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Multiple Regression Analyses of the investments inputs The multiple regression analysis is used to estimate the contributions of each

independent variables of micro credit investment inputs which are Land/work

Premises, Farm labour, Animal power, Work tools, Fertilizer uses, Agric Chemicals, Improved Seeds, Transportation expensis, Credit Backstop, Banking facilities, insurance

cost, Storage Facilities, and GSM communication expenses to the dependent variable of income and living standard. These dependent variables cover food productivity, improved diet, childrens schooling, access to health services, wealth/assets acquisitions, re-investments, copping with obligations, decision making power, household income, participation in politics, leadership promotion, food security, banking transactions and modern GSM communications. Multiple Regression Analysis: This is applied to test the Null Hypothesis (Ho) one, that there is no significant impact of the micro loans on the productivity and income of the beneficiaries. The multiple regressions formula to be used is specified as follows:Y = a+b1X1+b2X2+b3X3..................................................................+b12X12+U Where: Y - Number of dependent variables indicating improved living standard (1 point for each indices) Independent Variable (Micro credit inputs) productivity, Income standard X1 land/work premises X2 farm labour 299 294 Impact on and living

X3 animal power X4 work tools X5 - fertilizer X6 - agro-chemical use X7 - improved seeds X8 - transportation facilities X9 - credit backstopping X10 - banking facilities X11 - micro insurance services X12 - storage facilities X13 - GSM communication


274 298 265 248 284 88 277 89 214 170

a - constant term U - error term (variables not included in the model) b1-b13 - regression co-efficient Table 4:27, INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IMPACT ON THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. See Appendix VII for the data manipulations The data values manipulated in Appendix VII are entered in the table below Sr. No. Independent Variables (Micro credit inputs) Land/work Premises Human Labour Animal Power Work Tools used Fertilizer Contribution to Dependent Variables Productivity 284 88 28 78 278 Income 260 107 20 34 120 Living Standard 299 294 74 274 298

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Agric. Chemicals Improved Seeds Transportation Credit Backstop Banking Facilities Insurance Services Storage Facility Modern GSM com.

269 189 122 66 89 42 62 56

70 69 120 66 68 22 188 56

265 248 284 88 277 89 214 170

5.13. The Double Difference Estimator analyses For Hypothesis 2, here the Double Difference Estimator is applied to analyse and compare the statistical level of the impact of the NACRDBs Micro Credit on the Vulnerable Groups socio-economy. Data on table 4:23, 4:24, 4:25, 4:26, 4:27, 4:28, and table 4:29 of chapter four are statistically manipulated for the Double Difference Estimation analysis.

The Double Difference Estimator model is given as follows: DDE = Where:1 p (Y Y ) 1 c (Y Y )

DDE - is the double difference estimation P C Y Y Y Y is the number of participants is the number of non-participants

- is the outcome of variables of participants after the programme - is the outcome of variables of participants before the programme is the outcome of the variables of non- participants after programme - is the outcome of the variables of non-participants before programme

The decision rule will be to accept the null hypothesis (Ho) of no significant difference between the participants and none participants if calculated value is less than the table value at 0.05 or 5% level of significant. While the reverse will be the case when the calculated value is greater than the table value at the same level of significant