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INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING SERVICES

Mohd Rodzi Ismail

WHAT IS BUILDING SERVICES?

Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting, heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and energy management systems, the security and safety systems...and you are left with a cold, dark, uninhabitable shell. Everything inside a building which makes it safe and comfortable to be in comes under the title of 'Building Services'. A building must do what it was designed to do - not just provide shelter but also be an environment where people can live, work and achieve.
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Building services are what makes a building come to life. They include:
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energy supply - gas , electricity and renewable sources heating and air conditioning water, drainage and plumbing natural and artificial lighting, and building facades escalators and lifts ventilation and refrigeration communication lines, telephones and IT networks security and alarm systems fire detection and protection
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MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IN BUILDING

Modern buildings are built to create better, consistent, and productive environments in which to work and to live. Buildings must be designed with features to provide
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better lighting comfortable space temperature, humidity and air quality convenient power and communication capability high quality sanitation; and reliable systems for the protection of life and property.
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All these desirable features have become a reality with advances in building M&E systems Block-type buildings without windows, such as department stores, are totally dependent on electrical lighting, ventilation and space conditioning High-rise buildings must rely on high-speed vertical transportation and high pressure water for drinking and cleaning purposes and for protection against fire

Impact M&E systems on buildings:


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Demand considerable amounts of floor and ceiling space proper space allocation is needed during the preliminary planning Add to the cost of construction of a building sophisticated buildings, such as research buildings, hospitals, computer centres Increase in energy consumption energy consumed by occupied buildings, including residential, commercial, institutional and industrial facilities, account for 50% of all energy usage by an industrialised country; it also accounts for large portion of the operating costs of such buildings
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The complexity of M&E systems varies with:


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Living standards of the society Climatic conditions of the region Occupancy and quality of the building

CLASSIFICATION OF M&E SYSTEMS

Mechanical Systems
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HVAC (Heating, ventilating, and airconditioning)/ACMV (Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation) Site utilities Water supply, drainage, sanitary disposal, gas supply Plumbing Water distribution, water treatment, sanitary facilities, etc. Fire protection Water supply, standpipe, fire and smoke detection, annunciation, etc. Special systems

Electrical Systems
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Electrical power Normal, standby, and emergency power supply and distribution Lighting Interior, exterior, and emergency lighting Auxiliary Telephone, data, audio/video, sound, security systems, etc. Special systems

Building Operation Systems


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Transportation Elevators, escalators, moving walkways/travelators, etc. Processing Products, food service, etc. Automation Environmental controls, management, etc. Special systems

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CHECKLIST OF BUILDING AND M&E REQUIREMENTS

A comprehensive checklist that serves to determine the scope of building operational requirements and from which one can determine the scope and criteria of M&E systems. Valuable in formulating the architectural concept, building configuration, space programming, and opportunities of system interfacing. Early identification of these requirements will aid in evaluating construction cost, as well as the allocation of space for M&E equipment, both within interior and exterior of the building.
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Mechanical Systems
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Include heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC)/air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV), plumbing and sanitation (P&S), fire protection (F&P), and specialty or auxiliary systems. Not all buildings require all services; thus the list should be tailored to the needs of a specific project.

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HVAC/ACMV Systems
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Energy source Electrical power, gas, oil, coal, central steam, central hot water, chilled water, etc. (location and capacity) Heating/cooling Central air handling, direct radiation, in-space unitary equipment, etc. Comfort controls Number of control zones, humidity, temperature, etc. Central plant Estimated normal (or base) and standby capacities, etc. Heat rejection - Water cooling tower, air cooled condenser, evaporative cooler, etc. Location of equipment Central equipment rooms, on floor, on roof, on ground, etc.
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Ventilation Outside air requirements (minimum, high, or 100%) Exhaust - General, food preparation, toxic and special exhaust systems, etc. Automation Building automation system (BAS), building management system (BMS)

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Plumbing and Sanitation Systems


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Energy source Electrical power, gas, oil, central steam, hot water, etc. Water supply Public water, river, well, etc.; water pressure, capacity available, and location Hot water supply Hot water heaters or heat exchangers Sewage disposal Sanitary, sewers, sewage treatment plant, septic tanks, drainage and filtering fields Storm/Rain water drainage Roof, area, and means of discharge; locations Subsoil drainage Drainpipes, sumps, pumps, and discharge, etc. Building facilities Plumbing fixtures, water, waste, 15 soil, piping

Fire Protection Systems


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Energy source Electrical power, gas, oil Water supply Flow rate and available pressure at water main, location. Separate service or combination with plumbing water supply Water storage Lake, pond, storage tanks (locations and capacities) Fire and smoke detection Thermal and smoke detectors Fire containment Fire shutters, compartmentalization Smoke containment and evacuation Smoke exhaust and pressure controls Stairway smoke prevention Stair pressurization
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Fire annunciation Fire alarm, public address, fire department connections Fire extinguishing Portable extinguishers, automatic sprinklers (water, mist, dry chemical, foam, special gases, etc.) Fire fighting Fire hose and standpipe systems Lightning protection Air terminals, grounding conductors, etc.

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Electrical Systems
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Include power, lighting, and auxiliary systems. The proliferation of electrical and electronic systems in building applications has greatly expanded the scope of electrical systems and has had a drastic impact on construction costs and the complexity of planning. The list should be expanded or condensed to fit the needs of a specific project.

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Power Systems
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Normal energy source Utility power or on-site power (location and capacity); power characteristics (phase and voltage); service entrance (overhead, underground); service requirements (substations, transformer vaults); etc. Emergency power source Separate utility service or on-site standby generators (location and capacity) Interior power distribution Primary or secondary voltages, unit substations, distribution panels, etc. On-floor distribution Floor boxes, under-floor ducts, integrated cellular floors, raised floors, ceiling-cavity conduit network, etc.
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Emergency power distribution For critical equipment and emergency lighting loads Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) For critical building operations such as computers and communication networks; power storage (battery banks) Power for building systems HVAC, plumbing, sanitary, fire protection, etc. Power for building operational equipment Food service, waste disposal, laundry, garage, entertainment equipment, etc. Power for vertical transportation systems Interface with elevator consultant on power and controls for elevators and escalators
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Lighting Systems
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Basic light source Incandescent, fluorescent, high intensity discharge (HID), etc. Illumination Lighting levels, colour rendering, controls Lighting fixtures In offices and other work spaces Architectural lighting Interface between architect, lighting and/or electrical consultant on public or special spaces Introduction of daylight Fenestration, skylights, controls, etc. Exit lighting Exit signs, exit way (evacuation route) light Exterior lighting Site, landscape, building facade, 21 aircraft warning lights, etc.

Auxiliary Systems
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Telephone and telecommunication Type, number of lines and stations, switchboard (manual, PBX), basic and special features, facsimile, modem, etc. Data distribution systems Multiple conductor cables, twisted pairs, coaxial cables, Fibre optic cables, wire closets, etc. Public address Intercom, paging and music systems Audio/video Radio, TV, and signal distribution systems Satellite dishes Number, diameter, and orientation Transmission Transmitter and microwave towers Cable CCTV distribution systems, locations, and interfacing with other auxiliary systems Time and signal Clock and program systems Fire detection and alarm systems Interface with fire protection consultants Automatic controls Interface with HVAC and other building service consultants Security systems CCTV monitoring, detecting, alarming, controlling, and interface with security consultant Specialty systems Numerous specialty systems for hospitals, research, 22 computer centres, and industrial, military, or defence facilities, as applicable

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