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HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

Dosen: Prof. Dr. Yudha Bhakti, S.H. M.H. Hj. Tien Saefullah, S.H., M.H. Idris, S.H., M.A. Widati Wulandari, S.H., M.Crim. Nella Sumika Putri, S.H., M.H. MATERI PERKULIAHAN 1. Pengertian, Ruang Lingkup dan Sumber Hukum HPI 2. Kejahatan Internasional 3. Sejarah dan Perkembangan HPI 4. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Nasional 5. Penegakan HPI melalui Pengadilan Internasional Ad Hoc Tribunals Hybrid Tribunals International Criminal Court (ICC) 6. Topik-topik Khusus Kejahatan Penerbangan Terorisme Transnational Organize Crime (TOC) aspek pidana dari hukum internasional dan aspek internasional dari hukum pidana; Aspek Internasional: 1) Memiliki dampak atas lebih dari satu negara; 2) Menyangkut lebih dari satu kewarganegaraan; 3) Menggunakan sarana/prasarana yang melampaui batas negara. Kriangsak Hukum yang mengatur kejahatan internasionaldimana terdapat penggabungan/pertemuan dari aspek pidana pada hukum internasional dan aspek internasional pada hukum pidana Antonio Cassesie Aturan-aturan internasional yang dibuat untuk melarang/menghukum kejahatan internasional sekaligus mewajibkan negara-negara untuk menuntut dan menghukum setidaknya sebagian dari kejahatan itu. Edward M. Wise Subjek yang meliputi semua masalah yang berada di area dimana hukum pidana dan hukum internasional tumpang tindih dan berhubungan. a) Aspek Internasional dari Hukum Pidana Nasional Bagaimana badan peradilan nasional dari suatu negara harus bersikap dalam kasus pidana yang melibatkan unsur asing; Misalnya masalah yurisdiksi, penerapan yurisdiksi, masalah ekstradisi.

PENGERTIAN, RUANG LINGKUP DAN SUMBER HPI


Pengertian dan Ruang Lingkup HPI Bassiouni Produk dari penggabungan dua disiplin hukum yang berbeda yang telah tumbuh dan bekembang menjadi saling melengkapi yaitu

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b) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional Prinsip-prinsip atau aturan-aturan hukum internasional yang membebankan kewajiban pada negara berkenaan dengan hukum pidana nasionalnya; Misalnya perlindungan HAM, kewajiban untuk menuntut dan menghukum/mengekstradisi pelaku tindak pidana internasional. c) Aspek Pidana dari Hukum Internasional Hukum yang diterapkan dalam pengadilan/ Mahkamah Pidana Internasional yang memiliki kewenangan untuk menjatuhkan khususnya sanksi pidana pada pelaku tindak pidana(Mahkamah Pidana Internasional baik Ad Hoc maupun permanen beserta Statuta/Charter pembentuknya). Sumber Hukum HPI 1) Treaties and Convention; 2) Customary Law; 3) General Principle of International Criminal Law/ General Principle of Law 4) Judicial Decision, decision of International Organization, doctrine INTERNATIONAL CRIMES Pengertian Bassiouni Setiap perbuatan yang ditetapkan sebagai kejahatan di dalam konvensi-konvensi multilateral yang diikuti oleh sejumlah negara (significant number) yang didalamnya terkandung salah satu unsur dari sepuluh karakteristik (Ten Penal Characteristic) Ten Penal Characteristic tersebut yaitu: 1) Pengakuan secara eksplisit tindakan-tindakan yang dipandang sebagai kejahatan berdasarkan hukum internasional;

Pengakuan secara implisit sifat-sifat pidana dari tindakantindakan tertentu dengan menetapkan suatu kewajiban untuk menghukum, mencegah, menuntut, menjatuhi hukuman atau pidananya; 3) Kriminalisasi atas tindakan-tindakan tertentu; 4) Kewajiban atau hak untuk menuntut; 5) Kewajiban atau hak untuk memidana tindakan tertenu; 6) Kewajiban atau hak untuk mengekstradisi; 7) Kewajiban atau hak untuk bekerja sama dalam penuntutan, pemidanaan termasuk bantuan hukum dalam proses pemidanaan; 8) Penetapan suatu dasar atas yurisdiksi kriminal; 9) Referensi pembentukan suatu pengadilan pidana internasional; 10) Penghapusan alasan-alasan perintah atasan; Dasar penetapan kejahatan internasional: 1) Konvensi-konvensi internasional; 2) Pengakuan berdasarkan hukum kebiasaan internasional; 3) Pengakuan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip hukum internasional; 4) Larangan oleh perjanjian internasional. Jenis-jenis (22) kejahatan internasional: 1) Agression; 2) War crimes; 3) Unlawful use of weapons; 4) Crimes against humanity; 5) Genocide; 6) Racial discrimination and Apartheid; 7) Slavery and related crimes torture; 8) Unlawful human experimentation; 9) Piracy; 10) Aircraft hijacking; 11) Threat and use of force against internationally protected person;

2)

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12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21)

Taking of civilian hostage; Drug offenses; International traffic in obscene publication; Destruction and/or theft of national treasures; Environmental protection; Theft of nuclear materials; Unlawful use of the mails; Interferrence of the submarine cables; Falsification and counterfeiting; Bribery of foreign public officials.

3)

Act of private individual that have been subjected to treaty prohibition: Transnational traffic in illicit commodities: narcotics, endangered species, obscene publication. Harm to a common or mutual interest of states requiring cooperation for its effecftive supression: overfishing, marine pollution, interferrence with submarine cables, unlawful use of the mails.

Element of International Crimes Menurut Bassiouni, ada tiga elemen dari international crimes, yaitu: (1) Unsur Internasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu: a) direct threat to world peace and security; b) indirect threat to world peace and security; c) shocking to the conscience of humanity. (2) Unsur Transnasional, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu: a) conduct affecting more than one State; b) conduct including or affecting citizens of more than one State; c) means and methods transcend national boundaries. (3) Unsur Necessity, termasuk ke dalam unsur ini, yaitu: a) cooperation of State necessary to enforce Subject of International Crimes Individual Nurremberg Principle; HPI menghendaki pertanggungjawaban individu (dasar hukum Putusan Nurremberg Tribunal) karena kejahatan melawan hukum internasional dilakukan oleh manusia, bukan oleh entitas abstrak, dan hanya dengan cara menghukum individu yang melakukan kejahatanlah aturan-aturan dapat ditegakkan. StateILC Draft on State Responsibility Corporation

Edward M. Wise What is international crimes? Crimes against international law: Hukum internasional mewajibkan semua negara untuk menuntut dan menghukum kejahatan-kejahatan dimaksud dengan hukum nasional; Perbuatan-perbuatan yang dinyatakan sebagai kejahatan menurut hukum internasional, oleh karena itu dimintai pertanggungjawaban secara individu. Types of International Crimes 1) Violation of international norm directed toward restraining the conduct of state officials admitted under color of law War crimes; Crimes against peace; Crimes against humanity; Genocide; Apartheid; Torture; Involve a missuse of power, of the 2) Crimes associated with terrorist activities: piracy

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JURISDICTION
Yurisdiksi berasal dari Bahasa Latin; juris dan dictio yang artinya pelaksanaan keadilan. Untuk menentukan yurisdiksi, dikenal beberapa asas, yaitu: a. Teritorial Principle, didasarkan pada tempat kejahatan dilakukan b. Active Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan pelaku c. Passive Nationality Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada kewarganegaraan korban d. Protective Jurisdiction, didasarkan pada prinsip kepentingan/kedaulatan negara yang bersangkutan e. Universal Jurisdiction Diberlakukan untuk kejahatan tertentu (serious crimes), yaitu piracy, slavery, war crimes, crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, genocide, torture. Dapat dituntut dan diadili dimana saja dan oleh siapa saja. Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction Principle 1 - Fundamentals of Universal Jurisdiction Universal Jurisdiction id criminal jurisdiction based solely on the nature of the crime, without regard to where the crime was commited, the nationality of the alleged or convicted perpetrator, the nationality of the victim, or any other connection to the state exercising such jurisdiction. Principle 2 - serious Crimes under International Law Serious crimes under international law include: (1) piracy, (2) slavery, (3) war crimes, (4) crimes against peace, (5) crimes against humanity, (6) genocide; and (7) torture. Principle 3 - Reliance on Universal Jurisdiction in the Absence of National Legislation

National judicial organs may rely on universal jurisdiction even if their national legislation does not specially provide for it. Principle 4 - Obligation to Support Accountability A state shall comply with all international obligations that are applicable to: prosecuting or extraditing person accused or convicted of crimes under international law in accordance with a legal process that complies with international due process norms, providing other states investigating or prosecuting such as crimes with all available means of administrative and judicial assisteance, and undertaking such other necessary and appropriate measures as are consistent with international norms and standards. Principle 5 - Immunities The official position of any accused peron, wheter as head of state or government or as a responsilbe government official, shall not relieve such person of criminal responsibility nor mitigate punishment. Principle 6 - Statute of Limitation Statutes of limitation or other forms of prescription shall not apply to serious crimes under international law as specified in Principle 2 (1). Principle 7 - Amnesties Amnesties are generally inconsistent with the obligation of states to provide accountibility for serious crimes as specified in Principle 2 (1). Principle 8 - Resolution of Competing National Jurisdiction a. multilateral or bilateral treaty obligations; b. the place of commision of the crime; c. the nationality connection of the allegde perpetrator to the requesting state; d. the nationality connection of the victim to the requesting state; e. any another connection between the requesting state and alleged perpetrator, the crime, or the victim; Page 4

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f. the likehood, good faith, and effectiveness of the prosecution in the requesting state; g. the fairness and impartiality of the proceedings in the requesting state; h. convenience to the parties and witness, as well as the availabilty of evidence in the requesting state; i. the interst of justice. Principle 9 - Non Bis Idem/ Double Jeopardy A state or its judicial organs shall ensure that a person who is subject to criminal proceedings shall not be exposed to multiple prosecutions or punishment for the same criminal conduct

3. Subjek atas suatu tindakan karena didasarkan atas ras, agama, kebangsaan, etnis, politis dan gender 4. Orang yang diekstradisi akan dijadikan objek penyiksaan 5. Terhadap kejahatan orang yang diekstradisi telah diputus dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10) 6. Karena ada alasan imunitas dan abolisi 7. Karena diputus secara in absentia. Alasan Optional/ Pilihan 1. Pelaku adalah warga negara dari negara yang diminta 2. Negara diminta tidak akan memproses kejahatan tersebut 3. Mendapat ancaman hukuman mati di negara peminta (Pasal 13) 4. Perbuatan dilakukan di luar wilayah negara peminta yang tidak mempunyai yurisdiksi 5. Kejahatan yang dilakukan sebagian atau seluruhnya di wilayah negara yang diminta (Pasal 8) 6. Negara diminta beranggapan bahwa pelaku akan diadili oleh extraordinary court/ Ad Hoc 7. Alasan kemanusiaan. Prinsip-prinsip Ekstradisi Double criminality, yaitu kejahatan diakui oleh hukum di negara diminta dan hukum di negara peminta (Pasal 5 ayat (1) KUHP). Principle of speciality, yaitu kejahatan tersebut harus ditentukan dalam perjanjian (Pasal 2 ayat (1) UU Ekstradisi) dan kejahatan tersebut hanya boleh diproses atas kejahatan yang dimintakan (Pasal 15 UU Ekstradisi). Non-extradition of poltical criminal, yaitu tidak akan menyerahkan tekait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5 UU Ekstradisi) penafsiran negatif. Nebis in idem, terhadap pelaku kejahatan yang diekstradisikan telah diputus dan mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (Pasal 10 UU Ekstradisi). Page 5

EXTRADITION
Pengertian Penyerahan oleh suatu negara kepada negara yang meminta penyerahan seseorang yang disangka atau dipidana karena melakukan suatu kejahatan diluar wilayah yang menyerahkan dan di wilayah negara yang meminta penyerahan tersebut, karena berwenang untuk mengadili dan memidananya (Pasal 1 UU No. 1 Tahun 1979 Tentang Ekstradisi). Syarat-syarat: Harus ada negara peminta (requesting country) dan negara diminta (requested country). Harus ada orang yang diekstradisi (tersangka, terdakwa, terpidana) Harus ada ada kejahatan yang diekstradisi Harus ada perjanjian ekstradisi Alasan Penolakan Ekstradisi Alasan Mandatory/ Kewajiban 1. Terkait kejahatan politik (Pasal 5) 2. Tindak pidana militer yang bukan kejahatan menurut hukum pidana umum (Pasal 6) Catatan Kuliah Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Daluarsa, terhadap kejahatan yang hak menuntut atau hak untuk melaksanakan putusan pidana telah kadaluarsa (Pasal 12 UU Ekstradisi).

MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE (MLA)


Pengertian MLA adalah bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana merupakan permintaan bantuan berkenaan dengan penyidikan, penuntutan, penuntutan, dan pemeriksaan di sidang Pengadilan (UU No. 1 Tahun 2006). Mutual Legal Assistance tidak memberikan wewenang untuk : 1. Ekstradisi Dalam MLA, bukan mengenai orang dan atau penyerahan orang. 2. Penangkapan atau Penahanan dengan maksud untuk ekstradisi orang 3. Pengalihan Narapidana 4. Pengalihan Perkara Latar Belakang 1. Terdapatnya tindak pidana yang bersifat transnasional mengakibatkan timbulnya permasalahan hukum suatu negara dengan negara lain yang memerlukan penanganan melalui hubungan baik berdasarkan hukum masing-masing negara. 2. Penanganan tindak pidana transnasional harus dilakukan dalam bentuk kerjasama antar negara dalam bentuk hubungan timbal balik. 3. Keharusan adanya kepastian hukum, ketertiban, perlindungan hukum Tujuan Memberikan dasar hukum bagi pemerintah suatu negara, dalam meminta dan atau memberikan bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana dan pedoman dalam membuat perjanjian bantuan timbal balik dalam masalah pidana dengan negara asing.

Syarat Pengajuan Permintaan Bantuan, harus memuat : 1. Identitas dari institusi yang meminta 2. Pokok masalah yang berhubungan dengan permintaan tersebut. 3. Ringkasan dari fakta-fakta yang terkait, kecuali permintaan bantuan yang berkaitan dengan dokumen yuridis 4. Ketentuan UU yang terkait, isi pasal dan ancaman pidananya 5. Uraian tentang bantuan yang diminta dan rincian mengenai prosedur khusus yang dikehendaki termasuk kerahasiaan 6. Tujuan dari bantuan yang diminta 7. Syarat-syarat lain yang ditentukan oleh negara yang diminta Alasan Penolakan Mandatory: Sifatnya wajib, alasan penolakan harus ditolak, diatur dalam Pasal 6 UU No.1 Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari: 1. Tindak Pidana Politik kecuali pembunuhan terhadap kepala negara atau pemerintah atau terorisme; 2. Tindak pidana berdasarkan hukum militer 3. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atau pelakunya telah dibebaskan, grasi, atau telah selesai menjalani pemidanaan; 4. Tindak pidana terhadap orang atas tindak pidananya tidak dapat dituntut; 5. Tindak pidana diadiili karena perbedaan suku, agama, kewarganegaraan, kelamin dan perdagangan politik; 6. Tindak pidana yang berhubungan dengan kedaulatan negara yang berlandaskan keadilan dan kebenaran. Optional: Bersifat sewaktu- waktu, diatur dalam Pasal 7 UU. No 1 Tahun 2006, yang terdiri dari: 1. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di suatu negara bukan merupakan tindak pidana; 2. Tindak pidana atas orang yang dikenakan hukuman mati; 3. Tindak pidana yang jika dilakukan di luar negaranya, bukan merupakan tindak pidana; 4. Tindak pidana yang akan merugikan penyidikan, penuntutan atau membahayakan keuangan negara; Page 6

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Jenis Bantuan MLA (Pasal 3 ayat 2): a. mengidentifikasi dan mencari orang; b. mendapatkan pernyataan atau bentuk lainnya; c. menunjukkan dokumen atau bentuk lainnya; d. mengupayakan kehadiran orang untuk memberikan keterangan atau membantu penyidikan; e. menyampaikan surat; f. melaksanakan permintaan penggeledahan dan penyitaan; g. perampasan hasil tindak pidana; h. memperoleh kembali sanksi denda berupa uang sehubungan dengan tindak pidana; i. melarang transaksi kekayaan, membekukan aset yang dapat dilepaskan atau disita, atau yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan dengan tindak pidana; j. mencari kekayaan yang dapat dilepaskan, atau yang mungkin diperlukan untuk memenuhi sanksi denda yang dikenakan, sehubungan dengan tindak pidana; dan/atau k. Bantuan lain yang sesuai dengan Undang-Undang ini.

c. Perintah jabatan tidak membebaskan dari tanggung jawab pidana d. Collective guilt dan konspirasi dapat dipidana 2. International Military Tribunal- Far East (IMTFE) Tokyo Dasar hukum Pernyataan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur Pendiri Jenderal Douglas MacArthur Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, conventional war crimes, crimes against humanity Tidak ada appeals, review hanya untuk pidana (sentence) yang dijatuhkan IMT 3. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 827 Tahun 1993 Pendiri UN SC berdasarkan Chapter VII UN Charter Permanent court di The Hague Material Jurisdiction: war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity from January 1, 1991 selama perang Yugoslavia 1991-2001. Ada appeals dan review, grasi dan pengurangan pidana Perlindungan hak-hak terdakwa, saksi dan korban Prinsip penting: a. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 6) b. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 7) c. Retroactive (Art. 8) d. Primacy over the national courts (Art. 9) e. Non-bis-in-idem (Art. 10) 4. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) Dasar hukum UN SC Resolution No. 955 Tahun 1994 Permanent court di Aruza, Tanzania dan Appeals Chamber ke ICTY Material jurisdictions: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994.

PENEGAKAN HUKUM PIDANA INTERNASIONAL MELALUI MEKANISME PENGADILAN PIDANA INTERNASIONAL 1. International Military Tribunal- Nuremberg Dasar hukum London Charter 1945 Pendiri USA, French, UK, USSR Permanent court di Berlin, pertama kali bersidang di Nuremberg Material Jurisdictions: crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity selama Perang Dunia II di Eropa Kewenangan memeriksa in absentia (Art. 12) Tidak ada appeals atau review Prinsip Nuremberg: a. Individual criminal responsibility (Art. 6) b. Asas retroaktif Catatan Kuliah Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

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5. Hybrid Courts Ada beberapa hybrid courts, i.e. Extraordinary Chambers in The Court of Cambodia (2007), Serious Criminal Panels in the District Court of Dili in East Timor (2006), Special Court for Sierre Leone (2002), the Regulation 64 Panels in the Court of Kosovo. Characterized by a mix of national and international components is said to hold a good deal of promise and actually offer an approach that may address some of the concerns about purely international justice, on the one hand, and purely local justice, on the other. Legitimacy: in a post conflict situation domestic trials often lack legitimacy because the judicial institution are not impartial 1 and independent or are not perceived2 such as. Capacity: post conflicts societies frequently face ravaged 3 legal landscapes. Both the physical infrastructure and human resources have been severely damaged by the conflict or have always been weak to begin with. Norm penetration: penetration of international norms in domestic societies. Tujuan Hybrid Courts: a. To offer legitimacy by providing ownership without affecting independency and impartiality; b. To prosecute more perpetrators in less time and lower cost while also building domestic capacity; c. To do domestic justice while upholding international law and complying with international fair trial standards, and thus also doing international justice.

Kelemahan Hybrid Courts: a. Kesulitan bahasa, sistem hukum dan pandangan hukum, serta pengalaman dari aparat penegak hukumnya. b. Kekurangan human resources terutama pasca konflik c. Statute pendirian terbatas pada negara tersebut, sehingga negara lain tidak terikat. 6. International Criminal Court (ICC) Kualifikasi kejahatan: Grave breaches/ violation of human rights The most serious crimes of concern to the international community as as a whole (Statuta ICC) Unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity International crimes Extra ordinary crimes Threat to the international peace and security. Individual criminal responsibility: State as abstract entity Individu punya rasa kemanusiaan, tidak boleh berlindung dibalik jabatan. Mengapa ICC? a. Mencegah impunity b. Kritik terhadap IMT: i. Victor justice (keadilan negara pemenang perang) tidak mewakili rasa keadilan international community ii. retroactive c. Kritik terhadap ICT: i. Selective justice tidak mewakili rasa keadilan international community karena didirikan UN SC ii. UN SC ultravires iii. Retroactive Page 8

1 2

Tidak memihak Dipersepsikan 3 Dihancurkan

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Proses Pembentukan ICC 1) Pursuant to GA request, 1947 ILC prepare the draft 2) 1954 draft statute for the establishment of an international criminal court was submitted by ILC to GA 3) Political stagnation Cold War, impeded4 function of the UN 4) 1989 The GA requested ILC to address the question of establishment an ICC 5) 1990 ILC completed the report 6) 1993 ILC produced a comprehensive text 7) 1994 ILC notified and finalized the text, GA decided to start establish the ICC 8) 1996 GA established a Preparatory Committee on The establishment of an ICC 9) 15 June-17 July 1998 Rome Conference attended by 160 parties. 10) 1 July 2002 entry into force60 states ratification Jurisdiction of the ICC: a. Space/territorial jurisdiction (Art. 12): wilayah negara pihak (Art. 12 (1)), negara yang mengakui yurisdiksi atas dasar Adhoc declaration, berdasarkan UN SC Resolution (Art. 13), diperluas pada pesawat (Art. 12 (2)(a))) b. Material jurisdiction (Art. 5): Genocide (Art. 6), War crimes (Art. 7), crimes against humanity (Art. 8), crimes of aggression. c. Personal jurisdiction (Art. 13, Art. 25): WN negara pihak ICC, WN bukan pihak ICC yang mengakui yurisdiksi ICC dan kasusnya diajukan ke ICC berdasarkan Resolusi UN SC. d. Temporal jurisdiction (Art. 11, Art. 22, Art. 23, Art. 24): nonretroactive principles. e. Complementary jurisdiction (Par. 10 Preamble, Art. 1 Statute, Art. 17 Statute).
4

Berlaku jika suatu negara unwilling atau unable untuk mengadili pelaku kejahatan yang masuk yurisdiksi ICC. Unwilling: posedur pengadilan ditujukan untuk melindungi pelaku, terdapat unjustified delay (penundaan pemeriksaan yang tidak sah), proses peradilan tidak independent dan memihak. Unable: tidak mampu menghadapkan tersangka ke pengadilan, tidak mampu mendapatkan bukti-bukti atau kesaksian, tidak berfungsinya sebagian/seluruh sistem hukum nasional.

GENOCIDE
Any of the following acts5 committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group;6 a) Killing members of the group; b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. Genocide therefore invites analysis under two headings: the prohibited underlying acts and the specific genocidal intent or dolus specialis.7 Regulation: Convention on Genocide 1948

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY


Any of the following acts8 when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack. a) Murder;
5 6

Menghalangi, menghambat

Article 6 (a)-(e) of Rome Statute. Protected groups 7 Prosecutor v. Bagilishema, (Trial Chamber), June 7, 2001, 55. 8 Article 7 (a)-(k) of Rome Statute

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b) c) d) e)

Extermination; Enslavement; Deportation or forcible transfer of population; Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law; f) Torture; g) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, h) Etc. Regulations: 1) Hague Regulations 1849 & 1907 laws of humanity 2) 1925 Massacres of Armenian in Turkey offences against humanity 3) Art. 6 (c) Nuremberg Charter 4) Art. 5 (e) Tokyo Charter 5) Art. 5 ICTY Statutes and Art. 3 ICTR Statutes 6) Art. 7 ICC Statutes Crimes against humanity Lebih luas dari genocide; Tidak mentargetkan kelompok tertentu; Pelaku tidak harus punya niat untuk menghancurkan kelompok tertentu; Termasuk kejahatan terhadap kelompok politik dan kelompok lainnya. Civilian population: Anyone who is not part of the organization power using force should be considered civilian; Includes member of military forces who have laid down their arm or those persons placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention or any other cause. Attack Multiple commission Need not military attack Widespreadquantitative element (dampak bisa satu perbuatan) refers to the large-scale nature of the attack and the number of targeted persons(victims)9

Systematicqualitative elementthoroughly organised and following a regular pattern on the basis of a common policy involving substantial public or private resources Element Policy Art. 7 (2) (a) attack pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack Tidak perlu dalam bentuk kebijakan tertulis/ eksplisit Lembaga yang bertanggung jawab atas kebijakan hanya entitas tertentu negara atau organisasi Bukan serangan spontan

WAR CRIMES
Committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes 1) Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely, any of the following acts against persons or property protected under the provisions of the relevant Geneva Conventioninternational armed conflict, 2) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in international armed conflict, within the established framework of international law, 3) In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character, serious violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, 4) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflicts not of an international character, within the established framework of international law.

Prosecutor v. Kordic and Cerkez, (Appeals Chamber), December 17, 2004, 94, Limaj et al., (Trial Chamber), November 30, 2005, 183.

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Protected persons: Those who are find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the Conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals;10 those who do not enjoy . . . diplomatic protection, and are not subject to the allegiance and control, of the State in whose hands they may find themselves;11 Civilians or horse de combat.

December (1998) General Assembly creates open-ended intergovernmental Ad Hoc Committee(Res/53/111) 1998-2001 Over 120 States successfully complete Convention and 3 Protocols in only two years and 12 sessions

TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIMES (TOC) 1. The problem : transnational organized crime Globalization and new technologies create the same new opportunities for crime as for legitimate activities Crimes such as money-laundering, trafficking in human beings and corruption are a serious and growing problem Groups are bigger, more transnational, with indications of networking, and involved in a wider range of criminal activities Transnational nature of the problem requires transnational solution 2. Negotiation of the instruments December (1994) General Assembly approves Naples Declaration and Global Action Plan (Res/49/159) December (1996) Poland proposes draft framework Convention to General Assembly, other proposals circulated 1997-1998 Original draft Convention developed by expert group and 7th session of UN Crime Commission

3. Adoption of the Instruments United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Woman and Children Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition All 4 instruments open for signature until 12 December 2002 (afterward by accession) General Assembly Resolution 55/25. 15 November 2000 and 55/255,31 May 2001 4. Status of the Instruments First 3 instruments (GA/RES/55/25) opened for signature at Palermo Italy 12-15December 2000. Third (firearms) Protocol adopted and opened for signature in New York in July 2001. As of 15 August 2002:* 141 States and the European Community had signed the Convention and 18 had ratified it 107 States and the European Community had signed the Protocol on Trafficking in persons and 14 had ratified it 103 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on smuggling of migrants and 13 had ratified it 36 States and the European Community had signed the protocol on firearms and 3 had ratified it Page 11

10 11

Prosecutor v. Blaskic, (Appeals Chamber), July 29, 2004, para. 172. Prosecutor v. Tadic, (Appeals Chamber), July 15, 1999, para. 168.

Catatan Kuliah Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized 1. Structure of Convention Defines and standardizes terminology Requires States to have specific crimes Specific control measures (money-laundering, corruption etc.) Forfeiture of proceeds of crime Cooperation (extradition, legal assistance, investigative measures etc.) Training, research, information measures Prevention Technical provisions (signature, ratification etc.) 2. Scope of application ( Art. 2.a.b ) 1) Convention applies to the prevention, investigation and prosecution of : a) Offences established by the convention ( Art. 5,6,8 and 23 ) b) Other serious crimes defined in Art. 2 c) Protocol offences ( Protocols, Art. 1 ) 2) Only when : i. transnational in nature ii. an organized criminal group is involved 3. Transnational in nature a) Committed in more than in one State ; b) Substantial part of preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another state; c) Involves an organized criminal group engaging in criminal activities in more then one State; or d) Has substantial effects in another State. (Art.3.2 )

4. Organized criminal group a. structured group b. three or more person c. existing for a period of time d. acting in concert e. aim of committing : a) serious crime (s) or Convention offences b) to obtain direct or indirect financial or other f. material benefit ( Art. 2.a ) 5. Structured group ( Art.2.c ) not necessarily formal organization, membership or structure, but more than just randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offence 6. Serious Crime ( Art. 2.b ) conduct designated by national law as an Offence punishable by at least four years 7. Offences established by the convention a. Convention requires States Parties to have four basic Offence; a) Participation in an organized criminal group (Art. 5) b) Laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6) c) Corruption (Art. 8) d) Obstruction of justice (Art. 23) b. Transnationality or in involvement of an organized criminal group must not be made elements of these offences in domestic law (Art.34.2)

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8. Offence of participating in an organized criminal group (Art. 5) a. Either a) agreeing to commit a serious crime for financial or material benefit b. or b) knowingly taking part in criminal or related activities of an organized criminal group to contribute to criminal aim Options take account of different approaches to conspiracy, association etc. States shall insure that domestic law covers all serious crimes committed by organized groups

Participation, association, conspiracy, attempts, aiding, abetting facilitating etc.* * Subject to basic concepts of each States legal system Apply to proceeds of Convention offences, Protocol offences and other serious crimes Money Laundering measures (Art. 7) Comprehensive regulatory regime for banks and financial institutions Identify customers, keep records, identify suspicious transactions Cooperation with other States financial intelligence units monitor cross-border movement of cash and instruments Guidelines from regional, interregional or multilateral initiatives 11. Corruption offences (Art. 8) Mandatory offences : a) promise, offer, give, solicit or accept b) any undue advantage to/by a public official c) to act or refrain from acting d) any matter relating to officials public duties e) participation as an accomplice Optional offences a) corrupting foreign or international public servants b) other forms of corruption Corruption Measures (Art. 9) Legislative or other measures to promote integrity to prevent, detect and punish corruption of public officials to ensure effective action by officials as appropriate and consistent with legal system Page 13

c. d.

9.

Offence obstructing justice (Art. 23) Using force, threats or intimidation, or promising, offering or giving under advantage a) to interfere with giving of evidence or testimony b) to interfere with exercise of duties of judicial or lawenforcement official c) in connection with proceedings on any Convention or Protocol offence Supports other measures to protect victims and witnesses (Art. 24-25) States can have laws to protect other public officials

10. Money laundering offences (Art. 6) Offences of laundering of proceeds of crime (Art. 6) Conversion or transfer to conceal criminal origin Concealment of nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership Knowing acquisition of proceeds * Catatan Kuliah Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

Provide anti-corruption authorities with sufficient independence to deter undue influence 12. Liability, prosecution and sanctions a) Criminal, civil or administrative liability for legal persons (Art. 10) b) Sanctions or punishments must be dissuasive and take into account the gravity of the offence (Art. 10.4, 11.1) c) Discretion should be used to maximize law enforcement effectiveness (Art. 11) d) Measures to provide for seizure, confiscation, forfeiture and disposal of proceeds of crime (to the extent possible) (Art. 12) e) Bank secrecy cannot be used as an obstacle to confiscation or mutual legal assistance (Art. 12.6, 18.8) f) Existing criminal defences are preserved (Art. 11) 13. Jurisdiction (Art. 15) Convention seeks to ensure that every State Party connected to a transnational organized crime offence will have adequate jurisdiction. Offenders should have no place to hide from investigation and prosecution. Mandatory/compulsory jurisdiction offences on a States territory, vessel or aircraft where offender not extradited because of nationality Optional jurisdiction offender or victim are nationals of State offence of participating in organized criminal group with a view to committing serious crime in the State any other circumstances set by domestic law Catatan Kuliah Kardoman Tumangger (110110060381)

14. International Cooperation 1) Extradition (Art. 16) 2) Mutual Legal Assistance (Art. 18) 3) Other forms of cooperation (Art. 20, 26, 27) 15. Extradition (Art. 16) Extradition available for all Convention and Protocol offences Convention extradition provisions harmonize with existing treaties and arrangements No refusal on the sole ground of fiscal matters Limitations in domestic law and existing treaties apply Parties must either Extradite or prosecute own nationals Where extradition is refused, the States involved, the States involved should consult 16. Mutual Legal Assistance States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of mutual legal assistance (Art. 18.1) Most requirements are operational, not legislative, but Parties must have legal powers needed to produce and deliver assistance States Parties are required to designate a central authority to receive, execute or transmit legal assistance requests No right to refuse MLA on the ground of bank secrecy More direct liaison arrangements permitted for other forms of cooperation (Art. 18.13, Art. 19, 27) 17. Investigative measures Convention calls for: agreements governing joint investigation (Art. 19) domestic and cooperative use of special investigative techniques (Art. 20) Page 14

a. controlled delivery b. electronic or other forms of surveillance c. undercover operation measures to encourage those involved in transnational organized crime to cooperate with law enforcement (Art. 26) 18. Law enforcement and other cooperation States parties called upon to: a) enhance and establish channels of communication; b) cooperate in inquiries concerning a. the identity, whereabouts and activities of suspects; b. the movement of proceeds of crime or instrumentalities c) exchange information a. specific means and methods used by organized criminal groups b. general trends, analytical techniques, definitions, standards and methodologies 19. Protection of Victims and Witnesses (Art. 24, 25) Must provide effective protection for witnesses, within available means: a. physical protection b. domestic or foreign relocation c. Special arrangements for giving evidence Within available means, must also assist with: d. procedures for claiming compensation and restitution e. opportunities to present views and concerns at appropriate stage of criminal proceedings. Both articles apply to victims who are also witnesses.

20. Technical and other assistance (Art. 29, 30) State Parties called upon to: a. implement Convention domestically and through international cooperation b. take into account effects of organized crime on societies and sustainable development c. to enhance financial and material assistance to developing countries 21. Prevention (Art. 31) States Parties called upon to develop, implement and share both direct and indirect prevention methods a. administrative and regulatory controls to prevent abuses in key areas (professions corporations) b. rehabilitation/reintegration of former offenders c. public awareness campaigns (domestic and international) d. social programs to alleviate conditions the make groups vulnerable to recruitment or victimization by transnational organized crime groups 22. Conference of the parties (Art. 32, 33) Convention establishes a conference of the Parties to : a. promote and review implementation b. make recommendations to improve convention c. consider means of implementing and difficulties encountered by States Conference will meet within one year of entry into force Initial meeting of Conference will adopt rules of procedure, a draft of which will be prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee that carried out the negotiations

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