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HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

Dosen:

Prof. Dr. Yudha Bhakti, S.H. M.H. Hj. Tien Saefullah, S.H., M.H. Idris, S.H., M.A.

aspek pidana dari hukum internasional dan aspek internasional dari hukum pidana; Aspek Internasional:

Widati Wulandari, S.H., M.Crim.

1)

Memiliki dampak atas lebih dari satu negara;

Nella Sumika Putri, S.H., M.H.

2)

Menyangkut lebih dari satu kewarganegaraan;

3)

Menggunakan sarana/prasarana yang melampaui batas negara.

MATERI PERKULIAHAN

1. Pengertian, Ruang Lingkup dan Sumber Hukum HPI

2. Kejahatan Internasional

3. Sejarah dan Perkembangan HPI

4. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Nasional

5. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Internasional

Ad Hoc Tribunals

Hybrid Tribunals

International Criminal Court (ICC)

6. Topik-topik Khusus

Kejahatan Penerbangan

Terorisme

Transnational Organize Crime (TOC)

PENGERTIAN, RUANG LINGKUP DAN SUMBER HPI

Pengertian dan Ruang Lingkup HPI

Bassiouni

Produk dari penggabungan dua disiplin hukum yang berbeda yang

telah tumbuh dan bekembang menjadi saling melengkapi yaitu

Kriangsak Hukum yang mengatur kejahatan internasional…dimana terdapat penggabungan/pertemuan dari aspek pidana pada hukum internasional dan aspek internasional pada hukum pidana

Antonio Cassesie

untuk

yang melarang/menghukum kejahatan internasional sekaligus mewajibkan negara-negara untuk menuntut dan menghukum setidaknya sebagian dari kejahatan itu.

Edward M. Wise Subjek yang meliputi semua masalah yang berada di area dimana hukum pidana dan hukum internasional tumpang tindih dan berhubungan.

Aturan-aturan

internasional

dibuat

a) Aspek Internasional dari Hukum Pidana Nasional

Bagaimana badan peradilan nasional dari suatu negara harus bersikap dalam kasus pidana yang melibatkan unsur asing;

Misalnya masalah yurisdiksi, penerapan yurisdiksi, masalah ekstradisi.

yurisdiksi, penerapan yurisdiksi, masalah ekstradisi. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
yurisdiksi, penerapan yurisdiksi, masalah ekstradisi. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

b) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional

Prinsip-prinsip atau aturan-aturan hukum internasional yang membebankan kewajiban pada negara berkenaan dengan hukum

pidana nasionalnya;

2) Pengakuan secara implisit sifat-sifat pidana dari tindakan- tindakan tertentu dengan menetapkan suatu kewajiban untuk menghukum, mencegah, menuntut, menjatuhi hukuman atau pidananya;

Misalnya perlindungan HAM, kewajiban untuk menuntut dan

3)

Kriminalisasi atas tindakan-tindakan tertentu;

menghukum/mengekstradisi pelaku tindak pidana internasional.

4)

Kewajiban atau hak untuk menuntut;

c) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional

5)

Kewajiban atau hak untuk memidana tindakan tertenu;

Hukum yang diterapkan dalam pengadilan/ Mahkamah Pidana

6)

Kewajiban atau hak untuk mengekstradisi;

Internasional yang memiliki kewenangan untuk menjatuhkan

7) Kewajiban atau hak untuk bekerja sama dalam penuntutan,

khususnya sanksi pidana pada pelaku tindak pidana(Mahkamah Pidana Internasional baik Ad Hoc maupun permanen beserta Statuta/Charter pembentuknya).

8)

pemidanaan termasuk bantuan hukum dalam proses pemidanaan; Penetapan suatu dasar atas yurisdiksi kriminal;

 

9)

Referensi pembentukan suatu pengadilan pidana internasional;

Sumber Hukum HPI

10) Penghapusan alasan-alasan perintah atasan;

1)

Treaties and Convention;

Dasar penetapan kejahatan internasional:

2)

Customary Law;

1)

Konvensi-konvensi internasional;

3) General Principle of International Criminal Law/ General Principle of

2)

Pengakuan berdasarkan hukum kebiasaan internasional;

Law

3)

Pengakuan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional;

4)

Judicial Decision, decision of International Organization, doctrine

4)

Larangan oleh perjanjian internasional.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMES

Pengertian

Bassiouni

Setiap perbuatan yang ditetapkan sebagai kejahatan di dalam konvensi-konvensi multilateral yang diikuti oleh sejumlah negara

(significant number) yang didalamnya terkandung salah satu unsur dari sepuluh karakteristik (Ten Penal Characteristic)

Ten Penal Characteristic tersebut yaitu:

1) Pengakuan secara eksplisit tindakan-tindakan yang dipandang sebagai kejahatan berdasarkan hukum internasional;

Jenis-jenis (22) kejahatan internasional:

1)

Agression;

2)

War crimes;

3)

Unlawful use of weapons;

4)

Crimes against humanity;

5)

Genocide;

6)

Racial discrimination and Apartheid;

7)

Slavery and related crimes torture;

8)

Unlawful human experimentation;

9)

Piracy;

10)

Aircraft hijacking;

11)

Threat and use of force against internationally protected person;

and use of force against internationally protected person; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
and use of force against internationally protected person; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

12)

Taking of civilian hostage;

13)

Drug offenses;

14)

International traffic in obscene publication;

15)

Destruction and/or theft of national treasures;

16)

Environmental protection;

17)

Theft of nuclear materials;

18)

Unlawful use of the mails;

19)

Interferrence of the submarine cables;

20)

Falsification and counterfeiting;

21)

Bribery of foreign public officials.

Edward M. Wise

What is international crimes?

Crimes against international law:

Hukum internasional mewajibkan semua negara untuk menuntut

dan menghukum kejahatan-kejahatan dimaksud dengan hukum nasional;

kejahatan

menurut hukum internasional, oleh karena itu dimintai pertanggungjawaban secara individu.

Perbuatan-perbuatan

yang

dinyatakan

sebagai

Types of International Crimes

1)

Violation of international norm directed toward restraining the

conduct of state officials admitted under color of law

War crimes;

Crimes against peace;

Crimes against humanity;

Genocide;

Apartheid;

Torture;

Involve a missuse of power, of the

2)

Crimes associated with terrorist activities: piracy

3) Act of private individual that have been subjected to treaty prohibition:

Transnational traffic in illicit commodities: narcotics, endangered species, obscene publication. Harm to a common or mutual interest of states requiring cooperation for it’s effecftive supression: overfishing, marine pollution, interferrence with submarine cables, unlawful use of the mails.

Element of International Crimes

Menurut Bassiouni, ada tiga elemen dari international crimes, yaitu:

(1)

Unsur Internasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu:

a) direct threat to world peace and security;

b) indirect threat to world peace and security;

c) shocking to the conscience of humanity.

(2)

Unsur Transnasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu:

a) conduct affecting more than one State;

b) conduct including or affecting citizens of more than one State;

c) means and methods transcend national boundaries.

(3)

Unsur Necessity, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu:

a) cooperation of State necessary to enforce

Subject of International Crimes

IndividualNurremberg Principle; HPI menghendaki pertanggungjawaban individu (dasar hukum Putusan Nurremberg Tribunal) karena kejahatan melawan hukum internasional dilakukan oleh manusia, bukan oleh entitas abstrak, dan hanya dengan cara menghukum individu yang melakukan kejahatanlah aturan-aturan dapat ditegakkan.

StateILC Draft on State Responsibility

Corporation

State → ILC Draft on State Responsibility  Corporation Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
State → ILC Draft on State Responsibility  Corporation Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

JURISDICTION

Yurisdiksi berasal dari Bahasa Latin; juris dan dictio yang artinya pelaksanaan keadilan.

Untuk menentukan yurisdiksi, dikenal beberapa asas, yaitu:

a.

b. Active Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan

Teritorial Principle, didasarkan pada tempat kejahatan dilakukan

pelaku

c. Passive Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan korban d. Protective Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada prinsip kepentingan/kedaulatan negara yang bersangkutan Universal Jurisdiction

e.

Diberlakukan untuk kejahatan tertentu (serious crimes), yaitu piracy, slavery, war crimes, crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, genocide, torture.

Dapat dituntut dan diadili dimana saja dan oleh siapa saja.

Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction

Principle 1 - Fundamentals of Universal Jurisdiction

Universal Jurisdiction id criminal jurisdiction based solely on the nature of the crime, without regard to where the crime was commited, the nationality of the alleged or convicted perpetrator, the nationality of the victim, or any other connection to the state exercising such jurisdiction.

Principle 2 - serious Crimes under International Law

Serious crimes under international law include: (1) piracy, (2) slavery, (3) war crimes, (4) crimes against peace, (5) crimes against humanity, (6) genocide; and (7) torture.

Principle 3 - Reliance on National Legislation

Universal Jurisdiction in the Absence of

National judicial organs may rely on universal jurisdiction even if their national legislation does not specially provide for it.

Principle 4 - Obligation to Support Accountability

A state shall comply with all international obligations that are applicable to: prosecuting or extraditing person accused or convicted of crimes under international law in accordance with a legal process that complies with international due process norms, providing other states investigating or prosecuting such as crimes with all available means of administrative and judicial assisteance, and undertaking such other necessary and appropriate measures as are consistent with international norms and standards.

Principle 5 - Immunities

The official position of any accused peron, wheter as head of state or government or as a responsilbe government official, shall not relieve such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment.

Principle 6 - Statute of Limitation

Statutes of limitation or other forms of prescription shall not apply to serious crimes under international law as specified in Principle 2 (1).

Principle 7 - Amnesties

Amnesties are generally inconsistent with the obligation of states to provide accountibility for serious crimes as specified in Principle 2 (1).

Principle 8 - Resolution of Competing National Jurisdiction

a. multilateral or bilateral treaty obligations;

b. the place of commision of the crime;

c. the nationality connection of the allegde perpetrator to the requesting state;

d. the nationality connection of the victim to the requesting state;

e. any another connection between the requesting state and alleged perpetrator, the crime, or the victim;

state and alleged perpetrator, the crime, or the victim; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
state and alleged perpetrator, the crime, or the victim; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

f. the likehood, good faith, and effectiveness of the prosecution in the requesting state;

g. the fairness and impartiality of the proceedings in the requesting state;

h. convenience to the parties and witness, as well as the availabilty of evidence in the requesting state;

i. the interst of justice.

Principle 9 - Non Bis Idem/ Double Jeopardy

A state or its judicial organs shall ensure that a person who is subject to criminal proceedings shall not be exposed to multiple prosecutions or punishment for the same criminal conduct…

EXTRADITION

Pengertian Penyerahan oleh suatu negara kepada negara yang meminta penyerahan seseorang yang disangka atau dipidana karena melakukan suatu kejahatan diluar wilayah yang menyerahkan dan di wilayah negara yang meminta penyerahan tersebut, karena berwenang untuk mengadili dan memidananya (Pasal 1 UU No. 1 Tahun 1979 Tentang Ekstradisi).

Syarat-syarat:

Harus ada negara peminta (requesting country) dan negara diminta (requested country).

Harus ada orang yang diekstradisi (tersangka, terdakwa, terpidana)

Harus ada ada kejahatan yang diekstradisi

Harus ada perjanjian ekstradisi

Alasan Penolakan Ekstradisi

Alasan Mandatory/ Kewajiban

1. Terkait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5)

2. Tindak pidana militer yang bukan kejahatan menurut hukum pidana umum (Pasal 6)

3. Subjek atas suatu tindakan karena didasarkan atas ras, agama, kebangsaan, etnis, politis dan gender

4. Orang yang diekstradisi akan dijadikan objek penyiksaan

5. Terhadap kejahatan orang yang diekstradisi telah diputus dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10)

6. Karena ada alasan imunitas dan abolisi

7. Karena diputus secara in absentia.

Alasan Optional/ Pilihan

1. Pelaku adalah warga negara dari negara yang diminta

2. Negara diminta tidak akan memproses kejahatan tersebut

3. Mendapat ancaman hukuman mati di negara peminta (Pasal 13)

4. Perbuatan dilakukan di luar wilayah negara peminta yang tidak mempunyai yurisdiksi

5. Kejahatan yang dilakukan sebagian atau seluruhnya di wilayah negara yang diminta (Pasal 8)

6. Negara diminta beranggapan bahwa pelaku akan diadili oleh extraordinary court/ Ad Hoc

7. Alasan kemanusiaan.

Prinsip-prinsip Ekstradisi

Double criminality, yaitu kejahatan diakui oleh hukum di negara diminta dan hukum di negara peminta (Pasal 5 ayat (1) KUHP).

Principle of speciality, yaitu kejahatan tersebut harus ditentukan dalam perjanjian (Pasal 2 ayat (1) UU Ekstradisi) dan kejahatan tersebut hanya boleh diproses atas kejahatan yang dimintakan (Pasal 15 UU Ekstradisi).

Non-extradition of poltical criminal, yaitu tidak akan menyerahkan tekait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5 UU Ekstradisi)penafsiran negatif.

Nebis in idem, terhadap pelaku kejahatan yang diekstradisikan telah diputus dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10 UU Ekstradisi).

dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10 UU Ekstradisi). Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10 UU Ekstradisi). Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Daluarsa, terhadap kejahatan yang hak menuntut atau hak untuk melaksanakan putusan pidana telah kadaluarsa (Pasal 12 UU Ekstradisi).

MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE (MLA)

Pengertian MLA adalah bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana merupakan

penyidikan, penuntutan,

permintaan

bantuan

berkenaan

dengan

penuntutan, dan pemeriksaan di sidang Pengadilan (UU No. 1 Tahun

2006).

Mutual Legal Assistance tidak memberikan wewenang untuk :

1. Ekstradisi Dalam MLA, bukan mengenai orang dan atau penyerahan orang.

2. Penangkapan atau Penahanan dengan maksud untuk ekstradisi orang

3. Pengalihan Narapidana

4. Pengalihan Perkara

Latar Belakang 1. Terdapatnya tindak pidana yang bersifat transnasional mengakibatkan timbulnya permasalahan hukum suatu negara dengan negara lain yang memerlukan penanganan melalui hubungan baik

berdasarkan hukum masing-masing negara. 2. Penanganan tindak pidana transnasional harus dilakukan dalam bentuk kerjasama antar negara dalam bentuk hubungan timbal balik.

3.

Keharusan adanya kepastian hukum, ketertiban, perlindungan hukum

Syarat

Pengajuan Permintaan Bantuan, harus memuat :

1. Identitas dari institusi yang meminta

2. Pokok masalah yang berhubungan dengan permintaan tersebut.

3. Ringkasan dari fakta-fakta yang terkait, kecuali permintaan bantuan yang berkaitan dengan dokumen yuridis

4. Ketentuan UU yang terkait, isi pasal dan ancaman pidananya

5. Uraian tentang bantuan yang diminta dan rincian mengenai prosedur khusus yang dikehendaki termasuk kerahasiaan

6. Tujuan dari bantuan yang diminta

7. Syarat-syarat lain yang ditentukan oleh negara yang diminta

Alasan Penolakan

Mandatory: Sifatnya wajib, alasan penolakan harus ditolak, diatur dalam Pasal 6 UU No.1 Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari:

1. Tindak Pidana Politik kecuali pembunuhan terhadap kepala negara atau pemerintah atau terorisme;

2. Tindak pidana berdasarkan hukum militer

3. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atau pelakunya telah dibebaskan, grasi, atau telah selesai menjalani pemidanaan;

4. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atas tindak pidananya tidak dapat dituntut;

5. Tindak pidana diadiili karena perbedaan suku, agama, kewarganegaraan, kelamin dan perdagangan politik;

6. Tindak pidana yang berhubungan dengan kedaulatan negara yang berlandaskan keadilan dan kebenaran.

Tujuan Memberikan dasar hukum bagi pemerintah suatu negara, dalam meminta dan atau memberikan bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana dan pedoman dalam membuat perjanjian bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana dengan negara asing.

Optional: Bersifat sewaktu- waktu, diatur dalam Pasal 7 UU. No 1 Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari:

1. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di suatu negara bukan merupakan tindak pidana;

2. Tindak pidana atas orang yang dikenakan hukuman mati;

3. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di luar negaranya, bukan merupakan tindak pidana;

4. Tindak pidana yang akan merugikan penyidikan, penuntutan atau membahayakan keuangan negara;

penyidikan, penuntutan atau membahayakan keuangan negara; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
penyidikan, penuntutan atau membahayakan keuangan negara; Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Jenis Bantuan MLA (Pasal 3 ayat 2):

c.

Perintah jabatan tidak membebaskan dari tanggung jawab pidana

a. mengidentifikasi dan mencari orang;

b.mendapatkan pernyataan atau bentuk lainnya;

c. menunjukkan dokumen atau bentuk lainnya;

d. mengupayakan kehadiran orang untuk memberikan keterangan atau

membantu penyidikan;

e. menyampaikan surat;

f. melaksanakan permintaan penggeledahan dan penyitaan;

g.perampasan hasil tindak pidana; h.memperoleh kembali sanksi denda berupa uang sehubungan dengan tindak pidana;

i. melarang transaksi kekayaan, membekukan aset yang dapat dilepaskan atau disita, atau yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan dengan tindak pidana;

j. mencari kekayaan yang dapat dilepaskan, atau yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan dengan tindak pidana; dan/atau k.Bantuan lain yang sesuai dengan Undang-Undang ini.

PENEGAKAN HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONAL MELALUI MEKANISME PENGADILAN PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

1. International Military Tribunal- Nuremberg

Dasar hukum London Charter 1945

Pendiri USA, French, UK, USSR

Permanent court di Berlin, pertama kali bersidang di Nuremberg

Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity selama Perang Dunia II di Eropa

Kewenangan memeriksa in absentia (Art. 12)

Tidak ada appeals atau review

Prinsip Nuremberg:

a. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 6)

b. Asas retroaktif

d. Collective guilt dan konspirasi dapat dipidana

2. International Military Tribunal- Far East (IMTFE) Tokyo

Dasar hukum Pernyataan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur

Pendiri Jenderal Douglas MacArthur

Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, conventional war crimes, crimes against humanity

Tidak ada appeals, review hanya untuk pidana (sentence) yang dijatuhkan IMT

3. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 827 Tahun 1993

Pendiri UN SC berdasarkan Chapter VII UN Charter

Permanent court di The Hague

Material Jurisdiction: war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity from January 1, 1991 selama perang Yugoslavia 1991-2001.

Ada appeals dan review, grasi dan pengurangan pidana

Perlindungan hak-hak terdakwa, saksi dan korban

Prinsip penting:

a. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 6)

b. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 7)

c. Retroactive (Art. 8)

d. Primacy over the national courts (Art. 9)

e. Non-bis-in-idem (Art. 10)

4. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 955 Tahun 1994

Permanent court di Aruza, Tanzania dan Appeals Chamber ke ICTY

Material jurisdictions: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994.

against humanity from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
against humanity from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

5. Hybrid Courts

Ada beberapa hybrid courts, i.e. Extraordinary Chambers in The Court of Cambodia (2007), Serious Criminal Panels in the District Court of Dili in East Timor (2006), Special Court for Sierre Leone (2002), the Regulation 64 Panels in the Court of Kosovo.

Characterized by a mix of national and international components is said to “hold a good deal of promise and actually offer an approach that may address some of the concerns about purely international justice, on the one hand, and purely local justice, on the other.”

Legitimacy: in a post conflict situation domestic trials often lack legitimacy because the judicial institution are not impartial 1 and independent or are not perceived 2 such as.

Capacity: post conflicts societies frequently face ravaged 3 legal landscapes. Both the physical infrastructure and human resources have been severely damaged by the conflict or have always been weak to begin with.

Norm penetration: penetration of international norms in domestic

societies.

Tujuan Hybrid Courts:

a. To offer legitimacy by providing ownership without affecting independency and impartiality;

b. To prosecute more perpetrators in less time and lower cost while also building domestic capacity;

c. To do domestic justice while upholding international law and complying with international fair trial standards, and thus also doing international justice.

1 Tidak memihak

Dipersepsikan

2

3 Dihancurkan

Kelemahan Hybrid Courts:

a. Kesulitan bahasa, sistem hukum dan pandangan hukum, serta pengalaman dari aparat penegak hukumnya.

b. Kekurangan human resources terutama pasca konflik

c. Statute pendirian terbatas pada negara tersebut, sehingga negara lain tidak terikat.

6. International Criminal Court (ICC)

Kualifikasi kejahatan:

Grave breaches/ violation of human rights

The most serious crimes of concern to the international community

as as a whole (Statuta ICC)

Unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity

International crimes

Extra ordinary crimes

Threat to the international peace and security.

Individual criminal responsibility:

State as abstract entity

Individu punya rasa kemanusiaan, tidak boleh berlindung dibalik

jabatan.

Mengapa ICC?

a. Mencegah impunity

b. Kritik terhadap IMT:

i. Victor justice (keadilan negara pemenang perang)tidak mewakili rasa keadilan international community

ii.

retroactive

c.

Kritik terhadap ICT:

i. Selective justicetidak mewakili rasa keadilan international community karena didirikan UN SC UN SC ultravires Retroactive

ii.

iii.

didirikan UN SC UN SC ultravires Retroactive ii. iii. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
didirikan UN SC UN SC ultravires Retroactive ii. iii. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Proses Pembentukan ICC

1)

2) 1954draft statute for the establishment of an international criminal court was submitted by ILC to GA

Pursuant to GA request, 1947 ILC prepare the draft

3)

Political stagnationCold War, impeded 4 function of the UN

4)

1989The GA requested ILC to address the question of

5)

establishment an ICC 1990ILC completed the report

6)

1993ILC produced a comprehensive text

7)

1994ILC notified and finalized the text, GA decided to start establish the ICC

Berlaku jika suatu negara unwilling atau unable untuk mengadili pelaku kejahatan yang masuk yurisdiksi ICC. Unwilling: posedur pengadilan ditujukan untuk melindungi pelaku, terdapat unjustified delay (penundaan pemeriksaan yang tidak sah), proses peradilan tidak independent dan memihak. Unable: tidak mampu menghadapkan tersangka ke pengadilan, tidak mampu mendapatkan bukti-bukti atau kesaksian, tidak berfungsinya sebagian/seluruh sistem hukum nasional.

8) 1996GA established a Preparatory Committee on The establishment of an ICC 9) 15 June-17 July 1998Rome Conference attended by 160 parties. 10) 1 July 2002 entry into force60 states ratification

GENOCIDE

Any of the following acts 5 committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group; 6

a) Killing members of the group;

b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;

e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Jurisdiction of the ICC:

a. Space/territorial jurisdiction (Art. 12): wilayah negara pihak (Art. 12 (1)), negara yang mengakui yurisdiksi atas dasar Adhoc declaration, berdasarkan UN SC Resolution (Art. 13), diperluas pada pesawat (Art. 12 (2)(a)))

b. Material jurisdiction (Art. 5): Genocide (Art. 6), War crimes (Art. 7), crimes against humanity (Art. 8), crimes of aggression.

c. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 13, Art. 25): WN negara pihak ICC, WN bukan pihak ICC yang mengakui yurisdiksi ICC dan kasusnya diajukan ke ICC berdasarkan Resolusi UN SC.

d. Temporal jurisdiction (Art. 11, Art. 22, Art. 23, Art. 24): non- retroactive principles.

e. Complementary jurisdiction (Par. 10 Preamble, Art. 1 Statute, Art. 17 Statute).

Genocide therefore invites analysis under two headings: the prohibited underlying acts and the specific genocidal intent or dolus specialis. 7

Regulation: Convention on Genocide 1948

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

Any of the following acts 8 when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack.

a) Murder;

5

6

7

8

Article 6 (a)-(e) of Rome Statute.

Protected groups

Prosecutor v. Bagilishema, (Trial Chamber), June 7, 2001, ¶55.

Article 7 (a)-(k) of Rome Statute

4 Menghalangi, menghambat

7 (a)-(k) of Rome Statute 4 Menghalangi, menghambat Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
7 (a)-(k) of Rome Statute 4 Menghalangi, menghambat Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

b) Extermination;

c) Enslavement;

d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;

e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;

f) Torture;

pregnancy,

g) Rape,

sexual

slavery,

enforced

prostitution,

forced

enforced sterilization,

h) Etc.

Regulations:

1)

Hague Regulations 1849 & 1907laws of humanity

2)

1925 Massacres of Armenian in Turkey offences against humanity

3)

Art. 6 (c) Nuremberg Charter

4)

Art. 5 (e) Tokyo Charter

5)

Art. 5 ICTY Statutes and Art. 3 ICTR Statutes

6)

Art. 7 ICC Statutes

Crimes against humanity

Lebih luas dari genocide;

Tidak mentargetkan kelompok tertentu;

Pelaku tidak harus punya niat untuk menghancurkan kelompok tertentu;

Termasuk kejahatan terhadap kelompok politik dan kelompok lainnya.

Civilian population:

Anyone who is not part of the organization power using force should

be considered civilian;

Includes member of military forces who have laid down their arm or those persons placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention or any other cause.

Attack

Multiple commission

Need not military attack

Widespreadquantitative element (dampak bisa satu perbuatan)refers to the large-scale nature of the attack and the number of targeted persons(victims) 9

Systematicqualitative elementthoroughly organised and

following a regular pattern on the basis of a common policy involving substantial public or private resources

Element “Policy”

Art. 7 (2) (a) attack … pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack

Tidak perlu dalam bentuk kebijakan tertulis/ eksplisit

Lembaga yang bertanggung jawab atas kebijakan hanya entitas tertentunegara atau organisasi

Bukan serangan spontan

WAR CRIMES

Committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes 1) Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely, any of the following acts against persons or property protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva Conventioninternational armed conflict, 2) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, 3) In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character, serious violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, 4) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law.

9 Prosecutor v. Kordic and Cerkez, (Appeals Chamber), December 17, 2004, ¶94, Limaj et al., (Trial Chamber), November 30, 2005, 183.

Limaj et al. , (Trial Chamber), November 30, 2005, ¶ 183. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger
Limaj et al. , (Trial Chamber), November 30, 2005, ¶ 183. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger

Protected persons:

December (1998) General Assembly creates open-ended intergovernmental Ad Hoc Committee(Res/53/111)

1998-2001 Over 120 States successfully complete Convention and 3 Protocols in only two years and 12 sessions

Those who are find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation,

in the hands of a Party to the Conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals; 10

diplomatic protection,” and “are not

those “who do not enjoy

subject to the allegiance and control, of the State in whose hands they may find themselves; 11

Civilians or horse de combat.

3. Adoption of the Instruments

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Woman and Children

Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air

Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition

All 4 instruments open for signature until 12 December 2002 (afterward by accession) General Assembly Resolution 55/25. 15 November 2000 and 55/255,31 May 2001

TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIMES (TOC)

1. The problem : transnational organized crime

Globalization and new technologies create the same new opportunities for crime as for legitimate activities

Crimes such as money-laundering, trafficking in human beings and corruption are a serious and growing problem

Groups are bigger, more transnational, with indications of networking, and involved in a wider range of criminal activities

Transnational nature of the problem requires transnational solution

4. Status of the Instruments

First 3 instruments (GA/RES/55/25) opened for signature at Palermo Italy 12-15December 2000.

Third (firearms) Protocol adopted and opened for signature in New York in July 2001.

As of 15 August 2002:*

2. Negotiation of the instruments

December (1994) General Assembly approves Naples Declaration and Global Action Plan (Res/49/159)

December (1996) Poland proposes draft framework Convention to General Assembly, other proposals circulated

1997-1998 Original draft Convention developed by expert group and 7th session of UN Crime Commission

141 States and the European Community had signed the Convention

and 18 had ratified it

107 States and the European Community had signed the Protocol on

Trafficking in persons and 14 had ratified it

103 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on

smuggling of migrants and 13 had ratified it 36 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on firearms and 3 had ratified it

10 Prosecutor v. Blaskic, (Appeals Chamber), July 29, 2004, para. 172. 11 Prosecutor v. Tadic, (Appeals Chamber), July 15, 1999, para. 168.

v. Tadic , (Appeals Chamber), July 15, 1999, para. 168. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
v. Tadic , (Appeals Chamber), July 15, 1999, para. 168. Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized

4.

Organized criminal group

1. Structure of Convention

Defines and standardizes terminology

Requires States to have specific crimes

Specific control measures (money-laundering, corruption etc.)

Forfeiture of proceeds of crime

Cooperation (extradition, legal assistance, investigative measures etc.)

Training, research, information measures

Prevention

Technical provisions (signature, ratification etc.)

2. Scope of application ( Art. 2.a.b ) 1) Convention applies to the “prevention, investigation and prosecution” of :

a) Offences established by the convention ( Art. 5,6,8 and 23 )

b) Other serious crimes defined in Art. 2

c) Protocol offences ( Protocols, Art. 1 )

2) Only when :

i. transnational in nature

ii. an organized criminal group is involved

3. Transnational in nature

a) Committed in more than in one State ;

b) Substantial part of preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another state;

c) Involves an organized criminal group engaging in criminal activities in more then one State; or

d) Has substantial effects in another State. (Art.3.2 )

a. structured group

b. three or more person

c. existing for a period of time

d. acting in concert

e. aim of committing :

a) serious crime (s) or Convention offences

b) to obtain direct or indirect financial or other

f. material benefit ( Art. 2.a )

5. Structured group ( Art.2.c )

not necessarily formal organization, membership or structure, but

more than just “…randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offence”

6. Serious Crime

( Art. 2.b )

conduct designated by national law as an Offence

punishable by at least four years

7. Offences established by the convention

a. Convention requires States Parties to have four basic Offence;

a) Participation in an organized criminal group (Art. 5)

b) Laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6)

c) Corruption (Art. 8)

d) Obstruction of justice (Art. 23)

b. Transnationality or in involvement of an organized criminal group

must not be made elements of these offences in domestic law

(Art.34.2)

made elements of these offences in domestic law (Art.34.2) Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
made elements of these offences in domestic law (Art.34.2) Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

8. Offence of participating in an organized criminal group (Art. 5) a. Either a) agreeing to commit a serious crime for financial or material benefit

b. or b) knowingly taking part in criminal or related activities of an organized criminal group to contribute to criminal aim

c. Options take account of different approaches to conspiracy, association etc.

d. States shall insure that domestic law covers all serious crimes committed by organized groups

9. Offence obstructing justice (Art. 23)

Using force, threats or intimidation, or

promising, offering or giving under advantage

a) to interfere with giving of evidence or testimony

b) to interfere with exercise of duties of judicial or law- enforcement official

c) in connection with proceedings on any Convention or

Protocol offence

Supports other measures to protect victims and witnesses (Art.

24-25)

States can have laws to protect other public officials

10. Money laundering offences (Art. 6)

Offences of laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6)

Conversion or transfer to conceal criminal origin

Concealment of nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership

Knowing acquisition of proceeds *

Participation, association, conspiracy, attempts, aiding, abetting facilitating etc.* * Subject to basic concepts of each State’s legal system

Apply to proceeds of Convention offences,

• Protocol offences and other “serious crimes”

Money Laundering measures (Art. 7)

Comprehensive regulatory regime for banks and financial institutions

Identify customers, keep records, identify suspicious transactions

Cooperation with other States

financial intelligence units

monitor cross-border movement of cash and instruments

Guidelines from regional, interregional or multilateral initiatives

11. Corruption offences (Art. 8)

Mandatory offences :

a) promise, offer, give, solicit or accept

b) any undue advantage to/by a public official

c) to act or refrain from acting

d) any matter relating to official’s public duties

e) participation as an accomplice

Optional offences

a) corrupting foreign or international public servants

b) other forms of corruption

Corruption Measures (Art. 9)

Legislative or other measures

to promote integrity

to prevent, detect and punish corruption of public officials

to ensure effective action by officials

as appropriate and consistent with legal system

– as appropriate and consistent with legal system Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
– as appropriate and consistent with legal system Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Provide anti-corruption authorities with sufficient independence to deter undue influence

12. Liability, prosecution and sanctions a) Criminal, civil or administrative liability for legal persons (Art.

10)

b)

Sanctions or punishments must be dissuasive and take into account the gravity of the offence (Art. 10.4, 11.1)

c)

Discretion should be used to maximize law enforcement effectiveness (Art. 11)

d)

Measures to provide for seizure, confiscation, forfeiture and disposal of proceeds of crime (to the extent possible) (Art.

12)

e)

Bank secrecy cannot be used as an obstacle to confiscation or mutual legal assistance (Art. 12.6, 18.8)

f)

Existing criminal defences are preserved (Art. 11)

13. Jurisdiction (Art. 15)

Convention seeks to ensure that every State Party connected to a transnational organized crime offence will have adequate jurisdiction.

Offenders should have no place to hide from investigation and prosecution.

Mandatory/compulsory jurisdiction

offences on a State’s territory, vessel or aircraft

where offender not extradited because of nationality

Optional jurisdiction

offender or victim are nationals of State

offence of participating in organized criminal group with a

view to committing serious crime in the State

any other circumstances set by domestic law

14. International Cooperation 1) Extradition (Art. 16) 2) Mutual Legal Assistance (Art. 18) 3) Other forms of cooperation (Art. 20, 26, 27)

15. Extradition (Art. 16)

Extradition available for all Convention and Protocol offences

Convention extradition provisions harmonize with existing treaties and arrangements

No refusal on the sole ground of fiscal matters

Limitations in domestic law and existing treaties apply

Parties must either “Extradite or prosecute” own nationals

Where extradition is refused, the States involved, the States involved should consult

16. Mutual Legal Assistance

“States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of mutual legal assistance …” (Art. 18.1)

Most requirements are operational, not legislative, but Parties must have legal powers needed to produce and deliver assistance

States Parties are required to designate a central authority to receive, execute or transmit legal assistance requests

No right to refuse MLA on the ground of bank secrecy

More direct liaison arrangements permitted for other forms of cooperation (Art. 18.13, Art. 19, 27)

17. Investigative measures Convention calls for:

agreements governing joint investigation (Art. 19)

domestic and cooperative use of special investigative techniques (Art. 20)

use of special investigative techniques (Art. 20) Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
use of special investigative techniques (Art. 20) Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

a. controlled delivery

b. electronic or other forms of surveillance

c. undercover operation

measures to encourage those involved in transnational organized crime to cooperate with law enforcement (Art. 26)

18. Law enforcement and other cooperation States parties called upon to:

a) enhance and establish channels of communication;

b) cooperate in inquiries concerning

a. the identity, whereabouts and activities of suspects;

b. the movement of proceeds of crime or instrumentalities

c) exchange information

a. specific means and methods used by organized criminal groups

b. general trends, analytical techniques, definitions, standards and methodologies

19. Protection of Victims and Witnesses (Art. 24, 25)

Must provide effective protection for witnesses, within available means:

a. physical protection

b. domestic or foreign relocation

c. Special arrangements for giving evidence

Within available means, must also assist with:

d. procedures for claiming compensation and restitution

e. opportunities to present views and concerns at appropriate

stage of criminal proceedings. Both articles apply to victims who are also witnesses.

20. Technical and other assistance (Art. 29, 30)

State Parties called upon to:

a. implement Convention domestically and through international cooperation

b. take into account effects of organized crime on societies and sustainable development

c. to enhance financial and material assistance to developing countries

21. Prevention (Art. 31)

States Parties called upon to develop, implement and share both direct and indirect prevention methods

a. administrative and regulatory controls to prevent abuses in key areas (professions corporations)

b. rehabilitation/reintegration of former offenders

c. public awareness campaigns (domestic and international)

d. social programs to alleviate conditions the make groups vulnerable to recruitment or victimization by transnational organized crime groups

22. Conference of the parties (Art. 32, 33)

Convention establishes a conference of the Parties to :

a. promote and review implementation

b. make recommendations to improve convention

c. consider means of implementing and difficulties encountered by States

Conference will meet within one year of entry into force

Initial meeting of Conference will adopt rules of procedure, a draft of which will be prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee that carried out the negotiations

by the Ad Hoc Committee that carried out the negotiations Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)
by the Ad Hoc Committee that carried out the negotiations Catatan Kuliah – Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)