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AML883Propertiesandselectionof engineeringmaterials

LECTURE1.INTRODUCTION MPGururajan Email:guru.courses@gmail.com RoomNo.MS207/A3 Phone:1340


Arequest!

Pleasesendmeamailat(withsubjectAML883) guru.courses@gmail.com Allyourassignments,problemsheets, presentations(afterthelecture,ifyourequest)as wellastheaccouncementsregardingtheclass willbemailedtoyouatyourmailaddress.

Introductiontothecourse!

Textbook

Mateials:engineering, science,processing anddesign, MFAshby,H ShercliffandD Cebon, Butterworth Heinemann,2007 AlowpricedIndian editionisavailable.

Gradingpolicies

Assignmentsand/orquizes:20% Twomidtermexaminations:40%(20+20) Finalexamination:40% Problemsheetsnotnecessarytoturnin; however,afractionofquestionsfortheexams willcomefromtheproblemsheets,directly!

Whatarewegoingtostudy? And,How?

Astadardcellinachip

Renderingofasmallstandard cellwiththreemetallayers (dielectrichasbeenremoved). Thesandcoloredstructuresare metalinterconnect,withthe verticalpillarsbeingcontacts, typicallyplugsoftungsten.The reddishstructuresare polysilicongates,andthesolid atthebottomisthecrystalline siliconbulk. Imagecourtesy:wiki(David Carron)

Typesofmaterials

Crystallinesiliconbulkatthe bottomgivesstructural support Interconnects,contacts, dielectricsandpolysilicongates havespecificfunctionsin termsofelectricalconductionor nonconduction

Abroadclassification

Basedonthespecificroleinanengineering application Structuralmaterials(mechanical) Functionalmaterials(electrical,optical, magnetic,...)

Structuralmaterials

StiffnessResistancetoelasticdeformation(A woodenrulerisstiff,whileaplasticoneisn't) StrengthResistancetoplasticdeformation(A metallicrulerisstrong,whileaplasticoneisn't) ToughnessResistancetofracture(Aplastic rulerisn'ttough,whilewoodenandmetallicare) PropertiesMechanical Density,elasticmodulus,yieldstrength,fracture toughness,fatigueresistance,...

Functionalmaterials

Conductors,insulatorsanddielectrics(electrical materials?)Conductivity,dielectricconstant Magneticmaterialsremanence,saturation magnetization Opticalmaterialstransmission,reflection, refraction,...

Structuralversusfunctional

Mylar:good, structurally;bad, functionally (undergoesresistive degradationwith increasing temperatureand humidity) 32sheetsin0.45mm Imagecourtesy:wiki

Structuralversusfunctional

HighTcoxideceramic superconductors BSCCO(bisko) BismuthStrontium CalciumCopper Oxide:good, functionally;bad, structurally(brittle) Imagecourtesy:wiki

Varietyinmaterials/geometry

Imagecourtesy:wiki

Varietyinmaterials/geometry

Imagecourtesy:CaltechEngineeringDesignlabhandout

Processing

Differentmaterialsshouldbeprocessed differently; Samematerialshouldbeprocessed differentlyfordifferentgeometries(spokesor rimorframe); Apartfrommaterialpropertiesandgeometry, thenumberofcomponentsandthespecificsof use(where?underwhatconditions?under whatconstraints?howcostly?)determinethe processingrouteschosen

Processing:theotherstory

Processingcanchange(at timesdramatically)the properties Howtocomeupwithnew processeswithdesired propertycombinations? Arisestheneedfor fundamental understanding

Valievetal,JournalofMaterialsResearch,2002.

Materialsselection:considerations

Engineeringconsiderations(discussedabove) Cost GreenCanthisbeconsideredaspartof cost? Easycommericalavailabilityinlargequantities (Casestudyoffanblades) Political(Sanctionsonnuclearmaterials) Technology(Cryogenicengines,forexample)

Abreak!Superalloy?!

AhumoroustakeonSuperalloy! Image:CourtesyofHKDHBhadeshia,UniversityofCambridgehomepage

Materialsinservice:wear

Photosfromapumprepaircompanyhomepage(EmnorMechanicalInc.,Canada)

Corrosionandoxidation

CorrodedTitanicbow,rustedbakingplateandbolts(Imagecourtesy:wiki)

Degradationathightemperatures

TBConNibasesuperalloyturbinebladesandtheireffectivenessduringservice Images:courtesyUniversityofCambridgehomepage

Theunseendamages!

OriginalmicrostructureandraftedmicrostructureinNibasesuperalloys Images:courtesyUniversityofCambridgehomepage

Materialdegradation

PhysicalWear ChemicalOxidationandcorrosion Thermalandmicorstructuralcreep,faster oxidation,rafting,...

Materialspropertycharts

DensityandYoung's modulusofclassesof materials Imagecourtesy: Universityof Cambridge hompeage

Materialspropertycharts

Young'smodulusand costofclassesof materials Imagecourtesy: Universityof Cambridge hompeage

Materialspropertycharts

Imagecourtesy:UniversityofCambridgehomepage

Topicsofstudy

Structuralmaterialsandtheirproperties Functionalmaterialsandtheirproperties Processesandproperties Materialdegradation Propertycharts

Casestudies
(1)Materialsforbladesoffansinwindtunnels (structural) (2)Mylarinsulationinaircraftwirings(functional) (3)ECAPandcryorolling(processing) (4)Thermalbarriercoatingsforjetengineturbine blades(degradation) (5)Materialpropertychartsformetallicglasses (Chartsastools)
(6)MaterialsforSolidOxideFuelCells(SOFC)