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Section B [20 marks] Answer any one in section B 9. Diagram 9.

1 shows the effect of pressure on a sandy beach when a man sits on a chair. Diagram 9.2 shows the same man sitting on the same chair after a piece of plank is placed under the chair.
Rajah 9.1 menunjukkan kesan tekanan ke atas pasir di tepi pantai apabila seorang lelaki sedang duduk di atas kerusi. Rajah 9.2 menunjukkan lelaki yang sama duduk di atas kerusi yang sama selepas diletakkan sekeping papan di bawah kerusi itu.

(a) (i) What is the meaning of pressure? Apakah maksud tekanan? (1 mark)

(ii) Observe diagram 9.1 and 9.2. compare the depth of sinking, the load and the area of contact with the sandy beach. Relate the depth of sinking with the pressure exerted by the chair to make a deduction on the relationship between the pressure and the area of contact in this situation.
Perhatikan rajah 9.1 dan rajah 9.2. bandingkan kedalaman bahagian yang tenggelam, beban dan luas kawasan yang bersentuhan dengan pasir di pantai itu. Hubungkaitkan kedalaman bahagian yang tenggelam dengan tekanan yang dikenakan oleh kerusi untuk membuat kesimpulan tentang hubungan antara tekanan dengan luas kawasan yang bersentuhan dalam situasi ini.

(5 marks)

(b) Diagram 9.4 shows a vacuum cleaner


Rajah 9.4 menunjukkan sebuah pembersih vacuum.

Explain how the vacuum cleaner is able to remove dust from the floor
Terangkan bagaimana pembersih vakum itu dapat membersihkan lantai daripada habuk.

(4 marks)

(c) A car needs an efficient hydraulic brake system for safety purposes. Suggest and explain how to build a hydraulic brake system which can function effectively, based on the following aspect:
Sebuah kereta memerlukan satu sistem brek hidraulik yang cekap untuk tujuan keselamatan. Cadang dan terangkan bagaimana untuk membina satu sistem brek hidraulik yang dapat berfungsi secara berkesan berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut.

(i)

The type of the brake fluid


Jenis bendalir brek

(ii)

The characteristic of the brake fluid


Sifat bendalir brek

(iii)

The size of the master


Saiz omboh utama

(iv)

The size of the slave piston


Saiz omboh kedua

(v)

The material used for the fluid transmision pipe


Bahan yang digunakan untuk paip penghantaran cecair

(10 marks)

18 10 (a) Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 shows two identical electromagnet, X and Y .
Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan dua elektromagnet yang serupa, X dan Y.

Diagram 10.1 (i) What is meant by electromagnet?


Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan elektromagnet?

Diagram 10.2

[ 1 mark ] (ii) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 compare the current flow, the amount of iron filing and the magnetic field strength of the two electrodes. Relate the current flow and amount of iron filing attracted by the electromagnet and the magnetic field strength.
Menggunakan Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2 bandingkan pengaliran arus, kuantiti serbuk besi dan kekuatan medan magnet kedua-dua elektrod. Hubungkait pengaliran arus dengan kuantiti serbuk besi yang tertarik kepada elektromagnet dan kekuatan medan magnet.

[ 5 marks ] (b) Diagram 10.3 shows a circuit breaker.


Rajah 10.3 menunjukkan sebuah pemutus litar.

Diagram 10.3

19

Explain how the circuit breaker works.


Terangkan bagaimana pemutus litar berfungsi.

[ 4 marks]

(c) Diagram 10.4 shows an a.c generator


Rajah 10.4 menunjukkan sebuah penjana a.u

Diagram10.4

(i) Explain how the generator works to produce alternating current.


Terangkan bagaimana penjana berfungsi untuk menghasilkan arus ulang alik.

[ 4 marks ]

(ii) Explain the modification that needs to be done on the generator and the external circuit to enable the generator to be a d.c generator and produce more current.
Terangkan pengubahsuain yang perlu dibuat kepada penjana dan litar luar untuk membolehkan penjana menjadi penjana a.t dan menghasilkan arus yang lebih tinggi.

[6 marks]

20 Section C [20 marks] Answer any one in section C 11. Diagram 11.1 shows a cargo ship is sailing in sea water.
Rajah 11.1 menunjukkan sebuah kapal kargo sedang belayar di lautan.

Diagram 11.1 (a) Name the physics principle involved which makes the ship float in sea water.
Namakan prinsip fizik yang terlibat yang membuatkan kapal itu terapung di lautan.

[1 marks] (b) Explain why the ship can float in sea water
Terangkan mengapa kapal boleh terapung di dalam air laut.

[2 marks] (c ) Plimsoll lines are marked at the sides of the ship.


Garis-garis plimsol ditandakan pada tepi kapal itu.

(i) State the purpose of plimsoll lines


Nyatakan kegunaan garis plimsol itu.

(ii) Explain why plimsoll lines have many levels.


Terangkan mengapa garis plimsol itu mempunyai banyak aras.

[2 marks]

21 (d) Table 11.2 shows the characteristics of four structures of ship P, Q, R, and S.
Jadual 11.2 menunjukkan ciri-ciri bagi empat struktur kapal P, Q, R,dan S.

Structure of ships
Struktur kapal

Shape
Bentuk

Strength Of the metal used


Kekuatan logam yang digunakan

Ship Base Cross section area


Luas keratan rentas dasar kapal

Volume of the air space in the ship


Isipadu ruangan udara dalam kapal

P Q R S

Streamlined
Larus

High
Tinggi

Wide
Luas

High
Tinggi

Oval
Bujur

Low
Rendah

Wide
Luas

High
Tinggi

Circle
Bulat

High
Tinggi

Smal
kecil

Low
Rendah

Streamlined
Larus

Low
Rendah

Small
kecil

Low
Rendah

Table 11.2 As a researcher in a ship manufacturing company, you are assigned to study the structure used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes.. You are given four choices of the structures P, Q, R and S. The table above shows the structures of the boat.
Sebagai seorang penyelidik dalam syarikat pembinaan kapal, anda dikehendaki mengkaji struktur kapal yang sesuai untuk membina kapal yang dapat menampung kargo yang berat. Anda di berikan empat pilihan struktur P,Q,R dan S. Jadual di atas menunjukkan strukturstruktur kapal itu.

Explain the suitable characteristics of the structure to be used to make the ship. Determine the most suitable structure to be used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes. Give reasons for your choice.
Terangkan ciri-ciri struktur yang sesuai untuk digunakan untuk membuat kapal itu.

Tentukan struktur yang paling sesuai untuk digunakan untuk membina kapal yang dapat menampung kargo yang berat. Beri sebab untuk pilihan anda.

[ 10 marks]

22 (e)

Diagram 11.2 Diagram 11.2 shows a load X is placed on a wooden block. Both of them is then placed in water of density 1000 kgm-3. The mass of the wooden block is 3 kg and the density is 800 kgm-3. Rajah 11.2 menunjukkan satu beban X di letakkan diatas sebuah bongkah kayu. Kedua-duanya
di masukkan ke dalam air yang menpunyai ketumpatan 1000 kgm-3. Jisim bongkah kayu itu adalah 3 kg dan ketumpatannya adalah 800 kgm-3.

(i)

Calculate the volume of water displaced by the load and the wooden block.
Hitungkan isipadu air yang disesarkan oleh beban dan bongkah kayu itu.

[ 2 marks] (ii) Calculate the mass of the load X .


Hitungkan jisim beban X tersebut.

[3 marks]

23 12. Diagram 12.1 shows a patient is being fed with medicine from an intravenous injection ( IV ) bottle. The medicine from the IV bottle is able to enter the patients vein due to the difference in pressure.
Rajah 12.1 menunjukkan seorang pesakit disalurkan ubat melalui botol suntikan intravenus ( IV ). Ubat dari botol IV boleh dialirkan kepada pesakit disebabkan oleh perbezaan tekanan.

DIAGRAM 12.1 (a) State one factor that affect the pressure in liquid.
Nyatakan satu faktor yang mempengaruhi tekanan dalam cecair.

[1 mark] (b) Explain how the medicine flows from the IV bottle into the patients vein.
Terangkan bagaimana ubat mengalir dari botol IV kepada vena pesakit.

[4 marks] (c) Diagram 12.2 shows a water supply system. Water from a water storage tank is pumped to the water tank of a house in a housing estate.
Rajah 12.2 menunjukkan sistem bekalan air. Air daripada tangki penyimpan air dipam ke tangki air sebuah rumah dalam suatu kawasan perumahan.

DIAGRAM 12.2 RAJAH 12.2 24 Table 12 shows the specifications of four water storage tanks, P, Q, R and S, that can be used to store water in a housing estate.
Jadual 12 menunjukkan speksifikasi empat tangki penyimpan air, P, Q, R dan S, yang digunakan untuk menyimpan air untuk sebuah rumah dalam suatu kawasan perumahan.

Water storage tank


Tangki penyimpan air

P metal
logam

Q concrete
konkrit

R concrete
konkrit

S metal
logam

Material used
Bahan yang digunakan

Density
Ketumpatan

low
rendah

high
tinggi

low
rendah

low
rendah

Shape
Bentuk

Height from the ground


Tinggi daripada bumi

low
rendah

high
tinggi

high
tinggi

low
rendah

TABLE 12 You are required to determine the most suitable water storage tank. Study the specifications of all the four water storage tanks based on the following aspects :
Anda diminta untuk mengenal pasti tangki penyimpan air yang paling sesuai. Kaji spesifikasi keempatempat tangki penyimpan air itu berdasarkan aspek :

The material used/ Bahan yang digunakan The density of the tank/ Ketumpatan tangki The shape of the tank/ Bentuk tangki The height of the tank from the ground/ Ketinggian tangki daripada bumi

Explain the suitability of the aspects.

Terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek tersebut.

[10 marks]

25 (d) Diagram 12.3 shows a manometer with arms of different cross section. Liquid Y of density 1 200 kg m-3 is poured into the manometer. The level of liquid Y is found to be the same at both arms of the manometer.
Rajah 12.3 menunjukkan sebuah manometer dengan lengan yang berbeza keratan rentasnya. Cecair Y dengan ketumpatan 1 200 kgm-3 diisi ke dalam manometer. Paras cecair Y didapati sama pada kedua-dua lengan manometer.

DIAGRAM 12.3 i.

DIAGRAM 12.4

Explain why the level of liquid Y in both arms of the manometer are equal.
Terangkan mengapa paras cecair Y pada kedua-dua lengan manometer adalah sama. [2 marks]

ii.

Diagram 12.4 shows the condition of liquids when another immiscible liquid, X, is poured into the right arm of the manometer. Calculate the density of liquid X.
Rajah 12.4 menunjukkan keadaan cecair apabila sejenis cecair yang tak bercampur, X, dituang ke dalam lengan kanan manometer tersebut. Hitung ketumpatan cecair X.

[3 marks]

26

Number 9 (a) (b)

Answer Pressureis defined as normal force per unit area//p=F/A, where p=pressure, F = force and A=area -Depth of sinking in Diagram 9.1 is deeper than in Diagram 9.2 l -The weight of the man in Diagram 9.2 and Diagram 9.1 is equal // -Area of contact with the sand in Diagram 9.2 is larger than Diagram 9.1 - the higher the dept of sinking, the higher the pressure -th higher the area contact, the lower the pressure

Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(c)(i) (ii)

the fan blow air out of the vent produce a partial vacuum area in the vacuum cleaner difference in pressure occurs/atmospheric pressure is higher than the pressure inside the vacuum cleander forced is exerted in/pushed in the dirt aspect Use oil High boiling point/low density Small Master piston Big slave piston Aluminium/steel for tansmision pipe explanation Incompressible/no air buble Does not evaporate easily/lighter To produce high pressure To produce a big force on the disc Strong/does not rust easily Total

(d)

2 2 2 2 2 20

SET 2 10 (a) (i) (ii) Electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current // temporary magnet made by winding a coil round a soft iron core and magnetic field produce when current flow. Current flow in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa. The amount of iron filing attracted by iron core in Diagram 10.2 1 1 1

(b )

(c) (i)

(ii)

is more than 10.1 // vice versa. 1 1 The magnetic strength in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice 1 versa. Amount of iron filing attracted increase when current increase The magnetic field strength increase when current increase When too high current flow, magnetic field strength become very 1 strong / wire expand 1 electromagnet pull the soft iron armature / pulled to the right by 1 spring P. release the catch, contact separate and current does not flow 1 When reset button is pressed, spring Q pulls the soft iron armature back to its original position 1 When the coil rotates the coil cut across the magnetic field lines 1 Induced current flow in the coil. 1 The current maximum when the coil cut the magnetic field at right 1 angle // current decreased (become zero) when the coil move in 1 parallel with magnetic field lines (Max : The direction of current flow determine by using Flemings right 4) hand rule After 90o the direction of current in the external circuit reversed/ Modification Explanation Change slip rings with To reverse contact with brushes so that the commutator current flow in same direction in external 2 circuit Use stronger magnet To increase the magnetic field strength 2 Use more number of turn Increase the rate of change of magnetic for the coil/ Increase the field/increase the induced current 2 speed of rotation Total 20 1 1 1 1 1

11

(a) (b ) (c) (i) (ii) (d )

Archimedes Principle 1. Total density of ship < density of water 2. Buoyant Force = Total weight of ship To ensure the ship will not be overload // ensure the safety of ship To enable the ship to travel safely in different densities of sea water

Characteristics Streamlined shape High strength of metal Wide base cross section area

Reason To reduce water resistance To withstand high water pressure So that ship can float//prevent from overturn // ship more stable // ship

10 (e) (i) Volume of water displaced = Volume of wooden block =m =


3 800

= 3.75 x 10-3 m3 (ii) Weight of load + Weight of wooden block = weight of water displaced Weight of load + Weight of wooden block = V g Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 1000 x 3.75 x 10-3 x 10 Weight of load + (3 x 10) = 37.5 Weight of load = 37.5 30 = 7.5 N Mass of load = 0.75 kg Total 12. (a) (b) Depth // density //g -Pressure increased with height -Pressure in IV bottle is greater than the patients vein -Medicine flowing from IV bottle because height produced difference in pressure// Medicine flow from higher pressure to lower pressure - gravitational pull // weight of liquid Choices Explanation Made of concrete Stronger / Not easy to break // metal can rust easily low density lighter / the structure that hold the tank able to withstand the weight of tank thicker wall at the bottom // able to withstand the higher pressure Diagram at the bottom height from ground is high to produce a greater difference in pressure R is chosen Made of concrete, low density, thicker wall at the bottom, height from ground is high -Atmospheric pressure at both side is equal -Pressure does not depends on size of arm 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 20

(c)

10 1 1

(d) (i)

(ii) Patm + h1y g = P atm + h2 x g ( 10 x 10 -2 ) ( 1 200 ) ( 10 ) = ( 16 x10 -2 ) ( x ) ( 10 ) x = 750 kgm-3

1 1 1 Total 20