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Technological institute of the philippines 363 p.

casal st; quiapo, manila

Safety in the process industry "Hazards Analysis for Critical Control Points (HACCP)")


Submitted By: Nicolas, Kaye Rose C. 0910676 Submitted To:

Engr. Lina Dela Cruz

August 22, 2013 What is HACCP? Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) has been defined by the World Health Organization as a scientific, rational and systematic approach for the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Originally developed to focus on food safety hazards, the HACCP system has been successfully applied to other applications and other industries. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system describes a preventative process to reduce the risk of food borne illness through proper food handling, monitoring of procedures, and record keeping. HACCP is a food safety system that focuses on food. A food safety system should focus on controlling five risk factors. The risk factors are foods from unsafe sources, poor personal hygiene, inadequate cooking, improper holding temperature, and contaminated equipment. Because the approach enforces procedural governance and rigorous documentation practices, HACCP serves not only as a model to assess risk, but also as an effective means to communicate risk control. HACCP System Is focused on safety hazards typical safety hazards include biological, chemical or physical agents or operations that could lead to illness or injury if not controlled Typically, includes an entire process (e.g., for pharmaceutical manufacturing, it typically encompasses raw material receipt through distribution to the consumer); Is implemented through a plan that details the initial analysis and the on-going monitoring and review. The Plan is a living system; not a one-time assessment; Generates a HACCP Control Chart listing the potential hazards, preventive measures, critical limits, monitoring systems and corrective actions associated with each Critical Control Point. HACCP Principles The HACCP system consists of the following seven principles: 1. Identify Potential Hazards (Hazard Analysis) The purpose of the Hazard Analysis is to systematically identify and list all potential hazards at each step of processing. The Hazard Analysis is also used to determine which potential hazards are significant that is which hazards if not controlled are likely to impact on public health and safety.

Step One of the Hazard Analysis is to list each of the steps involved in processing on a Hazard Analysis Table or Worksheet. Step Two is to list all the potential hazards that are not already controlled through Good Manufacturing Practices and procedures. 2. Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs) A Critical Control Point (CCP) is defined as a factor, practice, procedure, process or location that can be controlled in order to prevent, control, eliminate or reduce a hazard, or minimize the likelihood of its occurrence. 3. Establish Critical Limits for each CCP A Critical Limit is the limit to which a hazard must be controlled to prevent, control, eliminate, or reduce the occurrence of the hazard to an acceptable level. Critical Limits should be measurable as once determined they need to be monitored to ensure that limits are met deviation from a Critical Limit may result in unsafe product or product that does not meet regulatory or importing country requirements. Critical limits for each CCP must be specified and you must be able to prove that the critical limit will control the hazard (validation). 4. Establish a Monitoring System for each CCP Monitoring of a Critical Control Point means conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether the Critical Control Point is under control. Measurements need to be completed ideally in-line during processing or as quickly as possible in order to determine whether a process is operating within the required Critical Limits. Monitoring should be based upon observation, sensory evaluation (e.g. smell), chemical measurements and physical measurements (e.g. taking temperatures). 5. Establish Corrective Actions Corrective actions are required when operations go outside of Critical Limits, which ensure the safety and suitability of fish or fish product. There are four aspects to corrective actions: 1. Identify and fix the problem. 2. Consider what to do with the non-conforming product. 3. Investigate what can be done to prevent the problem occurring again. 4. Record what action is taken to ensure the limits are maintained. The corrective action must ensure that the CCP has been brought under control. The action taken must also ensure the proper disposal of non-complying product when required. Specific corrective actions should be developed in advance and documented in the HACCP Plan. 6. Establish Verification Procedures Verification means applying methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine whether a requirement is complied with. Verification procedures should be considered during the development and implementation of a HACCP system. 7. Establish Documentation and Record Keeping

Accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system for auditing purposes, be it your own internal audit, verification procedures, an AQIS audit, or another external audit. All HACCP procedures must be documented. Quality Risk Management Applications HACCP is well-suited for a variety of applications, including: To identify microbiological hazards and their controls in a process As an input to define Critical Process Parameters and the associated action and alert limits for those parameters; As a structure to evaluate, support and communicate the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitization processes; To evaluate the impact of operator actions on the quality and safety of a product. The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks : 1. Assemble HACCP team The food operation should assure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an effective HACCP plan. Optimally, this may be accomplished by assembling a multidisciplinary team. It may be possible that a well-trained individual with access to such guidance is able to implement HACCP inhouse. 2. Describe product A full description of the product should be drawn up, including relevant safety information such as: composition, physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc), microcidal/static treatments (heattreatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc), packaging, durability and storage conditions and method of distribution. 3. Identify intended use The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or consumer. In specific cases, vulnerable groups of the population, e.g. institutional feeding, may have to be considered. 4. Construct flow diagram The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. When applying HACCP to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation. 5. On-site confirmation of flow diagram Steps must be taken to confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate. The confirmation of the flow diagram should be performed by a person or persons with sufficient knowledge of the processing operation.

6. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and consider any measures to control identified hazards The HACCP team should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step according to the scope from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption. The HACCP team should next conduct a hazard analysis to identify for the HACCP plan, which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of a safe food. 7. Determine Critical Control Points There may be more than one CCP at which control is applied to address the same hazard. The determination of a CCP in the HACCP system can be facilitated by the application of a decision tree (see figure below), which indicates a logic reasoning approach.

Figure1. Example of decision tree to identify CCPs (Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, 2005) 8. Establish critical limits for each CCP Critical limits must be specified and validated for each Critical Control Point. Where HACCP guidance developed by experts has been used to establish the critical limits, care should be taken to ensure that these limits fully apply to the specific operation, product or groups of products under consideration. These critical limits should be measurable. 9. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. Further, monitoring

should ideally provide this information in time to make adjustments to ensure control of the process to prevent violating the critical limits. 10. Establish corrective actions Specific corrective actions must be developed for each CCP in the HACCP system in order to deal with deviations when they occur. The actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought under control. 11. Establish verification procedures Establish procedures for verification. Verification and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly. The frequency of verification should be sufficient to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively. 12. Establish Documentation and Record Keeping Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system. HACCP procedures should be documented. Documentation and record keeping should be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation and sufficient to assist the business to verify that the HACCP controls are in place and being maintained. Expertly developed HACCP guidance materials (e.g. sector-specific HACCP guides) may be utilised as part of the documentation, provided that those materials reflect the specific food operations of the business.

References U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and the National Food Service Management Institute. (2009). Introduction to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). Retrieved August 20, 2013, from U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service:

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service. (2005). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP): A Guideline to Compliance with the Export Control (Fish & Fish Product) Order. Bonne, R., Wright, N., Camberou, L., & Boccas, F. (2005). Guidelines on HACCP, GMP and GHP for ASEAN Food SMEs: A Comprehensive Handbook to Assess Your Hygiene Practices and HACCP System. CAC/RCP. (2003). Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its Application. Charisis, N. (2004). Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points Concepts and Applications. Athens: World Health Organization. Manufacturing Technology Committee Risk Management Working Group. (1997). Risk Management Training Guides: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). Mortimore, S., & Wallace, C. (2013). HACCP: A Practical Approach. New York: Springer.