Anda di halaman 1dari 6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

nanda Mrga (also, Ananda Marg andAnand Marg, Sanskrit: , nanda mrga) is the name of the philosophy propounded by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar as well as the informal name of the nanda Mrga Pracaraka Samgha organization founded by Sarkar to propagate the philosophy. Both the philosophy and the organization focus on personal development, social service and the spiritual transformation of society. During Sarkar's incarceration in the 1970s the organization became associated with terrorist activity, particularly the Sydney Hilton bombing. In 1982, seventeen members of the organization were murdered in broad daylight at Bijon Setu. In 1995, a wayward arms shipment was claimed to have been intended for delivery to the Ananda Nagar community in Purulia founded by Ananda Marga.
Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Sakar's incarceration 1.2 Bijon Setu massacre 1.3 Death of Sarkar 1.4 Ananda Marga after Sarkar 2 Disciplines, Teachings and Practice 2.1 Meditation, Lalita Marmika dance andKirtan 2.2 Vegetarian Diet, Yoga asanas, Physical Exercises and Yogic Treatments 3 Spiritual and Social Philosophy 3.1 Spiritual philosophy 3.2 Social philosophy 3.3 Tantra in Ananda Marga 3.4 Guru and Disciple 4 See also 5 References 5.1 Footnotes 5.2 Citations 5.3 Sources 5.3.1 Online sources 6 Further reading 7 External links

History

[edit source]

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar founded the Ananda Marga Pracharaka Samgha (more commonly known as "Ananda Marga" or, less frequently, "Ananda Marg" or "Anand Marg") on January 5, 1955. The literal translation into English is "the Organization to Propagate the Path of Bliss." The stated aims of the organization remains are "liberation ofself and service to humanity".[1] In March of the same year, the first group of acharyas was created in Jamalpur. In a 1989 article in Hinduism Today, then Ananda Marga public relations officer Clark Forden describes three major controversies from the early history of the group: the arrest and incarceration of Sarkar in 1971, the 1971 sex scandal that resulted in the departure of Sarkar's wife from the organization, and the murder in broad daylight of seventeen Ananda Margis in 1982.[2]

Sakar's incarceration
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga

[edit source]
1/6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

See also: Sydney Hilton bombing During the 1960s, the organisation expanded rapidly in India sending acaryas as missionaries to other continents. Ananda Marga's popularity in India put it in direct confrontation with the Communist Party in West Bengal. In 1967, Ananda Marga headquarters came under attack by locals who were allegedly incited by Communist leaders.[3]Criticism of corruption in Indian government by acaryas of Ananda Marga also put it in confrontation with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. On 29 December 1971, Sarkar was arrested along with several acaryas for abetting murder of six former disciples.[3][4] Sarkar was allegedly poisoned while in government custody at Bankipur Central Jail.[3][5]

Acarya Shraddhananda Avadhuta The founder and first President of Ananda Marga w ith the Second President of Ananda Marga, the late Acarya Shraddhananda Avadhuta(1919-2008).

Ananda Margis undertook terrorist acts for the purpose of freeing Sarkar.[6] In January 1975, Ananda Margis allegedly killed Indian Railway Minister L.N.Mishra[7][8] and in March 1975, attempted to kill Chief Justice of India.[9] On 26 June 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared emergency and banned Ananda Marga along with several other organisations. Fearing for Sarkar's life, many Margis immolated themselves to draw attention to their guru's case. Some outraged nonIndian Margis formed a splinter group of PROUT, United PROUTists Acarya Vishvadevananda Revolutionary federation (URPF). URPF accepted responsibility for acts of Avadhuta, current President of international terrorism against Indian interests.[10] On 13 February 1978 members of Ananda Marga Pracaraka Ananda Marga were alleged to have been involved on the bombing of the Sydney Samgha Hilton hotel during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting in Australia.[note 1] In 1990, an Ananda Margi, Evan Pederick admitted to having planted the Hilton Hotel bomb.[10][11] In 1978, Patna High Court acquitted Sarkar of all charges,[12] after which Ananda Margis ceased terrorist activities.[11]

Bijon Setu massacre Death of Sarkar

[edit source]

Main article: Bijon Setu massacre [edit source]

P.R. Sarkar died on 21 October 1990. Acarya Shraddhananda Avadhuta was elected from the body of purodhas as President of Ananda Marga Pracharak a Samgha global organization and Purodha Pramuk ha.[note 2] In 1996, the Supreme Court of India lifted the ban on government employees from being members of Ananda Marga.[citation needed]

Ananda Marga after Sarkar


See also: Purulia arms drop case

[edit source]

Disciplines, Teachings and Practice

[edit source]

Tantra yoga, as interpreted by Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, is the practical philosophy which serves as foundation of Ananda Marga. According to P.R. Sarkar's teachings Tantra meansliberation from darkness, the root tan meaning darkness, and tra liberation. Meditation is the main spiritual practice of this tantric tradition, and through it the practitioner struggles to overcome weaknesses and imperfections. The basis of Ananda Marga practice is covered by a set of rules called the 'Sixteen Points' that guide the practitioner on bothspiritual and social aspects. Anandamurti expounded these principles in nanda Stram a text composed in Sanskrit in 1961.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga

2/6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Meditation, Lalita Marmika dance and Kirtan

[edit source]

In the tantric tradition of Ananda Marga the spiritual aspirant (sadhaka) practices sadhana. Sadhana (a Sanskrit word) signifies the effort through which a person becomes completely realized. InTantra the spiritual master, the guru,[note 3] plays a special role. The guru guides and leads students on the spiritual path. The aspirant learns meditation by a qualified acarya. An acarya is most commonly a monk or nun, but in the Ananda Marga tradition there are also "family acaryas ". In the initiation the aspirant makes a commitment to practice meditation and to live in harmony with the universal balance, and is then taught the technique itself. The aspirant Meditation's posture. is then required to keep the individual lessons personal. In addition, he also taught Kapalik a meditation to many sanysins . His system of yoga can be termed as Rjadhirja Yoga, Tantra Yoga, or simply nanda Mrga Yoga. The basic nanda Mrga meditation system is called Sahaja Yoga ('simple yoga'). The sahaja system consists of 6 meditation techniques or lessons taught one by one, on a personal basis.[note 4] There is also a set of higher meditation lessons taught to advanced practitioners committed to dedicate more time for spiritual practices and universal service. According to the Ananda Marga system the Lalita Marmik a dance is performed, particularly during the collective meditation.[note 5] This yogic dance with swaying movements, combined with a k irtan (the chanting of the universal mantra), is regarded as useful in freeing the mind and preparing it for meditation. Ananda Marga system recommends to its members the practice of collective meditation at least once a week. These meetings called Dharma Chak ras (weekly held in a place called Dhyan Mandir) are preceded by the singing of fewPrabhat Samgiita ("Songs of the New Dawn" composed by the Ananda Marga founder) followed by the spiritual dance of Lalita Marmik a along with the singing of [[:Media:|k iirtan]] (help[[:File:|info]]) and by the practice of meditation. Before meditation the Samgacchadvam (helpinfo) mantra is chanted. At the end of meditation the Guru Puja (helpinfo) mantras are recited. [edit source] Nityam Shuddham (helpinfo) and the

Vegetarian Diet, Yoga asanas, Physical Exercises and YogicTreatments

The basic practices of Ananda Marga comprises yoga asanas ,mudras , bandhas , pranayama, self-massage and two specific dances, k aos'ik ii and tandava. Lacto-vegetarian diet and fastingare also included, as a fundamental part of yogic practices. Diet and fasting: Lacto-vegetarian diet of Ananda Marga avoids meat, fish, eggs and some substances which are claimed to have a negative effect on the mind. Moreover, on specific monthly dates called Ek adashi (Sanskrit: , ekda: is the eleventh day after the full moon or after the new moon),[note 6]the regular practice of Upavasa (yoga fasting) is recommended to improve health and strengthen the mind. Yoga asanas , mudras and bandhas : comprises 42 asanas [note 7]which were chosen by Yoga Sarvangasana. P.R. Sarkar. There are mainly two types of asana: svasthyasanas and dhyanasanas .[13] They should be performed at least once a day. 15 Yoga mudras and bandhas are also part of the basic Ananda Marga Yoga.[note 8] Yogic treatments: on 1957 P. R. Sarkar published in BengaliYaogik a Cik itsa o Dravyaguna which was translated into English and published in 1983 with revisions under the title Yogic Treatments and Natural Remedies . In this handbook, Sarkar gave indications on yogic treatments using sanas and mudrs combined with claims about natural and traditional remedies for about forty diseases. The book also contains many tips for maintaining good health through the use of water, clay, etc.[note 9] Kaoshik ii: the 'dance for mental expansion', was defined by P. R. Sarkar a 'physico-psycho-spiritual' exercise
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga 3/6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

which can be performed by all and consists of 18 mudras aligning with 6 physical postures, each associated with a specific idea[note 10] while strengthening bodyand mind and making them flexible. Tandava or Tava: is a vigorous dance.[note 11] The name tandava is derived from the Sanskrit word tandu, which means 'to jump'. This dance is only performed by male followers in Ananda Marga. The dance is performed to imbue the practitioner's mind withcourage and honour, dispelling all sorts of complexes and fear, even fear of death itself.[note 12][14]

Spiritual and Social Philosophy


Tandava dance. One of the 108 Tandava poses of Nataraja (dancingShiva).

[edit source]

The philosophy of Ananda Marga is a synthetic outlook, recognizing a 'Supreme Consciousness',[15] which is claimed to be both transcendental and manifested in all.[note 13]It covers both the spiritual and the social combining the two in a unique synthesis of universalvision.[note 14] To this end Ananda Marga suggests a practical, rational, and systematic way of life for the balanced development of all human potentialities: physical, psychic andspiritual. This system incorporate practices that range from hygiene and diet, yoga postures, to a scientific technique of meditation based on moral rules and directed to the inner fulfillment. It recognizes that a balance is needed between the spiritual and mundane aspects of existence, and that neither one should be neglected at the expense of the other. Hence, the goal of Ananda Marga is "selfrealization and the welfare of all".

Spiritual philosophy

[edit source]

The spiritual philosophy of Ananda Marga covers a vast range of topics and can be learned from P.R. Sarkar's publications. Ananda Marga philosophy recognizes that the universe is the creation of the mental thought-waves of the 'Supreme counsciousness'. The following is a brief list of the essential elements of Ananda Marga Spiritual Philosophy: Atma or Soul and Paramatma or theCosmic Consciousness: the Consciousness (Purusa) is reflected in the unit objects forming the "unit consciousness" (atma) orsoul. Particularly the reflection of the soul on the mind is called jiivatma and in that case the "reflector-soul" is called Paramatma(Supreme Soul).[note 15] Realms of the Mind: according to Ananda Marga philosophy the human mind is composed of five layers called Kosas :[note 16]1)Kamamaya Kosa ("desire layer") or "Crude Mind": is the crudest layer, purified through adherence to the yogic code of morality, Yama-Niyama.[note 17] 2)Manomaya Kosa("layer of thinking") or "Subtle Mind": is the layer of thought and memory.[note 18]3)Atimanasa Kosa or "Supramental Mind": is the intuitive layer.[note 19] 4)Vijinanamaya Kosa ("layer of the special knowledge") or "Subliminal Mind": is the layer of conscience or discrimination (vivek a) and vaeragya (nonattachment).[note 20] 5)Hiranyamaya Kosa("golden level") or "Subtle Causal Mind": is the subtlest layer. Here the awareness of mind is very close to the direct experience of "Supreme Consciousness".[note 21]
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga

Lalita Marmika dance.

Photo (Italy July 1978) of an international group of Ananda Marga follow ers singing aKirtan in occasion of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti's liberation.

4/6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Microvita theory: Microvita is plural forMicro-vitum and literally means "micro-life". The concept was first introduced on 1986 through a series of lectures by P.R. Sarkar. According to this notion, microvita are entities which come within the realms both of physicality of psychic expression. They are smaller and subtler than physical atomsand subatomic particles, and in the psychicrealm they may be subtler than mindstuff, and contribute to "pure consciousness".[16]The author predicted in 1991 that they would soon be recognized by conventional science.[17]. They have not been.

Social philosophy

[edit source]

Kaoshiki dance.

The social outlook of Ananda Marga recognizes that the welfare of the individual is linked with the welfare of the collective, each relying on the other for its existence and dynamism. According to this philosophy everyone has theright to equal opportunities of life anddevelopment and as such there should be no discrimination on the basis of superficial barriers such as race, nationality and religion. Ananda Marga advocates a world of justice, security andpeace for all.[18] The Social Philosophy ofAnanda Marga can be categorized under the topics: Neohumanism : in 1982, Sarkar extended his writings on the subject of human society with the introduction of his new theory of "Neohumanism".[19] If humanism tends to contemplate only humans in a human-centric view, neohumanism, according to Sarkar's theory, is instead the elevation of humanism touniversalism.[note 22] Education: according to the Ananda Marga system "Education is for Liberation." Education means the simultaneous development in the physical, mental and spiritualrealms of human existence. By this, dormant human potentialities will be awakened and put to proper use. Sarkar said that real education leads to a pervasive sense of love andcompassion for all creation; in the Ananda Marga's education system, special emphasis is given to moral education and the inculcation of idealism together with a "psycho-pedagogical approach" and a blending of occidental extroversial science and oriental introversial philosophy.[note 23]

Yama-Niyama
Yam a (Restraint) Ahim 'sa' (Benignity) Satya (Benevolence) Asteya (Honesty) Brahm acarya (Ideation) Aparigraha (Frugality) Thinking, speaking, and acting w ithout inflicting pain or harm on another Thinking and speaking w ith goodw ill Not taking or keeping w hat belongs to others Constant mental association w ith the Supreme Non-indulgence in superfluous amenities

Niyam a (Regulation) Shaoca (Cleanliness) Santos'a (Contentm ent) Tapah (Sacrifice) Physical and mental purity, both internal and external Maintaining a state of mental ease Acceptance of sufferings to reach the spiritual goal

Sva'dhya'ya Clear understanding of any (Contem plation) spiritual subject Iishvara Adopting the Cosmic

Culture : In his discourse "Talks on Prout", given in Ranchi on July Pran'idha'na Controller as the only ideal 1961, Sarkar makes a distinction between the terms "culture" and (Dedication) of life and moving w ith "customs". According to Sarkar "culture... is the collective name for ever-accelerating speed different expressions of life..." but "...all of society has the same tow ard that Desideratum culture. There are local variations in the mode or state of cultural Intent is primary, but both intent and action should conform if possible. expression, but the expression is universal... These local variations are called customs... Thus local modes of expression bearing local or VT E group specialities are customs, but the expression itself is culture. Therefore it is a mistake to readjust boundaries on the basis of language and culture. Indian culture and the culture of the world are one and the same."[20] The philosophy of Sarkar reinterprets the general concept of culture by inserting it into a new universalistic outlook. As described by Antonello Maggipinto: ...If the term culture is usually referred to the original meaning of this word (i.e. from the Greek "paidia" to the Latin "humanitas", that is to human beings capable of distinguishably mastering the
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga 5/6

9/24/13

Ananda Marga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

arts, rhetoric, and philosophy), then Sark ar offers a new point of view, with a large universalistic explanation: the culture of the whole human race is one, but mark ed by different local manifestations... it is the same, but varying in expression." (Sark ar, P.R., 1987)...[21] PROUT ("Progressive Utilization Theory"): is a socio-economic theory first mentioned in 1959 by P. R. Sarkar[22] in his speech "The Cosmic Brotherood".[23] In 1968, Sarkar founded the organization "Proutist Block of India" (PBI), to further the ideals of his theory through political and social action.[24]

Tantra in Ananda Marga

[edit source] Sarkar weaves continuity with the ancient philosophy of Tantra, infusing new insights in human psychology, social theoryand in each individuals' rolesas spiritual and "socio-economiccultural-political" beings. nanda Mrga Tantra has a broadmetaphysical base which allows for ways of knowing,feeling and processing which go far beyond intelectualityor limited rationality. Priorities are given to the spiritual development, as Shrii Shrii nandamrti notes, "spiritual life controls all other arenas of human life."[26] Ananda Marga Tantra is a principle, a science which if practiced will lead to the desired objective. The essence of Tantra is to awaken the latent spiritual force in the human personality and unify oneself with the Cosmic Consciousness.[note 24]

Shrii Shrii Anandamurti on tantrics and tantriccult


""A person w ho, irrespective of caste, creed or religion, aspires for spiritual expansion or does something concrete, is a Tantric . Tantra' in itself is neither a religion nor an 'ism'. Tantra is a fundamental spiritual science. So wherever there is any spiritual practice it should be taken for granted that it stands on the Tantric cult. Where there is no spiritual practice, where people pray to God for the fulfilment of narrow worldly desires, where peoples only slogan is Give us this and give us that only there do we find that Tantra is discouraged. So only those who do not understand Tantra, or even after understanding Tantra do not want to do any spiritual practice, oppose the cult of Tantra." Shrii Shrii Anandamurtis "Tantra and its Effect on Society", 1959.[25]

Guru and Disciple

[edit source]

According to tantric tradition a proper preceptor and a proper disciple are both essential for success on the path of Tantra. P.R. Sarkar clearly explains [27] that, disciples are of three categories: 1) disciples that acquire spiritual knowledge when they are in close contact with the preceptor, but as soon as they are apart from him they forget all his/her teachings, 2) disciples that learn many things from the preceptor with great hardship, but do not take proper care to preserve those instructions. They lose their hard-earned knowledge out of negligence, 3)disciples that carefully preserves deep in their minds and hearts whatever they have learned from their preceptor by wisely putting those teachings into practice. This is the best category of disciples.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Marga

6/6