill
Then came the Koches, another Mongoloid tribe people like the Nagas, Adis, Hill Miris, Mishimis,
who maintained their independent political status Khasis, Jayantiyas and even the Bhutanese, which
for a century beginning with 1515 and contributed they could accomplish not only by military strength
greatly to the cultural life of Assam in the parts on and political sagacity but also by intermarriage and
both banks of the Brahmaputra, not covered by the an advanced mode of production accompanied by
jurisdiction of those states, a class of landlords a new type of land relations. Second, the long
called Bhuyans exercised their power. They used drawn Ahom-Mughal wars of the 17th century gave
to acknowledge the sovereignty of a powerful king, scope for the first time, to women, not only of the
often tending to behave independently. Their higher circles but also at grass root levels, to
territories therefore cannot be strictly termed as acquire socio-political awareness. Third, the
state, although in the growth of patriarchy they popular rebellion, organized by a section of
played important roles because most of them were Vaishnavas called Moamariyas or Mayamariyas
high caste Hindus. There was also a number of against the Ahom government towards the later part
small autonomous tribal states like those of Rani, of the 18th century, paved the way for its fall, in
Luki and Dimarua. Meanwhile in 1228, the Ahoms, which women played a significant role as active
a group of Tai-Shans from upper Burma under their agents of history.4 The last but not the least was
leader Sukapha entered Assam and laid the the Neo-Vaishnavite or Bhakti movement, which
foundation of their kingdom in the extreme north- extended the area of Sanskritization to the common
east corner of the Brahmaputra valley. Finally, the people and ingrained patriarchal values in their
Ahoms emerged as the single largest power of the hearts, unfortunately, bringing about a radical
entire region. They could successfully resist the change in the egalitarian tribal structure.
repeated attacks of the Mughals and thereby check All the states in medieval Assam, whether of
their advance to South-East Asia. It was from them the Chutiyas, Kacharis, Ahoms or the Koches were
that the name of this land as ‘Asam’ or ‘Assam’ monarchical with division of power among the
had originated.3 They also brought with them from aristocracy. Kingship was hereditary in the male
their homeland the tradition of keeping records of line and divinity was attached to it. All ruling
all kinds of political events in a type of chronicles families believed that kingship and for that matter
called Buranji. The Buranjis are so numerous and the state was a divine gift to the males; women
varied that they form not only a precious part of could get no share of it. Not to speak of patriarchal
Assamese secular literature but also of the Indian societies, even amongst the neighbouring hill
historiography as a whole. In fact, they are a peoples like the Garos, Khasis and the Jayantiyas
valuable source of information about women’s role who were matrilineal, political power was not
in the sociopolitical events of Assam during the wielded by women as they considered war and
medieval period. The Ahoms continued to rule till politics to be the business of men.5 Usually the title
1826, when by the terms of the treaty of Yandaboo of a king indicated his divine origin or greatness.
(February 1826), that concluded the first Anglo- For instance, the title of the Ahom king was Chao-
Burmese war, Assam passed on to the hands of the Pha, meaning king of heaven, its Assamese

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equivalent being Swargadev or Swargadeo. the expansion of Aryan culture, the tribal elements
Concept of divine origin of kingship to the could not be completely rooted out from its social
tribal societies of medieval Assam was introduced fabric, which played an important role in
by the Brahmin priests. For instance, they made determining the social status of women as well as
Gaurinarayan alias Ratnadhvaj Pal the first their relation with the state.
powerful king of the Chutiyas, the son of the Hindu It may be noted that Assam is basically a land
god Kubera.6 In a like way they made Biswa Singha of Mongoloid tribes who are called Kiratas in
the founder of the Koch kingdom son of god Siva.7 classical Indian literature. They were looked down
Sometimes they used to associate the origin of the upon by the Aryans because their style of living,
tribal kings to some epic heroes. For instance, they food habits and social values were completely
created stories to make the Kacharis the different from the former. For example, the
descendents of Ghatotkoch 8, son of the second Mahabharata speaks of them as Mlechchas13 or
Pandava Bhima; and the Meities, son of the third uncivilized. The Padma Purana states that the
Pandava Arjuna.9 Once the tribal chief entered the Kiratas Were accustomed to eat everything. Their
Hindu fold, he strove hard to build up his state in language was of pisacha character and they had
the model laid down in the Hindu law books, which no social usages.14 The Kalika Purana composed
prescribes seven components of a state — namely in Assam in about 10th century A.D. refers to the
Swamin (king), amatya (minister), janapada Kiratas as yellow skinned, strong, ferocious and
(territory), durga (fort), kosa (treasury), danda addicted to meat and drink.15 Almost in the same
(army) and mitra (ally).10 tune, Shihabuddin Talish, the chronicler of Mir
States, since the beginning of civilization, JumIa’s Assam campaign (1662-63) noted: ‘And
were organized in the form of patriarchy which all the people of this country, not placing their
means that since its inception the state had an necks in the yoke of any faith, eat whatever they
essential interest in the maintenance of patriarchal get from the hand of any man, regardless of his
family’11. Patriarchy which in simple words means caste and undertake every kind of labour that
male domination and female subordination as a appears proper to their defective sight’.16 It is to be
system both in the family and the society has its noted that there was no social hierarchy, no caste
beginning in history; the appropriation of women’s system among the Mongoloid tribes and they
sexual and reproductive capacity by men occurred followed an egalitarian life style where women
prior to the formation of private property and class enjoyed much freedom. Their social institutions
society. Women’s subordination was were based on kinship relations and communal
institutionalized by the state through various sharing. It is because of these reasons in the main,
means: force, economic dependency on the male that the people of other parts of India considered
head of the family, class privileges bestowed upon the inhabitants of the north-east as somewhat
conforming and dependent women of the upper distinct from those in the mainstream of Indian
classes, and the artificially created division of culture and the latter too developed a sense of
women into respectable and non respectable otherness which still is not completely extinct.17
women.12 Religion played an important role in the The base of the society being tribal, women
institutionalization of patriarchy. played a very important role in its economy. Tribal
Women’s relation with state is greatly societies practiced shifting or jhuming cultivation
determined by socioeconomic factors, which have in which men did only the preliminary works like
certain distinctive features in case of Assam. cutting the jungles and clearing the land, the rest
Although the kingdom of Pragjyotisha Kamarupa, of the agricultural operations being done by
of which the present state of Assam is only a part, women, which is still the practice. Even in tilling
came into contact with Aryan civilization during except ploughing the land, men left practically all
the later Vedic period and all its ruling families work to be performed by women. Besides,
were Hinduised non-Aryans patronising actively horticulture, livestock rearing, pottery, basketry,

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sericulture, spinning and weaving and many other mainly the work of the Brahmanas from the
works were done mainly by women. Gangetic valley. Till the close of the 12th century,
The traditional egalitarian societies of Assam it was by and large confined to the Kapili valley or
received a blow as the Ahoms launched campaigns central Assam. As such there was not much
of territorial aggrandizement and, at the same time, difference between the civilization of ancient
organized the people to defend their state against Assam and that of the Gangetic valley. But in all
the aggression of the great Mughals. The Ahoms parts, its influence was by and large confined to
were advanced agriculturists having expertise in the ruling class only; the vast commonality
wet rice cultivation. They took irrigation and flood continued to follow their traditional culture till
control measures as state policy for which they recent past and in many cases it is still the fact.
were building spurs and embankments at strategic The Ahoms were patriarchal but had respect
places. The Ahom king had to speed up these works for learned women. They brought feudal elements
to meet the demands for surplus production. The to tribal structure. They followed rigid social
works, however, could be performed only by men. distinction by ranks and anybody violating any law
The majesty of these works overshadowed the relating to this was severely punished.20 After their
unorganized but strenuous labour of women acceptance of Hinduism, they became supporters
performed at the domestic sector. Women thus had of caste rules too. The basis of their government
to accept men’s superior role in state economy. was the paik or khel system under which every
Although their services were indispensable for adult male in the age group 16 to 50 was enrolled
transplantation, reaping, harvesting and as a paik, who was required to give his service to
winnowing, their works were considered as of the state for three to four months in a year, as soldier
secondary importance. But in one sector of in times of war and as labourer in times of peace.
domestic as well as state economy, women played In return for his services, he was allotted two purars
a major role by providing a basic need of life, of best arable land. There was registration of paiks
namely clothing, to the entire family, not only and gradation of officers to mobilize them for state
garments but also towels, bed-sheets, blankets etc. services. Men thus got access to individual landed
Although there had been professional silk-spinners property which formerly was enjoyed on a
called katani and weavers called tanti, their communal basis by both men and women. Men
services were utilized mainly for the monarchy and only thus became countable in state-power and
the nobility. Spinning and weaving were performed women were reduced to non-entity. When
by all women from queens downwards, irrespective population estimates were made, only fighting
of caste. It is because of this factor that women in strength consisting of males was counted, women
Assam could not be exploited by men so much as never came to the picture, in spite of the fact that
in many other parts of India nor their movements they had to bear greater brunt of the wars and were
could be so restricted. This fact attracted the notice greater victims of military exploits. Women’s
of Shihabuddin Talish who observed: ‘The wives relation with the state was, therefore, only through
of the Rajas and peasants alike never veil their faces men as somebody’s mother, sister, wife and
before anybody and they move about in the market daughter with a very few exceptional cases.
places with bare-heads’. 18 In a like way, Ram II
Kumar Vidyaratna, a Brahmo from Bengal in his In this socio-economic set up, women could
‘Udasin Satyasrabar Assam Bhraman’ (1881) participate. in state politics usually as passive agents
noted: ‘Women of this country are comparatively working behind the screen. Prominent among these
more independent than their sisters in other parts women was Chau-ching, the chief queen of the Ahom
of India. They are strong and more intelligent and Swargadeo Suklenmung Gargayan Raja (1539-1552).
courageous than men. They are industrious and also It was at her instance that ramparts were built around
artists’.19 the capital21 for which it came to be known as
Sanskritazation in this part of the country was Gargaon. Again, it was at her suggestion that the office

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/ 74
of the third minister in Ahom administration, namely conscience was eased by the thought that her
that of the Barpatragohain (the former two being those father’s obeisance was directed towards the script
of Burhagohain and Bargohain) was created22 and and the king became satisfied that the Premier had
Kon-Cheng, the son of a former Ahom king Supimpha offered due salutation to the queen.’28
(1493-1497) who was born and brought up in a Naga Sometimes patriarchs give space to women
village was appointed to the post. to get themselves involved in conspiracies in the
There are also examples of other queens or greater interest of the state. Thus Numali, the
queen-mothers exercising their influence in judicial mother of the last Ahom King Chandrakanta
matters or in diplomacy. Thus, Swargadeo Pratap Singha (1811-1817 and again 1818-21) joined
Singha (1603-1641), at the suggestion of his chief hands with the Chief Executive, Dhani Barbarua
queen revised his decision to sentence to death and the minister Nirbhaynarayan Borgohain to get
Pikchai Chetia, the Barphukan or governor of lower Badanchandra Barphukan killed by a Barkandaz
Assam for his alleged dereliction of duty in leader Rup Singh by name for having brought the
resisting the advance of the Mughals and instead Burmese to Assam.29 In fact, a contemporary ballad
dismissed him from office. 23 In a like way, depicts her as the brain behind the said conspiracy.30
Swargadeo Lakshmi Singha (17691780) condoned In a like manner, Kuranganayani, the
Haranath Senapati Phukan, who was commanded daughter of the Manipuri king Jay Singh and
to lead an expedition against the Moamariya rebels consort of the Ahom King Rajeswar Singha
in 1769 on a similar charge24 and dismissed an (17511769), who was later forcibly taken as wife
officer called Kalita Phukan, who had earlier been by the Moamariya rebel leader Raghav Barbarua
his favourite, at the advice of his mother.25 In the took an active part in assassinating him by giving
Koch kingdom too, general Chilarai’s wives played him the first stroke with a sword just below the
a diplomatic role in getting the Ahom hostages calf when Raghav at her instruction was kneeling
released sometime in 1563 and thereby forming down to pay obeisance to a Hunchari* party, who
an Ahom-Koch alliance to fight the Mughals.26 were men of the royalist group in disguise. 31
Intelligent and cultured women like queen Immediately after this incident the royalists
Nur Jahan immensely contributed towards recovered the throne from the hands of the rebels.
increasing the grandeur and refinements of the Services of these women were utilized to save the
Mughal court. If any queen of Assam performed a state and the ruling families. But in return for this
similar job is not known but there is mention of a they were not given any access to power politics
queen solving a very delicate problem or rewarded in any form.
diplomatically to maintain the decorum of the Although considered as weak and inefficient
Ahom court. She was the chief consort of Parvatiya by the patriarchs, certain women had the courage to
Raja (1677-1679) and was the daughter of Premier boldly assert against humiliating decisions of the
Atan Buragohain. According to the custom of the state. Thus, when Nangbakla Gabharu, wife of the
Ahom court, a minister was required to pay his minister Numali Bargohain and aunt of king
homage to the chief queen by kneeling down before Sukhampha alias Khora Raja (1553-1603) came to
her. When the Premier approached the queen to know that as a result of the defeat of the Ahoms at
perform the obeisance, she left her seat, to avoid the hands of the Koches, the three ministers of the
the situation. The king became indignant and state were to send one son each to the Koch court to
accused the Premier for not acting up to a time live as hostages, she rushed to the council and
honoured practice. The ministers were at their wit’s arraigned the king and the nobles with the following
end but the strategy was formed by the queen words: ‘What kind of a king you are and what kind
herself. She placed the manuscript of a Vaishnava of nobles you are to suffer defeat at the hands of the
scripture Ratnavali on a sarai (raised tray) in front Koches! Give me your battledress and I shall fight
of her. The Premier knelt before it in an attitude of with the Koches. Then only you will know whether
reverence and devotion. 27 ‘The queen’s filial I am a man or a woman’. Understanding that her

75 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


words had hurt the prestige of the monarch, when of king Jayadhvaj Singha, was sent to the Mughal
the Bargohain expressed his willingness to abide by harem as per the terms of the treaty concluded
the decision, she flared up: ‘Who can take away my between Mir Jumla and the Ahoms in January
son ? If you can divert the course of the river Dikhow 1663.36 When she was of proper age, she was
upwards then only you can take away my son’. The married to prince Azam, the third son of emperor
king yielded to her and instead sent his brother Aurangzeb, after converting her to Islam and
Sundar Gohain to the Koch court.32 renaming her as Rahmat Banu.37 When prince
Instances of women sacrificing their lives for Azam was serving as the governor of Bengal,
some noble cause are found in the history of every Ramani Gabharu’s maternal uncle Laluksula
country. Indian history, for example, abounds in Barphukan, the Ahom Governor of Lower Assam,
such examples, where thousands of women conspired with the former to surrender Guwahati
performed jauhar to escape surrender at the hands to the Mughals without any bloodshed, on
of the enemy. In medieval Assam too, such condition that the Sultan assisted him to usurp the
examples are not rare. Mula Gabharu along with throne of Assam.38 When Ramani Gabharu came
five other women died fighting against Turbak, a to know about this conspiracy, she wrote a letter
general of the Sultan of Bengal, taking sword to her uncle urging upon him to desist from taking
against whom her husband Phrasengmung this ignoble and unpatriotic step.39
Borgohain met his death.33 (1532A.D.). Sadhani, Rangili, the Assamese consort of the Burmese
the Chutiya queen after the defeat of her men at king Badawpaya (1782-1819), insisted on her
the hands of the Ahom king Suhungmung alias husband to help Badan Chandra, the Governor of
Dihingia Raja (1497-1539), considering death Lower Assam, with an army when the latter appeared
preferable to defeat and disgrace, like queen in the Burmese court seeking aid to oust the Premier
Durgawati of Gondwana, committed suicide by Purnananda Buragohain, who was alleged to create
jumping into a lake from the top of a hill.34 Princess anarchical situation. Badawpaya agreed, which
Jaymati, wife of Gadapani Konwar, who later resulted in the first Burmese invasion of Assam.40
ascended the throne with the name Gadadhar Women even at the grass-root level showed a
Singha (1681-1696), was tortured to death even spirit of patriotism. In 1639, when the Mughals under
when she was pregnant for refusing to tell Syed Hakkim and Syed Aba Bakr, got defeated and
whereabouts of her fugitive husband. 35 She made their retreat, the common women beat them
remained steadfast to her cause because politically with bamboo rods and threw fire to their bodies.41,
and socially conscious, she was of strong thus expressing their hatred to the enemy. They knew
conviction that her husband was the only person that the main duty of a king was to provide security
who would be able to restore peace and normalcy to his subjects and if he fails to do this, he did not
in the kingdom putting an end to the anarchical deserve to remain on the throne any more. They,
condition created by the misrule of the ambitious therefore, did not hesitate to condemn a deserting
nobles. Jaymati’s devotion to her husband has been king in strong words. This happened in 1662, when
so over-emphasized, making her a mahasati or a Mir Jumla occupied the Ahom capital Garhgaon and
great chaste woman, that her resoluteness and the reigning king Jayadhvaj Singha was making his
political consciousness get undermined. During the escape to Namrup. On his way, he was interrogated
period of the freedom struggle she was taken up as by a female trader with the following words:
an idol of satyagraha and this image of her still ‘Swargadeo, you have spent your time only in
persists in the Assamese society. pleasure and amusements. If during the last fifteen
The spirit of patriotism among women is not years you could place fifteen clods of earth in their
less strong than that among men. Even women cut proper places (meaning to take appropriate measures
off from the mother country as a result of marriage for defence) you would not have faced such a
betrothal, never forget their motherland and feel humiliating position. Now, where are you leaving,
obliged to serve her. Ramani Gabharu, the daughter deserting us?’42 (to be continued)

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Notes and References :
1. Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy, Oxford 18. Fathiyah-i-Ibriyah, loc.cit., p. 146.
University Press, New York/ Oxford, 1987. 19. K. Chattopadhyaya (ed.), Asame Cha-Kuli
2. The kingdom of Pragjyotisha Kamarupa extended Andolon 0 Ramkumar Vidyaratna, Calcutta,
from the river Karatoya in the west to the river 1989, p. 99, cited in Prasenjit Choudhury, ,
Dikrong in the east. According to Pargitar, this Aitijya aru Asamiya Nari’, Sivanath Barman
kingdom during the period of the Epics included et.al. (ed.), Asamiya Nari : Aitijya aru Uttaran,
the greater portion of modern Assam along with Guwahati, 2002, p. 15.
Koch-Bihar, Jalpaiguri, Rangpur, Bogra, 20. For details on social distinction by rank see
Mymensing, Decca, Tippera, portions of Pabna S.L. Baruah, A Comprehensive History of As-
and probably a part of east Nepal, cited in KL. sam, New Delhi, 1985, pp. 418ff.
Barua, Early History of Kamarupa, Gauhati, 1966. 21. Asam Buranji obtained from the family of
3. It is related in the Assamese chronicles that the Sukumar Mahanta (henceforth abbreviated as
Morans and the Barahis being impressed by the ABSM), (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan, Guwahati, 1969,
friendly attitude of Sukapha and his men called p. 27.
them ‘Asama’ or peerless. This term first applied 22. ibid.
to the people later meant the country they ruled. 23. ibid, p. 59.
There are, of course, other interpretations regard- 24. Tungkhungia Buranji (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan,
ing the origin of the name, but it is a fact that the Guwahati, 1932, p. 78.
name ‘Asam’ or ‘Assam’ emerged only after the 25. ibid., pp. 79ff.
coming of the Tai Shans. 26. Satsari Asam Buranji (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan,
4. For details on the Moamariya Rebellion, see S.L. Guwahati, 1964, pp. 73f.
Baruah, Last Days of Ahom Monarchy, New Delhi, 27. ibid., p. 143.
1993. 28. S.K. Bhuyan, Studies in the History of Assam,
5. Aparna Mahanta, ‘Patriarchy and State Systems Guwahati, 1962, p. 73.
in North Eastern India : A Historical and Critical 29. Ahom Buranji (trans. & ed.), G.c. Barua, Cal-
Perspective’, From Myths to Markets, Essays on cutta, 1930, p. 382; Asam Buranji by Harakanta
Gender (ed.), Kumkum Sangari and Uma Sarma Barua Sadar-Amin (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan,
Chakravarti, Shimla/ New Delhi, 1999, p. 345. Guwahati, 1962, p. 88.
6. Deodhai Asam Buranji (ed.), S.K Bhuyan, 30. Barphukanar Geet (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan, second
Guwahati, 1962, pp. 193f. edition, Guwahati, 1950, p.80.
7. Sir Edward Gait, A History of Assam, reprint of * A group performance forming a part of the
the second edition, Guwahati, 1981, p. 48. celebrations of the new year’s Bihu held for
8. Kachari Buranji (ed.), S.K Bhuyan, Guwahati, seven days beginning with 14th April. (1st
1951, p.2; D.C. Guha, Kacharer [tibrilla, Baisakh).
Guwahati, 1971, pp. 42ff; J.B. Bhattacharyee, 31. H. Barbarua, Ahomar Din, Guwahati, 1981,
Kachari Rajyar Utthan Aru Patan, Jorhat, 1993, pp. 259f.
pp. 48f. 32. Deodhai Asam Buranji, pp. 47f.
9. Gait, op.cit., p. 270; R.M. Nath, The Background 33. ABSM, p. 18; Purani Asam Buranji (ed.), H.C.
of Assamese Culture, Shillong, 1949, p. 85. Goswami, Guwahati, 1922, pp. 59f.
10. P.C. Choudhury, The History of the Civilization 34. Deodhai Asam Buranji, p. 200.
of the People of Assam to the Twelfth Century A.D., 35. Sadar-Amin,Asam Buranji, p. 54; Asamar
Guwahati, 1966, p. 259. Padya Buranji (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan, second edi-
11. Gerda Lerner, op.cit., p. 9. tion, Guwahati, 1964, pp. 13ff; Tungkhungia
12. ibid. Buranji, p. 14.
13. Udyoga Parva, CLXVI, 5804, cited in B.K Barua, 36. Kamrupar BuranJi (ed.), S.K. Bhuyan, sec-
A Cultural History of Assam, Nowgaon, 1951, p. ond edition, Guwahati, 1958, p. 67; ABSM, p.
16. 84.
14. Chapter 57; N.N. Vasu, Social History of 37. S.K. Bhuyan, Ramani Gabharu, Guwahati,
Kamarupa, Calcutta, 1922, 1951, p. 17. 38. Tungkhungia Buranji, pp. 8ff.
15. 39/104; B.K. Barua, op.cit., p. 5. 39. Bhuyan, Ramani Gabharu, p. 35. 40.
16. Fathiyah-i-Ibriyah (trans.), Sir J.N. Sarkar, Barphukanar Geet, pp. 67ff.
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1915, 41. Satsari Asam Buranji, p. 28.
Vol. I, part II, quoted in Gait, op.cit., pp.145f. 42. ibid., p. 90.
17. Aparna Mahanta, loc.cit., p. 341.

77 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Upanishads form the later part of the which is not rooted in the Upanishads.’’ Every
Vedic literature. They are mainly concerned revival of Idealism in India has traced its ancestry
with the philosophycal quest of the world soul, to the teaching of the Upanishads. The Upanishads
the inner essence of man and the relation contain the earliest records of the Indian
between these two factors. The Upanishads speculations. The hymns and the liturgical books
are the concluding portion as well as the cream of the Vedas are concerned more with the thought
of the Veda. The word Upanishad is derived of the Aryans. But the aim of the Upanishads is
from the root ‘sad’ which means (i) to sit down not so much to reach philosophical truth as to bring
(ii) to destroy and (iii) to loosen. ‘Upa’ means peace and freedom to the anxious human spirit of
near by and ‘ni’ means devotedly. The word course tentative solutions of the metaphysical
Upanishad therefore means the sitting down questions are put forth in the form of dialogues
of the disciple near his teacher in a devoted and disputations, though the Upanishads are
manner to receive instruction about the higher essentially the poetic deliverences of
reality which loosens all doubts and destroys philosophically tempered minds in the face of the
all ignorance of the disciple. Gradually the facts of life.
word came to signify any secret teaching about The Upanishads express the restlessness and
Reality and it is used by the Upanishad in this striving of the human mind to grasp the true nature
sense. of reality. The Upanishads had no set theory of
The Upanishads form concluding philosophy or dogmatic scheme of theology to
portions of the Veda, therefore Upanishads are propound. They hint at the truth in life, but not as
called the Vedanta or the end of the Veda yet science or philosophy. The Upanishadic
which contain the essence of the vedic suggestions of truth are so numerous, their guesses
teaching. Apraising the Upanishads at god are so various that almost anybody may seek
Bloomfield in his book ‘The Religion of the in them what he wants and find what he seeks and
Veda’ says ‘‘There is no important form of every school of dogmatics may congratulate itself,
Hindu thought, heterodex Buddhism included on finding its own doctrine in the sayings of the

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/ 78
Upanishads. The Muktikopanishad gives the sense that the single reality is conceived of as
number of the Upanishads as 108, among them spiritual in its nature and that everything else is
only ten Upanishads are regarded as important and explained as existing in and through it. The sources
authentic, on which Sankracharyya has commented of man’s spiritual insight are two – fold – objective
these ten Upanishads are Isha, Kena, Katha, and subjective – the wonders of the world without
Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, and the stress of the human soul. In the Vedas the
Chandogya and Brhadaranyaka. The traditional vast order and movement of nature engages
view holds that the Upanishads as revealed text attention. Their Gods represent cosmic forces. In
teach the same doctrine. But there has been the Upanishads we return to explore the depth of
extremely wide difference in their interpretation. the inner world. From the outward physical facts,
The problems discussed in them as well as their attention shifts to the inner immortal self situated
unique style make them liable to many at the back of the mind. In the Upanishads we find
interpretations. All the Upanishadic teachings are a return to the fresh springs of spiritual life.
not equally prominent. Some are mere flashes of The central theme of Upanishads is the
thought, some are only hinted at; some are slightly problems of philosophy. The Upanishad is the
developed; some are mentioned by the way while search for what is true knowledge, mind the senses
some are ofted, repeated, emphasized and and their objects are all finite and conditioned. In
throughly dealt with these is an essential unity of the field of morals we find that we cannot get true
purpose in them. They emphasize the same happiness from the finite the pleasure of the world
fundamental doctorine which may be called are transient, being cut off by old age, and death
Monistic idealism these poetic philosophic works only the infinite gives durable happiness. In
are full of lucid expression abounding in crystal religion we cry for eternal life. All these force upon
clarity. To the mind they bring sound philosophic us the conviction of timeless being, a spiritual
doctrines and to the heart, peace and freedom. reality. The object of philosophical quest, the
Passionate yearning for knowledge, restless fulfilment of our desires and the goal of religion.
striving after truth and a ceaseless search for. The seers of the Upanishads try to lead us to this
Reality have found a most touching expression in central reality which is infinite existence (sat),
the Upanishads. absolute truth (cit) and pure delight (ananda). In
The Upanishads attempt to moralise the the Brihadaranyaka Upanishads the prayer of
religion of the verbs without disturbing its form. human heart is expressed as the prayer of human
The advance of the Upanishads on the Vedas heart is expressed as ‘‘Lead me from the unreal to
consists in an increased emphasis on the monistic the real, lead me from darkness to light, lead me
suggestion of the vedic hymns, a shifting of the from death to immortality.’’
centre from the outer to the inner world, a protest In solving the question of the nature of
against the externalism of the vedic practices and ultimate reality the Upanishad thinkers seek to
an indifference to the sacredness of the Vedas. The supplement the objective vision of the Vedic seers
aim of the Upanishads was not science or by a subjective one. The highest reality (Ekam Sat)
philosophy but right living. They wished to liberate which realizes itself all the variety of existence.
the spirit from the trammels of the flesh that it The problem is strengthen in the Upanishads where
might enjoy communion with God. Besides there the problem is sometimes approached by way of a
was a feeling of reverence for the past. The vedic philosophical analysis of the nature of the self
seers were the ancients of blessed memory whose which they call the Atman. The word Atman is
doctrines it was impious to attack. In this way the originally meant life breath and then gradually
Upanishads sought to square a growing indealistic acquired the meaning of feeling, mind, soul, and
philosophy with the dogmas of a settled theology. spirit. The true self has been the main topic of
The teaching of the Upanishads is idealistic in the investigation in the Upanishad we may select three

79 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Upanishads – the Chandogya, the Mandukya and self should possess – ‘‘The self which is free from
the Kath for our present purpose. In a dialogue sin, free from old age, from death and grief, from
between Prajapati and Indra narrated in the hunger and thirst which desires nothing but what
Chandogya we find a development of the concept it ought to desires and imagines nothing, but what
of the self from the walking or the bodily self it ought to imagine, that it is which we must try to
through the dreaming or the empirical self and the understand, ‘‘It is the subject which persists
self in deep dreamless sleep to the absolute self. throughout the changes, the common factor in the
The Gods and the demons sent Indra and Virochana states of walking, dream, sleep, death, rebirth and
respectively to Prajapati to learn the teaching about final deliverance Prajapati makes it clear the self
the self. The teacher asked them to undergo man consists in the truly subjective, which can
penance for thirty two years to qualify themselves never become and object and which is necessarily
to receive the teaching. After fulfilling the presupposed by all knowledge.’’
prescribed condition both come to Prajapati who In the Mandukya Upanishad we find a similar
teaches them that the self is that which is seen when analysis of consciousness. We are told that the self
one looks into another’s eye or into water or a in the walking state enjoys gross object, it has the
mirror. Virochana was satisfied and went away. But consciousness of the external world and is called
Indra began to think : How can it be identified with ‘Vishva’. In the dreaming state it enjoys subtle
the body itself ? Being dissatisfied Indra objects, it has the consciousness of the internal
approaches Prajapati again and tell him his doubts. world and creates its own imaginary objects and is
Prajapati tells him that he who is seen in dreams called ‘Taijasa’. In the state of sound sleep there is
roaming freely i.e. the dreaming subject, is the self. no object, neither gross nor subtle, and hence no
Indra again doubts; though the self is not vitiated subject, the subject object duality is transcended
with the defects and faults of the body, though it and here the self is called ‘Prajna’. In sleep we have
cannot be said to be perishing alongwith the body, absence of pain, we have neither desires nor
yet it appears as if this self feels, afraid and struck, dreams. Ignorance and unconsciousness remain in
it appears to be conscious of pain and to be this state and therefore a higher positive state is
weeping. Indra again being dissatisfied returns to necessary. This is the fourth state of the self, a state
Prajapati teaches him that the enjoyer of deep of pure consciousness where like the deep sleep
dreamless sleep is the self. But Indra feels his there is no subject-object-duality, but unlike it there
difficulties. He thinks that the self in deep sleep is enjoyment of positive bliss. The self shines in
reduces itself to a mere abstraction. There is no its own light as the ultimate subject without
object to be felt, to be known, to be enjoyed. This reducing itself to a mere abstraction. This is the
self appears to be absolute unconscious – knowing true self, the foundation of all existence and the
nothing, feeling nothing, willing nothing; it is a presupporion of all knowledge. It can be realized
cipher. Being dissatisfied he again approaches to directly and intuitively. It is called ‘Turiya’.
Prajapati and tells him his doubts. The teacher is Aumkara with its parts A-U-M the waking,
very pleased with the ability of the disciple and dreaming and sleeping states is its symbol.
then give him the real teaching of the self. In a In the Katha Upanishad the Atman is said to
dialogue between the teacher Prajapati and the be the ultimate reality. The objects are the roads,
pupil Indra narrated in the Chandogya Upanishad the body is the chariot, the senses are the horses,
we find a progressive development in the definition the mind is the reins, the intellect is the charioteer,
of self through the four stages of (1) the bodily the ego is the enjoyer and the Atman is the Lord
self, (2) the empirical self, (3) the transcendental sitting in the chariot. The Katha further states that
self and the absolute self. What is the nature of the the senses are higher than the objects, the mind is
self of man ? Prajapati open the discussion of higher than the senses, the intellect is higher than
giving certain general characteristics which the true the mind, the subtle reason (Mahat) is higher than

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/ 80
the intellect, the unmanifest (avyakta) is higher than This state is the sole monopoly of human beings.
the subtle reason and the Purusa (atman) is higher Reason becomes self-conscious only at this state
than the unmanifest and there is nothing higher than and this fact distinguishes human being from lower
the Purusa which is the ultimate end, the highest animals. The fifth and the highest stage of evolution
reality. Objects, senses, mind, intellect, reason, all is the non-dual bliss(Anandomaya). In this state
exist for the self and serve its purpose. It is the self we are on the mystic plane. This Brahman
that is immanent in them and gives them life and transcends all yet it underlies all us their
meaning the self is immortal, self-proved and self- background. Brahman is immanent inner controller
luminous and can only be directly realized by of all and the self of all.
transcending the empirical subject-object-duality. The different conception of Brahman
From the objective side of the ultimate reality correspond to the different ideas of the Atman and
is called Brahman. The word Brahman is derived vice-versa when the Atman is identified with the
from the root ‘Brh’ which means to grow or to mental and vital self of man/manas (Prana)
evolve. Brahman is that which spontaneously Brahman is reduced to Hiranyagarbha or the
bursts forth as nature and soul. It is the ultimate cosmic soul which comes between the Isvara and
cause of the universe. In the Chandogya it is the soul of man when we identify the Atman with
cryptically described as Tajjalan – as the (tat) from our body, Brahman becomes the cosmos or the
which the world arises (ja) into which it returns Virat. Virat is that all, the totality all all things, the
(la) and by which it is supported and it lives (an). sum of all existences. Virat comes into being after
In the Taittiriya Brahman is defined as that from Hiranyagarbha. In the form of Virat, Hiranyagarbha
which all these beings are born, by which they live becomes visible. The Brahman of the Upanishads
and into which they are reabsorbed. The real theory is no metaphysical abstraction, no indeterminate
of evolution is given in the doctrine of the five identity, no void of silence. It is the fullest and the
sheaths (Koshas) in the Taittiriya the lowest level most real being. It is not an abstract monism that
is that of matter (Annamaya). Matter is unconscious the Upanishads offer us. There is difference but
and dead and cannot account for life. It is purely also identity. Brahman is infinite not in the sense
on the physical plane. Brahman cannot rest content that it is the ground of all finites. Brahman is the
with matter the purpose of matter is fulfilled when spiritual being which breaks, blossoms and
life is evolved. The highest state of matter is differentiates itself into numberless finite centres.
therefore life. The second stage of evolution is life The Upanishads are dicisive about the principle
(Pranamaya). It is the biological plane. Life that Brahman is the sole source of life in all that
pervades the universe and binds man with the rest lives, the single thread binding the whole plurality
of creation. Therefore the third stage of evolution into a single unity. The Upanishads nowhere say
is mind or perceptual consciousness (Manomaya). that the infinite exclude the finites. Wherever they
It is the mental or psychological place. The state is assert that Brahman is the sole, reality, they are
shared by lower animals with man. Mind or careful enough to add that the world is rooted in
consciousness remains in the lower animal life at Brahman and as such has a share of reality. From
the level of instinct and reflex action. It is on the the doctrine of sole reality of what is included in
level of infra-relational undifferentiated feeling. or based on it. The Upanishads gives us a hierarchy
The end of this instinctive consciousness will be of different grades of reality down from the all-
fulfilled only when a higher principle has been embracing absolute which is the primary source
evolved where consciousness will be fulfilled only of as well as the final consummation of the world
when a higher principle has been evolved where process. The different kinds of being are higher
consciousness becomes self-conscious or rational. and lower manifestations of one absolute spirit. The
Hence the fourth state of evolution is self-conscious Upanishad thinkers have advanced on the Vedic
∼ ∼
reason (Vijnanamaya). It is the metaphysical plane. conception of a single element – water. It is in the

81 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


Upanishads that we have for the first time the resentment, lust etc. and not the tender feelings of
doctrine of the five elements. love, compassion and sympathy. The Upanishads
The Upanishads make out that of finite require us to work but disinterestedly. The
object, the individual self has the highest reality it righteous man is not he who leaves the world and
comes nearest to the Absolute, though it is not the retires to a cloister, but he who lives in the world
Absolute itself. Man is the meeting points of and loves the objects of the world not for their own
various stages of reality. Prana corresponds to sake, but for the sake of the infinite they contain,
Vayu, the breath of the body to the wind of the the universal they conceal. The essence of ethical
world, manas to akasa, the mind of man to the either life is not the sublation of the will. The ideal of
of the universe, the gross body to the physical ethics is self-realization.
elements. The human soul has affinities with every The Upanishads do not content themselves
grade of existence from top to bottom. There is in with merely emphasizing the spirit of true religion.
it the divine elements which we call the beatific They also give us a code of duties, without which
consciousness, the ananda state, by which at rare the moral ideal will be an uncertain guide. All form
moments it enters into immediate relations with of conduct whese passion is controlled and reason
the absolute. The Upanishads insist on the reigns supreme, where passion is transcendence in
inwardness of morality and attach great importance the sense of freedom from the narrowness of selfish
to the notice in conduct. Inner purity is more individuality where we work because we are all
important than outer conformity. Not only do the co-operators in the divine scheme, are virtuous and
Upanishads say ‘do not steal’, ‘do not murder’ but their opposites vicious.
they also declare, ‘do not covet’, ‘do not hate or The Upanishads are regarded as the fountain
yield to anger, malice and greed’. The mind will head of all Indian philosophy. Prof. R.D. Ranade
have to be purified, for it is not us cutting the says, ‘‘The Upanishads constitute the lofty
branches if one leaves the roots intact. Conduct is eminence of philosophy, which form its various
judged by its subjective worth or the degree of sides gives birth to rivulets of thought which, as
sacrifice involved the Upanishads ask us to they progress onwards towards the sea of life,
renounce selfish endeavours, but not all interest. gather strength by the inflow of innumerable
Detachment from self and attachment to God are tributaries of speculation which intermittently join
what the Upanishads demand. We don’t find in the these rivulets, so as to make a huge expanse of
Upanishads any sweeping condemnation of waters at the place where they meet the ocean of
affections. We are asked to root out pride life.’’ (to be continued)
(The author teaches Philosophy)

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 82
Human capital theory treats everyone’s most important advance in population quality in
state of health as capital, i.e. as a stock. Part these countries.
of the quality of the initial stock is inherited Since about 1950s, life expectancy at birth
and part is acquired. The stock depreciates has increased 10 percent or more in many of these
over time and at an increasing rate in later countries. People of Western Europe and North
life. Gross investment in human capital America never attained so large an increase in life
entails acquisition and maintenance costs. expectancy in so short a period. In India, from 1951
These investments include child care, to 1971, life expectancy at birth of males increased
nutrition, clothing, housing, medical services, by 43 percent and that of females by 43 percent.
and the use of one’s own time. The flow of The favourable economic implications of
services that health capital renders consists these increases in life span are far reaching:
of “healthy time” or “sickness-free time”. 1. Longer life spans provide additional
These are inputs into work, consumption and incentives to acquire more education as
leisure activities. (Grossman, 1972 and investments in future earnings.
Williams, 1977). 2. Parents invest more in their children.
A healthy manpower is a great aspect 3. More on-the-job training becomes
for a developing economy as it leads to worthwhile.
greater output per man (productivity). Poor 4. The additional health capital tends to
health and undernourishment adversely affect increase the productivity of the workers.
the quality of manpower. In less developing 5. Longer life spans result in more years of
countries (LDCs) people are underfed and participation in the labour force and bring
undernourished, resulting in poor quality of out a reduction in “sick” time.
manpower. Deficiency in proteins and 6. Better health and vitality of workers in turn
vitamins in people’s diet and lack of proper lead to more productivity per man hour at
medical facilities are common. But at the work.
same time improvements in health revealed The best way to improve the quality of
by the longer life span of people in many low- manpower in LDCs is to provide adequate food
income countries, have undoubtedly been the and better nutrition to people, better sanitary
83 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09
facilities and the extension of medical facilities 1. As the incidence of communicable diseases
which in turn will raise the efficiency and the among the adequately nourished is lowered,
productivity of the people. Such improved facilities the exposure of others to these diseases will
raise the flow of earnings above what it would have be reduced.
been in the absence of the improvement in well- 2. The increased income of well-nourished
being in the following ways: workers (or well-nourished children when
1. These return an absent worker to the active they enter the labour force) should improve
labour force, the living standards of their dependents,
2. Help lengthen his working life span, thereby raising both their current
3. Make him overcome a debility that is consumption and their future productivity.
reducing his productive capacity, 3. Mothers will improve performance on such
4. Enable a child to return to school, improve economically important functions as the
his understanding and retention power, quality of care for the young when they are
5. Enable an adult to absorb more effectively themselves in better health and
in-service training. nourishment.
Thus improvement in health can help to Recognizing the increasing importance of
improve or maintain the productivity level of an active skilled manpower and general labour quality for
member of the labour force, or it can take the form of future national growth, investments in health of large
an investment – for example, helping to push up the numbers of malnourished children today can
expected lifetime earnings of a two-year-old child. improve the quality of a significant fraction of the
One measure of the benefits of a nutrition future labour force. Accordingly, health efforts
programme is in the medical costs saved through should be so designed as to expand food supplies in
reduced demand for medical services. It is cheaper order to benefit the poor, improving marketing
to prevent malnutrition than to cure it. Another system and agricultural price policies, change food
potentially large nutrition benefit for developing preferences, improve health and environmental
countries is the reduction in productivity losses conditions – water, sanitation, immunization etc. The
caused by the debility of a substantial portion of the effects of nutrition actions and health programmes
labour force. Again, improved nutrition lengthens undertaken simultaneously are greater and the very
working years. This reduces the country’s poor, especially the rural poor should be the targets
dependency ratio, other things being equal. Lower of these programmes. Substantial efforts are called
dependency ratios increase per capita income. forth on the part of governments and other
In addition to direct productivity benefits, development institutions towards this end.
health programmes promise a number of economic (Health Issues in Developing Countries to be continued
benefits: in the next issue)
(The author teaches Economics)

India Smile
Students, who have eye-site problem and can’t continiue study for that, now can see a silver
lining in the initiatives of INDIA's SMILE, a Kolkata based NGO. Very recently, It has extended
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along with that distributed free Spectacles to 405 students of different schools in association
with Calcutta National Medical College (Govt. of WB) & Rotary Club of Calcutta Suncity under
their dedicated Project Leader Dr. Soumen Karmakar with Ex Chief Functionary & Authorized
Signatory Rajib Sarkar. Now the NGO is working on a permanent “Free Vision Centre” at
“Optics Centre” in Rajbalhat (Dighir Ghat, Dist : Hooghly. Pin-712408, W.B) and looking forward to open two other Vision
Centers shortly. On that process in near future, they are aspirant to establish an “Eye Hospital” under India’s Smile.
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copious instances of social welfare since 2004. The NGO is registered under societies act 1961, Govt. of W.B. For details
Please log on : http://ngoindiassmile.blogspot.com.

/Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


/ 84
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šå>¹ ³õt塸....¡ \Ú”z[\; ¤¹ç¡¯à : Ñ•àt¡A¡ 3Ú ¤È¢(A¡ºà)¹ áày

85 / /Vol. VII, Issue - I, June '09


"´¬¹ ³¹ào

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